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SOUTHERN NE W HAMPSHIR E UNIVERSIT Y
SOUTHERN NE W HAMPSHIR E UNIVERSIT Y
&
OPEN UNIVERSITY O F TANZANIA
MASTER OF SCIENC E I N COMMUNITY ECONOMIC DEVELOPMEN T
(2007)
STREET CHILDREN IDENTIFICATION AND CAPACITATION:
A CAS E STUDY IN SONGE A MUNICIPA L COUNCIL ,
RUVUMA REGION , TANZANIA
ENTERBERTH JOACHIM NYONI
SOUTHERN NE W HAMPSHIR E UNIVERSIT Y
&
OPEN UNIVERSITY O F TANZANIA
MASTER OF SCIENC E I N COMMUNITY ECONOMIC DEVELOPMEN T
(2007)
STREET CHILDREN IDENTIFICATION AND CAPACITATION:
A CAS E STUDY IN SONGE A MUNICIPA L COUNCIL ,
RUVUMA REGION , TANZANIA
ENTERBERTH JOACHIM NYONI
STREET CHILDRE N IDENTIFICATION AN D CAPACITATION:
A CAS E STUDY IN SONGEA MUNICIPA L COUNCIL ,
RUVUMA REGION , TANZANIA
"PROJECT REPORT SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFILMENT O F
REQUIREMENTS FO R TH E MASTER OF SCIENC E I N COMMUNITY
ECONOMIC DEVELOPMEN T IN THE SOUTHER N NE W HAMPSHIR E
UNIVERSITY A T THE OPE N UNIVERSITY O F TANZANIA"
2007
i
Declaration
I Enterbert h Joachi m Nyoni, d o hereb y declar e t o th e Senat e o f Souther n New
Hampshire Universit y o f Americ a a t th e Ope n Universit y o f Tanzani a that, this
project pape r i s my own original wor k where cite d and that has nevq r been see n
submitted for a similar higher degree award in any other university.
Student
ENTERBERTH J. NYON I
Signature
ii
Supervisor's Certificatio n
I have read the project report, and found in to be in a form acceptable fo r submission
to the Southern New Hampshire University for an award of Master of Science (MSc)
degree in Community Economic Development (CED).
HAMIDU A. SHUNGU
Signature
Date
iii
Copyright
No par t of this project repor t ma y be produced, store d i n any retrieval system, or
transmitted in any (electronic, recording photocopying or otherwise) form or by any
means; withou t prio r writte n permissio n o f th e autho r o r th e Souther n Ne w
Hampshire University (SNHU) of the United States of America / Open University of
Tanzania (OUT) on that behalf.
iv
Acknowledgement
I wis h t o exten d m y heartfelt thank s t o th e Ministr y o f Community Development
Gender an d Childre n fo r grantin g m e sponsorshi p an d th e Ruvum a Regional
Secretariat Offic e fo r allowing me to pursue a degree of Master of Science (MSc) in
Community Economic Development (CED).
Special thanks shoul d go to Mr . Hamidu Abdallah Shung u for hi s tireless efforts ,
constant an d consistent encouragemen t durin g the whol e duration of preparing this
work. I highl y appreciate an d recognis e hi s usefu l comment s an d encouragemen t
which le d t o th e completio n o f thi s stud y withi n th e define d period . I a m als o
indebted t o al l academic member s o f staff o f Community Economic Developmen t
(CED) and my colleagues for their advisory support and for creating harmonious and
friendly studying environment.
I extend my utmost thanks to Rev. Martin Mlata (Good Samaritan Mission Director),
Mr. Aggre y Kapinga (GS M staff) , Mr . Elisha Danie l (GSM ) staff fo r th e c o operation they accorded me during my data collection.
Finally, I am obliged to mention my appreciation to my beloved wife Gem a Mbele
and m y belove d chil d Witnes s Nyon i fo r thei r toleranc e i n th e hardshi p the y
encountered i n my absence while I was away for study.
I als o thank al l who participated effectivel y in one wa y or another i n making this
work successful.
Dedication
This wor k i s dedicate d t o m y belove d mothe r Kerubin a Ngweny a wh o lai d th e
foundation o f m y educatio n an d t o th e memor y o f m y belove d father , th e lat e
Joachim Vitus Nyoni who could not be here to share this achievement wit h me. May
God the Almighty rest his soul in peace: Amen.
vi
Abstract
This stud y wa s conducte d i n Songe a Municipal , Ruvum a Region. Th e stud y was
conducted in three wards, namely, Lizaboni, Mfaranyaki and Bombambili. The main
objective of the study was to capacitate street children so that they can be self reliant.
The specifi c objective s wer e identificatio n of stree t children , training, car e an d
support of street children, and provision of capital grand to graduate street children.
The study comprised a random sample of 30 street children, 9 vulnerable children, 4
street children attending vocational training, 12 ward leaders, 9 community members,
one GS M leader, an d on e Municipa l communit y developmen t officer . Sampl e
selection wa s carefull y don e t o avoi d bias . Primar y data wer e obtaine d throug h
personal observation , administerin g o f structure d questionnair e an d focu s grou p
discussion. Secondar y dat a wa s obtaine d from GS M office , KIWOHED E office ,
Songea Municipa l office , Ruvum a Regional secretaria t offic e an d Souther n New
Hampshire University/Open University of Tanzania library.
