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Plan de Manejo del Parque Nacional Coiba

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Plan de Manejo del Parque Nacional Coiba
Plan de Manejo del Parque Nacional Coiba
Sitio de Patrimonio Natural de la Humanidad
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Au82 Autoridad Nacional del Ambiente
Plan de manejo del Parque Nacional Coiba / Autoridad
Nacional del Ambiente ; Compiladores Juan Maté, Darío
Tovar, Eddy Arcia y Yariela Hidalgo. – Panamá : Autoridad
Nacional del Ambiente, 2009.
168p. ; 27 cm.
ISBN 978-9962-609-56-8
1. PARQUES NACIONALES – PANAMÁ
2. PARQUE NACIONAL COIBA – PANAMÁ
3. PROTECCIÓN DEL MEDIO AMBIENTE I. Título
© 2009 Autoridad Nacional del Ambiente
Todos los derechos reservados, excepto las fotografías.
El Instituto Smithsonian de Investigaciones Tropicales, la UNESCO y Conservación Internacional
están autorizados para reproducir esta publicación sin fines comerciales.
Fotografía de cubiertas:
Cubierta frontal:
Estero de Boca Grande, Isla Coiba.
Foto: Kevan Mantell
Cubierta dorsal:
Mero gigante (Epinephelus quinquefasciatus). Cordillera de Frijoles. PN Coiba.
Foto: Kevan Mantell
Ninguna parte de esta publicación, incluyendo las fotografías, puede ser reproducida, almacenada o
transmitida en manera alguna por ningún medio, ya sea electrónico, químico, mecánico, óptico, de
grabación o de fotocopia, sin permiso previo de la Autoridad Nacional del Ambiente ([email protected]).
Toda reproducción parcial puede hacerse para fines educativos e investigativos, siempre y cuando
se cite la fuente.
Diseño Gráfico:
Lina González,
Laboratorio de Imágenes Digitales,
Instituto Smithsonian de Investigaciones Tropicales
Como citar este documento:
ANAM (2009) Plan de Manejo del Parque Nacional Coiba. Compiladores JL Maté, D Tovar, E Arcia,
Y Hidalgo, STRI. 168pp.
PRESENTACIÓN
En mi calidad de Ministra de los Asuntos Relacionados con el Ambiente y Administradora General de la Autoridad Nacional
del Ambiente, tengo el agrado de presentarles el Plan de Manejo del Parque Nacional Coiba. Esta área protegida, se constituye
hoy en día en una de las unidades de manejo de mayor relevancia dentro del Sistema Nacional de Áreas Protegidas, y además,
su importancia es reconocida a nivel internacional, no solo por su declaratoria como Sitio de Patrimonio Mundial Natural,
sino por formar parte como área núcleo y eslabón del denominado Corredor Marino del Pacífico Oriental, iniciativa regional
de una de las zonas más ricas y diversas del planeta.
El Plan de Manejo es el documento orientador para la gerencia del Parque Nacional Coiba, el cual contempla objetivos, normas,
directrices, usos posibles, acciones y estrategias a seguir. El amplio proceso de planificación desarrollado implicó el análisis
técnico de los recursos naturales, la consideración de la categoría de manejo asignada al área protegida, las potencialidades
y problemáticas encontradas, con la dinámica participación de los distintos actores involucrados. De tal manera que esta
herramienta de planificación indica la forma en que serán utilizados los recursos de esta área protegida, dentro los objetivos
de conservación y uso sostenible señalados por la legislación que estableció el área protegida, orientando la gestión, esfuerzos,
recursos financieros y humanos requeridos hacia los compromisos de excelencia, optimización, eficiencia y eficacia en el
manejo de la referida área protegida. También se constituye como un documento de apoyo a las comunidades del área de
influencia y para las autoridades que lo administran, a fin de que se logren organizar todas las actividades relacionadas con la
gestión del área protegida.
Al contar con un plan de manejo, se procura la utilización de los recursos naturales de manera ordenada, garantizando su
permanencia a corto, mediano y largo plazo, de una de las áreas protegidas más importantes a nivel nacional, regional y
mundial.
Finalmente deseo agradecer de manera especial a la UNESCO, la Fundación de las Naciones Unidas (UNF) y Conservación
Internacional (CI), que cofinanciaron la Actualización del Plan de Manejo del Parque Nacional Coiba, a través del proyecto
“Promoviendo la Conservación Marina en el Pacífico Oriental Tropical mediante Patrimonios Naturales de la Humanidad”.
Al Instituto Smithsonian de Investigaciones Tropicales (STRI), a quien correspondió la responsabilidad y seguimiento de
liderizar el proceso de actualización y elaboración del referido plan, en coordinación con la Autoridad Nacional del Ambiente
(ANAM). A las Instituciones del Estado con competencia en la región, al Consejo Directivo y Comité Científico del Parque
Nacional Coiba, a las ONG´s con incidencia en el área, a las comunidades y sociedad civil principalmente aquellas del área de
influencia del parque por su apoyo y participación en dicho proceso. A los funcionarios de la Autoridad Nacional del Ambiente
que de una manera u otra se esforzaron para lograr con éxitos la culminación del Plan de Manejo del Parque Nacional Coiba,
cuyo proceso fue ampliamente consultado.
Ligia Castro de Doens
Ministra de los Asuntos Relacionados con el Ambiente
y Administradora General de la Autoridad Nacional del Ambiente
Panamá, 19 de junio de 2009
i
World Heritage 29 COM 8B.13 Decision
Durban, 17 de julio de 2005
Decision 29 COM 8B.13
The World Heritage Committee,
1. Having examined Documents WHC-05/29.COM/8B, WHC- 05/29.COM/8B. Add 2 and WHC-05/29.
COM/INF.8B.2,
2. Recalling Decision 28COM/14B.10 adopted at its 28th session (Suzhou, 2004),
3. Commends the State Party of Panama, and the NGOs supporting conservation efforts in Coiba National
Park, for their excellent response to address the key issues requested by the Committee at its 28th session
(Suzhou, 2004), in particular for the adoption of National Law No. 44 which established Coiba National
Park and its Special Zone of Marine Protection;
4. Inscribes Coiba National Park and its Special Zone of Marine Protection (Panama) on the World
Heritage List under natural criteria (ii) and (iv): Decisions adopted at the 29th session of the World Heritage
Committee WHC-05/29.COM/22, p. 120 (Durban, 2005)
Criterion (ii): Despite the short time of isolation of the islands of the Gulf of Chiriquí on an evolutionary
timeframe, new species are being formed, which is evident from the levels of endemism reported for many
groups (mammals, birds, plants), making the property an outstanding natural laboratory for scientific
research. Furthermore the Eastern Pacific reefs, such as those within the property, are characterized
by complex biological interactions of their inhabitants and provide a key ecological link in the Tropical
Eastern Pacific for the transit and survival of numerous pelagic fish as well as marine mammals.
Criterion (iv): The forests of Coiba Island possess a high variety of endemic birds, mammals and plants.
Coiba Island also serves as the last refuge for a number of threatened species that have largely disappeared
from the rest of Panama, such as the Crested Eagle and the Scarlet Macaw.
Furthermore the marine ecosystems within the property are repositories of extraordinary biodiversity
conditioned to the ability of the Gulf of Chiriquí to buffer against temperature extremes associated to El
Niño/Southern Oscilation phenomenon. The property includes 760 species of marine fishes, 33 species
of sharks and 20 species of cetaceans. The islands within the property are the only group of inshore
islands in the tropical eastern Pacific that have significant populations of trans-Pacific fishes, namely,
Indo-Pacific species that have established themselves in the eastern Pacific.
5. Requests the State Party to consider options to expedite the preparation, adoption and further
implementation of the revised management plan for the property, and to very carefully control and
monitor fisheries management. The State Party may wish to consider requesting international assistance
under the World Heritage Fund to support the effective implementation of this important task;
6. Also requests the State Party to confirm the name of the property to the World Heritage Centre as
soon as possible.
ii
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íNDICE
AuTORIDADES DEl PN COIBA ................................................................................ vii
VI. GOBERNANzA .................................................................................................. 59
Consejo Directivo del PN Coiba ....................................................................... vii
Comité Científico del PN Coiba ........................................................................ vii
EquIPO DE PlANIfICACIÓN DEl PlAN DE MANEjO ................................................... viii
PERSONAl DE APOyO DEl PlAN DE MANEjO DEl PN COIBA .................................... ix
VII. MANEjO y uSOS DE RECuRSOS NATuRAlES ............................................. 63
AGRADECIMIENTOS PARA lOS COlABORADORES
DEl PlAN DE MANEjO DEl PN COIBA ................................................................ x
ACRÓNIMOS ............................................................................................................. xiii
RESuMEN EjECuTIVO ..................................................................................................... 1
INTRODuCCIÓN .............................................................................................................. 7
I. MARCO DE REfERENCIA .................................................................................... 9
LocaLizacióN ..................................................................................................... 9
GeoLoGía ....................................................................................................... 9
ReLieve .................................................................................................................... 11
HidRoGRafía ................................................................................................... 11
cLima ................................................................................................................ 13
admiNiStRacióN deL ÁRea PRoteGida ..................................................... 13
SeRvicioS de aPoyo PaRa La admiNiStRacióN deL ÁRea PRoteGida .. 15
SeRvicioS BRiNdadoS eN eL ÁRea PRoteGida ......................................... 15
II. METODOlOGíA PARA lA ElABORACIÓN DEl PlAN DE MANEjO ........... 19
III. VAlORES DE CONSERVACIÓN ....................................................................... 25
RecuRSoS BioLóGicoS ..................................................................................... 25
especies amenazadas, de distribución restringida
y endémicas ............................................................................................ 25
ecosistemas terrestres ............................................................................ 29
fauna silvestre ......................................................................................... 33
ecosistemas dulceacuícolas ................................................................ 35
ecosistemas costero-marinos ............................................................... 35
RecuRSoS cuLtuRaLeS ...................................................................................... 41
arqueología .............................................................................................. 41
Recursos históricos .................................................................................. 44
IV. CARACTERIzACIÓN SOCIOECONÓMICA
DEl ÁREA DE INfluENCIA DEl PN COIBA .................................................... 47
V. MARCO lEGAl E INSTITuCIONAl .................................................................... 51
maRco LeGaL ..................................................................................................... 51
La Ley deL PN coiBa .......................................................................................... 51
ReGLameNtacióN PeSqueRa ......................................................................... 53
otRoS iNStRumeNtoS LeGaLeS ReLevaNteS PaRa eL PN coiBa ............. 54
deRecHo iNteRNacioNaL aPLicaBLe eN eL PN coiBa ............................. 57
iv
aPRovecHamieNto de RecuRSoS NatuRaLeS .........................................
Pesca artesanal ..................................................................................
Pesca deportiva ..................................................................................
cultivos agrícolas .................................................................................
aprovechamientos forestales ............................................................
caza furtiva ..........................................................................................
RecReacióN y tuRiSmo ...................................................................................
Buceo deportivo ....................................................................................
cruceros turísticos ..................................................................................
turismo de veleros y botes ...................................................................
operadores turísticos de pesca deportiva ......................................
iNveStiGacióN cieNtífica ...............................................................................
educacióN amBieNtaL ....................................................................................
iNtRoduccióN de eSPecieS exóticaS .........................................................
vegetación .............................................................................................
mamíferos ................................................................................................
Ganado bovino .....................................................................................
Perros ........................................................................................................
otros .........................................................................................................
maNejo de deSecHoS y coNtamiNacióN ..............................................
desechos sólidos .................................................................................
aguas servidas ....................................................................................
combustibles ..........................................................................................
aguas de centina ..................................................................................
aguas de lastre .......................................................................................
63
63
65
67
67
67
67
67
68
68
68
68
68
68
68
68
68
69
69
69
69
69
69
69
69
VIII. RIESGOS, AMENAzAS y POTENCIAlIDADES IDENTIfICADAS ................ 71
IX. ORIENTACIONES DEl PlAN DE MANEjO ..................................................... 75
oBjetivoS GeNeRaLeS deL PN coiBa ...........................................................
miSióN ...................................................................................................................
viSióN 2025 ..........................................................................................................
