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Template release: Oct 02 For the latest, go to IBM Software Group
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IBM Software Group
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Designing a Multi-tenant Data architecture using
DB2 V9
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IBM Developer Skills
© 2007 IBM Corporation
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Welcome to the IBM Software as a Service demonstration series. In this series,
we will demonstrate a set of architectural patterns exploiting features in IBM
middleware to build Software as a Service solutions.
.
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SaaS Demo Series – The Banking Application
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Enterprise Scenarios


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

Building Multi-Tenant Applications using WebSphere
Portal Server
Composing Multi-tenant User Interfaces using WebSphere
Portlet Factory
Designing a Multi-tenant Data architecture using DB2 V9
Enforcing Security in a Software as a Service application
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Building a multi-tenant user registry using WebSphere Portal Server &
Tivoli Directory Server
Enforcing Role Based Access Control using WebSphere Portal Server & Tivoli
Directory Server
Securing Workflows using WebSphere Process Server & Tivoli Directory
Server
developerWorks
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© 2007 IBM Corporation
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Software as a Service
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by vertical strokes,
In this series, thereInformation
are
7separated
demonstrations
using “The Banking Application” that
with
two spaces
on either side
show how IBM middleware and configuration techniques can be used to solve
key technical challenges for SaaS developers.
Designing a multi-tenant data architecture requires a decision on the degree of
data isolation among tenants. A SaaS data architecture can range from isolated
tenant databases to shared databases and even shared database schema. This
demo focuses on a shared schema architecture and will show how the XML
capabilities of DB2 v9 simplify tenant data configuration in this type of
environment.
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Technical Challenge Addressed in this Demo
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 How does a shared database environment differ from an
isolated database environment?
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 Within a shared database environment, how can you
customize the database schema for one tenant without
affecting other tenants?
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developerWorks
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Software as a Service
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Two
SaaS challenges
that will be addressed in this demo
are:
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with two spaces on either side
1. How can you use a shared database environment (as opposed to an isolated
database environment) for supporting a multi-tenant data tier in a SaaS
application?
And 2. Within a shared database environment, how can you customize the
database schema for one tenant without affecting other tenants?
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Data Architecture – Isolated vs Shared environments
Isolated
Shared
Semi-shared
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vs
Separate
Databases
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Shared Database,
Separate Schema
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Shared Database,
Shared Schema
Software as a Service
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with two spaces on either side
This picture represents the range of data tier architectural choices available in a
SaaS application. We will compare the three in terms of the cost to the tenant
and the ease of configuration for the tenant data. Data security is another very
important consideration, but will be covered in a future demo.
On the left we show an isolated environment called E1. Each tenant has their
own database. E1 offers the most flexibility in terms of configuration as the
tables are designed with custom columns to support the single tenant. It is also
the most expensive solution as a single tenant must bear the sole cost of the
hardware and maintenance.
In the middle we show a shared database with separate schemas called E2. E2
offers a lesser degree of data isolation than E1. E2 is also less costly than E1 as
this approach can typically accommodate more tenants per server than E1 so the
hardware and maintenance costs are split amonst the tenants. E2 offers the
same ease of configurability as E1 by using custom columns.
On the right we show a shared schema environment called E3. E3 has the
lowest hardware and maintenance costs. It allows you to serve the largest
number of tenants per database server. However, because multiple tenants
share the same database tables, this approach has typically been viewed as the
most difficult to configure, requiring the use of either name/value pair columns or
pre-allocated fields to satisfy unique tenant requirements. What we’ll be
illustrating in this demo is that by using the pureXML capabilities of DB2 v9, the
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configuration complexity issue is removed, as Indications
configuration
using XML provides
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02
release: Oct
Template
a
comparable
solution
as using custom columns.
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IBM Software Group
Utilizing the XML Capabilities of DB2 v9 to enable tenant
data tier configuration
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Multi-tenant Banking
Application
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Bank 1
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Bank 2
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Traditional SQL DBs
CustomerProfile – Bank 1
customerid:Integer
bankid:Integer
firstname:String
lastName:String
cellPhone:String
homePhone: String
CustomerProfile
Shared by both banks
customerid:Integer
bankid:Integer
firstname:String
lastname:String
homePhone: String
developerWorks
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CustomerProfile – Bank 2
Utilizing DB2 v9
XML Capabilities
bankid:Integer
customerdoc:xml
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Software as a Service
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Regular, white
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This scenario will show
how
weside
shared the database schema across two tenant
on either
with two spaces
banks through the use of a bank id column and an xml column in each of the
database tables in the Banking Application.