Descriptive statistics as frequencies and percentage were used in analysis. The results
from this study show that the problem of street children exists and the major factors
that contribut e t o thi s proble m are poverty , divorce , orphanage an d larg e family .
However, poverty is the major cause of this problem in the study area.
vii
Executive Summary
The term street children refer to children for whom the street more than their family
has becom e thei r rea l home . I t include s childre n who migh t no t necessaril y b e
homeless or without families, but who live in situations where there is no protection,
supervision, or direction from responsible adults , ( http://hrw.org/children/street.htm
(2006:6))
The United Nations has been attributed as estimating the population of street children
worldwide a t 15 0 million , wit h th e numbe r risin g daily . Thes e youn g people ar e
more appropriately known as communit y children, as they ar e th e offsprin g of our
communal world. Ranging in age from three to eighteen, abou t 4 0 percent o f those
are homeless—as a percentage of world population, unprecedented i n the histor y of
civilization. The other 60 percent work on the streets to support their families. They
are unabl e t o atten d schoo l an d ar e considere d t o liv e i n "especiall y difficul t
circumstances. Increasingly , thes e childre n ar e th e defenceles s victim s o f brutal
violence, sexua l exploitation, abject neglect , chemica l addiction, and human rights
violations, (http://pangaea.org/street_chldren/kids.htl (2006:1) )
In Tanzania, the Chil d Development Policy aims at eradicating the problem of street
children but is not efficiently implemented at grass root level, for instance on chapter
five, Chil d Protectio n Polic y No . 97 o f 199 6 state s tha t parents , Guardian s an d
institutions workin g fo r children , shoul d sho w du e responsibilit y fo r protectin g
children by providing them wit h their basic needs and providing appropriate moral
guidance. Polic y No . 98 o f 1996 , explain s that "Th e communit y shoul d b e full y
viii
involved i n issue s o f chil d protectio n b y abandonin g norm s an d value s whic h
endanger th e lif e o f th e children , strengthening positiv e values ; participatin g in
communal upbringing and providing services to children in difficult circumstances" .
Ministry of Community Development Women Affairs and Children (1996:34).
Songea Municipa l Counci l (SMC) , fo r exampl e i s dealin g with thi s proble m by
creating favourable environment for other Institution s to play part bu t not for itself
due to lack of financial resources.
Although in some places like in Songea Municipal, conducive environment is created
for other actors such as NGOs & CBOs to deal with street children, success has been
limited because i n most cases these actors do not have adequate financial resources ,
lack technical skills, and normally they are not adequately involving the society.
In the stud y are a th e proble m of street childre n exists an d th e majo r factor s that
contribute t o thi s proble m ar e poverty , divorce , orphanag e an d larg e family .
However, poverty is the main cause of this problem in the study area.
Traditional syste m o f taking care o f vulnerable children/stree t childre n is stil l i n
existence bu t i s mainl y lef t t o uncle s an d gran d mother s wh o d o no t delive r
satisfactory suppor t to them to the exten t that the street children themselves d o not
feel it. That is why these children have indicated that there is no traditional system of
taking care of street children.
ix
Training o f vulnerable/stree t childre n seem s t o b e th e bes t wa y o f reducing the
problem of street children. This effort has been discovered in the study area and else
- wher e i n the country . However, evidence shows that there is no follo w - up of
trained street children and therefore i t is not clear whether the trained street children
make use of the knowledge they have attained.
Therefore, there is need to have continuous identification o f street children through
conducting need assessment to know their causes and helping them according to their
cases such as sending them to vocational training or COBET. However there is also
need to assist poor families in the community especially during the rainy season, by
introducing some development projects in a participatory manner.
In order to sustai n traditional caring of street/vulnerable childre n there is need to
improve the syste m where most of street/vulnerable childre n depend on improving
the livin g standard s o f dependant s suc h a s uncl e an d ol d peopl e especiall y
grandmothers. Th e communit y must establis h specia l funds whic h wil l assis t th e
street/vulnerable childre n i n their are a throug h thei r guardians . B y so doin g the
street/vulnerable children can realize the importance of not going to the town streets
but stay home doing formal economic activities.
X
TABLE O F CONTENTS
Declaration i
Supervisor's Certificatio n i
i
Copyright . . i i
i
Acknowledgement i
v
Dedication v
Abstract.... ....
.v
Executive Summary vi
i
i
Abbreviations and Acronyms .