PoLíticaS de coNSeRvacióN .........................................................................
PoLíticaS de uSo SoSteNiBLe ..........................................................................
oBjetivoS GeNeRaLeS deL PLaN de maNejo .............................................
oBjetivoS oPeRativoS deL PLaN de maNejo ........................................
75
75
76
76
76
76
77
X. zONIfICACIÓN ................................................................................................. 79
zoNificacióN teRReStRe .................................................................................
zona de Protección absoluta ..............................................................
zona Primitiva ..........................................................................................
zona de Recuperación Natural ..........................................................
79
81
81
82
zona de uso extensivo ............................................................................ 83
zona de uso intensivo ............................................................................ 84
zona Histórico-cultural .......................................................................... 85
zona de uso especial ............................................................................. 86
zoNificacióN maRiNa .................................................................................... 87
zona de Reserva marina ....................................................................... 87
zona de manejo de Recursos .............................................................. 89
Área de tránsito.......................................................................................... 91
Áreas de reposo, refugio y abastecimiento de agua ..................... 91
XI. PROGRAMAS DE MANEjO ............................................................................. 93
PRoGRama de GeStióN admiNiStRativa ................................................... 95
Subprograma de administración ....................................................... 95
Subprograma de construcción y mantenimiento ......................... 98
PRoGRama de iNveStiGacióN y moNitoReo amBieNtaL .................... 99
Subprograma de investigación y monitoreo de la Biodiversidad.. 99
Subprograma de investigación y monitoreo
Socioeconómico y de los Recursos culturales ................................104
PRoGRama de maNejo de RecuRSoS NatuRaLeS y cuLtuRaLeS .......105
Subprograma manejo de Recursos Históricos,
arqueológicos y Paleo ecológicos ....................................................105
Subprograma manejo de la Población de Ganado Bovino ....... 107
Subprograma manejo y conservación de Suelos ..........................109
Subprograma de aprovechamiento Sostenible
de los Recursos Pesqueros ....................................................................110
PRoGRama de RecReacióN diRiGida, ecotuRiSmo,
comuNicacióN y educacióN amBieNtaL ............................................... 113
Subprograma de comunicación y educación ambiental .......... 113
Subprograma de Recreación dirigida y ecoturismo ..................... 115
PRoGRama de coNtRoL y viGiLaNcia ...................................................... 117
XII. PRESuPuESTO ......................................................................................................... 123
eStimacióN de coStoS de imPLemeNtacióN .......................................... 123
eStimacióN de fueNteS de iNGReSoS .......................................................... 125
fondos locales ........................................................................................ 125
fondos externos ......................................................................................125
Proyección anual de ingresos para los próximos cinco años ....... 125
XIII. ESTRAGEGIAS PARA lA IMPlEMENTACIÓN DEl PlAN DE MANEjO ....... 127
aNÁLiSiS de viaBiLidad, RieSGoS y SuPueStoS .......................................... 127
Situación actual y tendencias de cambio ......................................127
Recursos relevantes para la ejecución
de las actividades previstas ................................................................ 128
disponibilidad de recursos por parte de los actores claves ........ 129
actividades viables en el escenario actual ....................................129
eStRateGiaS e iNStRumeNtoS eStRatéGicoS ............................................. 130
Protección y vigilancia ........................................................................ 130
manejo de recursos, investigación y monitoreo ambiental ........ 130
Recreación dirigida, educación ambiental y ecoturismo .......... 131
fortalecimiento institucional, gobernanza
y participación ciudadana ................................................................ 131
financiamiento ...................................................................................... 131
BIBlIOGRAfíA ......................................................................................................... 133
ANEXOS ................................................................................................................... 141
aNexo i ................................................................................................................ 141
Perfil de los Principales cargos del Personal Requerido .............. 141
director(a) del PN coiba ..................................................................... 141
jefe(a) de construcción y mantenimiento ..................................... 142
administrador(a) contable ................................................................. 142
jefe(a) de control y vigilancia ......................................................... 142
jefe(a) de Puesto de control ..............................................................143
Guardaparques .....................................................................................143
motorista ..................................................................................................143
mecánico para equipos de navegación ........................................143
Radio operador ..................................................................................... 143
especialista en educación ambiental ..............................................143
especialista en turismo naturalista .................................................... 144
Guías de turismo ................................................................................... 144
comunicador(a) Social ...................................................................... 144
jefe(a) de centro de investigación del PN coiba ........................ 144
Biólogo(a), especialista en manejo de vida silvestre .................... 144
Biólogo(a) Pesquero ............................................................................. 144
Botánico(a) ............................................................................................. 144
ingeniero(a) agrónomo ....................................................................... 144
ingeniero(a) forestal .............................................................................144
ingeniero(a) Hidráulico ........................................................................ 144
arqueólogo(a) investigador Principal .............................................. 145
arqueólogo(a) co-investigador principal ....................................... 145
director(a) de campo ......................................................................... 145
director(a) de Laboratorio de arqueología ................................... 145
asistentes de campo y laboratorio ................................................... 145
aNexo 2 .............................................................................................................. 145
capacitación para Guardaparques ................................................145
aNexo 3 ............................................................................................................... 145
desglose Presupuestario ...................................................................... 145
aNexo 4 ............................................................................................................... 158
World Heritage 33 com 7B 38 decision .......................................... 158
v
vi
AuTORIDADES DEl PARquE NACIONAl COIBA
CONSEjO DIRECTIVO DEl PN COIBA
Aleida Salazar
Antonio Loaiza
Diniz Ramos
Milagro Mainieri
Vladimir Torres
José González
Aristides Ortíz
Humberto Sánchez
Manuel Fábrega
Abdiel Solís
Evidelio Adames
Gabriela Etchelecu
Nélida Gómez
Alida Spadafora
Autoridad Nacional del Ambiente
Ministerio de Gobierno y Justicia
Autoridad de Turismo de Panamá
Secretaría Nacional de Ciencia Tecnología e Innovación de Panamá
Autoridad de los Recursos Acuáticos de Panamá
Alcalde de Montijo
Alcalde de Soná
Alcalde de Río de Jesús
Cámara de Comercio de Veraguas
Representante del sector pesquero
Universidad de Panamá
Fundación MarViva
Instituto Smithsonian de Investigaciones Tropicales
Asociación Nacional para la Conservación de la Naturaleza
COMITé CIENTífICO DEl PN COIBA
Israel Tejada
Carlos Peralta
Aydee Cornejo
Ángel Vega
Héctor Guzmán
Autoridad Nacional del Ambiente
Autoridad de los Recursos Acuáticos de Panamá
Secretaría Nacional de Ciencia Tecnología e Innovación de Panamá
Universidad de Panamá
Instituto Smithsonian de Investigaciones Tropicales
vii
EquIPO DE PlANIfICACIÓN DEl PlAN DE MANEjO
Juan L. Maté
Coordinador Plan de Manejo Parque Nacional Coiba y Especialista
en Áreas Costero Marinas
Darío Tovar
Richard Cooke
Philippe Crête
Heraldo Delgado
Alana Domingo
Rolando Gálvez
José Miguel Guevara
Héctor Guzmán
Alicia Ibáñez
Ilean Isaza
Lucia Lasso
Kevan Mantell
Ricardo Montenegro
Marta Moreno
Milton Solano
Daniel Suman
Angel Vega
Arqueólogo
Economista
Sociólogo
Bióloga Marina
Edafólogo
Geógrafo profesional
Biólogo Marino
Botánica
Arqueóloga
Socióloga
Especialista en ecoturismo (buceo)
Economista
Zoóloga
Geógrafo profesional
Abogado ambientalista
Biólogo pesquero
Equipo de apoyo del Plan de Manejo
Lourdes Contreras
Darío Delgado
Catalina Gómez
Serena Moss
Beatriz Medina
Fernando Quezada
Olmedo Quintero
Yolani Robles
María del C. Villar
viii
Facilitadora del Taller de Semovientes
Ingeniero Sanitario. Facilitador del Taller FODA
Pesquerías y Personal técnico de apoyo
Personal técnico de apoyo
Personal técnico de apoyo
Pesquerías
Pesquerías
Pesquerías
Personal técnico de apoyo
PERSONAl DE APOyO Al PlAN DE MANEjO DEl PN COIBA
Autoridad Nacional del Ambiente (ANAM)
Ligia Castro de Doens
Aleida Salazar
Edgar Araúz
Eddy Arcia
Elia Avilés
Ledys Barrera
Narciso Bastidas
Gerardo Batista
Raúl Brenes
Paulino Camarena
Hilda Candanedo
Braulio Correa
Francisco Carrizo
Zailary Chávez
Santiago Concepción
Rosa Córdoba
Antonio Chang Kruell
Daisy de Sánchez
Mitzi Degracia
Leticia de Polo
Indira Durán
Zulay Eustacio
Sanjur Fair
Manuel Flores
Evelyn Góndola
Leonel Hernández
Yariela Hidalgo
Johnie Hurst
Marcela Iglesias
Eustorgio Jaén
Estrella Lucero
Alonso Mendoza
Harley Mitchell
Melvin Morales
Eduardo Moreno
Noriel Murillo
Juan Carlos Pardo
René Partnther
Patricia Pérez
Melquíades Ramos
Mariana Rodríguez
Moisés Rodríguez
Rolando Ruiloba
Alvaro Sánchez
Jesús S. Sánchez
Romelia Sánchez
Joel Sands
Lionso Solís
Israel Tejada
Modesto Tuñon
Desireé Vergara
Verónica Vernaza
Evidel Vigil
Equipo de ANAM de apoyo en la revisión editorial
del plan de manejo del PN Coiba
Eddy Arcia
Yariela Hidalgo
Colaboradora de ANAM
Cecilia Guerra
ix
AGRADECIMIENTOS PARA lOS COlABORADORES DEl PlAN DE MANEjO DEl PN COIBA
Autoridad de los Recursos Acuáticos de Panamá
Servicio Nacional Aeronaval
fundación MarViva
Alejandra Blasser
Yessica Chávez
Gustavo Guillen
Prudencio Lasso
Gabriela Etchelecu
Antonio Adames
Ramón Diéz
Leonel Fuentes
Amelie González
Dionisio Martínez
Edwin Medina
Vladimir Torres
María Victoria Vergara
Comunidades pesqueras participantes
Veraguas
Hicaco
Playa Larga
Santa Catalina
Pilón de Montijo
El Bongo
San Cristóbal de
Montijo
Montijo
Guarumal
Puerto Mutis
Isla Gobernadora Far Fan
Isla Leones
Cative
Rincón Largo
Lagartero
Chiriquí
Puerto Remedios
Remedios
Puerto Pedregal
Asociaciones, Cooperativas y Organizaciones
comunitarias y pesqueras participantes
Aurelio Ruiz, Presidente
