SOUTHERN NE W HAMPSHIR E UNIVERSIT Y
SOUTHERN NE W HAMPSHIR E UNIVERSIT Y & OPEN UNIVERSITY O F TANZANIA MASTER OF SCIENC E I N COMMUNITY ECONOMIC DEVELOPMEN T (2007) STREET CHILDREN IDENTIFICATION AND CAPACITATION: A CAS E STUDY IN SONGE A MUNICIPA L COUNCIL , RUVUMA REGION , TANZANIA ENTERBERTH JOACHIM NYONI SOUTHERN NE W HAMPSHIR E UNIVERSIT Y & OPEN UNIVERSITY O F TANZANIA MASTER OF SCIENC E I N COMMUNITY ECONOMIC DEVELOPMEN T (2007) STREET CHILDREN IDENTIFICATION AND CAPACITATION: A CAS E STUDY IN SONGE A MUNICIPA L COUNCIL , RUVUMA REGION , TANZANIA ENTERBERTH JOACHIM NYONI STREET CHILDRE N IDENTIFICATION AN D CAPACITATION: A CAS E STUDY IN SONGEA MUNICIPA L COUNCIL , RUVUMA REGION , TANZANIA "PROJECT REPORT SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFILMENT O F REQUIREMENTS FO R TH E MASTER OF SCIENC E I N COMMUNITY ECONOMIC DEVELOPMEN T IN THE SOUTHER N NE W HAMPSHIR E UNIVERSITY A T THE OPE N UNIVERSITY O F TANZANIA" 2007 i Declaration I Enterbert h Joachi m Nyoni, d o hereb y declar e t o th e Senat e o f Souther n New Hampshire Universit y o f Americ a a t th e Ope n Universit y o f Tanzani a that, this project pape r i s my own original wor k where cite d and that has nevq r been see n submitted for a similar higher degree award in any other university. Student ENTERBERTH J. NYON I Signature ii Supervisor's Certificatio n I have read the project report, and found in to be in a form acceptable fo r submission to the Southern New Hampshire University for an award of Master of Science (MSc) degree in Community Economic Development (CED). HAMIDU A. SHUNGU Signature Date iii Copyright No par t of this project repor t ma y be produced, store d i n any retrieval system, or transmitted in any (electronic, recording photocopying or otherwise) form or by any means; withou t prio r writte n permissio n o f th e autho r o r th e Souther n Ne w Hampshire University (SNHU) of the United States of America / Open University of Tanzania (OUT) on that behalf. iv Acknowledgement I wis h t o exten d m y heartfelt thank s t o th e Ministr y o f Community Development Gender an d Childre n fo r grantin g m e sponsorshi p an d th e Ruvum a Regional Secretariat Offic e fo r allowing me to pursue a degree of Master of Science (MSc) in Community Economic Development (CED). Special thanks shoul d go to Mr . Hamidu Abdallah Shung u for hi s tireless efforts , constant an d consistent encouragemen t durin g the whol e duration of preparing this work. I highl y appreciate an d recognis e hi s usefu l comment s an d encouragemen t which le d t o th e completio n o f thi s stud y withi n th e define d period . I a m als o indebted t o al l academic member s o f staff o f Community Economic Developmen t (CED) and my colleagues for their advisory support and for creating harmonious and friendly studying environment. I extend my utmost thanks to Rev. Martin Mlata (Good Samaritan Mission Director), Mr. Aggre y Kapinga (GS M staff) , Mr . Elisha Danie l (GSM ) staff fo r th e c o operation they accorded me during my data collection. Finally, I am obliged to mention my appreciation to my beloved wife Gem a Mbele and m y belove d chil d Witnes s Nyon i fo r thei r toleranc e i n th e hardshi p the y encountered i n my absence while I was away for study. I als o thank al l who participated effectivel y in one wa y or another i n making this work successful. Dedication This wor k i s dedicate d t o m y belove d mothe r Kerubin a Ngweny a wh o lai d th e foundation o f m y educatio n an d t o th e memor y o f m y belove d father , th e lat e Joachim Vitus Nyoni who could not be here to share this achievement wit h me. May God the Almighty rest his soul in peace: Amen. vi Abstract This stud y wa s conducte d i n Songe a Municipal , Ruvum a Region. Th e stud y was conducted in three wards, namely, Lizaboni, Mfaranyaki and Bombambili. The main objective of the study was to capacitate street children so that they can be self reliant. The specifi c objective s wer e identificatio n of stree t children , training, car e an d support of street children, and provision of capital grand to graduate street children. The study comprised a random sample of 30 street children, 9 vulnerable children, 4 street children attending vocational training, 12 ward leaders, 9 community members, one GS M leader, an d on e Municipa l communit y developmen t officer . Sampl e selection wa s carefull y don e t o avoi d bias . Primar y data wer e obtaine d throug h personal observation , administerin g o f structure d questionnair e an d focu s grou p discussion. Secondar y dat a wa s obtaine d from GS M office , KIWOHED E office , Songea Municipa l office , Ruvum a Regional secretaria t offic e an d Souther n New Hampshire University/Open University of Tanzania library. Descriptive statistics as frequencies and percentage were used in analysis. The results from this study show that the problem of street children exists and the major factors that contribut e t o thi s proble m are poverty , divorce , orphanage an d larg e family . However, poverty is the major cause of this problem in the study area. vii Executive Summary The term street children refer to children for whom the street more than their family has becom e thei r rea l home . I t include s childre n who migh t no t necessaril y b e homeless or without families, but who live in situations where there is no protection, supervision, or direction from responsible adults , ( http://hrw.org/children/street.htm (2006:6)) The United Nations has been attributed as estimating the population of street children worldwide a t 15 0 million , wit h th e numbe r risin g daily . Thes e youn g people ar e more appropriately known as communit y children, as they ar e th e offsprin g of our communal world. Ranging in age from three to eighteen, abou t 4 0 percent o f those are homeless—as a percentage of world population, unprecedented i n the histor y of civilization. The other 60 percent work on the streets to support their families. They are unabl e t o atten d schoo l an d ar e considere d t o liv e i n "especiall y difficul t circumstances. Increasingly , thes e childre n ar e th e defenceles s victim s o f brutal violence, sexua l exploitation, abject neglect , chemica l addiction, and human rights violations, (http://pangaea.org/street_chldren/kids.htl (2006:1) ) In Tanzania, the Chil d Development Policy aims at eradicating the problem of street children but is not efficiently implemented at grass root level, for instance on chapter five, Chil d Protectio n Polic y No . 97 o f 199 6 state s tha t parents , Guardian s an d institutions workin g fo r children , shoul d sho w du e responsibilit y fo r protectin g children by providing them wit h their basic needs and providing appropriate moral guidance. Polic y No . 98 o f 1996 , explain s that "Th e communit y shoul d b e full y viii involved i n issue s o f chil d protectio n b y abandonin g norm s an d value s whic h endanger th e lif e o f th e children , strengthening positiv e values ; participatin g in communal upbringing and providing services to children in difficult circumstances" . Ministry of Community Development Women Affairs and Children (1996:34). Songea Municipa l Counci l (SMC) , fo r exampl e i s dealin g with thi s proble m by creating favourable environment for other Institution s to play part bu t not for itself due to lack of financial resources. Although in some places like in Songea Municipal, conducive environment is created for other actors such as NGOs & CBOs to deal with street children, success has been limited because i n most cases these actors do not have adequate financial resources , lack technical skills, and normally they are not adequately involving the society. In the stud y are a th e proble m of street childre n exists an d th e majo r factor s that contribute t o thi s proble m ar e poverty , divorce , orphanag e an d larg e family . However, poverty is the main cause of this problem in the study area. Traditional syste m o f taking care o f vulnerable children/stree t childre n is stil l i n existence bu t i s mainl y lef t t o uncle s an d gran d mother s wh o d o no t delive r satisfactory suppor t to them to the exten t that the street children themselves d o not feel it. That is why these children have indicated that there is no traditional system of taking care of street children. ix Training o f vulnerable/stree t childre n seem s t o b e th e bes t wa y o f reducing the problem of street children. This effort has been discovered in the study area and else - wher e i n the country . However, evidence shows that there is no follo w - up of trained street children and therefore i t is not clear whether the trained street children make use of the knowledge they have attained. Therefore, there is need to have continuous identification o f street children through conducting need assessment to know their causes and helping them according to their cases such as sending them to vocational training or COBET. However there is also need to assist poor families in the community especially during the rainy season, by introducing some development projects in a participatory manner. In order to sustai n traditional caring of street/vulnerable childre n there is need to improve the syste m where most of street/vulnerable childre n depend on improving the livin g standard s o f dependant s suc h a s uncl e an d ol d peopl e especiall y grandmothers. Th e communit y must establis h specia l funds whic h wil l assis t th e street/vulnerable childre n i n their are a throug h thei r guardians . B y so doin g the street/vulnerable children can realize the importance of not going to the town streets but stay home doing formal economic activities. X TABLE O F CONTENTS Declaration i Supervisor's Certificatio n i i Copyright . . i i i Acknowledgement i v Dedication v Abstract.... .... .v Executive Summary vi i i Abbreviations and Acronyms . xv i CHAPTER ON E 1 1.0 COMMUNIT Y NEEDS ASSESSMEN T 1 1.1. Overview. . 1 1.2. Targe t Community 4 1.3. Communit y Need Assessment 8 CHAPTER TW O 1 3 2.0 PROBLE M IDENTIFICATION 1 2.1. Overvie w 1 2.2. Statemen t of the Problem 1 2.3. Goo d Samaritan Missio n (GSM) a s a Community Based Organization (Host Organization)..... 1 2.4. Justification... . 1 2.5. Researc h Objectives . 1 2.6. Limitatio n 1 2.7. Organizatio n of the Study 1 3 3 3 CHAPTER THRE E 1 8 3.0 LITERATUR E REVIE W 1 8 3.1. Overview.. . 1 3.2. Theoretica l Review 1 3.3. Empirica l Review 2 3.4. Polic y Review 2 8 8 1 7 CHAPTER FOU R , 3 5 5 6 7 7 3 4.0 RESEARC H METHODOLOGY..... 3 3 4.1. Overview.... . 3 4.2. Locatio n 3 4.3. Interna l validity 3 4.4. Researc h Desig n 3 4.5. Samplin g Procedures 3 3 3 4 4 5 xi 4.6. Populatio n . 3 4.7. Samplin g frame 3 4.8. Th e Sample Size 3 4.9. Validit y of the Survey Instrument 3 4.10. Pre - testing of the instruments 3 4.11. Dat a Collection 3 4.12. Limitatio n on Internal and External Validity 4 4.13. Discussio n of Results : 4.14. Monitoring and Evaluation 5 .4 5 5 5 6 6 6 1 1 4 CHAPTER FIV E 5 7 5.0 IMPLEMENTATIO N 5 7 5.1. Projec t Objectives 5 5.2. Product s and Outputs 5 5.3. Projec t Planning 5 5.4. Staffin g Pattern 6 5.5. Projec t Implementation Report 6 7 7 8 2 3 CHAPTER SI X 6 5 6.0 MONITORING , EVALUATIO N AND SUSTAINABILITY 6 5 6.1. Monitorin g 6 6.2. Managemen t information System... 6 6.3. Performanc e Indicator 7 6.4. Summar y Evaluation 7 6.5. Sustainabilit y 7 5 8 3 6 7 CHAPTER SEVE N 8 0 7.0 CONCLUSIO N AN D RECOMMENDATION 8 0 7.1. Conclusio n 8 0 7.2. Recommendatio n . 8 2 BIBLIOGRAPHY 8 4 APPENDICES 8 7 xii LIST OF TABLES Table 4-1: Stree t children Education Level 4 2 Table 4-2: Stree t children Age 4 3 Table 4-3: Respondent s Religion 4 3 Table 4-4: Respondent s Sex 4 4 Table 4-5: Youn g People Who Attended Vocational Training in GSM and KIWOHEDE from 2004 - 200 6 4 Table 4-6: Siz e of Household . 4 5 6 Table 4-7: Hav e Vulnerable Children in their families 4 6 Table 4-8: Hea d of Household 4 7 Table 4-9: Clos e Relative 4 8 Table 4-10: Factor s contributing Street children (Cause of Street Children)........ 49 Table 4-11: Plac e to Sleep.......... 5 0 y in Town 5 1 Table 4-12: Activit Table 4-13: Vocationa Table 4-14: Typ Table 4-15: Read Table 4-16: Car l Training 5 2 e of Facilitation they like after completing Vocational raining... 52 y to Establish Economic Groups 5 e of Street/Vulnerable childre n (Street children) 5 Table 4-17: Traditio 3 3 n System used to Care Vulnerable/Street Children (Community)... . 5 Table 5.3-1: Objectiv e (1): Identification of Street Children 5 4 9 Table 5.3-2: Objectiv e (2):- Training, Care and Support Of Street Children 6 0 Table 5.3-3: Objectiv e (3). Provision of Capital Grant to Graduate Street Children 60 Table 5.3-4: Projec t Goal : - To Capacitate Stree t Children So That They Can Undertake Thei r Own Life 6 1 Table 5.4-1: Staffin g Pattern 6 2 Table 6.2-1: Direc t and Indirect Indicator..... 6 9 Xlll LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1: Street Children in Ruvuma Region - Jun e - 2006 xiv LIST OF MAP Map 1 : Songea Municipal Counci l xviii XV APPENDIXES Appendix 1 : Lette r of Introduction 8 7 Appendix 2: Lette r of Acceptance 8 8 Appendix 3: Need s Assessment 8 9 Appendix 4: Organizationa l Chart ? 9 0 Appendix 5: Pro j ect Implementation Gantt chart 9 1 Appendix 6: Staf f Job Descriptions 9 3 Appendix 7: Budge Appendix 8: Cos Appendix 9: Forma t9 t Analysis of Activities (Budget) 9 l visit to Selected wards 9 4 6 7 Appendix 10 : Questionnair e for Children's (Street, Vulnerable and In Vocation Training) 9 8 Appendix 11 : Questionnair e for Leaders (NGOS/Community/Municipal) 10 6 Appendix 12 : Questionnair e for Community Members in Urban At Household Level)... 11 2 xvi Abbreviations and Acronyms AIDS Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome CARITAS Catholic Relief Organization CBOs Community Based Organization s CED Community Economic Development COBET Complementary Basic Education Training CSPD Child Survival Prevention an d Development GSM Good Samaritan Mission HIV Human Immuno - deficiency Virus KIWOHEDE Kiota Women Health Development LGA Local Government Authority NGOs Non Governmental Organization s OUT Open University Of Tanzania RFA Regional Facilitating Agency ROA Ruvuma Orphans Association SPSS Statistical Package for Social Science STI Sexually Transmitted Infectio n UNICEF United Nations Children's Fund VETA Vocational Education Training Authority SMC Songea Municipal Council MSc Master of Science SNHU Southern New Hampshire University TACOSODE Tanzania Council for Social Development xvii MCDGC Ministr CRC Commissio MCDWAC Ministr HIMS Healt VEO Villag u.f.s Unde REPSSI Regiona y of Community Development Gende r and Children n on the Rights of the Chil d y of Community Development Wome n Affairs and Children h Information Managemen t System e Executive Officer r flying Seal l Psychosocial Initiative xviii Map 1: Songe a Municipal Council 1 CHAPTER ONE 1.0 COMMUNIT Y NEEDS ASSESSMENT LL Overview The problem of street children is increasing worldwide every day . Th e problem is more critical i n developing countries becaus e of the existenc e o f many factor s that favor the generatio n o f street children than in the developed countries. Som e of the factors includ e HIV/AIDS, divorce, poverty, rural - urban migration and low use of family plannin g methods . "AID S orphan s ar e substantiall y augmentin g th e population of children on streets. In Nairobi, Kenya, where at least 30,00 0 homeless children roam in the city, this destitute population is expected to grow at an estimated 10 percen t annually . I n Nairob i Stree t childre n spen d thei r day s i n begging , scavenging, sniffing glue and engaging in petty theft". (http://www.populationaction.org/securitydemographic/pdfs/SecurityDemographic c hapter6.pdf 2005: 65) Tanzania is facin g the sam e problem of children being forced t o depen d fo r their survival on the streets due to poverty, abuse, torture, rape, abandonment, or orphaned by AIDS , Huma n rights violation s agains t childre n in the 1990 s hav e becom e a common and disturbing occurrence i n many Africa n countrie s includin g Tanzania . Indeed denial of basic human needs and legal rights including the right to life, liberty and security as a person is now a defining feature of the Tanzanian socio-economic landscape. 