xv
i
CHAPTER ON E 1
1.0 COMMUNIT Y NEEDS ASSESSMEN T 1
1.1. Overview. . 1
1.2. Targe t Community 4
1.3. Communit y Need Assessment 8
CHAPTER TW O 1
3
2.0 PROBLE M IDENTIFICATION 1
2.1. Overvie w 1
2.2. Statemen t of the Problem 1
2.3. Goo d Samaritan Missio n (GSM) a s a Community Based Organization (Host
Organization)..... 1
2.4. Justification... . 1
2.5. Researc h Objectives . 1
2.6. Limitatio n 1
2.7. Organizatio n of the Study 1
3
3
3
CHAPTER THRE E 1
8
3.0 LITERATUR E REVIE W 1
8
3.1. Overview.. . 1
3.2. Theoretica l Review 1
3.3. Empirica l Review 2
3.4. Polic y Review 2
8
8
1
7
CHAPTER FOU R ,
3
5
5
6
7
7
3
4.0 RESEARC H METHODOLOGY..... 3
3
4.1. Overview.... . 3
4.2. Locatio n 3
4.3. Interna l validity 3
4.4. Researc h Desig n 3
4.5. Samplin g Procedures 3
3
3
4
4
5
xi
4.6. Populatio n .
3
4.7. Samplin g frame 3
4.8. Th e Sample Size 3
4.9. Validit y of the Survey Instrument 3
4.10. Pre - testing of the instruments 3
4.11. Dat a Collection 3
4.12. Limitatio n on Internal and External Validity 4
4.13. Discussio n of Results :
4.14. Monitoring and Evaluation 5
.4
5
5
5
6
6
6
1
1
4
CHAPTER FIV E 5
7
5.0 IMPLEMENTATIO N 5
7
5.1. Projec t Objectives 5
5.2. Product s and Outputs 5
5.3. Projec t Planning 5
5.4. Staffin g Pattern 6
5.5. Projec t Implementation Report 6
7
7
8
2
3
CHAPTER SI X 6
5
6.0 MONITORING , EVALUATIO N AND SUSTAINABILITY 6
5
6.1. Monitorin g 6
6.2. Managemen t information System... 6
6.3. Performanc e Indicator 7
6.4. Summar y Evaluation 7
6.5. Sustainabilit y 7
5
8
3
6
7
CHAPTER SEVE N 8
0
7.0 CONCLUSIO N AN D RECOMMENDATION 8
0
7.1. Conclusio n 8
0
7.2. Recommendatio n .
8
2
BIBLIOGRAPHY 8
4
APPENDICES 8
7
xii
LIST OF TABLES
Table 4-1: Stree
t children Education Level 4
2
Table 4-2: Stree
t children Age 4
3
Table 4-3: Respondent
s Religion 4
3
Table 4-4: Respondent
s Sex 4
4
Table 4-5: Youn
g People Who Attended Vocational Training in GSM and
KIWOHEDE from 2004 - 200 6 4
Table 4-6: Siz
e of Household .
4
5
6
Table 4-7: Hav
e Vulnerable Children in their families 4
6
Table 4-8: Hea
d of Household 4
7
Table 4-9: Clos
e Relative 4
8
Table 4-10: Factor
s contributing Street children (Cause of Street Children)........ 49
Table 4-11: Plac
e to Sleep.......... 5
0
y in Town 5
1
Table 4-12: Activit
Table 4-13: Vocationa
Table 4-14: Typ
Table 4-15: Read
Table 4-16: Car
l Training 5
2
e of Facilitation they like after completing Vocational raining... 52
y to Establish Economic Groups 5
e of Street/Vulnerable childre n (Street children) 5
Table 4-17: Traditio
3
3
n System used to Care Vulnerable/Street Children
(Community)... .
5
Table 5.3-1: Objectiv e (1): Identification of Street Children 5
4
9
Table 5.3-2: Objectiv e (2):- Training, Care and Support Of Street Children 6
0
Table 5.3-3: Objectiv e (3). Provision of Capital Grant to Graduate Street Children
60
Table 5.3-4: Projec t Goal : - To Capacitate Stree t Children So That They Can
Undertake Thei r Own Life 6
1
Table 5.4-1: Staffin g Pattern 6
2
Table 6.2-1: Direc t and Indirect Indicator..... 6
9
Xlll
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1: Street Children in Ruvuma Region - Jun e - 2006
xiv
LIST OF MAP
Map 1 :
Songea Municipal Counci l
xviii
XV
APPENDIXES
Appendix 1 : Lette
r of Introduction 8
7
Appendix 2: Lette
r of Acceptance 8
8
Appendix 3: Need
s Assessment 8
9
Appendix 4: Organizationa
l Chart
?
