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Slide 1 - keep calm
Which characteristic
best identifies a pure
substance?
A. shape
B. texture
C. melting point
D. state of matter
Science Starter
Monday October 13,
2014
Light
Rainbow
• The white light
is broken up into
many colors.
• La luz blanca
se divide en
muchos
colores
Spectrum of Color
• When you look at a
light, it appears to
be white.
• Light is made up of
many colors. These
colors can be seen
when light is broken
up.
• Cuando usted
mira a una luz ,
que parece ser de
color blanco
• La luz está
compuesta de
muchos colores .
Estos colores se
pueden ver
cuando la luz se
rompe .
Spectrum of Color
• There are seven
• Hay siete colores
colors of light in a
de la luz en un
spectrum: red,
espectro : rojo,
orange, yellow,
naranja , amarillo ,
green, blue, purple,
verde
,
azul
,
and violet.
púrpura y violeta.
• These colors are
always seen in the • Estos colores son
vistos siempre en
same order.
el mismo orden .
ROY G BIV
Absorbed Light
Absorbed – light energy hitting the surface is
converted to heat energy
Black objects get hotter than white objects
Los objetos negros se calientan más que los objetos blancos
Objects that
absorb light
are opaque
Los objetos que
absorber la luz
son opacas
Objects that absorb all
visible light get hotter than
those that absorb only some
Los objetos que absorben
toda la luz visible se
calientan más que los que
absorbe sólo algunos
Note Read
Through
You have to read what
you write.
Notes Read Through
• Go back to the
section on Waves…
• Read through your
notes.
• Write a question
you might see on an
exam.
• Provide the answer
to that question.
• Volver a la sección
sobre las Olas ...
• Leer a través de
sus notas .
• Escribe una
pregunta que puede
ver en un examen.
• Proporcionar la
respuesta a esa
pregunta .
Light and
the Eye
New heading and title
on table of contents.
Light, Lens, Action!!
• From the
moment you wake
up in the morning
to the time you
go to sleep at
night, your eyes
are acting like a
video camera.
.
• Desde el
momento en que
te levantas por
la mañana a la
hora de irse a
dormir por la
noche, sus ojos
están actuando
como una cámara
de vídeo.
Light, Lens, Action!!
• Everything you
look at is then
sent to your
brain for
processing and
storage much
like a computer.
.
• Todo lo que
busca en
entonces se
envía al cerebro
para su
procesamiento y
almacenamiento
similar a una
computadora
How the eye works.
• Take a moment to
locate an object
around you.
• Do you know how
you are able to
see it?
• Tómese un
momento para
localizar un objeto
que te rodea.
• ¿Sabes cómo eres
capaz de verlo?
How the eye works.
• Would you believe
that what you are
actually seeing
are beams of light
bouncing off of
the object and
into your eyes?
• It is hard to
believe, but it is
true.
• ¿Creería usted que
lo que en realidad
se está viendo son
haces de luz que
rebota del objeto
y en sus ojos?
• Es difícil de creer,
pero es cierto.
How the eye works.
• The light rays enter • Los rayos de luz
the eye through the
entran en el ojo a
cornea, which is a
través de la córnea,
thick, transparent
protective layer on
que es una capa
the surface of your
protectora de
eye.
espesor,
transparente sobre
la superficie del ojo.
How the eye works.
• Then the light
rays pass through
the pupil (the
dark circle in the
center of your
eye) and into the
lens.
• Entonces los
rayos de luz
pasan a través
de la pupila (el
círculo oscuro en
el centro del
ojo) y en el
lente.
How the eye works.
• Your lens in your
eyes change size
all the time.
• When you look
at objects real
close up, the
lens gets
thicker.
• Su lente en sus
ojos cambian de
tamaño todo el
tiempo.
• Cuando nos
fijamos en los
objetos reales
de cerca, la
lente se vuelve
más grueso.
How the eye works.
• If you look at
objects far
away, it gets
thinner.
• It does this to
help you focus
the correct
image on the
retina.
• Si nos fijamos en
los objetos lejanos,
que se hace más
delgado.
• Lo hace para
ayudarlo a enfocar
la imagen correcta
sobre la retina.
How the eye works.
• After light
passes through
the lens it
shines through
the vitreous
humor to the
back of the eye
where it hits the
retina.
• Después de la
luz pasa a través
de la lente que
brilla a través
del humor vítreo
a la parte
posterior del ojo
en el que llega a
la retina.
How the eye works.
• The retina takes
the light and
changes it into
nerve impulse so
the brain can
understand what
the eye sees. It
sends the
message to the
brain by way of
the optic nerve.