Asociación de Pescadores Artesanales de Hicaco
Reyes Atencio, Presidente
Cooperativa de Pescadores Artesanales de Santa Catalina
Marcial Camaño, Presidente
Asociación de Pescadores Artesanales de Puerto Remedios
Dionisio Alonso, Presidente
Cooperativa de Pescadores Artesanales de Isla Gobernadora
Efraín Vásquez, Presidente
Cooperativa de Pescadores Artesanales de Isla Leones
Red de Pescadores
Hipólito Morales, Presidente
Pescadores artesanales y empresarios
del sector pesquero
Puerto Remedios
Andi Camaño
Marcial Camaño
Isidro Castillo
Eduardo Correa
Jorge Cuadra
Atencio Díaz
Luis Díaz
Rigoberto Díaz
Domingo Fernández
Jacinto Gallardo
José González
Miguel González
Orlando Guerrero
Lorenzo Hernández
Marcos Jordán
Carlos Largacha
Ismael Largacha
Eudario Morales
Francisco Morales
Hipólito Morales
Jorvin Morales
Arcenio Rodríguez
Eutelio Rodríguez
Felilio Rodríguez
Gabriel Rodríguez
Paulo Rodríguez
Alberto Peñalba
Montijo y otros
María Luisa Abrego
Marcos Batista
Julio Camareno
Anselmo Castillo
Julio César
Darío Díaz
Crescencio González
Juan Martínez
Iraldo A. Mojica
Esteban Pineda
Narbuto Pinilla
Basilio Rodríguez
Juan M. Serrano
Paula Serrano
Efraín Vásquez
Eustagio Vásquez
Oscar Vásquez
Carmelo Uzkodem
Berta Vega
Hicaco
Edwin Alcibiades
Galo Alfonso
Alonso Camana
Jorge Chong Guerrero
Bienvenido Flores
Adán Núñez
Gonzalo Alfonso Ortiz
Nelson Pinilla
Abel Ruíz
Virgilio Serrano
Aladino Solís
Feliciano Vega
José Villamil
Conservación Internacional (CI)
Alejandro Alvarez
Salvador Cazar
Arturo Dominici
Steve Edwards
Pippa Heilings
Scott Henderson
Leah Bunce Karrer
Marco Quesada
Manuel Ramírez
Sugey Reyes
Giselle Samonte-Tan
ANCON
Lider Sucre
Alida Spadafora
Ana Ávila
Argelia Castro
Vicente del Cid
Faustino Sánchez
uNESCO
Marjaana Kokkonen
Marc Patry
Arthur Petersen
Autoridad de Turismo de Panamá (ATP)
Anel Carranza
Liz Cruz
Lourdes López
Diniz Ramos
liquid jungle lab
Jorge Morales
x
Magola Martínez
Isis Pinto
Sharon Romero
Magdalena Velázquez
Benjamin Walker
Autoridad Marítima de Panamá
fundación CONAMAR
Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute
Rafael Aguirre
Cornelio Espino
Andy Vega
Dalva Arosemena
Marco Ostrander
Eldredge Bermingham
Ira Rubinoff
Georgina de Alba
Angel Aguirre
Mónica Alvarado
Ginela Álvarez
George Angher
Argimiro Aparicio
Julia Areas
Mercedes Arosemena
Orelis Arosemena
Alejandro Arze
Melissa Balcazar
José Barahona
Ministerio de Gobierno y justicia
Consultores Internacionales para
la Revisión del Plan de Manejo
Tayra Barsallo
Daniel Castilla
Antonio Loaiza
Jim Barborak
Craig MacFarland
Yarelis Melo
Pablo San Martín
universidad de Panamá
Evidelio Adames
Carlos Seixas
TNC
George Hanily
Malena Sarlo
Sander van den Ende
fundación Natura
Zuleika Pinzón
Jorge Tovar
Otros Colaboradores
Alex Brylske
Franco Camarena
Yaron Glazer
Jon Kohl
Reinaldo Lee
Andrea Ortiz
Jamie Redding
Carlos Saldaña
Enrique Samudio
Rogelio Samudio
Remberto Sánchez
Leah Witus
Clubes de Pesca Deportiva
Iván Alvarez
Hernán Arias
René Gómez
Marissa Batista
Ricardo Beteta
Adriana Bilgray
Carlos Bonilla
Roberto Borrell
Fernando Bouche
María Luz Calderón
Jennifer Campuzano
Todd Capson
Aida Xiomara Carrasco
Yara Clemons
Vielka Chang-Yau
Ricardo Chong
Luis D’Croz
Celideth De León Caparroso
Juan B. Del Rosario
Roxana Duran
Isis Estribí
Jaime Flores
Nelly A. Florez
Erika Garibaldo
Nélida Gómez
Lina González
Marco Guerra
Osvaldo Guerra
Stanley Heckadon
Alejandro Hernández
Meylin Hernández
Roberto Ibáñez
Doris Jaén
Gloria Jované
Robert Joyce
Dora Justo
Karl Kaufmann
Elisabeth King
Leopoldo León
Harilaos Lessios
Elena Lombardo
Luis López
Damaris Martínez
Doris Martínez
Gian Montufar
Luis Moreno
Juan Murillo
Mirza Murillo
Edgardo Ochoa
Eduardo Ortega
Fernando Pascal
Steve Patton
Marcela Paz
José R. Perurena
Alvaro Pimentel
Ernesto Pineda
Eric Polo
Amador Quiros
Rodrigo Ramírez
Antonio Reina
Krysta Rios
Francisco Rivera
Ross Robertson
Edmundo Rodríguez L.
David Roiz
Ana Matilde Ruíz
Xenia Saavedra
Eric Salas
Elizabeth Sánchez
José I. Sánchez
Osmila Sánchez-Galan
Herbert Sedelmeier
Alfredo Serrano
Audrey Smith
America Staff
Carlos Tejada
Luis Turner
Carlos Urbina
Raineldo Urriola
Aníbal Velarde
William Wcislo
xi
xii
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El Programa de Manejo de Recursos Naturales y Culturales se ha establecido para direccionar
las actividades de aprovechamiento sostenible de los recursos pesqueros, el manejo de la población
de ganado bovino, la restauración de los recursos edafológicos, el manejo de la flora y fauna silvestre,
en concordancia con la restauración y la permanencia de las especies presentes, la protección de los
recursos histórico-culturales, en procura del mejoramiento de la calidad de vida de las comunidades
del área de influencia del parque nacional.
El Programa de Recreación Dirigida, Ecoturismo, Comunicación y Educación Ambiental se
establece para promocionar el conocimiento de la rica biodiversidad existente, divulgar los diversos
atractivos naturales, arqueológicos e históricos presentes, y los valiosos servicios ambientales
generados en el PN Coiba, a través de la recreación dirigida, el ecoturismo, la educación ambiental,
la pesca deportiva y la pesca artesanal sostenible.
El Programa de Control y Vigilancia está orientado a desarrollar las acciones conducentes a la
protección del estado de los recursos naturales y culturales presentes, la salvaguarda de los bienes
e infraestructuras del PN Coiba, y la seguridad de los técnicos, investigadores y demás usuarios del
área protegida.
Se propone un Plan Financiero como herramienta fundamental para posibilitar la adecuada
ejecución de los cinco años previstos para el Plan de Manejo del PN Coiba, incorporando todas las
actividades propuestas en el plan, sin ninguna restricción presupuestaria. Se estima un Escenario
Óptimo de B/10, 721,561.00, e igualmente, se incluye un Plan Operativo para el Año 1, que contiene
82 actividades a ejecutar por un monto de B/2, 677,121.00.
Estrategias e Instrumentos Estratégicos
Finalmente, se presenta un Análisis de Viabilidad de la propuesta programática contenida en el Plan
de Manejo del PN Coiba y se definen las siguientes Estrategias e Instrumentos Estratégicos a seguir
para efectivizar las acciones conducentes a su implementación:
Protección y Vigilancia
El mantenimiento de la actual cobertura vegetal de los ecosistemas terrestres de las 38 islas que
conforman el PN Coiba, al igual que la existencia de la exuberante biodiversidad del ecosistema
marino, estará condicionada a la implementación de acciones programáticas de control y vigilancia,
incrementadas sustancialmente por parte de un reforzado cuerpo de guardaparques, incluyendo la
disposición de mayor equipamiento y puestos de control. Para tales propósitos, se deberán canalizar
las inversiones básicas para garantizar las referidas acciones de protección y vigilancia, las cuales serán
complementadas mediante la participación coordinada con la Policía Ecológica de permanencia en
Isla Coiba, la presencia del Servicio Aeronaval en las áreas marítimas circunvecinas y el importante
apoyo brindado por la Fundación MarViva para la ejecución de los patrullajes marítimos.
4
Manejo de recursos, Investigación y Monitoreo ambiental
La mayor gestión para el manejo de recursos de los ecosistemas terrestres se hará en la región central
de Isla Coiba, especialmente en las cuencas hidrográficas que drenan hacia Bahía Damas, en donde
permanece la superficie más grande de arrecife de coral del PN Coiba. Se ejecutará un proyecto
para el manejo del ganado asilvestrado, dirigido a la erradicación progresiva y sin traumas de estos
animales exóticos. Paralelamente, se iniciará el estudio para el manejo y conservación de los suelos
en las áreas mayormente degradadas, cuya erosión sedimenta actualmente sobre Bahía Damas.
También se iniciarán las investigaciones relacionadas con los estudios de los suelos y la vegetación
que cubre la zona de los “encharcamientos”, producto del sobrepastoreo.
Las investigaciones previstas para el quinquenio del plan de manejo, financiadas por la SENACYT,
proporcionarán los conocimientos científicos que servirán de base a las acciones de manejo y
protección de los objetos de conservación adoptados para el PN Coiba, cuyo monitoreo biológico
proveerá el conocimiento de la eficacia de las medidas de manejo implementadas y, por ende, de
la efectividad de las inversiones efectuadas. El Plan de Aprovechamiento Pesquero Sostenible del
PN Coiba posibilitará la implementación de la nueva normativa establecida para las actividades de
protección y manejo de los recursos pesqueros del área protegida.
Recreación dirigida, Educación ambiental y Ecoturismo
La puesta en valor del PN Coiba estará dada en la medida en que se ponga a disposición de los
usuarios el conocimiento y disfrute de sus recursos naturales y culturales, a través de los servicios
de la recreación dirigida, el ecoturismo y la educación ambiental. En tal sentido, se efectuarán
inversiones básicas de corto plazo en el sector este del PN Coiba, fundamentalmente para la
habilitación de 31 sitios para el buceo deportivo, el mejoramiento de los servicios en Isla Granito de
Oro, la rehabilitación del Sendero Los Monos, los desarrollos propuestos para Los Pozos Termales
y las adecuaciones e integración de las infraestructuras en la Estación Gambute para el alojamiento
de visitantes, la interpretación ambiental, la recreación dirigida y la investigación. El otorgamiento
de concesiones administrativas por parte de la ANAM a los proveedores calificados de servicios
ecoturísticos y recreativos también se define como uno de los instrumentos estratégicos para el
manejo del PN Coiba.
Fortalecimiento institucional, Gobernanza y Participación ciudadana
Las complejas situaciones encontradas para el manejo de la extraordinaria biodiversidad de los
ecosistemas terrestres y marinos del PN Coiba, presuponen la incorporación de una adecuada
estructura técnico-administrativa que operativice las acciones programáticas y apoye la ejecución
de las responsabilidades conferidas al Consejo Directivo. Para tales propósitos, se deberá realizar
una labor de reingeniería y de dotación de personal calificado, aunado a un amplio programa de
capacitación, al igual que el apoyo técnico que deberá brindarse a las directrices emanadas del
Consejo Directivo del PN Coiba. Para darle consistencia al proceso de participación efectiva de los
actores clave, se aplicarán los correspondientes indicadores de gobernabilidad, a fin de evaluar la
efectividad de la gestión ambiental y orientar a los tomadores de decisiones. La Administración del
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sector agrícola, ya que la porción más grande de la población económicamente activa está ligada a las
actividades agropastoriles (Crête 2006b). Como en otras áreas rurales del país, el nivel del desempleo es
relativamente bajo, comparado al promedio nacional (que en 2000 se fijó en 6.80%); las fincas parecen
ser capaces de absorber una gran fuerza local de trabajo y de proporcionar empleo a la mayoría de los
habitantes del área.
La agricultura y la ganadería son las actividades económicas dominantes, siendo los cultivos más
importantes en la región los de maíz, frijoles, arroz, yuca, otoe y ñame (Crête 2006a,b).
La ganadería, aunque limitada a los propietarios más ricos y grandes de la región, también es una actividad
dominante del área (Crête 2006a,b); la porción más grande del territorio del área del estudio se registró
como tierra para pastoreo en el año 2000 y cerca de 9% del territorio estaba bajo cultivo. En promedio,
sólo alrededor del 13% del territorio mantiene cobertura boscosa.
Los recientes usos de la tierra para recreación y turismo han aumentado significativamente la superficie
de terrenos costeros e insulares para tales propósitos, habiéndose establecido un nuevo mercado de tierras,
incursionado por residentes extranjeros que pueden acceder a los nuevos precios del mercado.
Existen pocos datos disponibles sobre el acceso a la educación y a la calidad de la educación en las
comunidades del área de influencia del PN Coiba. Sin embargo, el nivel relativamente alto de analfabetismo
promedio que caracteriza el área (19.8 %), sirve como un buen indicador de la situación y presupone que
un segmento relativamente alto de la población tiene acceso limitado a la educación.