9
0
Appendix 5: Pro
j ect Implementation Gantt chart 9
1
Appendix 6: Staf
f Job Descriptions 9
3
Appendix 7: Budge
Appendix 8: Cos
Appendix 9: Forma
t9
t Analysis of Activities (Budget) 9
l visit to Selected wards 9
4
6
7
Appendix 10 : Questionnair e for Children's (Street, Vulnerable and In Vocation
Training) 9
8
Appendix 11 : Questionnair e for Leaders (NGOS/Community/Municipal) 10
6
Appendix 12 : Questionnair e for Community Members in Urban At Household
Level)... 11
2
xvi
Abbreviations and Acronyms
AIDS
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
CARITAS
Catholic Relief Organization
CBOs
Community Based Organization s
CED
Community Economic Development
COBET
Complementary Basic Education Training
CSPD
Child Survival Prevention an d Development
GSM
Good Samaritan Mission
HIV
Human Immuno - deficiency Virus
KIWOHEDE Kiota Women Health Development
LGA
Local Government Authority
NGOs
Non Governmental Organization s
OUT
Open University Of Tanzania
RFA
Regional Facilitating Agency
ROA
Ruvuma Orphans Association
SPSS
Statistical Package for Social Science
STI
Sexually Transmitted Infectio n
UNICEF
United Nations Children's Fund
VETA
Vocational Education Training Authority
SMC
Songea Municipal Council
MSc
Master of Science
SNHU
Southern New Hampshire University
TACOSODE
Tanzania Council for Social Development
xvii
MCDGC Ministr
CRC Commissio
MCDWAC Ministr
HIMS Healt
VEO Villag
u.f.s Unde
REPSSI Regiona
y of Community Development Gende r and Children
n on the Rights of the Chil d
y of Community Development Wome n Affairs and Children
h Information Managemen t System
e Executive Officer
r flying Seal
l Psychosocial Initiative
xviii
Map 1: Songe
a Municipal Council
1
CHAPTER ONE
1.0 COMMUNIT
Y NEEDS ASSESSMENT
LL Overview
The problem of street children is increasing worldwide every day . Th e problem is
more critical i n developing countries becaus e of the existenc e o f many factor s that
favor the generatio n o f street children than in the developed countries. Som e of the
factors includ e HIV/AIDS, divorce, poverty, rural - urban migration and low use of
family plannin g methods . "AID
S orphan s ar e substantiall y augmentin g th e
population of children on streets. In Nairobi, Kenya, where at least 30,00 0 homeless
children roam in the city, this destitute population is expected to grow at an estimated
10 percen t annually . I n Nairob i Stree t childre n spen d thei r day s i n begging ,
scavenging, sniffing glue and engaging in petty theft".
(http://www.populationaction.org/securitydemographic/pdfs/SecurityDemographic c
hapter6.pdf 2005: 65)
Tanzania is facin g the sam e problem of children being forced t o depen d fo r their
survival on the streets due to poverty, abuse, torture, rape, abandonment, or orphaned
by AIDS , Huma n rights violation s agains t childre n in the 1990 s hav e becom e a
common and disturbing occurrence i n many Africa n countrie s includin g Tanzania .
Indeed denial of basic human needs and legal rights including the right to life, liberty
and security as a person is now a defining feature of the Tanzanian socio-economic
landscape.
2
This project examines Tanzania's response to the growing problem of street children.
Taking Songea Municipal as a case study, the project examines initiatives that have
been an d ar e bein g take n b y variou s segment s o f the communit y to addres s th e
problem. Also the project examines the kinds of policies and strategies the Tanzanian
government i s putting in place and what the famil y an d community are doing , for
instance, to what extent are families, schools and individual members of society deal
with th e problem ? Indeed , ho w i s th e governmen t dealin g wit h th e increasin g
numbers of unsupervised children living alone in urban streets? What roles can NonGovernmental Organization s (NGOs) an d communit y based organization s play in
addressing the problem of street children?
We contend that not enough is being done to address the problem and that indeed the
problem of street children remains an ignored tragedy that is set to have a devastating
impact on the development of Tanzania. The project indicates that the response to the
problem has at best been muted and remains ignored or sidelined by the government
and th e genera l public . Ke y players wh o ar e suppose d t o pla y a leadin g role in
finding a solution to the problem have become the major source of the problem. The
family, whic h is supposed to be the bedrock of children's welfare and protection, is
today becoming a major cause of the problem of street children. Parents are sending
their childre n into th e street s to be g stea l o r engag e i n petty trade . Childre n ar e
leaving their homes t o escap e domesti c violence or because o f the breakin g up of
family structures. School s are turning into centres of violence and crime and creating
an environment that put more children on the streets.
3
Government policies that embrac e liberalizatio n an d the fre e marke t econom y are
contributory factor s t o th e persisten t stat e of poverty an d increase d hardshi p wit h
children bein g affecte d most . Thes e policie s hav e encourage d mor e urba n
development than rural and hence promoting rural - urba n migration. Furthermore,
the policie s hav e mad e agricultura l input s muc h expensiv e a s compare d t o
agricultural produce prices and thus putting farmers in a difficult situatio n to break even in agricultural investments.
We contend that government policies directed by structural adjustment Programme s
are responsibl e for putting more an d more children on to the street s as a result of
increased poverty . Th e genera l publi c pretend s no t t o notic e th e pligh t o f a n
increasing number o f destitute childre n on our streets. There i s at presen t n o real
alarm or outrage from the general public on the increasing number of children on our
streets even though these children face starvation , are at the mercy of unscrupulous
individuals and a brutal police force.
The government and the community in general need to put in place viable policies or
strategies that will ensure that the plight of street children is urgently addressed. The
paper contributes to this task by exploring means and ways that the government and
the community at large can play in solving the problem of street children in Tanzania
and Songea Municipal in particular.
4
1.2. Target Community
Songea Municipal is one of the five Local Government Authorities (LGA) that make
up the Ruvuma region. It is the capital Town of the Region. It lies within Longitudes
35° 40' t o 35° 45' East and Latitude 10 ° 35' to 10 ° 45' Sout h of the fiquator.The
four corners of the town boundaries border Songea Rural District.
The tow n i s wel l linke d with othe r part s o f the countr y throug h communication
network: Songe a - Njomb e - Makambak o road linkin g th e tow n wit h Tanzania
Zambia Highway , Songe a - Tundur u road, linkin g the tow n with Sout h - Easter n
regions of Mtwara and Lindi, and Songea - Mbambaba y Road linking the town with
settlements along the lake shores and Mbeya Region through Lake Nyasa. The town
is the major centre for administrative and commercial activities in the Region. There
are variou s Employmen t sector s whic h ac t a s magne t fo r immigratio n of rural
population within the Region.