2 This project examines Tanzania's response to the growing problem of street children. Taking Songea Municipal as a case study, the project examines initiatives that have been an d ar e bein g take n b y variou s segment s o f the communit y to addres s th e problem. Also the project examines the kinds of policies and strategies the Tanzanian government i s putting in place and what the famil y an d community are doing , for instance, to what extent are families, schools and individual members of society deal with th e problem ? Indeed , ho w i s th e governmen t dealin g wit h th e increasin g numbers of unsupervised children living alone in urban streets? What roles can NonGovernmental Organization s (NGOs) an d communit y based organization s play in addressing the problem of street children? We contend that not enough is being done to address the problem and that indeed the problem of street children remains an ignored tragedy that is set to have a devastating impact on the development of Tanzania. The project indicates that the response to the problem has at best been muted and remains ignored or sidelined by the government and th e genera l public . Ke y players wh o ar e suppose d t o pla y a leadin g role in finding a solution to the problem have become the major source of the problem. The family, whic h is supposed to be the bedrock of children's welfare and protection, is today becoming a major cause of the problem of street children. Parents are sending their childre n into th e street s to be g stea l o r engag e i n petty trade . Childre n ar e leaving their homes t o escap e domesti c violence or because o f the breakin g up of family structures. School s are turning into centres of violence and crime and creating an environment that put more children on the streets. 3 Government policies that embrac e liberalizatio n an d the fre e marke t econom y are contributory factor s t o th e persisten t stat e of poverty an d increase d hardshi p wit h children bein g affecte d most . Thes e policie s hav e encourage d mor e urba n development than rural and hence promoting rural - urba n migration. Furthermore, the policie s hav e mad e agricultura l input s muc h expensiv e a s compare d t o agricultural produce prices and thus putting farmers in a difficult situatio n to break even in agricultural investments. We contend that government policies directed by structural adjustment Programme s are responsibl e for putting more an d more children on to the street s as a result of increased poverty . Th e genera l publi c pretend s no t t o notic e th e pligh t o f a n increasing number o f destitute childre n on our streets. There i s at presen t n o real alarm or outrage from the general public on the increasing number of children on our streets even though these children face starvation , are at the mercy of unscrupulous individuals and a brutal police force. The government and the community in general need to put in place viable policies or strategies that will ensure that the plight of street children is urgently addressed. The paper contributes to this task by exploring means and ways that the government and the community at large can play in solving the problem of street children in Tanzania and Songea Municipal in particular. 4 1.2. Target Community Songea Municipal is one of the five Local Government Authorities (LGA) that make up the Ruvuma region. It is the capital Town of the Region. It lies within Longitudes 35° 40' t o 35° 45' East and Latitude 10 ° 35' to 10 ° 45' Sout h of the fiquator.The four corners of the town boundaries border Songea Rural District. The tow n i s wel l linke d with othe r part s o f the countr y throug h communication network: Songe a - Njomb e - Makambak o road linkin g th e tow n wit h Tanzania Zambia Highway , Songe a - Tundur u road, linkin g the tow n with Sout h - Easter n regions of Mtwara and Lindi, and Songea - Mbambaba y Road linking the town with settlements along the lake shores and Mbeya Region through Lake Nyasa. The town is the major centre for administrative and commercial activities in the Region. There are variou s Employmen t sector s whic h ac t a s magne t fo r immigratio n of rural population within the Region. The population of Songea Municipal totals, 131,336 . Of these there are 63,145 male, 68,191 female, and 25,685 children, out of which there are 12,36 6 male and 13,320 female. Stree t children are 468: 220 male, and 248 female. The average per capital Income o f Songea Municipal i s Tsh. 88,457.30. Sources of Income ar e agriculture, 17.3%, trade, 8.3%, employment, 55.6% , minerals, Buildings, san d 2.4% and small Industries and factories 16.4% . (National Bureau of Statistics 2003: 1-10). 5 There ar e thre e Vocationa l Trainin g Centre s i n th e Municipal , namely , VET A Songea, Domesti c Songe a Vocationa l Cente r an d Roma n Catholi c Vocational Center. Th e numbe r o f Primar y school s i s 49 . Th e numbe r an d kind s o f unit s providing Health services are: Hospitals 1, Dispensaries 1 5 and Health centre 1. The number o f Community Development workers 12 , number o f Wards 1 3 and hamlet s 71. (National Bureau of Statistics 2003: 10). Beliefs, customs , tradition s an d habit s affectin g th e situatio n ar e inheritanc e o f widows (cla n oriented/patriarchy) . Unde r norma l circumstance s wome n hav e n o rights in land ownership; in fact the allocation of land to the family has traditionally been men's affairs. Other s ar e polygamy system; Women contribute a lion share in agriculture activities , bu t i n tur n me n alway s decid e th e incom e use . Th e participation o f women i n deciding the use s of famil y incom e i s negligible ; easy divorce (in Muslim families), women have no rights to inherit after th e death of the husband. (National Bureau of Statistics 2003: 11). Family and social structures relevant to the situation are increasing number of female headed households , rura l - urban migration, and poor cooperation amon g the urba n society; in addressing problems local ways are available, by handling street children to their relatives where possible. On power structure (who controls whom or what), man control s wealth . A l l wealt h i n the househol d suc h a s farm , house , bicycles, radios and crops are men's properties. Furthermore , every decision in the house hold is done by man. Women must obey and follow. 6 Information's ar e gathere d an d transmitte d throug h individuals , Leaders , Newspapers, Radios, TVs, Telephones, E - Mails , Letters, Mails, Government , and Religion. Taking Songea Municipality as a case study the study examines initiatives that have been and are being taken by various segments of the community to address the problem of street children. 1.2.1. Current Activities under Good Samaritan Mission (GSM) A larg e number o f activities are implemented in Good Samarita n Missio n (GSM) , with th e intention o f improving the well bein g of the community. The activitie s which are executed in the GSM include; • Acces s to basic education and health care for orphaned children aged 4-7 The pre - schoo l has been operating since GSM was establishe d in 1999. The children are taught a range of subjects that help prepare them for primary school education. The children receive uniforms and writing materials and are provided with daily meals and soap on weekly basis. • Practica l assistanc e an d suppor t fo r orphane d childre n attendin g primary school. GSM als o provide s assistanc e t o forme r attendee s o f the pre -school by providing a uniform, school bag and writing materials for every chil d each year, until the end of their primary education. • Practica l assistanc e an d suppor t fo r stree t childre n undertakin g vocational training GSM provide s support to street children aged 1 3 - 17 , by assisting them to access vocational training. This involves liaising with the training centre. 7 • Mediatio n between street children and estranged relatives GSM strive s to help orphaned street children reunite with their relatives or extended family . Thi s involve s working wit h th e famil y an d th e chil d t o resolve any difficulties, an d to ensure that the child is properly looked after. • Dram a performances to raise community awareness of HIV/AIDS GSM believe s tha t dram a i s on e o f the mos t effectiv e way s o f raising awareness o n HIV/AIDS. GS M cultura l group writes and performs dramas, which are aimed at other young people and the wider community. • Suppor t and training for in - schoo l youth peer educators GSM has trained secondary school students to become peer educators. These peer educators are supported to establish Health groups in their school, with the aim of assisting students to protect themselves from HIV/AIDS. • Suppor t for widows to establish income - generatin g programme The widows support group was established early in 2002. The groups have come together to establish an income - generating project to help meet their most basic needs. • Outreac h HIV/AIDS support to rural communities GSM currentl y operates a n outreach HIV/AIDS counselling and information centre in the village of Lilambo. This is managed by the local community in response t o risin g concer n regardin g th e numbe r o f peopl e livin g wit h HIV/AIDS in rural areas. 8 1.3. Community Need Assessment The communit y nee d assessmen t wa s conducte d i n Majeng o ward,.Songe a Municipality. During the process of formulating the problem statement as a student, the writer / investigator wrote a letter to the Municipal Director, which was endorsed by hi s employer to request workin g i n his jurisdiction. Th e Municipal Director assigned the Municipal Communit y Development Office r t o choose on e NG O t o work with. He wrote an introduction letter to the Good Samaritan Mission (NGO) to instruct them to work with CED - student. 1.3.1. Methodology Five technique s wer e use d o n dat a collection . Thes e include , interview , questionnaire, observations, secondary data, documentary sources ; and focus group discussion were used to supplement information collected by using questionnaire. (i) Interview: A fac e t o fac e intervie w was carried betwee n me , Community and Good Samaritan Mission Leader. Ther e was both verbal and visual communication (through gestures, facial expression) between the two. (ii) Observation Under this method, the investigator obtained the dat a by watching and noting down al l the phenomena wit h regar d t o their cause s and effects o r mutual relations. Thes e observations were directed to the organizational target group. 9 Observations includ e offic e environmenta l conditions , orphane d childre n observation, and observation o f organization activities at large. (iii) Focu s Group Discussions: Focus grou p discussion s wer e conducte d wit h th e organizatio n leader s and orphaned children . Th e discussion was very fruitful fo r the children aired out all their grievances . (iv) Documentar y Sources: Documents relevan t t o th e stud y wer e examine d i n th e organizatio n Annual reports and files. Through Interview, questionnaire, discussio n with organization members and conductin g organizatio n meetin g w e involve d the m t o develo p th e problem statement. The organization members found it a problem because there wa s increasin g numbe r o f orphan s i n Songe a Municipal . Fo r example, in June 2001 there were 94 street children, but as of June 2005 there were 46 8 (CSP D Repor t Jun e 2005:60) . I n fou r year s there ha s been an increas e o f 374 stree t children in the Municipal . I t seem s that rectification o f these problems wil l onl y be throug h goo d coordinatio n with partners who will enhanc e street children participation in vocational training and other economic activities. 10 1.3.2. Stakeholders of Good Samaritan (GSM ) Organization Good Samaritan Stakeholders are:a) Centra l Government b) Loca l Government c) War d Executives Officer d) Hamle t leader e) Primar y school teachers f) Youth s g) Widow s h) Orphan s i) Guardian s j) Religiou s organizations In th e organization , the stakeholder s participat e throug h identificatio n of orphans, street childre n an d widows , education , awarenes s creatio n o n HI V / AIDS , information sharing , report sharin g and access to social services. The analysis from the community revealed the following: 1.3.3. Community Strength During the Community Need Assessment exercise the community was found to have the following strengths: Mos t of the residents are able to work and have land outside the urba n area ; Th e stud y are a i s environmentall y safe fo r economi c investment; Domestic marke t i s readil y availabl e fo r variou s products ; Transpor t an d communication services are also available; and Information flow (Newspapers, radio, TVs) is relatively smooth. 11 1.3.4. Community Problems With al l th e abov e strengths , th e communit y wa s foun d t o fac e th e followin g problems: Lac k of capital fo r economi c investments ; Lac k of skill s fo r economi c investments; Lac k of awareness on a number of issues such as diseases (HIV/AIDS), material and food/water bor n diseases. 1.3.5. Community Needs The communit y site d th e followin g needs: Capacit y buildin g i n terms o f capital, awareness on diseases and specialized skill Training. 1.4. Communit y Social Factors The community mentioned th e following social factors a s the biggest causativ e agent for proble m o f Stree t Children : Polygamist habit s that lea d t o mor e childre n and uncontrolled divorce , increasing number of orphans as a result o f HIV/AIDS which leads t o increase d numbe r o f famil y size , Rura l - Urba n migration , an d Un controlled family size (low use of family planning methods). 1.4.1. Community Resources The community mentioned th e following resources within the study area: 1. A goo d numbe r o f Institution s (Primar y Schools , Secondar y Schools , Vocational Training Centers (VETA) , Teachers Training Institutions) tha t can offer specialize d training. 2. Existenc e of NGOs/CBOs such as (Good Samaritan Mission (GSM), Ruvuma Orphans Associatio n (ROA) ) thos e ar e read y t o suppor t i n som e o f th e community needs. 3. Existenc e o f essential need s supplies an d service s suc h a s clothes , transport markets just to mention the common ones. 12 Therefore, th e proble m earmarke d b y the communit y through awarenes s creations, specialized skil l training and provision of capital seem to solve the cor e problem of poverty hence reducing the problem of street children. The problem identification is reported in second chapter. 13 CHAPTER TWO 2.0 PROBLE M IDENTIFICATION 2.1. Overview This chapter reviews the problem generation and care of street children in Tanzanian Society and especially in the urban areas. 