El área de influencia del PN Coiba se ha caracterizado por ser una región de poco crecimiento poblacional
entre 1990 y 2000. Por esta razón, no debe sorprender que la gran mayoría de la población permanezca
viviendo entre 20 y 40 años en sus comunidades. Sin embargo, hay algunas variaciones que hay que hacer
notar, como es el caso de la comunidad de Pedregal en Chiriquí, donde hubo una significativa inmigración
a partir del 2000, dando lugar al establecimiento de gran parte de la población en barriadas informales.
Este traslado de la población migrante probablemente explique también el aparente desmejoramiento que
se dio en el acceso a los servicios básicos.
Por otra parte, las comunidades de Hicaco y Gobernadora han tenido un aumento en la inmigración en
los últimos cinco años (ACD 2009). Teniendo en cuenta que dichas comunidades pesqueras también
son las comunidades con mayor participación en la venta de tierras para el turismo, es posible que la
inmigración esté relacionada con esta actividad económica.
Bahía Honda, ubicada en las costas del sur de Soná, presenta condiciones de pobreza acentuadas y sin
visos de mejoras sustanciales. La migración hacia los centros más poblados se ha constituido en la opción
preferencial como medio para la superación y solución de problemas fundamentalmente económicos.
Las comunidades del área de influencia del PN Coiba creen en la necesidad de la conservación de los
recursos marino-costeros, especialmente para garantizar la existencia de los mismos a las generaciones
futuras. Sin embargo, requieren de proyectos alternos que les permitan vivir sin tantas restricciones y
evitar la migración de la juventud en busca de mejores oportunidades de ingresos económicos (ACD
2009).
El nivel de analfabetismo del área es más alto que los niveles para el resto de las provincias de Veraguas
y Chiriquí, que son de 15.2% y 7.64%, respectivamente, siendo también mucho más alto que el nivel
nacional, que en 2000 fue de 7.59%. Esta situación refleja también el alto porcentaje de la población
que no ha alcanzado más de tres años de educación elemental. Mientras que solamente el 10.4% de la
población nacional de 10 años de edad y más, no ha logrado más de tres años de educación elemental, el
24.5% de la población del área de influencia del PN Coiba no ha superado dicho nivel.
El acceso a la asistencia médica también está sumamente limitado en el área de estudio. No hay un solo
hospital en toda el área de influencia del PN Coiba; solamente dos Centros de Salud están equipados
adecuadamente para mantener pacientes de noche. Aunque la mayoría de los corregimientos del área
tienen Puestos de Salud, los estudios recientes han demostrado que en la mayoría de los casos estos
puestos de salud a menudo están mal equipados, y carecen del personal y las medicinas adecuadas para
tratar aún las enfermedades más básicas (Linton y Capson 2003).
Aunque en los últimos años el área ha estado recibiendo la atención de algunas ONG locales e
internacionales, el apoyo por gran parte de las instituciones gubernamentales ha sido muy limitado.
Debido a la falta de recursos asignados y el acceso difícil al área, las agencias del gobierno que operan
en el área de influencia del PN Coiba, generalmente sólo proporcionan una presencia esporádica (Crête
2006a).
Alcornocal (Mora oleifera) en Playa Hermosa, Isla Coiba.
Foto: Alicia Ibáñez.
48
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]b
OTROS INSTRuMENTOS lEGAlES
RElEVANTES PARA El PN COIBA
La Ley No. 13 de 5 de mayo de 2005 [G.O. No. 25,293 de 6 de mayo de 2005] que establece el Corredor
Marino de Panamá en todas las aguas territoriales de Panamá (mar territorial, zona contigua, zona
económica exclusiva), con el fin de proteger y conservar las poblaciones de mamíferos marinos que
merecen protección especial. La precitada legislación promueve la investigación, el avistamiento,
la recreación y la educación relacionados con los mamíferos marinos. La normativa en referencia
establece que dentro de las aguas de jurisdicción nacional, se prohíbe la captura y la caza de los
mamíferos marinos (Artículo 14). La ARAP es la encargada de ejecutar y dar seguimiento al Plan
de Acción que debe ser aprobado por el Comité Directivo del Corredor Marino. Este Comité está
integrado por varias entidades con voz y voto, entre ellas la ARAP que la preside y la ANAM.
La Resolución No. 1 de 29 de enero de 2007 (G.O. No. 25731 de 13 de febrero de 2007), norma el
avistamiento de cetáceos en aguas panameñas.
La Ley No. 41 de 1 de julio de 1998, Ley General de Ambiente, en su Artículo 66 crea el SINAP, el
cual es regulado por la ANAM y establece que podrán adjudicarse concesiones de administración y
concesiones de servicios a los municipios, gobiernos provinciales, patronatos, fundaciones y empresas
privadas.
La Ley No. 1 de 3 de febrero de 1994 [G.O. No. 22,470 de 7 de febrero de 1994 (Ley Forestal)]
estipula que cuando un bosque o terreno forestal correspondiente al Patrimonio Forestal del Estado
sea declarado apto para integrar el Sistema de Parques Nacionales u otras Áreas Silvestres Protegidas
(en este caso el SINAP), éste quedará regulado por el respectivo instrumento legal (Artículo 6).
El Artículo 69 de la precitada ley señala que la ANAM establecerá mediante reglamento las tarifas
que cobrarán por el uso de los servicios de las áreas protegidas. En este sentido, la Resolución AG0189-2008 de 11 de marzo de 2008 (G.O. No. 26.006 de 27 de marzo de 2008), establece las tarifas
de admisión, alojamiento, acampada, anclaje y grabaciones de video, material cinematográfico, audio
y fotografía en el PN Coiba.
La Ley No. 14 de 2007, modificada por la Ley 26 de 2008 [G.O. No. 26,057 de 9 de junio de 2008]
(Código Penal de La República de Panamá, Titulo III, Delitos contra el Ambiente y el Ordenamiento
Ambiental) establece en su Artículo 395 que quien destruya, extraiga, contamine o degrade los
recursos naturales será sancionado con prisión de tres a seis años. La pena prevista en este artículo
se aumentará de una tercera parte a la mitad, si la acción recae en áreas protegidas o se destruyen
total o parcialmente ecosistemas costero-marinos o humedales; cuando se dañe un área declarada de
especial valor biológico, histórico, arqueológico o científico.
El alcance de las competencias de la ANAM dentro del PN Coiba es amplio. De igual manera, la
Ley No. 44 de 2004 establece las competencias y deberes específicos de otras instituciones, tales
como la AMP, la ATP (antes IPAT), el Ministerio de Gobierno y Justicia (Policía Nacional y Servicio
Nacional Aeronaval), la SENACYT y los municipios del litoral de la provincia de Veraguas, excepto
el Municipio de Santiago. Todas estas instituciones son miembros del Consejo Directivo del PN
Coiba y tienen responsabilidades dentro del parque y la Zona Especial de Protección Marina.
El Artículo 94 de la Ley 41 de 1 de julio de 1998 (modificado por el Artículo 67 de la Ley 44 de 23
de noviembre de 2006) establece que la ARAP emitirá las disposiciones bajo las cuales estará sujeto
el aprovechamiento, manejo y conservación de los recursos marino costeros, con excepción de las
áreas protegidas con recursos marino-costeros bajo la jurisdicción de la ANAM, para los cuales, la
ANAM emitirá y aplicará las disposiciones relativas a su aprovechamiento, manejo y conservación.
El Administrador de la ANAM podrá aplicar sanciones de hasta un millón de balboas y el Consejo
Nacional del Ambiente impondrá multas de valor mayor de un millón a diez millones de balboas
(Artículo 114).
La Ley No. 24 de 7 de junio de 1995 (Ley de Vida Silvestre) [G.O. 22.801 de 9 de junio de 1995]
prohíbe “la captura, recolección, transporte y comercio de las especies silvestres, productos y
subproductos, partes y derivados” sin el permiso de la ANAM (antes INRENARE).
La Ley No. 39 de 24 de noviembre de 2005 [G.O. No. 25,433 del 25 de noviembre de 2005) en su
Artículo 4 modifica el Artículo 48 de la Ley No. 24 de 1995 y prohíbe la caza en las áreas protegidas.
Así mismo, la Ley No. 39 en su Artículo 11 modifica el Artículo 59-A de la Ley No. 24, prohibiendo
el uso de arpones con equipos autónomos o no autónomos bajo el agua.
54
Por su parte, el Artículo 405 establece que quien pesque, cace, mate, capture destruya o extraiga
recurso o especie de la vida silvestre, acuática o terrestre protegida o en peligro de extinción, sin
contar con los permisos correspondientes para tales efectos, o quien teniendo los referidos permisos
incumpla las especificaciones incluidas en estos, será sancionado con prisión de dos a cuatro años.
La sanción se aumentará de una tercera parte a la mitad si se realiza en un área protegida y/o si se
efectúa durante el periodo de veda o temporada establecida.
El Decreto Ejecutivo No. 209 de 5 de septiembre de 2006 (Gaceta Oficial 25,625 de 6 de septiembre
de 2006) crea un nuevo régimen para los Estudios de Impacto Ambiental (EsIA) y en su Artículo 16
incluye una lista taxativa de proyectos y actividades que deberían someterse al Proceso de Evaluación
de Impacto Ambiental.
Este proceso de evaluación de los EsIA será una herramienta importante para asegurar que los
proyectos de desarrollo en la zona de influencia del PN Coiba no tengan impactos significativos
sobre los recursos naturales del parque, tales como proyectos agrícolas, acuícolas, industriales y
energéticos; del sector de la construcción y del turismo que incluyen: marinas y muelles, puertos,
usos del fondo de mar y/o rellenos a partir de media hectárea, emisarios para la descarga marina de
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]7
Por otro lado, se reclama una mayor representación de los pescadores artesanales en el Consejo
Directivo, atendiendo a la representatividad geográfica de los mismos. También se requiere el
funcionamiento de la Comisión de Pesca y el Comité Científico, para poder cumplir con sus principales
responsabilidades en la elaboración del Plan de Aprovechamiento Pesquero en la Zona Especial de
Protección Marina y el Plan Quinquenal de Investigaciones, como instrumentos normativos que
deben acompañar y formar parte del Plan de Manejo del PN Coiba.
Otra de las limitantes que está incidiendo en el despegue de las responsabilidades gerenciales del
Consejo Directivo del PN Coiba es la falta de un mecanismo financiero para la agilización del
Fondo Coiba. La actual estructura legal posibilita las inversiones directas para mejorar la gestión
administrativa, el funcionamiento del Consejo Directivo y las comisiones y comités creadas por la
Ley No. 44 de 2004.
Igualmente, posibilita la realización de investigaciones prioritarias y el financiamiento de pequeños
proyectos por parte de los municipios involucrados. Dicha iniciativa representa un incentivo para
apoyar la participación activa de los Alcaldes en el Consejo Directivo, pudiéndose constatar los
beneficios directos del PN Coiba entre las comunidades de su respectiva jurisdicción.
Uno de los temas institucionales a resolver es la presencia del Ministerio de Gobierno y Justicia
en el PN Coiba, en atención al mandato que le confiere la Ley 44 de 2004 en su Artículo 29 y a
la declaración de Isla Coiba como sitio estratégico de máxima seguridad nacional, atendiendo a su
ubicación en los límites oceánicos de Panamá. Al respecto, se ha mostrado interés en establecer
centros de apoyo o bases de operación para el Servicio Nacional Aeronaval (SENAN), la Policía
Nacional y la Autoridad Nacional de Migración.
El plan de manejo adopta los Indicadores de gobernanza que ayudan a evaluar el impacto del plan de
manejo, los avances de la situación de “línea base” y la efectividad del manejo del área protegida.
Asimismo, sería importante hacer un seguimiento detallado del funcionamiento del Consejo Directivo
y las otras comisiones asociadas para evaluar su efectividad, credibilidad dentro de las comunidades
de usuarios directos e indirectos y la gestión de su contabilidad (Suman 2006).