The population of Songea Municipal totals, 131,336 . Of these there are 63,145 male,
68,191 female, and 25,685 children, out of which there are 12,36 6 male and 13,320
female. Stree t children are 468: 220 male, and 248 female. The average per capital
Income o f Songea Municipal i s Tsh. 88,457.30. Sources of Income ar e agriculture,
17.3%, trade, 8.3%, employment, 55.6% , minerals, Buildings, san d 2.4% and small
Industries and factories 16.4% . (National Bureau of Statistics 2003: 1-10).
5
There ar e thre e Vocationa l Trainin g Centre s i n th e Municipal , namely , VET A
Songea, Domesti c Songe a Vocationa l Cente r an d Roma n Catholi c Vocational
Center. Th e numbe r o f Primar y school s i s 49 . Th e numbe r an d kind s o f unit s
providing Health services are: Hospitals 1, Dispensaries 1 5 and Health centre 1. The
number o f Community Development workers 12 , number o f Wards 1 3 and hamlet s
71. (National Bureau of Statistics 2003: 10).
Beliefs, customs , tradition s an d habit s affectin g th e situatio n ar e inheritanc e o f
widows (cla n oriented/patriarchy) . Unde r norma l circumstance s wome n hav e n o
rights in land ownership; in fact the allocation of land to the family has traditionally
been men's affairs. Other s ar e polygamy system; Women contribute a lion share in
agriculture activities , bu t i n tur n me n alway s decid e th e incom e use . Th e
participation o f women i n deciding the use s of famil y incom e i s negligible ; easy
divorce (in Muslim families), women have no rights to inherit after th e death of the
husband. (National Bureau of Statistics 2003: 11).
Family and social structures relevant to the situation are increasing number of female
headed households , rura l - urban migration, and poor cooperation amon g the urba n
society; in addressing problems local ways are available, by handling street children
to their relatives where possible. On power structure (who controls whom or what),
man control s wealth . A l l wealt h i n the househol d suc h a s farm , house , bicycles,
radios and crops are men's properties. Furthermore , every decision in the house hold
is done by man. Women must obey and follow.
6
Information's ar e gathere d an d transmitte d throug h individuals , Leaders ,
Newspapers, Radios, TVs, Telephones, E - Mails , Letters, Mails, Government , and
Religion. Taking Songea Municipality as a case study the study examines initiatives
that have been and are being taken by various segments of the community to address
the problem of street children.
1.2.1. Current
Activities under Good Samaritan Mission (GSM)
A larg e number o f activities are implemented in Good Samarita n Missio n (GSM) ,
with th e intention o f improving the well bein g of the community. The activitie s
which are executed in the GSM include;
• Acces s to basic education and health care for orphaned children aged 4-7
The pre - schoo l has been operating since GSM was establishe d in 1999.
The children are taught a range of subjects that help prepare them for primary
school education. The children receive uniforms and writing materials and are
provided with daily meals and soap on weekly basis.
• Practica l assistanc e an d suppor t fo r orphane d childre n attendin g
primary school.
GSM als o provide s assistanc e t o forme r attendee s o f the pre -school by
providing a uniform, school bag and writing materials for every chil d each
year, until the end of their primary education.
• Practica l assistanc e an d suppor t fo r stree t childre n undertakin g
vocational training
GSM provide s support to street children aged 1 3 - 17 , by assisting them to
access vocational training. This involves liaising with the training centre.
7
• Mediatio n between street children and estranged relatives
GSM strive s to help orphaned street children reunite with their relatives or
extended family . Thi s involve s working wit h th e famil y an d th e chil d t o
resolve any difficulties, an d to ensure that the child is properly looked after.
• Dram a performances to raise community awareness of HIV/AIDS
GSM believe s tha t dram a i s on e o f the mos t effectiv e way s o f raising
awareness o n HIV/AIDS. GS M cultura l group writes and performs dramas,
which are aimed at other young people and the wider community.
• Suppor t and training for in - schoo l youth peer educators
GSM has trained secondary school students to become peer educators. These
peer educators are supported to establish Health groups in their school, with
the aim of assisting students to protect themselves from HIV/AIDS.
• Suppor t for widows to establish income - generatin g programme
The widows support group was established early in 2002. The groups have
come together to establish an income - generating project to help meet their
most basic needs.
• Outreac h HIV/AIDS support to rural communities
GSM currentl y operates a n outreach HIV/AIDS counselling and information
centre in the village of Lilambo. This is managed by the local community in
response t o risin g concer n regardin g th e numbe r o f peopl e livin g wit h
HIV/AIDS in rural areas.
8
1.3. Community
Need Assessment
The communit y nee d assessmen t wa s conducte d i n Majeng o ward,.Songe a
Municipality. During the process of formulating the problem statement as a student,
the writer / investigator wrote a letter to the Municipal Director, which was endorsed
by hi s employer to request workin g i n his jurisdiction. Th e Municipal Director
assigned the Municipal Communit y Development Office r t o choose on e NG O t o
work with. He wrote an introduction letter to the Good Samaritan Mission (NGO) to
instruct them to work with CED - student.