2.2. Statement of the Problem The generation and care of street children is increasingly becoming a problem to the Tanzanian Society and especially in the urban areas. The generation of street children is mainly caused by poverty in some of households which fail to provide basic needs such as food and clothes, incidences of divorce that leads to decreased care of the children, orphans due to death of one or both parents caused by various causes including HIV/AIDS, rural - urban migration, and uncontrolled family sizes. These causes are interdependent an d they sometimes act together. Songea Municipa l Counci l i s n o exceptio n i n thi s proble m o f stree t children. According to the Community Needs Assessment conduced in the study area by Good Samaritan Mission (GSM) , th e communit y revealed that, there are som e problems which affect th e developmen t o f community. The problems include lack of capital for economic investments, lack of skills for economic investments, lack of awareness on a number o f issues suc h as disease s (HIV/AIDS) , and material and food/water bom diseases, just to mention a few. These are the majo r developmenta l problems that nee d t o b e solved . Thes e problem s affec t th e communit y an d especially children. 14 The proble m o f street children seem s to increas e every yea r an d accordin g t o th e Regional CSP D report o f June 2005:60, th e reporte d number of street children in Songea Municipal Council was 468. However, while the problem of street children is growing so fast, most of the urba n authoritie s includin g Songea Municipa l Counci l do not have any plan to intervene with the problem due to lack of funds . On th e othe r hand, NGO s hav e shown interes t in intervening with the proble m in various ways . I n Songe a Municipa l Council , fou r NGO s ar e i n plac e tryin g t o intervene with this problem . Th e NGO s are : th e Goo d Samaritan Missio n (GSM ) that provides vocational training and counselling to street children, Ruvuma Orphans Association (ROA) , St . Theres a an d Kiot a Women' s Healt h an d Developmen t Organization (KIWOHEDE ) tha t provide s counselling , mediatio n an d pa y fo r vocational Training in other vocational Training centres. The Goo d Samarita n Missio n (GSM ) i n particular , ha s bee n intervenin g thes e problems throug h identificatio n o f street children, and offering Vocationa l training. This has been in line with the Good Samaritan Mission's (GSM) purpose of reducing the impact of HIV/AIDS on orphans, street children and widows. I n part, the GS M intervention ha s me t som e o f th e need s o f th e communit y suc h a s provisio n of specialized skills and capital (in the form of working gears). With all the interventions, th e problem of street children is still big and if allowed to exist, th e incidence s o f poor attendanc e in schools , dru g abuse , pick pockets an d 15 smuggling, occurrence o f rapes and HIV/AIDS spread wil l persist . I n totality, the problem of generation and care of street children is within the society itself and i t is from thi s society and other stakeholders that the solution will be bom. Samaritan Mission (GSM) as a Community Based Organization 2.3. Good (Host Organization) Vision Statement of Good Samaritan Mission A societ y in which communities work together to achieve a sustainable futur e free from povert y and the threat of HIV/AIDS . Mission To wor k alongsid e communitie s t o establish , operate , an d promot e service s an d facilities, for the benefit o f those most affected by HIV/AIDS. Organization Objectives • T o reduce the impact of HIV/AIDS on orphans, street children and widows. • T o reduce the level of HIV and STI among young people. • T o increase community mobilisation in the fight against HIV/AIDS . • T o promote orphaned children rights • T o promote widows income - generating activities. • T o establish training centres 2.4. Justification This stud y aim s a t improvin g the identificatio n and capacitatin g o f street children through communit y participation. Facilitating stree t children in vocational training will help them acquire technical skills which is a sustainable way of improving their 16 life in the future hence enable them to sustain their life. O n the other hand, the results of this study will also highlight the importance of the project as far as the community economic developmen t i s concerned . Th e result s wil l als o contribut e toward s understanding the factors contributing to the emergence of street children and finding ways to solvin g the problems. This wil l als o be a tool and a guide to planners and decision makers dealin g with various social and economic programs. Furthermore, the finding s will hel p to a larger extent th e community , NGOs/CBOs, governmen t and othe r stakeholder s i n adjustin g an d redirectin g resource s t o th e socia l an d economic programs. 2.5. Research Objectives 2.1.1.Main Objective To capacitat e street children so that they can undertake their own life . 2.1.2.Specific Objective 1. Identificatio n of street children. 2. Identificatio n of existing traditional systems of caring and supporting vulnerable/street children. 2.1.3.Research Questions 1. I s there any relationship between street children and such factors, as orphanage, paren t divorce , poverty, rural - urban migration and poor family planning? 2. I s there any existing traditional system, which takes care and support vulnerable children in the study area? 17 3. I s there any possibility to improve training, care and support of street children in the study area? 2.6. Limitation The major limitation to the project study is time and financial constraint s (funding). The stud y i s confine d to a sampl e o f only thre e wards du e t o th e fac t tha t time allocated t o cove r th e cours e an d fiel d work , dat a collection , dat a analysi s and writing of the final report and presentation was limited. 2.7. Organization of the Study The study is divided int o seven chapters. Chapte r one covers the Communit y need assessment, whil e chapte r tw o discusse s proble m identification , chapte r thre e reviews literatur e (theoretical , empirica l an d policy ) relate d t o stree t children. Chapter fou r describe s th e methodolog y used , whil e chapte r fiv e describe s implementation o f th e project . Chapte r si x presents Monitoring , Evaluatio n and Sustainability and chapter seven makes the conclusion and recommendations. 18 CHAPTER THREE 3.0 LITERATUR E REVIEW 3.1. Overview This chapter review s the literatur e o f different aspect s related to street children. The chapter i s divided into three sections. The first section offers theoretica l review, the second section reviews empirically and the third section reviews policy. 3.2. Theoretical Review The problem o f street childre n is a world phenomenon . I t ha s grow n all over th e world, an d particularly in developing countries. Man y studie s hav e addresse d thi s issue, trying to focus on reasons behind it. It is certainly not a new phenomenon, bu t because of the increased number of street children, we are under pressure to address it. Severa l factors contribut e t o the increas e i n number o f street children, includin g the socioeconomi c an d livin g condition . Previousl y extende d famil y lifestyl e provided voluntaril y supporting an d car e fo r childre n who los t thei r parents . But nowadays th e spiri t to assistin g these children has deteriorate d henc e the children decide to migrate to towns and streets. Life in the streets without protection expose s the children to a number o f problems such as diseases, violenc e and sexual abuse, in turn leadin g to sprea d o f HIV/AIDS t o these children. Thus th e magnitud e o f the street children problem continue s t o gro w attracting mor e studie s t o investigat e i n detail and offer possible remedies. Despite th e proble m o f street children increasing worldwide every day , i t is more critical in developing countries, Tanzania being no exception. The existence of many 19 factors i n developing countries favour s th e increas e i n street childre n than i n the developed countries. Som e of the factors include HIV/AIDS, divorce, poverty, rural - urban migration and low use of family planning methods. HIV/ AIDS , cause s man y death s o f parents i n the community , something whic h leaves children orphans. Normally these orphans are looked after by relatives such as grandmother, uncle , and othe r relative s in the clan . Formall y these relatives could manage to take care of the orphans because the problem affected onl y few people in the clan but nowadays deaths of clan members occur more than expected, causing a sort of burden to relatives of the deceased , somethin g which leads to the failure of caring fo r orphan s henc e th e nee d o f assistanc e from th e community . Thes e difficulties o f life o n their guardians caus e som e children to go to town to do child labour fo r survival . AID S orphan s substantiall y escalat e th e populatio n of street children. In Africa, an increasingly common cause is AIDS. (http://en.wMpedia.org/wiki/Street_children (2006:1)) Divorce, i s anothe r facto r whic h cause s stree t childre n in the community . These children lose the directio n of life afte r thei r father an d mother decide s to divorce. The childre n decide t o liv e unde r car e o f father o r mother , bu t other s sen d their children to their relatives such as grandmother. This again leads to the difficulties in the lives of children in terms of food, shelter and other essential needs. Some - times these children decide to go back to their fathers or mothers but realize that there is no proper care . "Famil y disruption , in the for m o f death , desertion , separation , an d divorce, has shrun k famil y siz e stil l further , ofte n resultin g in poor, single-parent , 20 mother-headed households . Thi s leave s childre n vulnerable, and wit h th e genera l absence o f community and governmental support, they have few options in times of crisis other than life on the street", (http://findarticles.eom/p/articles/ (2006:3)) HIV / AIDS , i n the communit y increase th e burde n o f poverty i n the famil y an d community i n general throug h increasin g dependant children . The famil y fail s t o keep enough food t o cater fo r large number of children in the family . Als o having large numbe r o f children the famil y fail s t o accommodat e al l family membe r fo r basic needs such as food, education, health, clothes, and shelter. "In Latin America, a common cause i s abandonment b y poor families unable to fee d al l their children" (http://en.wikipedia.Org/wiki/Stteet_children2006:l)) Rural - Urban Migration emanates street children because, i n developing countries urban area s ar e mor e develope d tha n rura l areas . Urba n area s hav e goo d infrastructures, goo d communicatio n facilities , goo d socia l service s an d goo d recreation service s compare d t o rura l areas . Thes e goo d service s i n urba n areas encourage peopl e i n rural, including childre n to migrate for m rura l to urba n areas with the expectation that they could get good life. "Movement is the result of both a desire for a better life and a wish to escape from a very limited rural economy. Rural to urban migration may include entire families, men alone, or children. Children may migrate in order to support their poverty-stricken families". After reaching town their expectations becom e negativ e b y realizing difficultie s o f life henc e som e children decide to engage in child labour and become street children. (http://www.findarticles.eom/p/articles/ (2006:2)) 21 Low us e o f family plannin g method als o i s anothe r facto r whic h generate s large number of street children. Looking at the above factor the reasons of difficulties of life i n the famil y an d communit y is th e increasin g number o f dependants in the family an d community. For example, some families hav e 6 to 8 children, if father and mother die and these children decide to live with their uncle who has 4 children, the siz e of uncle's famil y wil l increas e t o 1 0 up to 1 2 children. Thi s increase s a burden to the uncle and hard life in the family. Hence some children decide to go to town to find child work and become street children. 3.3. Empirical Review The proble m of street childre n i s generall y on th e increas e worldwide . I n 1981, United Nations pointed out about 40 million street children. Although the number of street children decreased to 30 million in the year 1986, the figure has risen up again between 8 0 to 10 0 million stree t children in 2005 as indicated by WHO, UNICE F and Child Hope. The above figuresare according to Maha Ghobashi, Maissa Shawk, and Ima n A l Tahlaw i i n (http://www.aucegypt.edu/src/pdr/Research Briefs/014 , (2005:1)). Romania has an estimated 6,000 children living on the streets. "Our team works daily with them to identify childre n at risk before they are irreparably damaged by street culture. Childre n ar e admitte d to ou r safe hous e "Cas a Pistruiatul". Th e aim is to integrate them back into mainstream education. We also work long-term with family support programmes to reunite children with their families - where this is possible". Transition to a free market economy has lef t Romania a staggering 8 times poorer 22 than 1 0 years ag o wit h 44% of Romanians living i n poverty. However, this figure rises t o 80 % i n rura l area s o f th e Nort h Eas t wher e w e work . Thi s ha s ha d a devastating effec t o n famil y life . Facin g extrem e poverty , man y parents resort t o home-made alcohol. Their children face the resulting brutality and a life of enforced begging o r stealing . Mor e an d mor e childre n are runnin g awa y t o escap e thes e hardships. "The children migrate via the railway network and congregate i n large city stations. Most children admitted to our house have a history of abuse at home. Historically, the stat e has onl y intervene d onc e a chil d i s in trouble wit h th e polic e and has a criminal record. For the childre n to have any chance of a healthy future, thi s is too late". Sinc e its inception, the projec t ha s rescue d a total of 367 children from the streets of Bacau. Th e youngest o f these was fou r years old . Of these children, 63 have bee n reunite d wit h thei r families , 9 0 hav e bee n fostere d wit h Romania n families, 1 8 have been adopted by Romanians and 70 have remained with us at the safe house unti l they have left wit h a job and accommodation. Sadly, 110 childre n have run away. The frequent "run- a ways" are usually the older children who have been on the street s a long time and have migrated to Bacau from elsewhere. Their independence and , often, substanc e abuse , makes it difficult fo r them to adapt to a more regulate d life . W e have 1 6 childre n currently residen t wit h us" . D r John Chandler, PhD British Executive Services Overseas, monitoring report June 2002) in (http://wwwelifflmdforromania.co.UK/romaniastreet childre n detailed.htm. 2005: 1). 