• La retina tiene la
luz y la convierte
en impulsos
nerviosos que el
cerebro pueda
entender lo que
el ojo ve. Se
envía el mensaje
al cerebro por
medio del nervio
óptico
Rods and Cones
Rods and cones
are special cells
that process light.
• Rods and cones are
extremely small. In
fact, there are
about 120 million
rods and 7 million
cones in each eye!
•
• Los conos y bastones
son células especiales
que procesan la luz.
Los conos y bastones
son extremadamente
pequeñas. De hecho,
hay cerca de 120
millones de bastones
y 7 millones de conos
en cada ojo!
Rods and Cones
Rods help us see black and • Varillas nos ayudan a
ver tonos blanco y
white and shades of
negro y de gris.
grey.
Los conos nos ayudan a
Cones help us see color.
ver el color. Usted
You have three kinds of
tiene tres tipos de
cones are - red, green,
conos son - rojo, verde
and blue. These cones
y azul. Estos conos
work together to help us
trabajan juntos para
see millions of colors.
ayudarnos a ver
millones de colores.
http://app.discoveryeduc
ation.com/player/view/as
setGuid/22F0D50F-CBA74F4B-9D4ED56DDE186B55
Video Presentation
Watch one time through
and then second time
complete activity.
Write a true
sentence
about light
and the eye.
Science Starter
Tuesday, October 14,
2014
Facts
Sound …
1. Is a form of
energy produced
& transmitted by
vibrating matter
2. Travels in waves
3. Travels more
quickly through
solids than liquids
or gases
• Sonido ...
• 1. ¿Es una forma de
energía producida y
transmitida por la
vibración de la
materia
• 2. viaja en ondas
• 3. viajan más rápido
a través de los
sólidos que líquidos
o gases
Sound and the ear
• Sound is carried
to our ears
through vibrating
air molecules.
• Our ears take in
sound waves &
turn them into
signals that go to
our brains.
• El sonido se lleva
a nuestros oídos
a través de las
moléculas de
aire que vibran .
• Nuestros oídos
reciben las
ondas sonoras y
las convierten en
señales que van
al cerebro
Sound and the ear.
• Sound waves move
through 3 parts of
the ear; outer ear,
middle ear, & inner
ear.
• Las ondas
sonoras se
mueven a través
de 3 partes del
oído ; oído
externo , el oído
medio , y oído
interno
Sound and the ear.
Sound and the ear.
Sound waves are • Las ondas
sent.
sonoras se
The outer ear
envían .
“catches the
• El oído externo
sound waves”.
" capta las
ondas sonoras "
.
Sound and the ear.
• The middle ear
• El oído medio se
takes the sound
las ondas
waves and
sonoras y " vibra
“vibrates” the
" el tímpano .
eardrum.
• El oído interno
• The inner ear
envía los
sends the messages
mensajes al
to the brain.
cerebro .
Sound and the ear.
• The brain puts • El cerebro lo
it together
integra y
and hooray!
hurra !
• You hear your • Se oye su
favorite song
canción
favorita en la
on the radio.
radio .
Sound and the ear.
Sound travels
in waves.
 Sound must
travel through
matter to be
heard.

• El sonido viaja
en ondas.
• Sonido debe
viajar a través
de la materia
para ser
escuchado .
Sound and the ear.



Remember: Matter can •
be a solid, a liquid, or a
gas.
A sound is made when
things vibrate.
•
Sound travels by
sending vibrations
through matter.
•
Recuerde : La
materia puede ser un
sólido , un líquido o
un gas .
Un sonido se produce
cuando las cosas
vibran .
El sonido viaja
enviando vibraciones
a través de la
materia .
Sound traveling through
matter
Gases
• Most of the sounds we hear
travel through gases, such as
air.
• Sound waves travel slowly
through the air
• For example: Sound from a
bell, a horn, or an alarm clock
travels through the air.
Gases
• La mayoría de los sonidos
que escuchamos viajan a
través de gases, como el
aire.
• Las ondas sonoras viajan
lentamente a través del
aire
• Por ejemplo : El sonido de
una campana , una bocina
o un despertador viaja a
través del aire.
Sound traveling through
matter.
Liquids
• Some sounds that we hear
travel through water.
• Sound waves travel a
faster through water than
through the air.
•
•
• Sonar is the way to use
sounds to locate objects
under water.
•
• What animals use sonar?
•
Líquidos
Algunos sonidos que
escuchamos los viajes a
través del agua
Las ondas sonoras viajan
más rápido a través del
agua que a través del aire .