1.3.1. Methodology
Five technique s wer e use d o n dat a collection . Thes e include , interview ,
questionnaire, observations, secondary data, documentary sources ; and focus group
discussion were used to supplement information collected by using questionnaire.
(i)
Interview:
A fac e t o fac e intervie w was carried betwee n me , Community and Good
Samaritan Mission Leader. Ther e was both verbal and visual communication
(through gestures, facial expression) between the two.
(ii)
Observation
Under this method, the investigator obtained the dat a by watching and noting
down al l the phenomena wit h regar d t o their cause s and effects o r mutual
relations. Thes e observations were directed to the organizational target group.
9
Observations includ e offic e environmenta l conditions , orphane d childre n
observation, and observation o f organization activities at large.
(iii) Focu s Group Discussions:
Focus grou p discussion s wer e conducte d wit h th e organizatio n leader s
and orphaned children . Th e discussion was very fruitful fo r the children
aired out all their grievances .
(iv) Documentar y Sources:
Documents relevan t t o th e stud y wer e examine d i n th e organizatio n
Annual reports and files.
Through Interview, questionnaire, discussio n with organization members
and conductin g organizatio n meetin g w e involve d the m t o develo p th e
problem statement. The organization members found it a problem because
there wa s increasin g numbe r o f orphan s i n Songe a Municipal . Fo r
example, in June 2001 there were 94 street children, but as of June 2005
there were 46 8 (CSP D Repor t Jun e 2005:60) . I n fou r year s there ha s
been an increas e o f 374 stree t children in the Municipal . I t seem s that
rectification o f these problems wil l onl y be throug h goo d coordinatio n
with partners who will enhanc e street children participation in vocational
training and other economic activities.
10
1.3.2. Stakeholders of Good Samaritan (GSM ) Organization
Good Samaritan Stakeholders are:a) Centra l Government
b) Loca l Government
c) War d Executives Officer
d) Hamle t leader
e) Primar y school teachers
f) Youth s
g) Widow s
h) Orphan s
i) Guardian s
j) Religiou s organizations
In th e organization , the stakeholder s participat e throug h identificatio n of orphans,
street childre n an d widows , education , awarenes s creatio n o n HI V / AIDS ,
information sharing , report sharin g and access to social services. The analysis from
the community revealed the following:
1.3.3. Community Strength
During the Community Need Assessment exercise the community was found to have
the following strengths: Mos t of the residents are able to work and have land outside
the urba n area ; Th e stud y are a i s environmentall y safe fo r economi c investment;
Domestic marke t i s readil y availabl e fo r variou s products ; Transpor t an d
communication services are also available; and Information flow (Newspapers, radio,
TVs) is relatively smooth.
11
1.3.4. Community Problems
With al l th e abov e strengths , th e communit y wa s foun d t o fac e th e followin g
problems: Lac k of capital fo r economi c investments ; Lac k of skill s fo r economi c
investments; Lac k of awareness on a number of issues such as diseases (HIV/AIDS),
material and food/water bor n diseases.
1.3.5. Community Needs
The communit y site d th e followin g needs: Capacit y buildin g i n terms o f capital,
awareness on diseases and specialized skill Training.
1.4. Communit y Social Factors
The community mentioned th e following social factors a s the biggest causativ e agent
for proble m o f Stree t Children : Polygamist habit s that lea d t o mor e childre n and
uncontrolled divorce , increasing number of orphans as a result o f HIV/AIDS which
leads t o increase d numbe r o f famil y size , Rura l - Urba n migration , an d Un controlled family size (low use of family planning methods).
1.4.1. Community Resources
The community mentioned th e following resources within the study area:
1. A goo d numbe r o f Institution s (Primar y Schools , Secondar y Schools ,
Vocational Training Centers (VETA) , Teachers Training Institutions) tha t can
offer specialize d training.
2. Existenc e of NGOs/CBOs such as (Good Samaritan Mission (GSM), Ruvuma
Orphans Associatio n (ROA) ) thos e ar e read y t o suppor t i n som e o f th e
community needs.
3. Existenc e o f essential need s supplies an d service s suc h a s clothes , transport
markets just to mention the common ones.
12
Therefore, th e proble m earmarke d b y the communit y through awarenes s creations,
specialized skil l training and provision of capital seem to solve the cor e problem of
poverty hence reducing the problem of street children. The problem identification is
reported in second chapter.
13
CHAPTER TWO
2.0 PROBLE
M IDENTIFICATION
2.1. Overview
This chapter reviews the problem generation and care of street children in Tanzanian
Society and especially in the urban areas.
2.2. Statement
of the Problem
The generation and care of street children is increasingly becoming a problem to the
Tanzanian Society and especially in the urban areas. The generation of street children
is mainly caused by poverty in some of households which fail to provide basic needs
such as food and clothes, incidences of divorce that leads to decreased care of the
children, orphans due to death of one or both parents caused by various causes
including HIV/AIDS, rural - urban migration, and uncontrolled family sizes. These
causes are interdependent an d they sometimes act together.
Songea Municipa l Counci l i s n o exceptio n i n thi s proble m o f stree t children.