In this scenario we have two banks hosted in a multi-tenant banking
environment, Bank1 and Bank2. Each bank has its own virtual portal that is
administered through the use of profiles which contain the service endpoints for
their bank as well as configuration information and branding.
Our focus is on the Customer Profile of both banks. Both banks will store their
customer profile data in the same db2 table using a bank id column and an XML
column. The XML contents of the two banks differ in that Bank 1 has an extra
element for cell phone. The capability to store the data and designate xml fields
as optional in the xsd allows us to use the same web service for updating that
data for both banks, further simplifying the tenant data configuration.
We begin by logging into the administrator portal of each bank to show that the
Customer management and Customer query web services for both banks point
to the same service endpoints.
Here is the profile for Bank 1.
Notice that the two services that manage the storing and accessing of the
customer profile data are set here under customer management and customer
query.
Here is the profile for the Bank 2.
You can see that the service endpoints for customer management and customer
query are set to the same values as the Bank 1.
This shows that the same web service is being used to update the customer
profile data for both banks.
We now access the customer profile portlet for Bank 1.
We select customer 001001.
Notice the profile elements that we store for Bank 1.
This profile includes a cell phone number in addition to the home phone number.
We’ll update this profile by changing the cell phone number to demonstrate the
use of the customer management web service.
Let’s access a customer profile record for the Bank 2.
We select customer 002001.
Notice the customer profile fields for this bank. There is only one phone number
in this profile, the home phone.
We update the home phone utilizing the same Customer management web
service that Bank 1 used.
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CustomerProfile XSD
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Software as a Service
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10ptis
Arial
white of the
white banking
This
aBold,
view
CustomerProfile xsd that was definedRegular,
for the
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application. Noticewiththat
theoncell
phone element has a specification of
two spaces
either side
minOccurs=0, maxOccurs=1. This specification designates this field as optional.
In our scenario Bank 1 elected to use that field, Bank 2 did not. Now let’s take a
look at the data as it is stored in db2.
We use the db2 command center to select the customer profile document for
customer 001001.
Notice that there is a phone number and a cell phone number within the XML
document, and they correspond to the values we updated in the Bank 1
Customer Profile portlet.
We execute the same query for customer 002001.
This XML document, which is stored in the same db2 column as the previous
example, does not have a cell phone number.
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Conclusion
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 The XML capabilities of DB2 v9 simplify tenant configurability
of the data tier in a shared environment.
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developerWorks
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© 2007 IBM Corporation
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Software as a Service
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separated by vertical strokes,
In conclusion, we Information
have
demonstrated
how the pureXML capabilities in DB2 v9
with
two spaces
on either side
provide the ability to customize data for different tenants using a single shared
XML column. This capability allows each bank tenant administrator to define
their own data object structures while storing that data in a shared table and
using common services to maintain that data.
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Ready to Go Further With IBM?
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 Join the SaaS Community
Learn
Register for PartnerWorld
http://www.ibm.com/partnerworld/join
Select Software as a Service as an interest area
Network with other SaaS business partners at SaaSpace.com
more.
Deploy
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 Visit the Virtual Innovation Center
faster.
Take the SaaS Education Courses
http://www.ibm.com/partnerworld/vic
Host secure
and reliable
solutions.
 Host with IBM to advance to the SaaS Specialty
Fill out the Project Profile on the Virtual Innovation Center to engage a Program
Resource Manager.
Receive additional marketing resources and benefits
Only with IBM.
developerWorks
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Software as a Service
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IBM has innovativeInformation
resources
and
with
two spaces on either
side programs to help you manage change &
become relevant in the Software as a Service market. Whether you’re an ISV,
System Integrator or Reseller, we can provide education, support and benefits to
help you grow revenue and differentiate yourself.
The first step will be to join the SaaS community. You will automatically be kept
aware of new SaaS technical benefits and workshops and get the enablement
help that you need to transform your application for delivery in the IBM Software
as a Service model.
Then, as a member of IBM SaaS community, you can register at the Virtual
Innovation Center (VIC) where you will get personalized access to product
support and education to help build your Software as a Service knowledge and
skills.
As an Advanced level member of PartnerWorld, you have the opportunity to gain
access to additional marketing and sales support by qualifying for the Software
as a Service specialty.
For more information, Visit our main site at www.ibm.com/partnerworld/saas.
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