23 Efforts hav e bee n don e regardin g thi s proble m i n different part s of the world . In Romania there is a charity organization engaged in helping a wide range of groups in need, suc h a s stree t children , the sick , elderl y an d destitut e communities . "This project i s run by a great team of dedicated young Romanians. Every day they patrol the street s of "Bacau" North - Eastern Romania , a major railwa y hub, lookin g for new faces amon g the homeless children . The aim is to intervene a s soon as possible before th e youn g runaways ge t to o use d t o lif e o n the streets" . Dr John Chandler, PhD British Executive Services Overseas monitoring report June 2002) in (http://wwweliffundforromania.co.UKyromania stree t childre n detailed.ht m (2005:1)). Ethiopia counts one of the largest populations of orphans in the world: 13 per cent of children throughout th e countr y are missing one or both parents. This represents an estimated 4.6 million children - 800,00 0 of whom were orphaned by HIV/AIDS. The country ha s see n a stead y increas e i n the numbe r o f children becoming orphane d because o f AIDS . I n th e past , famine, conflic t and othe r disease s were th e mai n factors that claimed the lives of parents. UNICEF, in partnership wit h federal and regional HIV/AIDS Prevention and Control Offices, a s well as government ministries , is responding to the needs of orphans and vulnerable childre n i n Ethiopi a throug h collaboration s wit h non-governmenta l organizations, an d yout h an d community-base d organizations . Ther e ar e aroun d 10,000 Anti-AID S Club s i n th e country , an d UNICE F Ethiopi a see s thes e partnerships a s the most efficient way to reach children who are infected or affecte d 24 by HIV/AIDS. The above quotation is according to Sabine Dolan contributed to this report from New York in, ( http://www.umcef.org^infobycountry/ethiopia 3078 3 .html.2005:1) UNICEF i s als o tryin g to reduc e children' s vulnerabilit y to HI V by ensuring that they have access to their rights to health, education, equality and protection. Children have becom e th e mos t vulnerabl e an d most pron e grou p t o b e infecte d wit h HIV. This is particularly true of adolescent girl s and young women - thos e aged 15-2 4 who constitute betwee n 4 0 an d 5 0 per cen t of all ne w infections. "Th e Stree t has been my home since I can remember. I t has been more than one year since I moved here (Bahr Dar) and all this time, I have not seen one good thing about living on the street. Everything is horrible," says 14-year-ol d Mandefro Kassa, who grew up as an orphan on the streets of Woreta, a provincial town in Ethiopia. The above quotation is accordin g t o Sabin e Dola n contribute d t o th e repor t from New Yor k i n http://www.umcef.org/iffobycountry/ethiopia_30783.html.2005:1 In Nairobi, Kenya , "at leas t 30,00 0 homeless childre n roam the city . This destitute population i s expectin g t o gro w a t a n estimate d rat e o f 1 0 percen t annually . I n Nairobi, Stree t childre n spen d thei r day s begging , scavenging , sniffin g glu e an d engaging in petty theft". (http://www.populationaction.org/securitydemomphic/pdfs/SecurityDemogra c hapter6.pdf 2005 : 65). In Tanzania, we estimated 730 , 000 AID S orphan s who are being cared for by extended family members . (http://www.aucegypt.edu/src/pdr/Research Briefs/01 4 Mah a Ghobashi.pdf#searc h =Tanzania%20street%20children%20data 2005:6) . , , 25 However, man y carer s ar e to o old , young o r il l to mee t th e need s o f orphane d children. This results t o a big number o f orphans movin g to urban street s for their livelihood. Fo r exampl e i n Dodoma, the Tanzania n administrativ e capita l has it s share of street children. Even more alarmin g is that the risin g number o f working children is a new phenomenon in Tanzania. Although reliable statistics ar e rare, availabl e information suggests that the number of stree t childre n remains extremel y high . Ther e ar e approximatel y 3,00 0 stree t children today livin g in streets of Dodoma while available statistics indicat e that in 1994 there were only 1,000 street children. (http://www.aucegypt.edu/src/pdr/Research_Briefs/014 Mah a Ghobashi.pdftfsearc h =Tanzania%20street%20children%20data 2005:6) . t , In Arush a and Kilimanjaro Region , Tanzania there is a project whic h provides care and suppor t fo r vulnerable children . The project i s a new initiative for Mkombozi that combines its previous work of providing care services for street children with a new focus o n testing different approache s t o working with vulnerable children and HIV orphans . Working with children and youth on the streets, with their families and in a residential care setting the project will document what works well and with what groups o f children . We hop e tha t thi s stud y wil l contribut e t o improve d socia l services provisio n to vulnerabl e childre n i n Tanzania . Additionally , th e suppor t services provided by the project to street children and HIV orphan s wil l relieve them from abus e and change behaviour to become responsible young adults. 26 During it s initia l phas e of 3 years the projec t wil l directl y impac t upo n ove r 73 0 children an d yout h i n Arusha an d Kilimanjar o Regions . "Thes e youn g peopl e ar e vulnerable eithe r because they spend time o n the street s or have been orphaned by HIV/AIDS. Th e pilo t projec t wil l develo p pioneerin g procedure s t o foste r car e programme an d th e placin g o f vulnerabl e childre n wit h carers . Mkomboz i wil l respond to the psychosocial and physical needs of street children in a residential care centre and on the streets". (http//www.mkombozi.org/our-library/report/2005/BBBS_kilimanjaro_2pg. 1) . In Ruvuma region, th e numbe r of vulnerable childre n is increasing yea r after year. For example , i n 2001 orphans were 4, 764, Disabled 1,735 an d Street children 94. In 2003 the numbe r of orphans was 6,492 , Disable d 1,98 3 an d stree t children 473. In 2004 the number of orphans was 13,225 , Disabled 2,057 and street children 474, and in 200 5 th e number s o f orphan s ar e 13,006 , Childre n with disabilitie s 5,69 5 and street childre n 479 . (Chil d Surviva l Protection an d Developmen t (CSPD ) Annua l Reports 2005: 60). Songea Municipa l is leadin g i n Ruvum a regio n b y havin g man y Stree t childre n numbering 468 , followe d b y Tundur u Distric t whic h ha s 11 ; Songe a rura l an d Mbinga District s hav e n o stree t childre n i n thei r areas . Source : (Chil d Surviva l Protection and Development (CSPD ) Annual Reports 2005: 60). 27 3.4. Policy Review All ove r the world there are a lot of policies related to the development of children. These policies help to protect children out of various problems which can affect them or the community . The policies help to control various issues related to the social , economic, and cultural life. For example, in China the policy lies on family planning; Poster of Chinese birth control policy with the slogan "sweet achievement" What i s commonly known as th e One-chil d Polic y i n the Wes t is a term used to describe th e birt h control policies by the governmen t o f the People' s Republi c o f China. The term is based on a popular misconception that the birth control policy in China, (literally "planne d birth") requires all couples in mainland China to have no more than one child. In reality, having one child has been promoted as an ideal, and the limit has been strongly enforced in urban areas; the actual implementation varies from locatio n to location . In mos t rura l areas , familie s are allowe d to hav e two children, if the first child is female. Second bom children are subject to birth spacing (usually 3 or 4 years) . Additiona l childre n result i n fines, o r mor e frequentl y th e families are required to pay economic penalties, and can not receive bonus from the birth control program. Some children who are in one-child family pa y less than the children in other families. The policies are controversial , both inside and outside o f China. Traditionally , the majority of Asian children have been subject to intense education, and in some cases, over-achievement. I n th e 1990's , urba n childre n became mor e involve d i n extracurricular weekend/after schoo l activities such as piano, violin, drawin g lessons, or some sort of a board game. To the cultural backdrop of an emphasis of achievement 28 in education, many parents depend on their only child as their face-providing support in public. To add to the problem, many parents of only one child were inadequately educated , and were ofte n dissatisfie d with their places i n society, and naturally, pushed their children to do better, so that they would not have the same fate. Chinese education is highly standardized, and the workload is immense. The overall grades of students are often displaye d for the entir e clas s to view, often addin g to the guil t and low selfesteem o f those who are les s proficient in academics. Their parents, in turn, fill u p their weeken d schedule s with tutor s an d prep-classes , allowin g n o fre e time . (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/one chil d polic y 2005:2) American researchers, wh o traveled to Chin a in the 1970' s durin g the lat e Cultural Revolution (1966-1976) , foun d tha t there were numerou s conference s i n factorie s and i n healt h center s abou t th e importanc e o f famil y plannin g an d use s o f contraceptives. I n th e Cultura l Revolution , th e People' s Republi c of China bega n implementing women's health care policy. It is individualistic in each case but most people follow the on e chil d policy. In some instances th e male or female woul d be sterilized, o r mor e commonl y abortio n wa s recommende d (Wegman , 193:222) . Healthcare was something that women workers are entitled too. It was required that every femal e worke r i n Chin a receive s urinalysi s an d systemati c vagina l examinations every year (Wegman, 1973:222). Tanzania has implemente d plans an d taken certai n steps aimed at promotin g child development. These steps, to mention a few, include provision and strengthening of 29 maternal an d Chil d care , establishmen t o f pre - schoo l and provisio n of primary education for all. Other steps taken include ratification of the U N Conventio n on the Rights of the Child, signing the OA U charter on the rights of children; the enactmen t and revie w of laws aimed a t promotin g and protecting th e right s an d interest s o f children; the preparation an d implementation of the National Programme o f Action concerning child survival, protection and development in the 1990s. The Governmen t ha s create d a specia l Ministr y t o coordinat e chil d developmen t programme an d encourag e no n - governmenta l organization s an d individual s to establish centres for children in difficult circumstances ; to set up special schools and institutions t o cate r fo r childre n wit h particula r problems ; t o se t u p voluntar y associations t o serv e an d defen d children ; and to establis h juvenile courts s o that those suspected o f breaking the law are dealt with in such a way that their status as children is not violated. (Ministry of Community Development Women Affairs and Children (1996:2-3)). The policy sho w that children in Tanzania constitute mor e tha n 4 6 percent o f the population an d tha t o n averag e a househol d i n Tanzania has a t leas t 6 children. Therefore, childre n ar e a n importan t segmen t o f society . Th e problem s facin g children ar e largel y similar; they diffe r fro m rural to urba n environment . I n urban areas where there is overcrowding and a diversity of traditions and customs, children are face d b y problems o f early employment , lac k of moral direction, and lac k of communal responsibilit y for thei r upbringing , living o n the streets , temptations t o 30 participate i n illegal businesses , abuse , an d involvement in drug abuse, poo r living conditions as well as problems of travelling to and fromschool. (Ministry of Community Development Women Affairs and Children (1996:4)). To cur b the above problems, various models were introduced in different areas in the country to overcome the problem of orphans, which is currently contributing more to street children. Some internationa l NGO s suppor t project s suc h a s "Humaliza " in Kagera an d Regiona l Psychosocia l Initiativ e (REPSSI ) fo r Childre n an d yout h affected b y HIV/AIDS , whic h i s sponsore d b y Swis s and Swedis h developmen t authorities. REPSS I i s no w th e larges t competenc e networ k i n th e region . "The various levels and elements o f our intervention strategy, whic h differ s fro m one area to another depending on priorities, include the following: Strengthening o f familie s whic h hav e take n i n AID S orphans , strengthenin g o f village communities , Acces s t o educatio n an d healthcare , Actio n plan s o f governments, Educatio n an d information , (Ovartisfoimdationxom/en/projec 2005. Htm: 5 ) "Even with the combine d efforts o f NGOs like St. Joseph's an d International Chil d Care, there are stil l thousand s of street children who wil l reac h adulthoo d (o r die trying) without ever having had a chance to be a child. They will fal l asleep on a pile of rags on a dirt floor and awake to a world that barely acknowledges their existence. It is a grim reality of life i n Haiti, but thankfully one that has no t gon e unnoticed. Although NGOs cannot reach every child, they will continue to help as many as they 31 can, one by one. As long as someone takes notice of them, the street children of Haiti will not suffer invisibly", ( http://www./dpi.net/ 2005:5) The implementation of child Development Policy in Tanzania is as follows:Despite effort mad e b y the Governmen t to improv e education, health service s and household food security, many children in the country are stil l prone to diseases and malnutrition, whic h mean s tha t the y d o no t gro w physicall y an d mentall y a s stipulated in the policy. Child developmen t i s affecte d b y gende r biase d custom s an d traditions . Childre n themselves ar e blindl y adoptin g corrup t foreig n behaviours becaus e of the lac k of any syste m t o contro l these behaviours. Parent s prefe r t o educat e boys tha n girls which lead to un equal distribution of power in the society. The moral development of the child is affected by family conflicts, the use of abusive language b y parents, marriage brea k down , adult involvemen t in harming children (defilement, harassment , abuse , rape ) especiall y gir l children , overcrowdin g in homes which entails parents and children living in the same home or some children sleeping in the neighbourin g houses and parents having no time to pay attention to bringing up their children. The above outlined theoretical, empirical and policy reviews show that the problem of street children exists internationally, nationally and locally. The problem escalates and ha s th e impac t o f increase d numbe r o f street children , which ca n affec t th e 32 communities and the natio n in general. Deliberate measures must b e taken to curb the situation. Some of the measures to arrest the problem are; To establish a system of carin g for stree t childre n by identifyin g them an d recognizin g their need s and enabling them t o engag e in vocational training for their betterment ; To encourag e traditional syste m o f car e an d suppor t o f childre n in difficul t circumstances ; T o educate and mobilize parents, guardians, communities and institutions to understan d and prioritize the implementatio n of child right; and to revisit, review and abandon outdated laws , then pass appropriate law s and take ste m actio n against violator s o f children's rights. Thus this study wil l loo k at the increas e of street children in Songea Municipal and finding mechanism to help street children through such means as Vocational training in orde r t o sustai n th e bes t o f thei r lif e an d identifyin g th e existin g traditional systems o f caring and supportin g o f vulnerable/street childre n in the communities. The study aim s at coming out wit h sustainabl e way s of taking care an d support of street children. The research methodology is reported in fourth chapter. 