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cable tester - Instituto Tecnológico de Morelia

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cable tester - Instituto Tecnológico de Morelia
Structured Cabling Standards
M.C. Juan Carlos Olivares Rojas
Department of Computer and System
Instituto Tecnológico de Morelia
[email protected]
19.72388 lat, -101.1848 long
Disclaimer
Some material in this presentation has been
obtained from various sources, each of which
has intellectual property, so in this presentation
will only have some rights reserved.
These slides are free, so you can add, modify,
and delete slides (including this one) and slide
content to suit your needs. They obviously
represent a lot of work on my part. In return for
use, I only ask the following: if you use these
slides (e.g., in a class) in substantially unaltered
form, that you mention their source.
Outline
•Componentes del cableado estructurado.
•Área de trabajo.
•Cableado horizontal.
•Cableado vertical.
•Cableado Backbone.
•Centro de telecomunicaciones principal.
•Centro de telecomunicaciones Intermedios.
•Servicios de ingreso.
•Planificación de la estructura de cableado.
•Normatividad de electricidad y conexiones a
tierra.
Outline
•Soluciones para caída y bajada de tensión.
•Normatividad de seguridad
•Documentación de una red.
•Diario de Ingeniería.
•Diagramas.
•Cables etiquetados.
•Resumen de tomas y cables.
•Resumen de dispositivos, direcciones MAC e IP.
•Material y presupuestos.
•Presentación del proyecto.
Objectives
• Construct a Computer Network Infrastructure
using Structured Cabling Systems
•
•
•
•
Competences:
Making cables
Installing devices
Setup Computer, Host and Devices
Structured Cabling System
• Components of Structured Cabling
– Working Area
– Horizontal Cabling
– Backbone (Vertical) Cabling
– Main Telecomunication Center
– Intermedial Telecomunication Center
– Incomming Services.
Structured Cable System
• Planning of Structured
– Electricity and Ground Conection Regulation
– Solutions to drop voltages.
– Security Normativity
• Network Documentation
– Logs
– Diagrams.
– Labeling Cables
– Cable and Power Outlet Abstract
– Devices, MAC and IP Addresses
– Other resources
Cableado estructurado
• Es una metodología para diseñar e instalar de
manera adecuada redes de comunicación,
particularmente, redes de computadoras.
• Define más que una simple estructura o forma
de realizar cableados de casas y empresas.
Forma un estándar para simplificar las cosas.
Se centra en la fase de planeación, instalación
y expansión de la red.
• It’s called Layer 0
What’s the problem?
Safety Procedures
• Safety is the primary concern.
• General safety precautions, while working with
network building materials - both electrical and
construction.
Structured Cabling Systems
• A Structured Cabling System is a cabling and
connectivity products that integrates data,
voice, video and various management system
of a building
Benefits of Structured Cabling
System
• Redundancy at design
downtime & repair time
stage
reduces
• Ease of fault location & repair
• Flexibility, expandability & modular connecting
platform
• Ease of moves, adds and changes
• Enhanced end-use understanding and control
• Significant long term cost containment
Cable Distribution System
• Cable Tray
• Raised Floor
• Conduit
• Hung Ceiling / False Ceiling
Elements of a Structured Cabling
System
Structered Cabling Components
Foil Twisted Pair
Shielded Twisted Pair
Work Flow
•
•
•
•
•
•
installing outlets
installing jacks
running cables
punching cables into patch panels
testing cables
documenting cables
Work Flow (cont)
• installing NICs
• installing hubs, switches, bridges,
and routers
• configuring routers
• installing and configuring PCs
Place Copper Wires into a Jack
Documenting Cable Runs
• A cut sheet
– is a rough diagram that shows the locations of the
cable runs.
– indicates the numbers of the classrooms, offices, or
other rooms, to which the cables have been run.
– to
place
corresponding
numbers
on
all
telecommunications outlets and at the patch panel
in the wiring closet.
TIA/EIA-606 for Labeling Cables
• Labeling
– NO terms such as "Mr. Zimmerman's math class," or
"Ms. Thome's art class".
– incorporate room numbers in the label information
– incorporate color coding
• For example, a blue label might identify horizontal
cabling at the wiring closet only, while a green label
might identify cabling at the work area.
– mark the cable three times, approximately 60 cm apart
– Allow enough cable for the ends to reach all the way to
each jack location, plus enough excess or slack to
reach the floor and extend another 60-90 cm.
– Do not cut the cables unless they have a label.
Cable Labels
Mounting cables in raceway
• decorative raceway
– presents a more finished appearance
• gutter raceway
– a less attractive alternative to decorative raceway.
• mounted with adhesive backing or with screws
SAFETY RULES
• turn off power to all circuits that might pass
through those work areas
• Never, ever, touch power cables
• learn the locations of all fire extinguishers in the
area.
• Long pants and sleeves help protect your arms
and legs. Avoid wearing excessively loose or
baggy clothing.
SAFETY RULES (cont)
• Protect your eyes with safety glasses
• If you anticipate working in a dropped ceiling
area, survey the area.
• Follow building safety codes
Supporting Horizontal Cables
• Wall-mounted gutter
• Tie-wraps
• Ladder rack
• Tools
– A telepole
• is nothing more than a telescoping pole with a hook at one end to
hold the cable.
• is used to string cable across a dropped ceiling or attic quickly.
– fishing cable
• When you pull cable up through a wall, you ordinarily work from an
attic or dropped ceiling space
Wiring Closets
• the equipment in a wiring closet includes:
– patch panels
– wiring hubs
– bridges
– switches
– routers
Network Operating Test
• The baseline
– is a record of your network's starting point or newly
installed performance capabilities.