According to the Community Needs Assessment conduced in the study area by Good
Samaritan Mission (GSM) , th e communit y revealed that, there are som e problems
which affect th e developmen t o f community. The problems include lack of capital
for economic investments, lack of skills for economic investments, lack of awareness
on a number o f issues suc h as disease s (HIV/AIDS) , and material and food/water
bom diseases, just to mention a few. These are the majo r developmenta l problems
that nee d t o b e solved . Thes e problem s affec t th e communit y an d especially
children.
14
The proble m o f street children seem s to increas e every yea r an d accordin g t o th e
Regional CSP D report o f June 2005:60, th e reporte d number of street children in
Songea Municipal Council was 468. However, while the problem of street children is
growing so fast, most of the urba n authoritie s includin g Songea Municipa l Counci l
do not have any plan to intervene with the problem due to lack of funds .
On th e othe r hand, NGO s hav e shown interes t in intervening with the proble m in
various ways . I n Songe a Municipa l Council , fou r NGO s ar e i n plac e tryin g t o
intervene with this problem . Th e NGO s are : th e Goo d Samaritan Missio n (GSM )
that provides vocational training and counselling to street children, Ruvuma Orphans
Association (ROA) , St . Theres a an d Kiot a Women' s Healt h an d Developmen t
Organization (KIWOHEDE ) tha t provide s counselling , mediatio n an d pa y fo r
vocational Training in other vocational Training centres.
The Goo d Samarita n Missio n (GSM ) i n particular , ha s bee n intervenin g thes e
problems throug h identificatio n o f street children, and offering Vocationa l training.
This has been in line with the Good Samaritan Mission's (GSM) purpose of reducing
the impact of HIV/AIDS on orphans, street children and widows. I n part, the GS M
intervention ha s me t som e o f th e need s o f th e communit y suc h a s provisio n of
specialized skills and capital (in the form of working gears).
With all the interventions, th e problem of street children is still big and if allowed to
exist, th e incidence s o f poor attendanc e in schools , dru g abuse , pick pockets an d
15
smuggling, occurrence o f rapes and HIV/AIDS spread wil l persist . I n totality, the
problem of generation and care of street children is within the society itself and i t is
from thi s society and other stakeholders that the solution will be bom.
Samaritan Mission (GSM) as a Community Based Organization
2.3. Good
(Host Organization)
Vision Statement of Good Samaritan Mission
A societ y in which communities work together to achieve a sustainable futur e free
from povert y and the threat of HIV/AIDS .
Mission
To wor k alongsid e communitie s t o establish , operate , an d promot e service s an d
facilities, for the benefit o f those most affected by HIV/AIDS.
Organization Objectives
• T o reduce the impact of HIV/AIDS on orphans, street children and widows.
• T o reduce the level of HIV and STI among young people.
• T o increase community mobilisation in the fight against HIV/AIDS .
• T o promote orphaned children rights
• T o promote widows income - generating activities.
• T o establish training centres
2.4. Justification
This stud y aim s a t improvin g the identificatio n and capacitatin g o f street children
through communit y participation. Facilitating stree t children in vocational training
will help them acquire technical skills which is a sustainable way of improving their
16
life in the future hence enable them to sustain their life. O n the other hand, the results
of this study will also highlight the importance of the project as far as the community
economic developmen t i s concerned . Th e result s wil l als o contribut e toward s
understanding the factors contributing to the emergence of street children and finding
ways to solvin g the problems. This wil l als o be a tool and a guide to planners and
decision makers dealin g with various social and economic programs. Furthermore,
the finding s will hel p to a larger extent th e community , NGOs/CBOs, governmen t
and othe r stakeholder s i n adjustin g an d redirectin g resource s t o th e socia l an d
economic programs.
2.5. Research
Objectives
2.1.1.Main Objective
To capacitat e street children so that they can undertake their own life .
2.1.2.Specific Objective
1. Identificatio n of street children.
2. Identificatio n of existing traditional systems of caring and supporting
vulnerable/street children.
2.1.3.Research Questions
1. I s there any relationship between street children and such factors, as
orphanage, paren t divorce , poverty, rural - urban migration and poor
family planning?
2. I s there any existing traditional system, which takes care and support
vulnerable children in the study area?
17
3. I s there any possibility to improve training, care and support of street
children in the study area?
2.6. Limitation
The major limitation to the project study is time and financial constraint s (funding).
The stud y i s confine d to a sampl e o f only thre e wards du e t o th e fac t tha t time
allocated t o cove r th e cours e an d fiel d work , dat a collection , dat a analysi s and
writing of the final report and presentation was limited.
2.7. Organization
of the Study
The study is divided int o seven chapters. Chapte r one covers the Communit y need
assessment, whil e chapte r tw o discusse s proble m identification , chapte r thre e
reviews literatur e (theoretical , empirica l an d policy ) relate d t o stree t children.
Chapter fou r describe s th e methodolog y used , whil e chapte r fiv e describe s
implementation o f th e project . Chapte r si x presents Monitoring , Evaluatio n and
Sustainability and chapter seven makes the conclusion and recommendations.
18
CHAPTER THREE
3.0 LITERATUR
E REVIEW
3.1. Overview
This chapter review s the literatur e o f different aspect s related to street children. The
chapter i s divided into three sections. The first section offers theoretica l review, the
second section reviews empirically and the third section reviews policy.