33 CHAPTER FOUR 4.0 RESEARC H METHODOLOGY 4.1. Overview This chapter cover s methodology used in this study and has eight sections. The first section offers the description of the study area with regard to location and the criteria used fo r selectio n o f wards. Th e secon d sectio n cover s th e researc h desig n used , while the thir d section is about the samplin g procedure used . Sectio n four presents method of data collection and section five describes preparation an d instrument use d in the study . Section six offers descriptio n about measurement of variables. Section seven narrates data processing and analysis. The last section offers generalizatio n of the findings. 4.2. Location The Songe a Municipa l share s borders wit h Namtumbo an d Songe a Distric t to th e East an d b y Songe a Distric t t o th e North , Wes t an d South . Th e Municipa l i s characterized by undulating hills particularly around Matogoro Mountain and gently sloping hills to the North and West with altitudes rangin g from 980 to 110 0 meters above se a level . Th e Municipa l experience s temperature s ranging from 25.6 ° C to 31.4 ° C with average annual rainfal l o f 1263.7m m which falls between Decembe r and March. The Municipal covers an area of 750.055 sq.k m of which 659.95 sq.km is arable land . The Municipal i s divided into two divisions and thirteen wards . The Municipal ha s a n estimate d populatio n o f 146,60 0 people . Th e population growth rate is 3 percent per year. Population density is 371 persons per sq. km. 34 There are various Employment sectors which act as magnet fo r immigration of rural population within the Region. (National Bureau of Statistics 2003: 4). 43. Internal validity In order to ensure accuracy and quality of the study, both nominal and ordinal scales were used in the study. Nominal rating scale was used in categorizing responses by respondents i n lin e with th e grou p t o whic h the y belon g suc h a s geographical locations lik e ward, division, district , region and group based o n sex and religion. Ordinal scal e was used to rank the reasons for children to be in the streets. Before conducting surve y pre-testing wa s conducte d an d th e necessar y recommendation s were adjusted. The surve y too k 1 2 day s t o intervie w 66 respondent s an d gende r issue s wer e considered. Approximatel y hal f a n hou r wa s use d t o complet e intervie w one respondent. Fiv e day s wa s use d t o intervie w 43 children , fou r day s wa s used to interview 1 4 leaders and three days to interview 9 community members in Songea Municipal. 4.4. Research Design Descriptive surve y desig n wa s use d i n orde r t o expoun d th e situatio n o f street children i n the stud y are a couple d with th e causa l factor s present . Als o a cros s sectional researc h metho d ha s bee n use d t o collec t th e data . I n cros s - sectiona l survey design, data is collected at a single point in time (Creswell, 1994). This design is favourable because of the limite d tim e for collecting data. Accordin g to Babbie 35 (1990) and Bailey (1978) this method is suitable for a descriptive study as well as for the knowing the relationship between and among variables used in the study. 4.5. Sampling Procedures A sampl e o f three (3 ) Ward s ou t o f the Municipal' s 1 3 Ward s wa s selecte d t o conduct the study on street children. The Wards selected were Lizaboni, Mfaranyaki and Bombambili, mainly based on the high number of street children. 4.6. Population The population of the study consists of all street children in the 1 3 Wards, the leaders and the community members in Songea Municipality. 4.7. Sampling frame From purposely selected wards , a lis t o f street / vulnerabl e children was obtained from the GS M an d KIWOHEDE leaders. From that list, it was possible to prepare a sampling frame. The researcher compile d a list of those street / vulnerable children who have been involved in the study. It was from this sampling frame that a random sample of respondents to be interviewed was taken using a table of random numbers. 4.8. The Sample Size A sample siz e of 66 respondents was preferred t o the presen t the population . Te n street children from eac h War d wer e selecte d fo r intervie w in Songea Municipal . Random selection was done. Nine (9 ) vulnerable children, three (3) in each of the selected Wards, four (4) street children attending vocational training, 12 leaders four (4) in each Ward, nine (9) community members three (3) in each selected Ward, one NGO leade r an d on e Municipa l leade r wer e selecte d i n th e sample . Gende r consideration attaine d prominenc e i n sampl e selection . Sampl e selectio n wa s carefully done to avoid bias. 36 4.9. Validity of the Survey Instrument Before administerin g the survey , th e surve y instrument s wer e submitte d t o th e municipal Socia l Welfar e office r t o g o throug h an d mak e necessar y recommendations an d adjustment s read y t o b e used . Th e validit y o f th e surve y instruments wa s eviden t durin g the executio n of the exercis e by the efficien t and effective response of the people interviewed to the questions asked. 4.10. Pre - testing of the instruments The first draft of the questionnaire was protested in the field by a random sample of 10 street children, three vulnerable children, four street children attending vocational training, four ward leader, three community members, one KIWOHEDE teacher and one Municipa l socia l welfar e officer . Th e pre-test sample was not include d i n the final sampl e o f 6 6 respondents . Pre-testin g wa s don e t o tes t th e validit y o f questionnaire and thereafter, necessary adjustments an d corrections were done to the instrument before its final administration. 4.11. Data Collection 4.11.1. Primary Data A structured interview schedule was used to collect primary data from respondents (appendix 10, 11 and 2). The interview schedule consisted of closed ended questions for item s lik e age , sex , marita l status an d educationa l level . Th e ope n - ende d questions wer e used fo r solicitin g respondents ' view s and/or option s pertaining to street children . Focuse d grou p discussio n wit h communit y member s an d ke y informants were also sources of primary data. 37 4J 1.2. Secondary Data Secondary dat a wer e collecte d by goin g through relevan t document s whic h wer e obtained fro m th e stud y ward s office , Songe a Municipa l Counci l office , GSM , KIWOHEDE office , Communit y Economic Development (CED) / Open University of Tanzani a (OUT) library an d th e headquarter s o f the Ministr y o f Communit y Development Gende r an d Children . Thes e involve d collectin g informatio n from different source s includin g books, journals and official reports , in libraries, NGOs, relevant government office s and other institutions. The electronic database such as the CD - ROM s and Web sites were also explored. 4.11.3. Data Collection Procedures Fieldwork wa s conducted during the perio d of July 200 6 by the researcher . Muc h care and foresight were given to legitimizing research in the eyes of the ward leaders, children a s wel l a s part y an d governmen t leader s i n th e Municipal . Sinc e th e researcher had worked as a community development officer fo r about 22 years in the region, it was not difficult to establish rapport. The approval and promised support of the GSM , Municipa l counci l office , war d leaders and street children were obtained prior to conducting interviews. Al l th e interviews were conducted in Kiswahili, the language easily understood by both enumerators and respondents. The researche r manage d t o b e i n each o f the thre e ward s (appendi x 9) . Eligibl e respondents were interviewed through the guidanc e of the tw o GS M staff s and/o r leaders wh o introduced the researche r t o th e respondents . O f the 6 6 interviewin g schedules meant for streets/vulnerable children , community members, ward leaders, all o f them were properly completed, constituting a return rate of 100 percent. As 38 much as possible the interviews were conducte d i n privacy, the place wher e th e respondents fel t fre e an d comfortable an d lasted fo r an hour each . Whe n th e interviewing proces s wa s complete d in one war d the researcher move d to next, usually spending one day in each ward. Further - more, data was collected from10 respondents includin g communit y development office , GSM , KIWOHEDE , socia l welfare, Municipal Council staffs an d RAS office throug h direct discussion with the researcher. Th e researche r als o reviewe d the researc h record s an d othe r relevan t information from th e Goo d Samarita n Missio n an d municipa l communit y development files. It was also necessary to compile data from observation of some of participant home, bus stand, and market centre in surveyed wards. 4.11.4. Data Processing A majo r concern in preparing data for analysis was to summarize the data fromthe bulky ke y informant' s questionnaire , childre n questionnaire , war d leade r questionnaire and community member questionnaire to single sheet of paper. To this, data were paraphrased whil e preserving the original details and original meanings as accurately a s possible. Data originall y reporte d i n Kiswahil i wer e translate d int o English and those written with obvious grammatical mistakes were corrected. 4.11.5. Data Analysis Data collected from th e respondent s were edited, coded, summarised and analyzed using the statistical package for social science (SPSS) computer programme. In this statistical package, descriptive statistics as frequencies an d percentage were used to 39 analyze th e problem o f street children . Th e analysi s wa s guide d b y the study objectives and descriptive analysis was used. 4.11.6. Qualitative Data analysis Consultation with Good Samaritan Mission (GSM) staffs helpe d to identify some of the information and data required. Preliminary analysis of data was done in the field . The record of each interview was inspected for its accuracy immediately after i t was completed, that is, before proceedin g to another respondent. The researcher himself immediately after the field data collection verified the data in order to make sure that the intervie w schedule s ha d been filled accuratel y an d completed. Open-ende d responses were summarized ; similaritie s as well a s differences i n responses were reviewed an d noted . Th e complete d intervie w schedule s wer e code d fo r further analysis. Th e information collecte d throug h verba l discussio n wit h differen t respondents suc h a s views, suggestion s wa s thu s analyse d i n detail wher e the recorded dialogu e brok e dow n informatio n int o smalle r meaningfu l unit s of information or themes and tendencies. 4.11.7. Quantitative data analysis All quantitativ e analysi s reporte d i n this stud y wa s conducte d usin g statistica l procedures fro m th e statistical packag e fo r social science s (SPSS) . Descriptive statistics suc h a s frequencies, percentages an d reason s wer e use d t o obtain the variability and central tendencies o f variables. The data collected through interview were compiled , summarised an d analysed . Th e results , i n the form o f frequency distribution tabl e wit h number o f respondents fallin g i n a particular attribut e and respective percentage s were shown . The attributes analysed i n this sub-programm e were the genera l characteristics o f respondents such as age, education level, religion 40 and sex ; Background of the stree t children, such as siz e of household, head o f the family, potential relatives, and cause for street children; also, life of street children in town, activitie s an d wher e the y sleep . Th e Vocationa l Trainin g par t include d willingness to attend vocational training, type of training selected, type of facilitation they like and existence of traditional methods. 4.11.8. External Validity This study wa s conducte d i n only three wards i n Songea Municipal . However , the findings ca n b e generalize d beyon d th e ward s studie d an d indee d beyon d Songe a Municipal and Ruvuma Region. This is because the situation from which the findings were derived is not unique to the three wards of Songea Municipal only. Specifically, with respect to street children: 1. Th e structur e i n th e Municipa l ward s studie d reflect s th e situatio n whic h is prevalent i n most urban wards all over Tanzania. 2. Th e methods applied i n the stud y ward s ar e no t specifi c to th e Municipa l bu t applicable all over the country. Therefore i t is considered that the implications drawn from this study will have direct reference t o the studie d municipal wards and beyond. In summary chapter thre e has described the methodology including location of the study area, research design, data collection and analysis. The findings of the study are presented in the fourth chapter. 41 4.12. Limitation on Internal and External Validity 4.12.1. Fund Due to the fact that, money is scarce and limited resource, it was not easy to cover a large sample. 4.12.2. Response of respondents It was difficult to get genuine answers especially from street children with small age. 4.12.3. Access to data Some few data were difficult to obtain fromvarious sources due to confidentiality, such as reasons for divorce. 4.13. Discussion of Results 4.13.1. Overview This sectio n examine s th e genera l characteristic s o f respondents whic h ma y influence the sustainable way of reducing number of street children i n towns. The characteristics examined are respondent's educational level, age, sex, religion, size of household, head of the family , potential relatives, cause of street children, activities of street children, where they sleep, willingness to attend vocational training, type of training selected, type of facilitation they like. These characteristics are described in this section to give the general profile of the study population in relation to problem of street children. 42 4.13.2. Street Children Education Level Result i n Table 4. 1 show s tha t 70 % of street childre n interviewe d ha d primary education, 20 % had no education, 4.5 % attendin g COBE T classes , an d 4.5% ar e orphans, secondar y student s wh o had no school fees . Th e stud y realize d that , facilitating stree t childre n throug h vocationa l trainin g ha s been foun d possibl e as 70.5 % of the stree t children interviewed were STD VII leavers and 4.5 % attained complementary Basi c Education Training (COBET). For secondary schoo l students we made a discussion with Mfaranyaki and Bombambili Ward Executive Officer to find schoo l fee s fro m differen t Donor s an d NGO s suc h a s Songe a Municipa l Council, Regiona l Facilitatin g Agenc y (RFA) , Membe r o f Parliament fund , and NGOs and it was possible for both students to continue with secondary education . Table 4-1: Stree t children Education Level Education Level Number of Respondents % of Respondents No Formal Education 9 20.5 Primary Education 31 70.5 Secondary Education 2 4.5 COBET 2 4.5 Total 44 100.0 Source: Survey data, 2006 4.13.3. Respondents Age Results (Table 4.2) Indicate the age of street children interviewed. The age of 13 - 1 7 years (79.5% ) had more respondents, followe d by age 8-12 year s (20.5%) . Thi s shows that more street children have an age of 13 - 1 7 years the age in most cases 43 which students complet e standard seven and stay idle. To facilitate them in vocation training is possible. Table 4-2: Stree t children Age Age Number of Respondents % 8-12-Years 9 20.5 13-17-years 35 79.5 Total 44 100.0 Source: Survey data, 2006 4.13.4. Street children's Religions Results (Table 4.3) indicate that Christians were 56.8% an d Muslims were 43.2%. These result s sho w that al l street childre n belon g to religiou s families. Althoug h Christians are comparatively more than Muslims in the study areas, generally there is need for these religions to participate in taking care and facilitating stree t children. Also the religious groups must educate and support the communities in development ventures through faith and religious organization such as CARITAS. Table 4-3: Respondent Religion s Religion Number o f Respondents % Christian 25 56.8 Muslim 19 43.2 Total 44 100.0 Source: Survey data, 2006 44 4.13.5. Respondents sex y Results (Table 4.4) indicate that male street children were 61.4% and 38.6% female. These result s indicat e tha t bot h mal e an d femal e ar e engaging i n street children activities. T o assist these street children, in Songea Municipal there are two NGOs, the Goo d Samarita n Missio n (GSM ) and Kiota Wome n Healt h Developmen t (KIWOHEDE). Th e GS M provid e vocationa l trainin g to both mal e an d femal e children while KIWOHEDE provide education to female only. Table 4-4: Respondent s Sex Frequency Valid Percent Male 27 61.4 Female 17 38.6 Total 44 100.0 Source: Survey data, 2006 4.13.6. Young People Who Attended Vocational Training in GSM and KIHOWEDE from 2004 - 2006 In (Tabl e 4.5 ) Indicat e th e street childre n who go t vocationa l training from their centers ar e not traceable. Ou t o f 71 stree t children , wh o attende d Vocationa l Training fro m 200 4 t o 2005 i n KIHOWED E an d GSM , onl y 1 5 street children, which i s 21% practice Vocationa l skill s i n three Regions . They ar e three (3 ) i n Mbeya, , four (4) in Dar es Salaa m and eight (8) in Songea. That is why there is a need o f undertaking pos t managemen t o f street childre n eve n afte r completin g vocational training. 