La gobernanza del PN Coiba es un proceso continuo en plena evolución que implica la coordinación
institucional, la inclusión de actores sociales y la coordinación eficaz de los nuevos órganos que
creó la Ley No. 44 de 2004. Estos aspectos son innovadores en el manejo de las áreas protegidas en
Panamá y ejemplos de relevancia para las áreas protegidas del mundo entero. El desafío para todos
los actores que participan en el proceso de la gobernanza del PN Coiba es asegurar que sus esfuerzos
dedicados sean lo más eficaces posibles y que impulsen el buen manejo de los recursos naturales
y culturales del PN Coiba que son patrimonio natural de todos los panameños y del mundo entero
(Suman 2006).
Taller sobre Imágen Corporativa de la Red de
Pescadores Artesanales del área de influencia,
Parque Nacional Coiba, Santa Catalina.
Foto: Darío Tovar.
60
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De acuerdo a Mantell (2006), existen 10 Operadores de Buceo en Panamá que utilizan el PN Coiba:
1) uno de David, Chiriquí; 2) seis de la ciudad de Panamá; 3) dos de Santa Catalina, Veraguas y 3)
el último que opera desde un bote especializado para operaciones de buceo (Vive Abordo). Dichos
Operadores generan unos 30 puestos de trabajo y tienen una capacidad máxima para la atención de
114 clientes, procedentes de: EEUU (60%), Europa (25%), Israel, Suramérica y Escandinava (11%).
El mercado local panameño refleja un 4%. La temporada alta de buceo varía entre operarios de enero
a agosto o de diciembre a marzo. La temporada baja va de septiembre hasta diciembre. El perfil
del visitante que practica el buceo submarino en el PN Coiba es el de una persona de entre 25 a 30
años de edad. Los operadores igualmente ofrecen actividades de senderismo, avistamientos de aves
y ballenas.
Cruceros turísticos
Hay cuatro cruceros que visitan regularmente el PN Coiba en los meses de la estación seca (eneroabril), realizando dos viajes por mes y transportando entre 60-90 turistas por embarcación por cada
viaje. La permanencia de los cruceros en el PN Coiba generalmente es de medio día a un día, no
desembarcando por más de ocho horas.
Turismo de veleros y botes
El PN Coiba cuenta con excelentes sitios relativamente calmos para el anclaje y es sitio obligado
de parada para embarcaciones que se desplazan desde y hasta el Golfo de Chiriquí. Algunos sitios
preferidos para anclaje en el parque incluyen las bahías de las islas Brincanco y Uva, Bahía Damas
en Isla Coiba, Ensenada de Santa Cruz, Bahía Gambute, y las islas Granito de Oro, Jicarón, Jicarita
y Canal de Afuera.
Operadores turísticos de pesca deportiva
Hay una pesca deportiva importante promovida por operadores turísticos que operan en el PN Coiba.
En el 2006 ingresaron 36 embarcaciones que realizaron 177 visitas; para el 2008 ingresaron al
parque de manera regular 62 embarcaciones de pesca deportiva que realizaron 231 visitas. En estos
momentos no hay torneos de pesca deportiva realizándose en el PN Coiba.
INVESTIGACIÓN CIENTífICA
La investigación científica en el PN Coiba, particularmente en el campo marino, ha sido un
componente importante que se ha desarrollado desde principios de la década de 1970, pero no ha
sido hasta años recientes que se ha utilizado para el manejo del parque. En algunos arrecifes de coral
se han realizado experimentos manipulativos por más de 35 años, que a la fecha, no han causado
efectos negativos significativos. Al respecto, el buceo científico es un componente importante de las
actividades científicas que se realizan en el medio marino.
68
Igualmente, los estudios sobre la flora terrestre han contribuido a la ampliación del conocimiento
sobre los ecosistemas terrestres del PN Coiba, pero sin mayores repercusiones en su manejo. Sin
embargo, el presente plan de manejo ha incorporado dicha información a las decisiones de manejo
y propone realizar monitoreos, particularmente en lo referente a los arrecifes de coral, pesquerías y
la vegetación de los humedales.
EDuCACIÓN AMBIENTAl
En el parque se desarrollan actividades de educación ambiental a través de ONG, Universidades y
Centros de Investigación, pero sin un programa formal y coordinado por parte de la Administración
del PN Coiba. También se realizan regularmente talleres de capacitación y entrenamiento para
guardaparques, maestros, pescadores, funcionarios del parque, y estudiantes universitarios con nivel
de licenciatura y postgrado. La reciente adecuación del Centro de Visitantes en Gambute permite
llenar un vacío importante de la escasa promoción del conocimiento.
INTRODuCCIÓN DE ESPECIES EXÓTICAS
Vegetación
El pino, Pinus caribaea; la casuarina, Casuarina equisetifolia y la teca, Tectona grandis son las
principales especies forestales exóticas que se introdujeron en pequeños rodales en el PN Coiba.
Mamíferos
Se reconocen siete especies de mamíferos introducidos: cerdo feral, Sus scrofa; rata negra o doméstica,
Rattus sp.; perro doméstico, Canis familiaris; ganado, Bos tauro; búfalo, Bubalus bubalis; caballo,
Equus caballus; y el gato, Felis catus.
En el año 2000 se estableció una Comisión Interinstitucional, a fin de elaborar y darle seguimiento
al Plan de Acción, Transición y Saneamiento de la salida de la colonia penal, ubicada en Isla Coiba.
La Comisión estaba conformada por la ANAM, el Ministerio de Desarrollo Agropecuario (MIDA),
el Ministerio de Salud (MINSA), el Ministerio de Gobierno y Justicia (MINGO) y la Comisión
Panamá-Estados Unidos para la Erradicación del Gusano Barrenador (COPEG). Esta iniciativa
incluyó los siguientes grupos:
Ganado bovino
Con el cierre de la colonia penal de Coiba en el 2004, se abandonó el manejo del ganado bovino,
el cual escapó de los corrales por la falta de personal e inversiones en el área. La población de
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Las mayores potencialidades y oportunidades encontradas para la protección y manejo de la biodiversidad existente en el PN Coiba son las siguientes:
La condición de Coiba de isla “puente de tierra (land-bridge Island)”, que alguna vez estuvo
unida a tierra firme, durante la última glaciación en el Pleistoceno (c.15.000-10.000 años),
implica un reajuste de su flora y de su fauna, de sumo interés desde el punto de vista de la
biogeografía de islas, y por lo tanto, un excepcional laboratorio natural donde estudiar dichos
fenómenos naturales.
La presencia de singulares especies endémicas de la flora silvestre, tales como Desmotes
incomparabilis, Fleischmannia coibensis y Psychotria fosteri, y el albergue de muchas
especies de la fauna silvestre, entre las cuales son endémicas el ñeque de Coiba, Dasyprocta
coibae; la colaespina de Coiba, Cranioleuca dissita; el mono aullador de Coiba, Alouatta
palliata coibensis; la zarigüella Didelphis marsupials battyi; y una subespecie de venado
colablanca, Odocoileus virginianus rothchildi.
En el PN Coiba se encuentra la única población significativa de la guacamaya roja, Ara
macao, ave amenazada a nivel nacional.
Las playas de Isla Coiba sirven de anidamiento a las mundialmente amenazadas tortugas
marinas carey, Eretmochelys imbricata; canal, Dermochelys coriacea; caguama, Caretta
caretta y la tortuga mulato, Lepidochelys olivacea.
Los arrecifes de coral y comunidades del PN Coiba están considerados entre los más extensos
del Pacífico Oriental, con más de 1,700 ha de arrecifes de coral que contienen una alta
diversidad biológica y un endemismo de interés a nivel mundial.
Existe una alta calidad escénica del paisaje y numerosos atractivos para el desarrollo de un
turismo sostenible en los ecosistemas marinos y terrestres del PN Coiba.
El PN Coiba es una de las pocas áreas protegidas del país con relevantes trabajos de
investigación para el estudio y manejo de los ecosistemas marinos y terrestres presentes.
El PN Coiba cuenta con un Consejo Directivo conformado por una balanceada participación
de representantes de instituciones públicas, de la sociedad civil y de los gobiernos locales,
que fortalece la gestión compartida, para el manejo del área protegida, lo cual presupone una
exitosa gobernanza.
El liderazgo de la ANAM a través del Consejo Directivo del parque y la responsabilidad que
le compete por ley para el manejo operativo del PN Coiba; brinda la oportunidad para apoyar
el fortalecimiento de la institucionalidad administrativa del parque.
La actual presencia y participación del Grupo de Coalición de Coiba, en función de apoyo a
la gestión de planificación y administración del PN Coiba, conformado por ONG locales y
organismos internacionales especializados, facilitará la canalización de recursos técnicos y
financieros para apoyar la implementación del Plan de Manejo del PN Coiba.
La declaración del PN Coiba como Sitio de Patrimonio Natural de la Humanidad y área clave
en la conformación del Corredor Marino de Conservación del Pacífico Oriental Tropical,
permitirá la obtención del apoyo de la comunidad internacional para procurar una exitosa
gestión de manejo y protección de los recursos del PN Coiba.
La pesca artesanal responsable en las aguas del PN Coiba permite la captación de divisas y la
generación de ingresos a unos 400 pescadores artesanales (vinculados a las 47 embarcaciones
registradas) de una región costera clave para el desarrollo del país.
Isla Canal de Afuera en el límite noreste del PN Coiba, próxima a Bahía Honda.
Foto: Alicia Ibáñez.
72
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VISIÓN 2025
Un Parque Nacional, Sitio de Patrimonio Mundial, que conserva y protege su biodiversidad y
equilibrio ecológico; integrado al desarrollo sostenible de las comunidades aledañas y del país; que
promueve el conocimiento a nivel nacional e internacional y que provee servicios compatibles con
su vocación ambiental.
Posteriormente, el Consejo Directivo del PN Coiba, en su sesión del 13 de julio de 2006 procedió
a la adopción de las políticas de conservación y uso sostenible del PN Coiba, las cuales rigen los
destinos del área protegida y sirven de fundamento al presente plan de manejo.
POlíTICAS DE CONSERVACIÓN
Establecer mecanismos efectivos de cooperación para la conservación y uso sostenible del PN
Coiba.
El manejo del PN Coiba debe ser integrado al proceso de búsqueda del bienestar social,
económico y ambiental, elementos indispensables para el desarrollo sostenible.
Los recursos ambientales (tales como: biológicos, culturales, arqueológicos) del PN Coiba,
constituyen un patrimonio de la nación y de la humanidad; por lo tanto, su utilización,
aprovechamiento y manejo se hará dentro de los principios de sostenibilidad.
El mantenimiento y protección de la diversidad y representatividad de los ecosistemas, las
especies y sus variedades genéticas del PN Coiba es asunto de interés público.
La biodiversidad debe ser conservada con miras a mantener el equilibrio de los procesos
ecológicos y el mantenimiento de la variedad de toda forma de vida del PN Coiba.
La participación de la población, principalmente de los grupos locales vecinos del PN
Coiba, deberá hacerse efectiva desde el momento mismo de la planificación, delimitación y
administración de las áreas, siendo este un elemento clave para su efectiva conservación.
Las acciones para la conservación y el uso sostenible de los recursos ambientales del PN
Coiba será una labor conjunta entre el Estado, las comunidades locales y la sociedad civil en
general.
POlíTICAS DE uSO SOSTENIBlE
Establecer mecanismos efectivos de cooperación para la conservación y uso sostenible del
PN Coiba.
Definir las acciones gubernamentales y no gubernamentales que garanticen la eficiente
y efectiva coordinación intersectorial, para la protección, conservación, mejoramiento y
restauración de la calidad ambiental del PN Coiba.
Estimular, promover y adoptar comportamientos ambientalmente sostenibles, tales como, el
76
uso de tecnologías limpias que permitan mantener y/o mejorar la salud de los ecosistemas
naturales, así como el manejo integral de los recursos naturales del PN Coiba.
Identificar las lagunas o vacíos de conocimientos existentes en el PN Coiba, para elaborar
y/o fortalecer un programa de investigación, que incluya como mínimo aspectos tales como
la identificación y descripción de los distintos tipos de organismos, sus hábitat, nichos y
ecosistemas, así como también los sitios patrimoniales (históricos, arqueológicos, otros) y
determinar las prioridades específicas de conservación.