Sonar es la manera de
utilizar los sonidos para
localizar objetos bajo el
agua .
¿Qué animales usan el
sonar ?
Sound traveling through
matter.
Solids
Some sounds that we
hear travel through
solids.
Sound waves travel
very fast through
solids.
For example: When
you hit a drum, it
vibrates, then the
sound travels through
the air, to your ears.
Sólidos
• Algunos sonidos que
escuchamos a través de
sólidos .
• Las ondas sonoras viajan muy
rápido a través de sólidos .
• Por ejemplo : Cuando se
golpea un tambor , que vibra ,
el sonido viaja por el aire , a
sus oídos .
Sound and the ear.

For sound to be
heard, sound
vibrations must
have air or some
other kind of
matter to travel
through.
o Para obtener un
sonido a ser oído,
las vibraciones de
sonido deben
gozar del aire o
algún otro tipo de
materia que
viajar a través .
Sound and the ear.



Volume is the loudness
or the softness of a
sound.
Loud sounds use a lot
of energy.
Soft sounds use a little
energy.
• El volumen es el
volumen o la
suavidad de un
sonido.
• Los sonidos
fuertes utilizan
una gran cantidad
de energía .
• Sonidos suaves
usan un poco de
energía
Sound and the ear.



Pitch is the highest or
lowest sound an object
makes.
Objects that vibrate
slowly, make a low pitch.
Example-drum.
Objects that vibrate
quickly, make a higher
pitch. Example-recorder
• El tono es más alto o
más bajo de sonido de
un objeto hace .
• Objetos que vibran
lentamente , hacen un
tono bajo . Ejemplo tambor.
• Objetos que vibran
rápidamente , hacen
un tono más alto .
Ejemplo - grabador
http://app.discoveryeducatio
n.com/player/view/assetGuid
/4D1C744C-1BAB-4AF9952A-86F8507609AA
Watch video first time
through and second
time complete activity.
http://app.discoveryeduc
ation.com/player/view/as
setGuid/39F6C58F133C-4258-85A27257B405294A
Bionics….
Electromagnetic Waves &
the Electromagnetic Spectrum
Electromagnetic Waves
• Transverse waves without a medium!
• (They can travel through empty space)
• They travel as vibrations in
electrical and magnetic fields.
– Have some magnetic and some
electrical properties to them.
When an electric field changes, so does the
magnetic field. The changing magnetic field
causes the electric field to change. When one
field vibrates—so does the other.
RESULT-An electromagnetic wave.
Electromagnetic waves travel VERY
FAST – around 300,000
kilometres per second (the speed
of light).
At this speed they
can go around the
world 8 times in one
second.
Waves or Particles?
• Electromagnetic radiation has properties of
waves but also can be thought of as a stream
of particles.
– Example: Light
•
Light as a wave: Light behaves as a transverse
wave which we can filter using polarized lenses.
•
Light as particles (photons): When directed at a
substance light can knock electrons off of a
substance (Photoelectric effect)
Electromagnetic Spectrum—name for the
range of electromagnetic waves when
placed in order of increasing frequency
RADIO
WAVES
INFRARED
RAYS
MICROWAVES
ULTRAVIOLET
RAYS
VISIBLE LIGHT
GAMMA
RAYS
X-RAYS
Notice the wavelength is
long (Radio waves) and gets shorter (Gamma Rays)
RADIO WAVES
Have the longest
wavelengths and
lowest
frequencies of
all the
electromagnetic
waves.
Global Positioning Systems (GPS) measure the
time it takes a radio wave to travel from
several satellites to the receiver, determining
the distance to each satellite.
A radio picks up radio waves through an
antenna and converts it to sound waves.
– Each radio station in an area broadcasts at a
different frequency.
• # on radio dial tells frequency.
MRI
(MAGNETIC RESONACE IMAGING)
Uses Short wave radio waves with a
magnet to create an image.
2 facts about
the
electromagnetic
spectrum
Science Starter
Thursday October 16,
2014
MICROWAVES
Have the
shortest
wavelengths and
the highest
frequency of
the radio
waves.
Used in microwave
ovens.
• Waves transfer
energy to the
water in the food
causing them to
vibrate which in
turn transfers
energy in the
form of heat to
the food.
RADAR (Radio
Detection and
Ranging)
• Used to find the
speed of an object
by sending out radio
waves and measuring
the time it takes
them to return.
INFRARED RAYS
Infrared= below
red
Shorter
wavelength and
higher
frequency than
microwaves.
You can feel the
longest ones as
warmth on your
skin
Warm objects
give off more
heat energy than
cool objects.