45 Table 4-5: Youn g People Who Attended Vocational Training in GSM and KIWOHEDE from 2004 - 2006 No. Of Vulnerabl e No. Of Street Children Total No. Of Vulnerable , Known No. Of Trained Children Attended Attended Vocational And Street Children Street Children Who Vocational Training Training Attended Vocational Practice Training Skills. Centre Year Training M F TOTAL M F TOTAL M F TOTAL M F TOTAL GSM 23 27 50 5 3 8 28 30 58 2 1 3 KIWOHEDE 0 240 240 0 10 10 0 250 250 0 4 4 GSM 30 26 56 12 8 20 42 34 76 3 4 7 KIWOHEDE 0 300 300 0 5 5 0 305 305 0 1 1 GSM 29 31 60 7 9 16 36 40 76 - - - KIWOHEDE 0 60 60 0 12 12 0 72 72 - - - SUB GSM 82 84 166 24 20 44 106 128 234 5 5 10 Total KIWOHED 0 600 600 0 27 27 • 0 627 627 0 5 5 82 684 766 24 47 71 106 755 861 5 10 15 2004 2005 2006 E GRAND TOTA L SOURCE: Songea Municipal Council Report June 2006. 4.13.7. Size of Household of Respondents Results in (Table 4.6) sho w that the majority o f street children, 45.5 % live i n the family o f 4 - 6 people, 38.6% live in the family o f 1-3 people and 15.9 % live in the family o f 7 - 9 people. Som e stree t childre n argue d tha t som e time s the y slee p without eatin g foo d o r they at e once per day. Althoug h there results sho w major problem of poverty, lack of family plannin g skills is also vivid in households in the study area. 46 Table 4-6: Siz e of Household Size of Household Number of % Respondents 1-3-People 17 38.6 4-6-People 20 45.5. 7-9-People 7 15.9 Total 44 100.0 Source: Survey data, 2006 4.13.8. Vulnerable children in family Results (Table 4.7) indicate that 77.8% of community members interviewed have one to three vulnerable childre n in their families and 22.2% have no vulnerable children in thei r families . This increase i n family size leads to hardshi p o f life i n terms of basic needs such as food, clothes, school fees and shelter. Table 4-7: Hav e Vulnerable Children in their families Number of Number of Vulnerable Children Respondents 0-Vulnerable 2 22.2 7 77.8 9 100.0 % Children 1-3-Vulnerable Children Total Source: Survey data, 2006 47 4.13.9. Head of the Household. Results (Tabl e 4.8) indicate that 29.5 % of street childre n interviewe d live i n th e house where mother is a head of the family, 20.5% live in the house where father is a head o f the family, 13.6 % live in the house wher e grandmothe r i s a head o f the family, 13.6 % live in the house where uncle is a head of the family, 13.6 % live in the house where brother is a head of the family, 4.5% live in the house where aunt is a head of the family,2.3% liv e in the house where sister is the head of the family and 2.3% live in the house where grandfather is a head of the family. Generally this result shows that 75% of street children live without father and 70.5% live without mother. Table 4-8: Hea d of Household Number of Respondents % Father 9 20.5 Mother 13 29.5 Grand Mother 6 13.6 Aunt 2 4.5 Uncle 6 13.6 Sister 1 2.3 Brother 6 13.6 Grand Father 1 2.3 44 100.0 Head of Household Total Source: Survey data, 2006 48 4.13.10. Close Relative Results (Tabl e 4.9) indicate that the close relative of most o f street children are; Uncle 29.5% , Grandmothe r 25% , Sister 11.4 % Cousin 9.1 % Step fathe r 9.1% Brother 4.5% and Grandfather 4.5%. Table 4-9: Clos e Relative Close Relative Number of Respondents % Uncle 13 29.5 Cousin 4 9.1 Grand Mother 11 25.0 Step Father 4 9.1 Step Mother 2 4.5 Brother 3 6.8 Sister 5 11.4 Grand Father 2 4.5 Total 44 100.0 Source: Survey data, 2006 4.13.11. Factors Contributing To the Emergency of StreetChildren Results (Tabl e 4.10 ) indicat e tha t povert y wa s earmarke d b y 54.5 % of th e respondents a s a majo r caus e o f stree t children . Mos t o f th e stree t childre n complained o f shortage o f food an d clothes, despit e th e fac t tha t 20.5 % of the interviewed childre n came fro m Mal e heade d household s an d 29.5% from Female headed households. (Table 4-8 above). 49 Annual report (200 3 - 2004 ) of street child i n Africa indicate d some of the factor s contributing to street children include "The stress of poverty, hunger, an d carrying adult responsibility on his small shoulders drove Moses away from his home and to the street s of Kitwe. A t night, he slep t rough in the marketplac e alon g with many other boy s an d girls . H e had becom e a stree t child , www.streetchildafrica.org.uk (2006:8) Also Pau l found himself i n the streets of Accra, Ghana's capital city, at the age of fourteen. Lik e s o many street children he was there as a result o f acute povert y in Akatsi, his home region. His family was too poor to keep him so he made his way to the street s o f Accr a t o tr y an d suppor t himself , www.streetchildafrica.org.uk (2006:23) Table 4-10: Factor Factors contributin s contributing Street children (Cause of Street Children) g Number of Respondents % street children Divorce 11 25.0 Poverty 24 54.5 Orphanage 8 18.2 Large Family 1 2.3 44 100.0 Total Source: Survey data, 2006 50 4.13.12. Place to Sleep. Results (Tabl e 4.11 ) indicat e tha t majorit y o f stree t childre n 79.5% slept home , 18.25% slept in streets and 2.3% slept in ghetto. Thi s result is contrary to the study conducted o n 10 0 boys from Alexandri a durin g the sprin g and summe r period of 1999-2000. The study showed that, majority of the children (94%) slept on the street while only 6% slept at home on a regular basis. E.M. Salem 1 and F. Ab d El-Lati f 2 in http;//www.emro.who, int/Publications/EMHJ/0801/socio, htm (200:1 ) This difference betwee n the street children in the study area and that of Alexandria may b e due to the fact that most street children in study area are not detached with their families as compared to those o f Alexandria. These results also show positive possibilities in applying traditional ways of rearing street children. Table 4-11: Plac e to Sleep Place to sleep Number of Respondents % Home 35 79.5 In street 8 18.2 Ghetto 1 2.3 Total 44 100.0 Source: Survey data, 2006 4.13.13. Activity in Town Results (Tabl e 4.12) indicat e that 60 % of street childre n are engage d i n carryin g luggage, 26.7% of all street children (about 100 % of female street children) engaged in se x work, and 13.3 % engaged i n pet business . Annua l report (200 3 - 2004 ) of street child Africa indicate d some street children story such as "Yolanda was on the 51 streets with her sister for three years. S o she returned to the streets and fell into the sex trad e i n a desperat e attemp t t o suppor t he r brother s an d sisters" . (www.streetchildafrica.org.uk: (2006:5)) . Therefore, al l female stree t children are at risk of getting HIV/AIDs and other sexually transmitted diseases (STD) . Table 4-12: Activit y in Town Activities in Town Number of Respondents % Pet business 4 13.3 Carrying Luggage 18 60.0 Sex 8 26.7 Total 30 100.0 Source: Survey data, 2006 4.13.14. Vocational Training Results found i n this stud y sho w that, street children have show n readiness t o be trained i n variou s discipline s such a s sewing , mechanic s an d COBET . Result s (Table 4.13 ) indicat e tha t 41.7 % o f stree t childre n lik e mechanics , 37.5 % lik e sewing, 16.7% like COBET and 4.2% like carpentry. 52 Table 4-13: Vocationa l Training Vocational Training Number of Respondents % Carpentry 1 4.2 Sewing 9 37.5 Mechanics 10 41.7 COBET 4 16.7 Total 24 100.0 Source: Survey data, 2006 4.13.15. Type of facilitation they like after completing vocational training and ready to establish economic groups. Results (Tabl e 4.14 an d Table 4.15) indicat e that 100 % respondents prefe r t o get working gear s afte r graduatin g vocationa l training an d the y ar e read y t o for m Economic Groups. Table 4-14: Typ e of Facilitation they like after completing Vocational raining Type of Facilitation Number of % Respondents Working Gears Source: Survey data, 2006 4 100.0 53 Table 4-15: Read y to Establish Economic Groups Ready to Establish Number of Economic Groups Respondents 4 Yes % 100.0 Source: Survey data, 2006 4.13.16. Traditional system used to care vulnerable/street children. Results (Table 4.16 and Table 4.17) indicate that 68.2% of street children show that there is no clear system o f taking care o f street/Vulnerable childre n against 77.8% from Communit y Members who responded tha t there is a system of taking care of street children. They mentioned the syste m of using close relatives, where children have lost all of their parents. This system has been in use for quite a long time and it is still in use in most of the developing countries. Bu t due to poverty, street children do not notice the differenc e an d see i t as if there is no traditional system of taking care of street children. Table 4-16: Car e of Street/Vulnerable children (Street children) Care of Number of Street/V ulnerable Respondents % children Yes 14 31.8 No 30 68.2 Total 44 100.0 Source: Survey data, 2006 54 Table 4-17: Traditio (Community) n System used to Care Vulnerable/Street Children Availability of Number of Traditional System Respondents % Yes 7 77.8 No 2 22.2 Total 9 100.0 Source: Survey data, 2006 The differen t opinio n betwee n stree t childre n an d communit y leader s o n th e existence o f traditiona l syste m o f takin g car e o f stree t childre n ma y b e du e t o dissatisfaction of street children to service offered b y those involved in the traditional system. Another reason ma y be the fact that, having low level of understanding du e to their young age, these children fail to perceive the presence of traditional systems of caring them. However the traditional systems of taking care of street children may not properl y wor k du e t o th e fac t tha t the clos e relative s wh o ar e i n existence ar e mainly Uncle .29.5% and Grandmother 25%, (Table 4-9 above). 4.14. Monitoring and Evaluation This section cover s th e monitorin g and evaluatio n procedure s where th e indicator s used fo r monitoring, type o f data; method use d to collec t data and analyz e data for evaluation was outlined. 55 4.14.1. Monitoring Monitoring o n research methodolog y aspect s was don e b y recordin g an d periodic analysis of information and data collected through intervie w schedule, focu s grou p discussion and observation. The information required to know during the Monitoring was what data to collect, when and who gathered th e data . I n so doing' it helped to provide the o n going picture of the research accordin g to plan. During the research , the monitoring indicators used were as follows: - Number of street children in the study area, - Number of street children attending vocational training, - Number of vocational centres facilitating street children, - Number of vulnerable children living in families, - Number of close relatives taking care of street children, - Number of street children per factor (Poverty, divorce, orphanage) , - Number of street children living in streets, - Number and variety of activities by street children, - Number of street children established economic groups, 4.14.2. Evaluation In this section the evaluation was conducted on the basis of research objectives . The reason fo r conductin g evaluatio n wa s t o chec k whethe r th e researc h i s conducte d according t o th e planne d objectives . Th e evaluatio n question s wer e accordin g t o research questionnair e (Se e Appendi x 10-12) . I n evaluatin g thi s projec t th e evaluation indicators were as follows: - Numbe r of families taking care of street children without stigmization, - Numbe r of families facilitated to take care of street children, 56 - Numbe r of street children in established vocational training, - Numbe r o f stree t childre n establishe d thei r ow n grou p economi c project s after acquiring training skills 57 CHAPTER FIVE 5.0 IMPLEMENTATIO N Under chapte r fou r th e stud y ha s pinpointe d th e cause s o f stree t childre n an d measures t o b e take n t o tackl e th e problem . Thi s chapte r discusse s ho w these recommendations can be implemented. Several strategies to solve the problem have been discussed. The output and product of this project is the establishment of some means o f reducing the rat e of generating stree t childre n an d the numbe r o f street children. Als o th e projec t aim s at facilitatin g th e increas e o f the numbe r o f street children enrolled for vocational training and the number of street children completing vocational training so that they may be made ready to stan d o n their own without returning back to the street. 5.1. Project Objectives 5.1.1. Main Objective To capacitat e stree t children wit h relevan t education and training so that they can undertake their own lif e independently. 5.1.2. Specific Objective 1. Training , care and support of street children 2. Provisio n of capital grand to graduate street children. 5.2. Products and Outputs The product s and outputs whic h will hav e been accomplished by April 200 7 are as follows; First, mor e tha n 3 0 stree t childre n wil l hav e bee n identified . Righ t no w Goo d Samaritan Missio n i s conductin g continuous researc h t o identif y stree t children . 58 Having identifie d them it wil l b e easy to take them to vocational training centres, complementary basi c educatio n trainin g (COBET ) programm e an d /o r giv e them assistance to enable them become self reliant so that they may not go back to street. Secondly, about 1 5 to 20 street children will b e trained in Good Samarita n Mission vocational trainin g centres. The y wil l b e traine d o n various skill s lik e carpentry , tailoring, importanc e o f group formatio n and development an d formatio n of small association and joining saving and credit co - operative s (SACCOs) . Th e skill wil l give the street children knowledge and enable them to apply it in order to improve their life standards . Als o group formation and SACCOs wil l enable them take credit to develop their skill s an d workshops after completin g their trainings. Thirdly, the Good Samarita n Missio n wil l conduc t regula r supervisor y visit s to trainee s afte r completing thei r training . Thi s wil l b e helpfu l becaus e trainee s wil l b e give n equipments an d encourage d t o ope n workshop s an d th e Goo d Samarita n Missio n supervisory teams will visi t the m and advice them on how best they ca n run their businesses and make their businesses profitable for betterment of their lives. 