Desarrollar una estrategia para incrementar los beneficios económicos del ecoturismo, la
investigación científica y la educación, utilizando como soporte el potencial que constituye el
PN Coiba y la Zona de Desarrollo Turístico de Interés Nacional No. 10 - Veraguas.
Establecer mecanismos efectivos de divulgación, difusión y ampliación de los conocimientos
sobre la riqueza patrimonial del PN Coiba dirigidos a la comunidad en general, con énfasis en
el acceso a la información a nivel local.
Desarrollar una estrategia para incrementar la participación de las comunidades vinculadas al
PN Coiba, en la distribución de los beneficios derivados de su protección y uso sostenible.
Implementar programas para estimular a los gobiernos locales para que desempeñen un papel
importante en la conservación del PN Coiba.
Promover planes de educación y capacitación para incrementar sistemas de producción
sostenible en los sectores vinculados al PN Coiba, con la finalidad de prevenir la
contaminación y degradación de los ecosistemas terrestres y acuáticos del parque y su zona de
amortiguamiento.
Rehabilitar y restaurar los ecosistemas degradados del PN Coiba, así como los sitios
patrimoniales (históricos, arqueológicos, otros).
Promover el desarrollo de visitas de índole educativa y de sensibilización ambiental para los
pobladores vecinos al parque y para la población panameña en general.
Generar las condiciones, incluyendo los mecanismos financieros, y disposición de los recursos
necesarios para una adecuada gestión del PN Coiba.
OBjETIVOS GENERAlES DEl PlAN DE MANEjO
Siguiendo las directrices emanadas del marco de la Ley 44 de 2004, así como la Misión y la Visión
2025, las Políticas de Uso Sostenible y de Conservación establecen los siguientes objetivos generales
para el Plan de Manejo del PN Coiba:
Conservar los ecosistemas terrestres y marinos, la diversidad biológica y los recursos culturales
del PN Coiba
Proteger las especies sobresalientes de la flora y fauna silvestre, así como aquellas especies
amenazadas o en peligro de extinción.
Proteger y conservar los sistemas acuíferos, humedales y cuencas hidrográficas que forman
parte del parque.
Proporcionar oportunidades de educación ambiental para los visitantes, las comunidades y los
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plásticas, etiquetas metálicas, contenedores para artefactos delicados, cajas, botiquín)
equipo para restauración y consolidación de artefactos. Mapas, fotos aéreas, imágenes satelitales.
Normativas
Se prohíbe la recolección de objetos arqueológicos e históricos en cualquier sitio del PN Coiba,
salvo el efectuado por el personal técnico especializado, supervisado por la Administración del
PN Coiba, previa autorización y permiso de recolección otorgado por la Dirección Nacional del
Patrimonio Histórico del INAC (Artículo 4 de la Ley 58 del 7 de agosto de 2003 que regula la
Ley 14 de 1982).
Los objetos arqueológicos e históricos que se encuentren en el lecho del mar, podrán ser objeto
de la interpretación arqueológica y ambiental, a través de la conducción de guías y/o buzos
especializados.
Los proyectos de rescate subacuático tendrán que contar con un plan que estipule los
requerimientos del proceso de Evaluación de Impacto Ambiental y su correspondiente estudio,
que señale con clara especificidad que no habrá impactos negativos de ninguna índole a los
arrecifes coralinos y al ambiente acuático en que se encuentren las piezas arqueológicas, las
cuales deben pasar a formar parte del patrimonio cultural de la Nación. Dicho plan debe indicar
y asegurar la fuente de financiamiento para la restauración, manejo y presentación al público del
material arqueológico rescatado en el Centro de Visitantes del PN Coiba (Artículo 5 de la Ley
58 del 7 de agosto de 2003 que regula la Ley 14 de 1982).
Para el otorgamiento de permisos de construcción para cualquier tipo de infraestructuras en
el medio terrestre o marino del PN Coiba, se deberá realizar previamente una Evaluación de
Impacto Ambiental sobre los recursos arqueológicos, con la presentación y aprobación del estudio
correspondiente, aprobado por el INAC y la ANAM, según lo establecido por la Resolución 363
del 8 de Julio de 2005 de la ANAM y normas vigentes en esta materia.
En el caso fortuito de que algún yacimiento arqueológico se vea afectado por la realización de
alguna obra y/o actividad permisible en el PN Coiba, se procederá a evadir el impacto. Para el caso
de que sea imposible tomar dicha acción, se deberá realizar el respectivo rescate arqueológico
en forma obligante, según lo establecido por el Artículo 24 de la Ley 14 de 1982, a través de la
cual la Dirección Nacional del Patrimonio Histórico del INAC solicitará a las autoridades del
PN Coiba-ANAM la suspensión de las obras que ocasionaron el descubrimiento, y tomará las
medidas inmediatas para emprender las actividades de rescate.
Las actividades, obras, proyectos usos o aprovechamientos que estén generando impactos
ambientales positivos o negativos al patrimonio histórico de la Nación, deben registrar su custodia
ante la Dirección Nacional de Patrimonio Histórico del INAC, de modo que las autoridades
competentes procedan a realizar las inspecciones correspondientes para estimar el estado de la
afectación.
El material colectado durante las investigaciones arqueológicas debe ser procesado y analizado
106
por personal idóneo debidamente certificado por las autoridades del INAC, el cual será puesto
en custodia en instalaciones adecuadas del PN Coiba, del INAC o alguna institución de
investigación local responsable y autorizada, que cuente con el equipo, personal e instalaciones
adecuadas para tales propósitos. Una vez finalizado el proyecto, se debe enviar un registro del
material colectado al INAC y el PN Coiba, poniéndose a disposición de las autoridades del INAC
el material investigado, las cuales decidirán el destino final de los artefactos investigados.
Sanciones
Las presentes normativas están basadas en lo dispuesto en la Ley 14 de 1982 y la Ley 58 del 7 de
agosto de 2003, por lo que quienes las infrinjan serán sujetos a las sanciones y multas que impongan
las mismas y otras normativas vigentes en esta materia.
Alianzas estratégicas
Para el apoyo y orientación del Subprograma de Protección y Manejo de los Recursos arqueológicos,
paleoecológicos e históricos, la ANAM deberá establecer alianzas estratégicas con las siguientes
instituciones;
Dirección Nacional de Patrimonio Histórico del INAC
Siendo el INAC el ente responsable de la administración de los recursos arqueológicos e históricos
del país, se deberá mantener estrecha coordinación y canalizar el apoyo para la aplicación de las
normativas y la orientación a los correspondientes estudios y exhibiciones sobre el patrimonio
histórico y arqueológico del PN Coiba (Ley 14 de 1982).
La Resolución 363 del 8 de Julio de 2005 de la ANAM ordena que todas las obras, actividades
o proyectos que pudieran generar un impacto ambiental positivo o negativo a cualquier elemento
componente del patrimonio histórico de la Nación, de acuerdo a los criterios establecidos por la
Dirección Nacional del Patrimonio Histórico, deberán registrar el hallazgo ante aquella entidad. Por
lo tanto, resulta evidente la concreción efectiva de una alianza estratégica con el INAC, para propiciar
el manejo efectivo de los recursos arqueológicos que contiene el PN Coiba.
STRI
Siendo el STRI una institución de investigación con amplia experiencia en esta área temática, se
deberá establecer un convenio para formalizar su participación en la realización de los estudios, y
la canalización de cooperación técnica y financiera para la protección y manejo de dichos recursos
culturales.
UNESCO
Dada la designación otorgada por la UNESCO al PN Coiba como Sitio de Patrimonio Natural,
será sumamente relevante efectuar la correspondiente alianza estratégica con la entidad de las
Naciones Unidas vinculada con la promoción de la educación y la cultura, a fin de obtener el respaldo
institucional y la canalización de la cooperación técnica para apoyar las acciones encaminadas a la
protección del patrimonio cultural del parque.
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Subprograma de Aprovechamiento Sostenible de los Recursos Pesqueros
Las orientaciones, actividades y normativas contenidas en el presente Subprograma de Aprovechamiento
Sostenible de los Recursos Pesqueros, son contempladas en mayor detalle técnico y administrativo en
el Plan y Normativa de Aprovechamiento Pesquero Sostenible del PN Coiba, el cual se adjunta como
parte de los requisitos señalados para formar parte del plan de manejo, según lo establece la Ley que
crea el PN Coiba. Las actividades de este subprograma se detallan en el Cuadro 11.8.
Localización
Las actividades de pesca artesanal y pesca deportiva se efectuarán en la Zona de Manejo de Recursos
establecida para el aprovechamiento sostenible de los recursos pesqueros, localizada entre la Zona de
Reserva Marina y el límite marino del PN Coiba (Mapa 14).
Objetivo
Incorporar a las comunidades del área de influencia del PN Coiba en la implementación del plan de
ordenamiento y aprovechamiento sostenible de los recursos pesqueros del área protegida.
Normativas
Tipo de pesquería permitida
Se permite la pesca de subsistencia, pesca artesanal y pesca deportiva en sus dos modalidades,
turística recreativa y turística comercial, según se detalla en el Plan de Aprovechamiento
Pesquero Sostenible del PN Coiba.
Especies de peces permitidas para la pesca
pargos: seda (Lutjanus peru), mancha (L. guttatus), rojo o zambo (L. colorado), amarillo (L.
argentiventris) y dientón o negro (L. novemfasciatus);
chernas: mantequilla, gris y roja (Epinephelus cifuentesis, E. niphobles y Cephalopholis
acanthistius, respectivamente);
dorado (Coryphaena hyppurus).
Se permite retener las capturas incidentales de guajú, sierras y atunes (familia Scombridae),
roncadores (familia Haemullidae), jureles (familia Carangidae), congrio (familia
Ophidiidae).
Vedas
Se establece dentro del PN Coiba una veda para el pargo del 1 de enero al 30 de abril de cada
año.
Se prohíbe la pesca de dorado durante los periodos comprendidos entre el 1 de marzo al 31
de mayo y del 1 de septiembre al 31 de octubre de cada año.
110
Artes de pesca permitidos
Arte para pesca de pargos
- Se permite la pesca de pargos (Lutjanus spp.), sólo con línea de mano con un
máximo de 15 anzuelos circulares de tamaño número 10, como mínimo.
- Sólo se permite una línea por pescador y esta debe ser manejada en forma manual
o con ayuda de una “polea” manual.
Arte para pesca de cherna
- Se permite la pesca de chernas mediante una línea vertical con un máximo de 15
anzuelos circulares número 13, como mínimo.
- Sólo se permite una línea por pescador y esta debe ser manejada en forma manual
o con ayuda de una “polea” manual.
Arte para pesca de dorado
- La pesca de dorado se permite mediante una línea artesanal horizontal
conformada con un máximo de 500 anzuelos circulares, de un tamaño mínimo
número 13.
- Sólo se permite una línea por bote y deberá estar anclada al fondo.
Sitios de pesca y no pesca
Sólo se permite la pesca en la Zona de Manejo de Recursos.
Se prohíbe la pesca en la Zona de Reserva Marina.
Licencia de pesca
Toda embarcación de pesca artesanal, pesca deportiva turística (recreativa y comercial) y pesca
científica que ingrese al PN Coiba debe contar con una licencia de pesca expedida por la ANAM.
Las embarcaciones de pesca de subsistencia están exentas de este requerimiento.
Registro Individual de Pescador para el PN Coiba
Toda persona que desee pescar en el PN Coiba deberá completar un formulario de registro individual
de pescador. El registro individual de pescador tiene vigencia de un año calendario (de enero a
diciembre).
Permiso de pesca
La licencia de pesca (artesanal, pesca deportiva turística (recreativa y comercial) del PN Coiba
permite obtener hasta dos “PERMISOS DE PESCA”, por embarcación, por mes, de no más de 10
días por viaje en el parque.