Thermogram—a picture that shows regions of different
temperatures in the body. Temperatures are calculated by
the amount of infrared radiation given off.
Therefore people give
off infrared rays.
Heat lamps give off
infrared waves.
VISIBLE LIGHT
Shorter wavelength and
higher frequency than
infrared rays.
Electromagnetic waves we
can see.
Longest wavelength= red
light
Shortest wavelength=
violet (purple) light
When light enters
a new medium it
bends (refracts).
Each wavelength
bends a different
amount allowing
white light to
separate into it’s
various colors
ROYGBIV.
ULTRAVIOLET RAYS
Shorter
wavelength and
higher
frequency than
visible light
Carry more
energy than
visible light
Used to kill
bacteria.
(Sterilization
of equipment)
Too much can cause skin cancer.
Use sun block to protect against
(UV rays)
Causes your
skin to
produce
vitamin D
(good for
teeth and
bones)
X- RAYS
Shorter
wavelength and
higher
frequency than
UV-rays
Carry a great
amount of
energy
Can penetrate
most matter.
Bones and teeth absorb x-rays. (The light part
of an x-ray image indicates a place where the xray was absorbed)
Too much exposure
can cause cancer
(lead vest at
dentist protects
organs from
unnecessary
exposure)
Used by engineers
to check for tiny
cracks in
structures.
– The rays pass
through the
cracks and the
cracks appear
dark on film.
GAMMA RAYS
Shorter wavelength
and higher frequency
than X-rays
Carry the greatest
amount of energy
and penetrate the
most.
Used in radiation treatment to kill
cancer cells.
Can be very harmful if not used
correctly.
The Incredible
Hulk was the
victim of
gamma
radiation.
Exploding
nuclear
weapons emit
gamma rays.
Brief SUMMARY
A. All electromagnetic waves travel at the same
speed. (300,000,000 meters/second) in a
vacuum.
B. They all have different wavelengths and
different frequencies.
– Long wavelength-lowest frequency
– Short wavelength highest frequency
– The higher the frequency the higher the
energy.
Light and
the eye
Optical Illusions.
Optical Illusions
The process of seeing begins
with the presence of light, an
image being formed on the
retina, and an impulse
transmitted to the brain, but
there are many other factors
that play a part in how we
perceive visually. Our
perceptions are influenced by
our past experiences,
imagination, and associations.
• El proceso de la visión
comienza con la presencia de
la luz, una imagen que se
forma en la retina, y un
impulso transmitido al
cerebro, pero hay muchos
otros factores que
desempeñan un papel en la
forma en que percibimos
visualmente. Nuestras
percepciones están
influenciadas por nuestras
experiencias pasadas, la
imaginación, y las
asociaciones.
You probably read the word ME in brown, but.......
when you look through ME
you will see YOU!
The "illusion" is that this is just a picture of coffee beans; but it is not. Can
you find a man's face among the beans? Some say that if you find the man in 3
seconds or less, the right half of your brain may be more well developed than
most.
PS: This is not a trick. A man's face is really hidden among the beans.
The following pictures are NOT animated.
Can you count the black dots?
Contrast
This grid, known as Hermann's Grid, is an example of how contrast affects color
perception. The area at the corners of the black boxes appear gray. This happens
because of something called lateral inhibition. In the retina when some lightreceiving cells are activated others around them shut down.
How many legs does this elephant have?
Man playing a horn?
Or woman's face?
A skull?
Or a woman looking into a vanity mirror?
One face?
Or two profiles facing each other?
Do you see one man in this picture...
or several people?
If you look very carefully, you'll find 9 different faces in the picture;
the 9th belongs to a dog.
Which of the figures in the picture do you think
would measure the tallest with a ruler?
What do see?
A face, or the word liar?
Lift or just black splotches? Girls usually see it
better than boys.
Is this woman old...or young?
How many human faces can you find in this picture?
Two elderly faces, or a larger scene?
Faces or places?
Where does the puzzle begin and end?
Exam
Wednesday,
October 22,
2014
Write in Science Starter
for today..
Exam
Wednesday,
October 22,
2014
Time to prepare…..
Study
Booklets
Create a study booklet
to help you study for
your exam next
Wednesday
Study Booklets
• Atoms & Matter
– States of Matter
– Physical Properties
– Characteristic Properties
• Waves
– Mechanical Waves
– Vibration, Sound, the ear
– Transverse Waves
– Longitudinal Waves
• Light
– Light waves
– The eye
– Electromagnetic
spectrum
https://www.
youtube.com
/watch?v=x_
s1cmOjvAQ
eye
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