5.3. Project Planning The projec t pla n based o n the project objective s whic h are ; Identificatio n of street children, training, care and support of street children and provision of capital grant to graduate street children. 59 5.3.1. Implementation Plan The implementations plan for the above objectives as from May 2006 to April 2007 is as follows:Table 5.3-1: Objectiv e (1): Identification of Street Children s/no Activities 1. Preparation Of proposal to Donor (RFA/TACAIDS) Submit proposal to Donor 2. Resource needed Three personnel 3. Identification and verification of street children areas 4. Identification an categorization o children 5. Selection of street children to be facilitated. f stree d t Person responsible - CE D Studen t an d GSM Three personnel Transport Three Personnel Finance Stationeries Three personnel Stationeries - CE D Studen t an d GSM - CE D Studen t an d GSM Transport Three Personnel Finance - CE D Studen t an d GSM - CE D Studen t an d GSM 60 Table 5.3-2: Objectiv e (2):- Training, Care and Support Of Street Children s/n Activities Resource needed Person responsible Training o f stree t children o n grou p formation - One personnel -Stationeries - CE D Student an d GSM 0 1. Table 5.3-3: Objectiv e (3). Provision of Capital Grant to Graduate Street Children s/no Activities Resource needed 1. Professional categorizatio n of graduate street children Three - CE D Studen t and personnel GSM 2. Provision o f capital gran d in the form of working tools Three - CE D Studen t and personnel GSM 3. Supervision -Transport -Three Personnel -Finance 4. Monitoring and Evaluation Three - CE D Studen t and personnel GSM Person responsible - CE D Studen t and GSM 61 5.3.2. Inputs Indicator In the implementation of the above project various inputs will used as shown in table 5-4 below. Table 5.3-4: Projec t Goal: - To Capacitate Street Children So That They Can Undertake Their Own Life. S/NO OBJECTIVE 1. Identification of street children INPUTS - Transportatio n Tsh. 39,000.00. - Financ e Tsh. 1,039,000.00 - Thre e personnel. 2. Training, care and support of street children - Financ e Tsh. 16,000.00 - On e personnel. 3. Provision of capital grand to graduate street children. - financ e Tsh. 2,249,000.00 - Tw o Personnel 62 5.4. Staffing Pattern Table 5-5 below represents the Good Samaritan Mission staff pattern which will be dealing with street children. Table 5.4-1: Staffin g Pattern S/NO PROGRAM POSITION TRAINING NEED S SUPERVISORY R O L E RESPONSIBILITY 1. Identification o f street children Youth an d communit y - Training in research methodology worker 2. Training, car e an d suppor t of Youth an d communit y street children worker - Ensur e stree t childre n ar e identified. Training i n Communit y - T o ensur e stree t childre n Development o r short course in group are trained and well cared. formation and developmen t 3. Provision o f capita l gran t t o Coordinator graduate street children. Project proposal design. - Acces s dono r fund s an d provision o f th e gran d t o street children group. 63 5.5. Project Implementation Report According to the plan the project wil l end in April 2007 . However, righ t now the project has been implemented to some degree. This is according to evaluation done in December 2006. The implementation is shown below. 2.1.4. Objective.1: Identification of streetchildren In implementing this project some Tsh. 3,600,000.0 0 has been received by the Good Samaritan Mission from Regional Facilitatin g Agency (RFA/TACAIDS ) an d street children identification has been done. Thirty children out of 43 interviewe d have been identified as street children in three wards (Mfaranyaki, Lizaboni and Bombambili) through visiting bus stands, car wash areas and market centres and interviewing street children who are engaged in various pet businesse s suc h a s sellin g roaste d groundnuts , washin g cars , an d carin g passengers' luggag e t o mentio n th e commo n ones . Ou t o f 3 0 identifie d stree t children 18 had either one or no parent, and 12 had both parents. Out o f 3 0 identifie d stree t childre n onl y 16 were selecte d fo r vocationa l trainin g based o n th e degre e o f hardshi p the y face , willingnes s of th e stree t childre n themselves to stud y in vocational training centres, age , and education background. Other 4 childre n wer e selecte d t o join Complementar y Basic Educatio n Training (COBET) an d 10 were dropped out. Three staff (human resource) and Tshs. 285,000.00 have been used in accomplishing the activitie s above . Th e objectiv e o f identificatio n o f stree t childre n wa s successfully met at a 100% rating . 64 2J. 5. Objective 2: Training, care and support of streetchildren The activities accomplished under this objective were:In implementin g thi s objective , 1 8 stree t childre n (las t year' s intake ) hav e been trained in group formation in a participatory way. The major content was, what is a group, ho w grou p i s formed , stage s of a grou p formation , problem s solvin g i n a group and element of sustainability in a group. About Tshs . 25,000.00 were utilized as planned and one staff (CE D student ) was involved. The objective of training, care and support of street children was met at a rate of 100%. 2.1.6. Objective 3: Provision of capital grant to graduate street children. The activities under this objective will be done in January 2007. Capital grant (about Tsh. 2,400,000.00) is being processed by RFA/TACAIDS an d the implementation is 90%. 2.1.7. Project Implementation Gant Chart The implementation s o f Gan t char t base d o n th e abov e objective s ar e a s pe r appendix 5 . The Monitoring, Evaluatio n and Sustainability are reported i n the sixt h chapter. 65 CHAPTER SIX 6.0 MONITORING , EVALUATION AND SUSTAINABILITY 6.1. Monitoring Participatory monitoring on street children identification and capacitating i n Songea Municipal was conducted b y ensuring systemati c recordin g and periodic analysis of information that had been chosen and recorded. By so doing it helped to provide the ongoing pictur e b y givin g roo m fo r immediat e solutions , maintainin g goo d standards, facilitating effective us e of resources and providing information for futur e use. Th e reason s fo r monitorin g wa s t o determin e whethe r th e activitie s ar e progressing a s planned and are leading to the objectives o f the project, henc e ensure early adjustments of the projects. Th e project goa l was to capacitate street children so that they can undertake their own life. The project objectives were as follows: 1. Identificatio n of street children, 2. Training , care and support o f street children, 3. Provisio n of capital grant to graduate street children. The activities conducted to overcome the abov e objectives were; 1. Preparatio n of project proposal, 2. Identificatio n of street children through interviews, 3. Categorizatio 4. Selectio n of street children, n of street children for facilitation in vocational training, 66 5. Trainin g stree t childre n i n GS M vocationa l trainin g centre s i n grou p formation 6. Professiona 7. Provisio 8. Supervisin l categorization o f street children, n of capital grant in the form of working gears, g the groups of street children and their tasks. The information require d t o kno w during monitoring was the identificatio n of what data t o gather , when , an d wh o gathe r th e data . Tabl e 5-6 , show s th e detaile d information. 67 Table 6-1: Informatio n for monitoring project operations. S/no. 1. Categories o Information Work Pla Activities f What to Monitor What record to keep n -Timing of activities. -Availability o f personne l and resources. -Monthly/ quarterly - Work plan. -Work schedule. - Implementation report Who collect s Data -GSM Director. -Supervisor Who uses Data -GSM Director. -Donor - Songe a Municipa l Council -Other Stakeholders How t o us information -Ensure childre n an other resource s ar available To facilitat knowledge o f th project out puts -Ensure fund s ar available t o execut activities e d e e e 2. Cost an Expenditure d -Budgeted amounts , fund s (Tsh. 3,600,000.0 0 ) o n hand and expenditures -Balance i n budge t b y approved cost categories -Ledger of expenditures by budget category -Receipts -Bank transactions -Report to Donor -Financial officer/ accountant -GSM Director. -Donor -Auditor 3. Staff an d Supe r vision -Performance review -job descriptions -Feedback fro m training attended -Supervisor -Trainer -GSM Director. -Motivate staf f an resolve employmen problems 4. Working Tools -Knowledge, attitude s an d skills of staff -Education level of staff -Salaries and benefits Job performance -Stock -Ordering -Procurement regulation -Stock registers -invoices -Field worker reports -Coordinator -GSM Director. -Donor 5. Results 30 stree t childre n identified - 1 6 Street children trained on group formation - 1 6 stree t childre n to ge t capital grant s i n Januar y 2007. -Student registers -Field work report -GSM Director. -Field wor k report -GSM Director. -Donor -Field supervisor -Ensure availabilit y o f working tool s i n stoc k and distribut e t o stree t children's -Ensure goo d conditio n of working tools -Ensure objective s ar e realistic e e d t What decision s ca n b e made - Reschedul e activitie s and deployment of resources as needed. - T o facilitat e decisio n making - Modifying work plan -Authorize expenditures -Make budge t an d project revisions -Determine nee d fo r other funding sources -Placement -Training needs -Promotion -Disciplinary action -Quantity to order -When to order -Revise Objectives -Revise projec t strateg y and approach 68 6.2. Management information System 6.2.1. Monitoring Questions In gatherin g th e monitorin g informatio n th e followin g monitorin g question s wer e used: 1. Wha t is the number of identified street children? 2. Wha t are the categories of identified street children? 3. Ho w many street children will b e selected fo r training in the vocational training centre? 4. Hav e street children been trained in group formation for their sustainability? 5. Ar e street children in vocational training centres categorized professionall y fo r easy capital grant facilitation? 6. Hav e the capital grant interims of working gears been provided to street children vocational training centre graduate? 7. Ar e th e group s o f vocationa l trainin g centr e graduat e stree t childre n wel l supervised? 6.2.2. Research Method used in Monitoring During Monitoring process the checking of on going implementation of project was conducted by using documentation; throug h comparing what was planned in the work plan against the implementation within a given period of time; comparing the budget planned against the actual expenditure i n implementation. By so doing it helped to determine whether or not the activities were progressing as planned. 69 6.23. Indicator and tools During monitoring, the direct and indirect indicators were used to answer the monitoring questions as follows:Table 6.2-1: Direc t and Indirect Indicato r INDICATOR AN D TOOLS DIRECT INDICATO R INDIRECT INDICATO R TOOLS ACTIVITIES S/NO. To Prepare proposal and submit to Donor One proposal Prepare d an d submi t to Tsh. 3,600,000.0 0 receive d fro m Financial records 1. (RFA/TACAIDS), Donor (RFA/TACAIDS), (RFA/TACAIDS), 2. To identify and verify stree t children 3. To identif y an d categoriz e 1 6 stree t children. To select street children to be facilitated. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. To prepare one group formation module To trai n stree t childre n o n grou p formation To categoriz e stree t childre n graduate s according to their Professions . Provision of capital grant in the for m of working tools an d supervisio n t o street children. 30 stree t childre n identifie d an d verified 16 stree t childre n identifie d an d categorized 16 stree t childre n selecte d t o b e facilitated. one group formation module prepared 16 stree t childre n traine d o n grou p Number of group formed formation 16 stree t childre n categorize d graduates according t o Profession s 16 stree t childre n provide d capita l Number o f street , children usin g grant in the form of working tools and working tools for their betterments. supervision. GSM students records GSM students records GSM students records GSM students records GSM students records GSM students records GSM stor e record s and students records 70 6.2.4. Monitoring Team The GS M genera l meeting with the help of stakeholders suc h as RFA/TACAIDS , Ward leaders, community members, Municipal leaders, to mention a few, appointed the monitoring team. The monitoring team included three staff members from GSM and on e outsider ( a community development officer) . Th e team representative s conducted the evaluation as part of their job responsibilitie s but the outsider was to be paid . Th e information obtained wa s analyzed basin g o n the indicators used relevant to the required standard/level. The analyzed information was presented by using texts, histograms and diagrams, pie charts, and percentage, an d was handed to GSM, stakeholders, beneficiaries, donors, and the government. 6.2.5. Analysis of Presentation The stud y was conducted on 30 street children from Songe a Municipal in July 2006. The result s reveale d that , stree t childre n i n Songea Municipa l ca n generally b e categorized into either of the two groups. The first group is made up of completely abandoned childre n who live i n the streets (17%), without homes. Thes e children scavenge fo r food o r seek shelte r i n the streets and have n o contact wit h thei r families. They sleep in the streets and public places, such as in frontof stores, shops, bars, ghettos , an d bus stand. The second group is made up of children who spend their day s i n the streets (76%) , fetchin g water , washin g car s an d doing pett y businesses, but as night falls they return home. These children live with their families and contribut e to the daily family earning s (willingl y or not) to assist in the famil y economic survival. 71 6.2.6. Summary Monitoring Table 6-2: Summar y Monitorin g S/No. Narrative summary What/How to monitor When Planned GOAL -May 200 6 April 2007 -Timing o f activities To capacitat e stree t children -Availability o f to Apri so tha t the y ca n undertak e personnel an d 2007 their own life . Actual l resources OBJECTIVES 1. Identificatio n o f stree t -Timing of activities children -May t -Availability o f October personnel an d 2006 o -July 2006 resources 2. Training , car support. e an d -Timing o f activities -July 2006 -Availability o f personnel an d -July 2006 resources 3. Provisio n o f capital grant -Timing o f activities -November to graduat e stree t childre n -Availability o f 2006 t and supervision d January personnel an resources 2007 o 72 6.2.7. Evaluation The evaluation was conducted on the basis of the objectives and activities identified earlier. The reason for conducting evaluation was to check whether the activities of the projec t wer e relevan t t o th e objective s s o a s t o b e abl e t o decid e whethe r to continue or terminate th e project. I n evaluation questions the lis t of questions were ranked in order of importance and the following questions were used; 1. Ho w many stree t childre n di d th e Goo d Samarita n Missio n (GSM ) trai n i n vocational training centre? 2. Ho w many stree t childre n were give n working capita l in the for m o f working gears? 