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``7
Infraestructuras
Se requiere la reconstrucción de la casa para guardaparques y del sistema de pozos para Playa Blanca
y el Puesto de Control de El María; la construcción y equipamiento de los Puestos de Control de
Playa Hermosa, Isla Uva e Isla Jicarón; la construcción de los Refugios de Barco Quebrado, Río
Amarillo e Isla Canal de Afuera; y la habilitación de una edificación para el Puesto de Control en El
Campamento Central.
Equipo y Materiales
Mantenimiento
Se brindará mantenimiento a los senderos de control e interpretación, las boyas, artefactos
de señalización, equipos, transporte terrestre y marino, refugios, puestos de control y casa para
guardaparques.
Alianzas Estratégicas
Para posibilitar las múltiples funciones contempladas en el Programa de Control y Vigilancia se
requiere establecer y/o mantener las correspondientes alianzas estratégicas con entidades clave, tales
como la Policía Nacional, el Servicio Nacional Aeronaval y la Fundación MarViva.
Instalación de boyas de amarre para sitios de buceo
deportivo. Cordillera de Contreras.
Foto: Ben Harris.
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`5_
El visitante actual al PN Coiba concentra mayormente su ámbito de acción en el medio
marino, a través de la pesca deportiva y el buceo deportivo, desconociéndose las múltiples
oportunidades de educación ambiental, recreación dirigida y ecoturismo que ofrecen los
ecosistemas terrestres, cuya tendencia se mantendrá en caso de no ofrecerse otras actividades
programáticas con las facilidades y servicios correspondientes.
La limitación de recursos financieros para procurar una mayor y mejor dotación de personal
técnico, construir facilidades e infraestructuras y proveer equipamiento, pone en riesgo la
efectividad de las acciones operativas para posibilitar el ofrecimiento de servicios, garantizar
la conservación y manejo de los recursos naturales y culturales, la investigación y monitoreo
ambiental. Esto presupone la inmediata reglamentación del Fondo Coiba establecido por ley
y las acciones estratégicas con la cooperación internacional para procurar el financiamiento
de los programas de manejo propuestos para el PN Coiba.
La actual estructura institucional del Consejo Directivo del PN Coiba se encuentra en un claro
proceso de consolidación y deberá jugar un papel protagónico en las próximas gestiones de
implementación del Plan de Manejo del PN Coiba, dada la base legal que sustenta el nuevo
modelo de administración y la adecuada representatividad que mantiene de los principales
actores clave involucrados.
La reciente modificación del instrumento jurídico que establece el área protegida, para
posibilitar el desarrollo de actividades pesqueras industriales en el área marina contigua al
PN Coiba, puso en evidencia la vulnerabilidad jurídica a la que puede estar sujeta el área
protegida. A pesar de los fuertes intereses económicos evidenciados en esta acción, la situación
planteada esta en un proceso de revisión, gracias a la participación inmediata y efectiva de la
sociedad civil y de los estamentos institucionales responsables, procurándose la intervención
del órgano ejecutivo para revertir dicha acción legal e incorporar el Artículo 11 que había sido
derogado, a la Ley 44 de 2004 vigente.
Recursos relevantes para la ejecución de las actividades previstas
Políticos
Atendiendo a la denominación del PN Coiba como Sitio de Patrimonio Natural de la Humanidad,
deberá existir un alto nivel de participación de los directivos de los estamentos del Estado en las
actividades previstas en el plan de manejo, particularmente las relacionadas con la eliminación
del ganado asilvestrado, el aprovechamiento pesquero sostenible, el desarrollo del ecoturismo, la
protección del patrimonio histórico – cultural y la seguridad de los visitantes.
Legales
Se cuenta con un instrumento legal que respalda con la máxima figura jurídica institucional el
establecimiento del área protegida, y define con claridad las políticas y normativas básicas a seguir
para la adecuada administración del PN Coiba.
Adicionalmente, se proyecta como un instrumento moderno y efectivo que establece una novedosa
figura de gestión compartida entre el Estado y la sociedad civil, y crea los mecanismos autónomos
para facilitar el financiamiento de la gestión del área protegida.
128
Organizativos
Las organizaciones de los pescadores artesanales de las comunidades pesqueras localizadas en el
área de influencia del PN Coiba, se encuentran en un estado incipiente de desarrollo, dadas las malas
experiencias anteriores en el tema organizacional y la cerrada estructura del mercado, que no permite
la vinculación de las organizaciones locales con la cadena de la comercialización de los productos
pesqueros.
La reciente iniciativa de facilitar la creación de una Red de Pescadores Artesanales del área de influencia
del PN Coiba, para posibilitar el reencuentro de los pescadores de la región, y fundamentalmente,
establecer y/o consolidar las organizaciones de pescadores artesanales y de turismo de Hicaco, Santa
Catalina, Guarumal, Remedios, Isla Leones e Isla Gobernadora, permitirá continuar el proceso de
participación efectiva en la implementación de la normativa pesquera y el acceso organizado a los
beneficios generados por el efectivo manejo del PN Coiba.
Igualmente, la iniciativa de ANCON-CI-Fundación Walton para apoyar el establecimiento de la
Asociación Rural de Turismo Sostenible (ARTURIS-Coiba) en el área de influencia del PN Coiba,
ha facilitado la incorporación de pequeños emprendedores locales de unas 14 comunidades costeras
que están capacitados para administrar pequeños negocios y brindar servicios de alimentación,
alojamiento, guías de interpretación ambiental, avistamiento de mamíferos marinos y servicio de
transporte hacia Isla Coiba.
Informativos
Aunque se cuenta con una considerable cantidad de información científica y socioeconómica del PN
Coiba y su área de influencia, todavía no ha habido una generación de publicaciones accesibles al
público en general.
Por lo tanto, se deberá diseñar e implementar una clara campaña de divulgación de la información
sobre la rica biodiversidad del área, los interesantes procesos ecológicos y geológicos encontrados, los
objetos de conservación, las nuevas evidencias arqueológicas y los servicios ambientales generados
en el PN Coiba, como parte del cumplimiento de los requisitos de un Sitio de Patrimonio Natural de
la Humanidad.
Económicos
La rica biodiversidad existente en el PN Coiba, enmarcada en la isla más grande del Pacífico
Centroamericano, con una superficie marina que abarca unas 256,000 Ha, y un área costera de unos
240 km, presupone la ejecución de una amplia gama de actividades programáticas que requieren de
recursos económicos por el orden de los B/40 millones.
Adicionalmente a las asignaciones anuales del Estado para sufragar actividades operativas básicas
de protección, se requiere de otras fuentes de financiamiento internos y externos, mayormente por la
vía de la cooperación internacional, para poder cumplir con las tareas previstas en el plan de manejo,
particularmente en las áreas de investigación y manejo de recursos, educación ambiental, recreación
dirigida y ecoturismo, fiscalización y protección, gestión administrativa y apoyo al desarrollo
organizacional de los actores clave del área de influencia del PN Coiba.
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-3(9,310,.(G(D301*2*JC."(<<(PON
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Flaxman, K Karish, A Mellinger, T Canfield (2003) Alternative futures for Coiba National Park, Panamá.
Harvard University, Cambridge MA USA
Velayos M, Correa M, Galdames C, Castroviejo C, Aráuz B (1997) Primera aproximación al catálogo
de las plantas vasculares de la Isla de Coiba (Panamá). En: Flora y Fauna del Parque Nacional de
Coiba (Panamá). S. Castroviejo. (Eds.) Agencia Española de Cooperación Internacional (AECI).
Madrid: 245-328
Steinitz C, Fairs R, Flaxman M, Karish K , Mellinger AD , Canfield T , Sucre L (2003) A Delicate
Balance: Conservation and Development Scenarios for Panama’s Coiba National Park. Environment:
Science and Policy for Sustainable Development 47:5
Viejo M, Nieves JL, Fontal F, De La Torre F, Romera L, Sánchez C (1999) Contribución al
conocimiento de las mariposas del Parque Nacional de Coiba, Panamá (Lepidóptera, Papilonoidea).
XVII Jornadas de la asociación española de entomología. Bilbao
Stirling M, Stirling M (1964) El Limón, an Early Tomb Site in Coclé Province, Panama. Smithsonian
Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 191:247-254
Villarreal M, González J (1999) Ictiofauna arrecifal del sector noreste del Parque Nacional Coiba. Tesis de
Licenciatura. Universidad de Panamá. 55 pp
Subías L, Zaballos JP, Banda E, Fontal-Cazalla F, Nieves-Aldrey JL (2004). Ácaros oribátidos del
Parque Nacional de la isla de Coiba (Panamá) (Acari: Oribatei). Revista de Biología Tropical 52(1):
85- 95
Wetmore A (1957) The birds of Isla Coiba, Panama. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 134(9):
1–105
Suman D (2006) Análisis de la Gobernanza en el PN Coiba. Consultoría para el Plan de Manejo del PN
Coiba. ANAM-STRI. Ciudad de Panamá
Thomas O (1902) On some mammals from Coiba Island, off the west coast of Panama. Novitates
Zoologicae 9:135–137
Tovar D, Maté JL (2007) Diagnóstico de profundización del Parque Nacional Coiba. 46 pp
138
Vega AJ (2006) Estado de las Pesquerías en el PN Coiba y zonas de influencia. Consultoría para el
Plan de Manejo del PN Coiba. ANAM-STRI. Ciudad de Panamá
Wetmore A (1965) The Birds of the Republic of Panama. Part 1. Tinamidae (Tinamous) to
Rynchopidae (Skimmers). Smithsonian Misc. Coll. 150 (Part 1): 1-483 pp
Wetmore A (1968) The Birds of the Republic of Panama. Part 2. Columbidae (Pigeons) to Picidae
(Woodpeckers). Smithsonian Misc. Coll. 150 (Part 2): 605 pp
Wetmore A (1972) The Birds of the Republic of Panama. Part 3. Dendrocolaptidae (Woodcreepers) to
Oxyruncidae (Sharpbills). Smithsonian Misc. Coll. 150 (Part 3): 1-631pp
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Funciones
Gestionar la aplicación de los lineamientos estratégicos, los objetivos generales y operativos,
los programas de manejo y las actividades señaladas para garantizar la operatividad del Plan de
Manejo del PN Coiba.
Dirigir las operaciones técnicas y administrativas que se efectúan en el área protegida.
Coordinar con los Jefe(a)s de Programas la ejecución de las actividades establecidas en el Plan
de Manejo del PN Coiba.
Administrar los fondos asignados para la administración y manejo del PN Coiba, al igual que los
bienes e infraestructuras, y la gestión de los pagos por concesiones, permisos y otros servicios
generados en el parque.
Elaborar los presupuestos anuales, basados en los Planes Operativos Anuales, a fin de sustentarlos
ante la instancia administrativa correspondiente.
Presentar los Informes Técnicos, Administrativos y Financieros de la gestión que se realiza en
el área protegida, según la periodicidad establecida por el Reglamento por el Consejo Directivo
y la autoridad jerárquica correspondiente de la ANAM.
Realizar las labores de seguimiento y evaluación de las actividades programadas anualmente
para el manejo del área protegida.
Administrar las acciones de capacitación, dotación y asignaciones de responsabilidades del
personal requerido para el manejo del área protegida.
Desarrollar labores de promoción y comunicación con las entidades, organizaciones e instituciones
públicas y privadas, locales e internacionales, interesadas e involucradas en las actividades de
protección y manejo del PN Coiba.
Jefe(a) de Construcción y Mantenimiento
Persona responsable de programar, supervisar y/o ejecutar las labores de construcción y mantenimiento
de las infraestructuras, equipos y demás bienes pertenecientes al PN Coiba.
Requisitos
Los requisitos mínimos para optar por el cargo, son haber obtenido diploma de estudios en ciencias
vocacionales o de ingeniería, con habilidades y experiencia en materia de construcción, mantenimiento
de equipo, mecánica, electricidad, manejo de depósitos, entre otros.
Funciones
Elaborar el Plan Operativo Anual del Sub-Programa de Construcción y Mantenimiento del PN
Coiba.
Supervisar y/o ejecutar las actividades relacionadas con el mantenimiento del equipo rodante,
los motores fuera de borda, las embarcaciones, el equipo de radiocomunicación, el equipo de
acampar, las fuentes de energía eléctrica y renovable, el abastecimiento de agua potable y el
manejo de las aguas servidas.