• Continue to test your network on a regular basis
in order to ensure that it performs at its peak
• A cable tester is a hand held device that can
certify that cable meets the required IEEE and
TIA/EIA standards.
Cable Tester
• Determine cable distance
• Locate bad connections
• Provide wire maps for detecting crossed pairs
• Measure signal attenuation
• Measure near-end crosstalk
• Detect split pairs
• Perform noise level tests
• Trace cable behind walls
Cable Tester
Conexión de cables
Jack
El jack es el componente
femenino en un dispositivo de
red, toma de pared o panel de
conexión.
Jack
Para que la electricidad
fluya entre el conector y el
jack, el orden de los hilos
debe seguir el código de
colores T568A, o T568B
recomendado
en
los
estándares EIA/TIA-568-B.1
Configuración
Conexión directa
Utilice cables de conexión directa para el
siguiente cableado:
•Switch a router
•Switch a PC o servidor
•Hub a PC o servidor
Conexión Cruzada
Utilice cables de conexión cruzada para el siguiente
cableado:
•Switch a switch
•Switch a hub
•Hub a hub
•Router a router
Esquema de Conexión EIA/TIA
568
CABLE TESTER.
We all have some ugly wiring
Unshielded Twisted Pair Cable
• Labeling is a key to reduce work later
Fiber Optic Cable Construction
• Fiber has bend radius issues
Fiber Optic Cable Construction
• Leave slack loops
Cutting, Striping & Crimping Tools
Punching Tool
Cabling Rules
• Try to avoid running cables parallel to
power cables.
• Do not bend cables to less than four times
the diameter of the cable.
• If you bundle a group of cables together
with cable ties (zip ties), do not over-cinch
them. You should be able to turn the tie with
fingers.
Cabling Rules
• Keep cables away from devices which can
introduce noise into them. Here's a short
list: copy machines, electric heaters,
speakers, printers, TV sets, fluorescent
lights,
copiers,
welding
machines,
microwave
ovens,
telephones,
fans,
elevators, motors, electric ovens, dryers,
washing machines, and shop equipment.
• Avoid stretching UTP cables (tension when
pulling cables should not exceed 25 LBS).
• Do not run UTP cable outside of a
building. It presents a very dangerous
lightning hazard!
Cabling Rules
• Do not run UTP cable outside of a
building. It presents a very dangerous
lightning hazard!
• Do not use a stapler to secure UTP
cables. Use telephone wire/RJ6 coaxial
wire hangers which are available at most
hardware stores.
Standards
• Exist a lot of normativity and best practices for the
correct construction of cables:
–
–
–
–
–
ANSI/TIA/EIA-568-B
ANSI/TIA/EIA-569-A
ANSI/TIA/EIA-607
ANSI/TIA/EIA-570-A
ISO/IEC 11801
Subsystem of a Structured Cabling System
• Horizontal Cabling
– Cable from patch panel to work area
– Telco outlets
– Cable terminations
– Cross-connections
– One transition point
– Maximum length – 100 meters
• 90 meters for cable
• 10 meters for 2 patch cables
Cabling Subsystem cont.
• Entrance Facility
– Point in the building
where
cable
interfaces with the
outside world
– May share the space
with the equipment
room
Structured Cabling in SOHO
IBM Cable Types
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Type 1A
Type 2A
Type 3
Type 5
Type 6
Type 8
Type 9
IBM Data Connector
SEGMENTACIÓN
1.
2.
Existen dos razones principales para segmentar o
dividir una LAN.
Aislar el tráfico entre segmentos.
Obtener más ancho de banda por usuario para crear
dominios de colisiones pequeños.
Si no existiera la segmentación, las grandes redes
LAN rápidamente serian invadidas por tráfico y
colisiones, y provocaría virtualmente en falta de ancho
de banda. Los dispositivos como bridges, switches y
ruteadores segmentan la red LAN.
SEGMENTACIÓN
SEGMENTACIÓN
Bridge
• Es usada la segmentación usando bridge para
proporcionar mayor ancho de banda.
• El bridge permite sólo la información que tienen
destinación fuera del segmento.
• Aprende una segmentación de red para construir
tablas de direcciones que contienen las direcciones
de cada dispositivo de red dentro del segmento.
SEGMENTACIÓN
Bridge
SEGMENTACIÓN
Switch
• El propósito de la segmentación usando switch es que
es fácil reducir los cuellos de botella de red.
• Un switch segmenta una LAN dentro de
microsegmentos.
• El switch determina cual es la acción a tomar sobre la
información si esta localizada en otro segmento, la
información se transfiere o switchea a otra
destinación.
SEGMENTACIÓN
Switch
SEGMENTACIÓN
Router
• Los ruteadores crean los mayores niveles de
segmentación debido a su habilidad de realizar
determinaciones exactas de donde enviar la
información al usar su tabla de ruteo.
SEGMENTACIÓN
Router
Internet Conections
• Actually conects to other networks is cruatil in
many home and organizations specially with
Internet.
• We need to rent a contract with a Internet
Service Provider to connect with remote
networks.
References
• Forouzan, B. (2008), Data Comunications and
Networking, 4th. Edition, McGraw-Hill.
• Tanenbaum, A (2004). Computer Networks. 4th
Edition. Prentice Hall.
• Kurose, J. and Ross, K. (2007) Computer
Networking: A Top Down Approach 4th edition.
Addison-Wesley, July 2007.
Questions?
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