3. Ho w many street children among those given working gears are still using them? 6.2.8. Research Methods used in Evaluation The common practice of Evaluation is comparing pre - project observations and post project observations . I n thi s project , th e researc h method s used i n evaluating the project were observation and secondary data. Observation Observation was used to look at the actual ongoing activities such as the number of street children attending vocational training; the number of street children in streets. - Secondary data Secondary data was obtained through reading and analyzing various reports from regional, Songe a Municipa l Council , Goo d Samarita n Missio n (GSM ) and reports from other stakeholders. 73 6.2.9. Composition of Evaluation Team The Good Samaritan Mission general meetin g wil l appoin t the evaluatio n team. The composition o f th e evaluatio n tea m wil l includ e thre e GS M staff an d Municipa l Community Development Officer as an outsider and also a specialist in the field. The results of the evaluatio n team will b e presented to GS M genera l meetin g within one week after evaluation to allow timely decision. 6.3. Performance Indicator The performanc e indicato r an d informatio n source s wer e base d o n evaluatio n questions. Table 6.3 Shows details on key indicator and information sources . Table 6-3: Indicator S/No. s and Information Sources Evaluation Questions Key indicator Information Sources Where 1. -How man y stree t -Number o f stree t -GSM Offic e -GSM Studen t children wer e traine d i n children trai n i n Vocational Trainin Centre by GSM? 2. -How man y Stree Tool to us e Register book. g Vocational Trainin g Centre by GS M t -Number o f stree t -GSM Offic e -GSM stor Children wer e give n children give n Ledger. working capita l i n th e working gears. form of working gears? 3. -How man y stree t -Number o f stree t -Street - Observation children amon g thos e children stil l usin g children -Supervision given workin g gears ar e given workin reports still using them? gears. g groups working areas. e 74 6.3.1. Needed Skills and Labour The Evaluatio n tea m i s composed o f three GS M Staff an d on e specialist o f Municipal Community Development. The three GSM staff s ar e specialist s of social work and Community Development. Therefore, the evaluation team is self sufficient. 6.3.2. Information Gathering and Analysis Information gatherin g an d analysi s wil l b e don e i n accordance wit h agreemen t by Evaluation team but should not take more than one week. 6.3.3. Person Responsible All the members of Evaluation team will be involved in information gathering. Both quantitative and qualitative information will be collected. 6.3.4. Analysis and Presentation of Results In Augus t 200 6 th e Regio n conducted annua l revie w meetin g a t Emmau centre Peramiho. Th e meetin g invite d different stakeholder s suc h as , loca l governmen t Authority staff , Centra l Governmen t staff , an d NGO S representative s including , Good Samarita n Mission , Ruvum a Orphans Associatio n (ROA ) t o mentio n a few. Various developmen t issue s wer e discusse d an d some way s of improving some of the problem s facin g th e region wer e suggested . Th e problem s discusse d were : Village developmen t projects , nutrition , immunization , deat h o f children an d pregnant women , primar y schoo l enrolment , primar y schoo l dropout , water , vulnerable childre n including orphans, th e disable d and street children. The report shows that Ruvuma Region has 547 street children and Songea Municipal is leading 75 by having 468 o f them which is 86%, followed by Songea District Council 47 street children which is 9%, Namtumbo District Council 25 which is 5%, Tunduru Distric t council 7 street children which is 1%. The meeting concluded tha t there was the need of providing sof t loa n to the rural people through establishment of economic group s and savings and credit cooperatives (SACCOS). Figure 1: Street Children in Ruvuma Region - June - 2006 Source: Regional Annual Review Meeting Report August 2006 76 6.4. Summary Table 6.4: Summar S/No. 1. 2. Evaluation y Evaluation : Narrative Summary GOAL: To capacitate street children s o tha t they ca n undertake their own life Performance Indicator Expected Out comes -Number o f stree t childre n traine d b y GSM. -Number of street children given working gears. -Number o f street children continuin g t o use the given working gears. - 1 6 street children to b e trained in vocationa l trainin g centr e by GSM. -16 street children to be provided working gears by GSM. -16 stree t childre n t o continu e using working gears. OBJECTIVES: 1. Identificatio n o f -Number of street children Identified. street children 2. Training , car e -Number o f stree t childre n selecte d fo r training in vocational training centre. and support. -Number o f stree t childre n traine d i n group formation. -Number of professional categorizatio n o f street children. 3. Provisio n o f -Number of Professional categorizatio n of capital gran t t o street children. graduate stree t -Number o f street children provided with children an d working gears. supervision -Number of supervision o f street children groups. -30 stree t childre n t o b e identified. -Two categor y (orphans and nonOrphans) to be Identified. -16 street children to be selected for training i n vocational trainin g centre. -16 street children to be trained in group formation. -16 street -Carpentry an d sewin g (tailoring ) categories to be identified. -16 street children to be provided with working gears. -Two supervisio n pe r yea r to b e done. Actual outcomes -30 street children identified. -Two categorie s of orphans and non orphans identified. -16 stree t children have bee selected for trainin g i n GS M vocationa l training centre. -16 stree t children have been trained in grou p formatio n i n GS M vocational training centre. - 77 Participatory Monitorin g an d Evaluation (PAME) i s very important i n leading the project activitie s towards achievin g project objectives . It helps the GS M t o do the right things and getting things right. The efficiency an d effectiveness wa s maintained as a result of PAME . 6.5. Sustainability 6.5.L Sustainability Project of Street Children Identification and Capacitating The concep t o f the sustainabilit y is often reduce d to the questio n of whether loca l institution will be able to continue providing the services that have been provided by the donor - aide d project. Othe r important aspects of sustainability are institutional sustainability; economic sustainability and social sustainability (CATAD 1998:283) . In thi s study , the sustainabilit y of street children identification and capacitating is based o n community involvement in the whol e process o f identification an d assist them throug h contributin g i n vocationa l trainin g withou t externa l support . Traditional syste m o f car e an d suppor t o f vulnerabl e childre n ma y reduc e th e generation of street children. 6.5.2. Sustainability element Continuing t o function , supporte d b y it s ow n resource s (human , materia l an d financial), even when external sources o f funding have ende d i s very important to any projec t t o b e sustainable . I n thi s projec t th e financial, political , an d socia l circumstances that may affect th e host community and the viability of the project in the future ar e as follow, the project depend on external donor; therefore, i f the donor does not suppor t fun d t o th e project , i t wil l b e affected . Politically , i f changes on policy of allowing non - governmenta l organization to participate in providing social services t o vulnerabl e group s occur , th e projec t wil l b e affected . Socially , th e 78 increase o f epidemic and endemic diseases suc h as HIV/AIDS tha t have positive effects i n increasing the number of people in vulnerable groups suc h as widows, orphans and street children. 6.5.3. Sustainability plan In orde r to improve the sustainability of the projec t th e Good Samarita n Mission (GSM) mus t d o the following; th e Good Samarita n Mission (GSM ) mus t expand donor suppor t framewor k t o ensur e prope r managemen t o f street children . The support als o wil l hel p to fin d ne w plot and building moder n vocationa l trainin g centre which will accommodate primary school, secondary school, vocational school, day car e centre, community centre, and shopping centre. These will enable the Good Samaritan Mission (GSM ) NG O t o establish small projects which the NGO wil l get its ow n fun d to run the day to day activities. The Goo d Samarita n Missio n (GSM ) NG O mus t involv e th e communit y in th e identification of street children and pay a certain percentage of fees for the identified street children. The government must reduce the number of vulnerable children by facilitating the community through providing them with development projects. Apart from furnishing the community with development projects, good environment must be created by the government to enable the community to get soft loans and agro inputs subsidie s s o as to enabl e traditiona l system o f taking car e o f vulnerabl e children to continue. The government must continue providing preventive measure (education) on HIV/AIDS to the community so as to reduce the number of orphans and widows . The above measure must be introduced in the financial year 2007. 79 6.5.4. Institutional Plan The organizatio n sponsoring this projec t wil l first need t o accep t th e programme . Although this program was done by organization sponsoring this project, it was done in a differen t style . Th e organizatio n sponsorin g thi s projec t mus t adop t th e suggested sustainabilit y elemen t above . Th e conclusio n and recommendatio n i s reported in chapter seven. 80 CHAPTER SEVE N 7.0 CONCLUSIO N AN D RECOMMENDATIO N This section provides major conclusions and recommendations from the result of the study and implementation of recommendations, based on how to improve the street children identification and capacitating in the Organization (GSM). 7.1. Conclusion Findings from thi s stud y hav e reveale d tha t povert y i s th e majo r caus e o f street children followed b y divorce and orphanage i n the stud y area. Th e results see m to agree with the real situation in the study area because the average annual income per person is Tshs. 250,000.00 and about 38.7% of people in the stud y area earn below Tshs. 1,000.0 0 per da y whic h i s below poverty lin e (Songe a Tow n Counci l Data analysis Report 2004:29). As a result most marriages are not stable and this produces more incidences of divorce. Death toll in the study area was about 53 5 in 2005 and HIV/AIDs contribute d abou t 9 2 (17.2%) , (Songea Tow n Counci l HIM S Register s 2005: Book 2). This results into more orphanages fro m HIV/AIDs victims. In reviewing the result of this project th e goal s and objectives did not change over the lif e o f the project. Th e objectives which are full y achieve d are identification of street children and training of street children where 30 street children were identified, training of street children where 16 street children were trained. The objective which is partiall y achieved i s provision o f capital grant t o graduat e stree t children . Th e work remainin g to full y achiev e these objective s i s supervisio n of street children economic groups. 81 Factors/ conditions which if they had been different would have enhanced my ability to complet e al l elements o f the projec t ar e i f the dono r fun d woul d hav e bee n reimbursed an d i f the trainin g period of the stree t childre n i n vocational trainin g centre would have been completed. No unexpecte d occurrences that greatly affected m y ability to complete the project and achiev e al l m y state d goals . Th e expecte d outcome s ar e prope r an d fai r identification an d selectio n of stree t childre n t o joi n vocationa l training centers, sustainable facilitation o f street children graduating from vocationa l training centers and reduce d numbe r o f vulnerabl e childre n an d henc e stree t childre n du e t o education on fatal diseases such as HIV/AIDS and formulating development projects to the community. The succes s o f this project wil l b e realized if and only i f GSM, the implementing agency wil l adop t th e approac h use d i n identification o f street children , training, provision of working gear s an d post management o f graduated stree t children who will b e i n economical groups. Also , thi s approac h needs to b e adopte d b y other organizations dealin g with stree t childre n i n th e sam e approac h a s GSM . I t i s important for the organizations that will implement street children projects using this approach to have reliable capacities in terms o f good technical and financial base . This may require such organizations to have economic projects that will furnish them with additional funds. 82 7.2. Recommendation In light of my experiences, I would recommend the following t o others attemptin g similar projects; since the major cause of street children as per this project is poverty, strategies o f poverty reductio n mus t highl y b e considere d suc h a s developing development project s fo r the community. Also experienc e an d findings from this project hav e reveale d tha t orphanag e cause d b y HIV/AID S ha s a significan t contribution t o th e proble m o f stree t children , educatio n programm e t o th e community on HIV/AIDS prevention is vital. To reduc e dono r dependence , th e CBO/NG O implementin g simila r projec t mus t strive t o have it s own developmen t project s fo r income generation . Community participation i n this typ e o f a projec t i s ver y important . Th e community must therefore b e sensitized to identify and assist vulnerabl e and street children in the areas. The strategies, best practices or models that are particularly helpful are, identification of stree t children , hom e visi t fo r verificatio n o f stree t children , actua l hom e environment, during vocational training the street children need to be given lunch at the vocationa l trainin g centr e s o a s t o enabl e attai n ful l attendance , menta l capacitating throug h training , group formatio n training and equipment facilitatio n after vocational training and supervision is very important on the sustainability of the project. 83 Steps t o furthe r advanc e thi s o r simila r projec t ar e a s follows , i t i s importan t to expand vocationa l training centre s o tha t the y ca n accommodat e mor e childre n (vulnerable and street children), facilitation of vocational training centres so that they can put children (vulnerable and street children) in boarding. This has the advantage of providin g goo d car e t o childre n and . hence improvin g th e attendance . Als o improve the general habit of vulnerable and street children. In order to implement this project successfully, the following are recommended:GSM mus t adop t th e implementatio n plan an d budge t alread y i n place. (Appendix (5 and 7). GSM must strive to have income generation projects and in a long term plan must think of owning her own buildings for project activities. Other Organizations doing similar projects lik e that of GSM mus t adopt this approach. Follow up of post management of graduated street children is very important. 84 BIBLIOGRAPHY Bailey, K.D. (1978). Method s of social research. Free press collier Macmillan publisher, London. CATAD (1988). Th e sustainability of the impac t o f the Integrate d Rural Development Programm e (RDP ) I n Norther n Wes t Zambia. Technical University of Berlin, Berlin German. CSPD (2005), Chil d Surviva l Protectio n an d Developmen t Annua l Reports June 2005, Ruvuma Region. Cresswell, J.W. (1994). Researc h Design . 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