Supervisar las obras de construcción y/o mantenimiento de las infraestructuras de alojamiento,
casas para guardaparques, refugios, muelles, boyas, helipuertos, caminos, viviendas, letreros,
142
senderos y la trocha perimetral que delimita el área protegida.
Dirigir las labores de limpieza, recolección de basura y mantenimiento de los Estacionamientos,
Áreas de Acampar, Oficinas Administrativas, Centro de Visitantes, Senderos de Interpretación,
Portón de Entrada, Muelles y demás facilidades dentro del PN Coiba.
Administrador(a) Contable
Personal encargado de llevar todos los aspectos administrativos relacionados con el manejo de los
activos del PN Coiba y los registros contables del movimiento financiero, así como los aspectos
relacionados con la adquisición de equipos, materiales, contratación de servicios técnicos y
administrativos, seguimiento a las concesiones administrativas y de servicios.
Jefe(a) de Control y Vigilancia
Es la persona responsable de dirigir las actividades relacionadas con el programa de Control y
Vigilancia.
Requisitos
Los requisitos mínimos para optar al cargo son los de tener como mínimo una educación universitaria
completa, preferiblemente en ciencias ambientales o ciencias náuticas, con amplia experiencia en
trabajos de campo, conocimientos prácticos sobre la flora y fauna silvestre (terrestre y marina),
seguridad marina, curso de natación, equitación y buceo, habilidades para el manejo de personal de
campo.
Funciones
Elaborar el Plan Anual de Trabajo del Programa de Control y Vigilancia.
Supervisar el cumplimiento de los recorridos establecidos en los Circuitos de Protección
señalados para las diferentes áreas del PN Coiba.
Organizar y dirigir los diferentes operativos de control y vigilancia ejecutados por el cuerpo de
guardaparques.
Coordinar las acciones para la aplicación de sanciones, decomisos y demás medidas correctivas
ante las autoridades correspondientes de la ANAM, las autoridades administrativas y de policía,
por causales de desacato a la legislación y los reglamentos establecidos para el manejo y la
protección de recursos en el PN Coiba.
Apoyar la ejecución de las actividades identificadas para los diferentes programas de manejo y
desarrollo establecidos para el PN Coiba.
Elaborar los informes técnicos y administrativos sobre las actividades ejecutadas por el cuerpo
de guardaparques.
Elaborar y ejecutar el plan de seguridad del área marina protegida.
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`^b
Organizar y dirigir a los Guías y los guardaparques encargados de ejecutar las actividades de
manejo de visitantes.
Participar en eventos de promoción y de comunicación sobre las gestiones que se realizan en el
PN Coiba.
Coordinar las acciones de interpretación, utilización y manejo de los senderos de interpretación,
terrestres y marinos, establecidos en el PN Coiba.
Especialista en Turismo naturalista
Requisitos
Haber obtenido título universitario, con especialización en turismo y/o biología, experiencia en manejo
de visitantes, relaciones públicas e interpretación ambiental. También debe poseer habilidades para
montar a caballo, practicar el montañismo, el buceo deportivo y la natación, además de contar con
experiencia de trabajo con comunidades rurales.
Guías de Turismo
Haber obtenido certificación como Guía de Turismo, con experiencia en manejo de visitantes y
conocimientos básicos en la biología de recursos marino–costeros, recursos terrestres, la arqueología
e historia del país.
Comunicador(a) Social
Haber obtenido título universitario, con especialización en comunicación social y/o periodismo
científico; experiencia en educación ambiental, promoción y desarrollo organizacional, relaciones
públicas.
Jefe(a) de Centro de Investigación del PN Coiba
Requisitos
Haber obtenido título universitario, con especialización en Biología, o ciencias afines, principalmente
con conocimientos sobre la biología de los invertebrados y vertebrados, terrestres y marinos, la
ecología de los ecosistemas terrestres y marinos, el manejo de base de datos y estadística.
Con experiencia en el diseño, ejecución e interpretación de los resultados de investigaciones de
campo, así como también experiencia en manejo de personal y trabajo en equipo.
144
Biólogo(a), Especialista en manejo de vida silvestre
Haber obtenido titulo de Licenciatura en Biología o su equivalente en el área de la conservación
biológica. Principalmente con conocimientos sobre el manejo de fauna silvestre, manejo de base de
datos y estadística. Se requiere experiencia en la planificación, desarrollo y evaluación de proyectos
de manejo de recursos naturales.
Biólogo(a) Pesquero
Haber obtenido titulo de Licenciatura en Biología, con la especialización en biología pesquera o
su equivalente en el área de la biología marina. Se requieren conocimientos básicos y generales
sobre los ecosistemas marinos, las técnicas de manejo y aprovechamiento de los recursos pesqueros,
manejo de base de datos y estadística. Con experiencia en el diseño, ejecución e interpretación de
resultados de investigaciones pesqueras.
Botánico(a)
Haber obtenido título universitario de Licenciatura en Biología o su equivalente dentro del área
botánica. Principalmente, con conocimientos básicos y generales sobre la biología de las angiospermas,
manejo de base de datos y estadística. Debe experiencia en el diseño, ejecución e interpretación
de los resultados de las investigaciones de campo, especialmente las relacionadas con los estudios
fenológicos y de revegetación.
Ingeniero Agrónomo
Personal técnico con formación en ciencias agropecuarias, Idoneidad profesional, experiencia mínima
de cinco años de trabajo de campo, disponibilidad para trabajar en sitios de difícil acceso, no tener
impedimentos para realizar ejercicios físicos extremos, a cargo de las labores de asistencia técnica y
supervisión en manejo de cultivos, manejo de pastos, conservación de suelos.
Ingeniero(a) forestal
Personal con formación universitaria en ciencias forestales, Idoneidad profesional, experiencia
mínima de cinco años de trabajo de campo, disponibilidad para trabajar en sitios de difícil acceso,
no tener impedimentos para realizar ejercicios físicos extremos, a cargo de las labores de manejo
silvicultural, protección forestal e investigaciones sobre la flora silvestre del PN Coiba
Ingeniero(a) Hidráulico
Personal con formación universitaria en ciencias ingeniería hidráulica con Idoneidad profesional,
experiencia mínima de cinco años en trabajos de campo, disponibilidad para trabajar en sitios de
difícil acceso, no tener impedimentos para realizar ejercicios físicos extremos, a cargo de las labores
de manejo de cuencas y conservación de suelos, corrección de torrentes, construcción de drenajes
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Anexo 4
World Heritage 33 COM 7B.38 Decision
Sevilla, 20 de julio de 2009
38. Coiba National Park and its Special Zone of Marine Protection (Panama) (N 1138 rev)
Year of inscription on the World Heritage List
2005
Criteria
(ix) (x)
Year(s) of inscription on the List of World Heritage in Danger
N/A
Previous Committee Decisions
29 COM 8B.13
Current conservation issues
The World Heritage Centre was informed by the NGO community of a change to the legal protection
of the Special Zone of Marine Protection (SZMP) in 2008, leaving it vulnerable to industrial tuna
fishing activities. Following an exchange of correspondence between the State Party and the World
Heritage Centre, and subsequent to an intensive public relations campaign by Panamanian civil
society, the changes affecting the property were reversed in April 2009.
The World Heritage Centre participated in the final evaluation of the 5 year Eastern Tropical Pacific
Seascape project in Panama City, in April 2009, during which time it had the opportunity to review
in greater detail the current state of conservation of the property in the presence of representatives
from the National Environmental Agency (ANAM) and the National Fisheries Agency (ARAP),
responsible for the management of the National Park and the Special Zone respectively, and of several
national and international conservation NGOs.
International Assistance
N/A
UNESCO Extra-budgetary Funds
Total amount provided to the property: USD350,000 (Management planning, installation of mooring
buoys for diving boats, working with local communities, capacity building, public use planning,
improved stakeholder understanding of legal protection measures).
Previous monitoring missions
N/A
Main threats identified in previous reports
N/A
Illustrative material
http://whc.unesco.org/en/1138
158
The participants acknowledged the successful participatory development of the recently adopted
Coiba National Park management plan, along with the establishment of the multi-stakeholder
management committee for the Park. Participants also noted that the property was gaining institutional
recognition, pointing particularly to new site based research being financed by the national science
and technology agency.
The most immediate concern raised by participants was the on-going presence of a herd of wild
cattle, remaining after the island prison was closed in 2007. Their population (estimated at 3,000) is
growing, and is the cause of increasing trampling of native vegetation, deforestation, and significant
soil erosion. Under the typical heavy rains in this area, soil is washed into the sea, resulting in
important nutrient loading and siltation, both highly detrimental to the coral reef ecosystems in
surrounding waters. There is a jurisdictional conflict between government departments in regards
to the responsibility over dealing with the removal of these animals. Their continued presence on
the island is severely impacting the property’s Outstanding Universal Value for both terrestrial and
marine ecosystems. If this problem is not resolved soon, the level of impact will likely grow to the
point of becoming an ascertained danger to the property.
The World Heritage Centre also learned of several large proposals for the development of marinas
and luxury residential hubs along the coast opposite the property. Though none has yet been
approved, given the past trends of intensive coastal zone development throughout the Pacific Coast
of neighbouring Costa Rica, and increasingly in Panama, the Coastal area opposite the property is
highly likely to be developed in the foreseeable future. Given its proximity to the property (less than
5 km in some cases), the risk posed by such development could be very important if not properly
managed. Risks would arise from a variety of sources, including among others: i) nutrient and
other pollutants loading into the waters during the construction phase, and from eventual waste water
reaching the sea; ii) high use pressure from pleasure craft and sports fishing in the National Park and
Special Zone; iii) potential for fuel spills and iv) increased pressures to develop tourist infrastructure
within the property to complement those developed in mainland. To safeguard the property’s
Outstanding Universal Value and its conditions of integrity against such possibilities, the State Party
should carry out an environmental impact assessment on the whole of the development potential for
the coastal zone. Based on its results, it would be in the position to establish if any development
should take place or not. In the latter case, the assessment would provide technical justification for
the imposition of strict limits on the nature and/or extent of development, insisting, for example,
on setbacks from the coastal zone, and on best practices for waste water treatment and solid waste
management. The State Party is also encouraged to develop innovative financing mechanism that
would support effective monitoring and control activities within the property necessary in light of
eventual increased pressures arising from coastal development.
1. Having examined Document WHC-09/33.COM/7B,
The meeting participants were also concerned with the continued absence of a management plan for
the Special Zone of Marine Protection. In its absence, fishing activities are poorly regulated and
open to practices that are contrary to conservation of the property’s Outstanding Universal Value
and its integrity. A draft management plan had been proposed, but rejected by the Special Zone
management committee as being too permissive. The final version must ensure that the values for
which the property was inscribed onto the World Heritage List are effectively protected in perpetuity.
7. Also requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2011, a report
on the state of conservation of the property, including on progress made on removing cattle from
the property, on finalizing and implementing a management plan for the Special Zone of Marine
Protection and establishing a formal policy on development and conservation of the coastal zone
opposite the property, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 35th session in
2011.
Draft Decision:
2. Recalling Decision 29 COM 8B.13, adopted at its 29th session (Durban, 2005),
3. Notes that the State Party has recently adopted the Coiba National Park management plan, as
recommended in Decision 29 COM 8B.13;
4. Urges the State Party to finalize the management plan for the Special Zone of Marine Protection
portion of the property and to ensure its effective implementation, and reminds the State Party
of the recommendation made by IUCN in its evaluation of the nomination, whereby commercial
fisheries need careful management, and that a clear fisheries monitoring system be implemented;
5. Notes with concern the continued and growing presence of cattle on the property, which are the
source of increasing damage to its Outstanding Universal Value, and strongly urges the State
Party to ensure its complete removal as a priority matter;
6. Also notes with concern the growing potential for coastal development on the shores opposite the
property, and requests the State Party to develop and implement a coastal zone development
and conservation policy with the purpose of ensuring that cumulative development impacts to
the property’s Outstanding Universal value and its integrity are foreseen and effectively averted;
33 COM 7B.38
The World Heritage Committee,
159
160
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