3.2. Theoretical
Review
The problem o f street childre n is a world phenomenon . I t ha s grow n all over th e
world, an d particularly in developing countries. Man y studie s hav e addresse d thi s
issue, trying to focus on reasons behind it. It is certainly not a new phenomenon, bu t
because of the increased number of street children, we are under pressure to address
it. Severa l factors contribut e t o the increas e i n number o f street children, includin g
the socioeconomi c an d livin g condition . Previousl y extende d famil y lifestyl e
provided voluntaril y supporting an d car e fo r childre n who los t thei r parents . But
nowadays th e spiri t to assistin g these children has deteriorate d henc e the children
decide to migrate to towns and streets. Life in the streets without protection expose s
the children to a number o f problems such as diseases, violenc e and sexual abuse, in
turn leadin g to sprea d o f HIV/AIDS t o these children. Thus th e magnitud e o f the
street children problem continue s t o gro w attracting mor e studie s t o investigat e i n
detail and offer possible remedies.
Despite th e proble m o f street children increasing worldwide every day , i t is more
critical in developing countries, Tanzania being no exception. The existence of many
19
factors i n developing countries favour s th e increas e i n street childre n than i n the
developed countries. Som e of the factors include HIV/AIDS, divorce, poverty, rural
- urban migration and low use of family planning methods.
HIV/ AIDS , cause s man y death s o f parents i n the community , something whic h
leaves children orphans. Normally these orphans are looked after by relatives such as
grandmother, uncle , and othe r relative s in the clan . Formall y these relatives could
manage to take care of the orphans because the problem affected onl y few people in
the clan but nowadays deaths of clan members occur more than expected, causing a
sort of burden to relatives of the deceased , somethin g which leads to the failure of
caring fo r orphan s henc e th e nee d o f assistanc e from th e community . Thes e
difficulties o f life o n their guardians caus e som e children to go to town to do child
labour fo r survival . AID S orphan s substantiall y escalat e th e populatio n of street
children. In Africa, an increasingly common cause is AIDS.
(http://en.wMpedia.org/wiki/Street_children (2006:1))
Divorce, i s anothe r facto r whic h cause s stree t childre n in the community . These
children lose the directio n of life afte r thei r father an d mother decide s to divorce.
The childre n decide t o liv e unde r car e o f father o r mother , bu t other s sen d their
children to their relatives such as grandmother. This again leads to the difficulties in
the lives of children in terms of food, shelter and other essential needs. Some - times
these children decide to go back to their fathers or mothers but realize that there is no
proper care . "Famil y disruption , in the for m o f death , desertion , separation , an d
divorce, has shrun k famil y siz e stil l further , ofte n resultin g in poor, single-parent ,
20
mother-headed households . Thi s leave s childre n vulnerable, and wit h th e genera l
absence o f community and governmental support, they have few options in times of
crisis other than life on the street", (http://findarticles.eom/p/articles/ (2006:3))
HIV / AIDS , i n the communit y increase th e burde n o f poverty i n the famil y an d
community i n general throug h increasin g dependant children . The famil y fail s t o
keep enough food t o cater fo r large number of children in the family . Als o having
large numbe r o f children the famil y fail s t o accommodat e al l family membe r fo r
basic needs such as food, education, health, clothes, and shelter. "In Latin America, a
common cause i s abandonment b y poor families unable to fee d al l their children"
(http://en.wikipedia.Org/wiki/Stteet_children2006:l))
Rural - Urban Migration emanates street children because, i n developing countries
urban area s ar e mor e develope d tha n rura l areas . Urba n area s hav e goo d
infrastructures, goo d communicatio n facilities , goo d socia l service s an d goo d
recreation service s compare d t o rura l areas . Thes e goo d service s i n urba n areas
encourage peopl e i n rural, including childre n to migrate for m rura l to urba n areas
with the expectation that they could get good life. "Movement is the result of both a
desire for a better life and a wish to escape from a very limited rural economy. Rural
to urban migration may include entire families, men alone, or children. Children may
migrate in order to support their poverty-stricken families". After reaching town their
expectations becom e negativ e b y realizing difficultie s o f life henc e som e children
decide to engage in child labour and become street children.
(http://www.findarticles.eom/p/articles/ (2006:2))
21
Low us e o f family plannin g method als o i s anothe r facto r whic h generate s large
number of street children. Looking at the above factor the reasons of difficulties of
life i n the famil y an d communit y is th e increasin g number o f dependants in the
family an d community. For example, some families hav e 6 to 8 children, if father
and mother die and these children decide to live with their uncle who has 4 children,
the siz e of uncle's famil y wil l increas e t o 1 0 up to 1 2 children. Thi s increase s a
burden to the uncle and hard life in the family. Hence some children decide to go to
town to find child work and become street children.
3.3. Empirical
Review
The proble m of street childre n i s generall y on th e increas e worldwide . I n 1981,
United Nations pointed out about 40 million street children. Although the number of
street children decreased to 30 million in the year 1986, the figure has risen up again
between 8 0 to 10 0 million stree t children in 2005 as indicated by WHO, UNICE F
and Child Hope. The above figuresare according to Maha Ghobashi, Maissa Shawk,
and Ima n A l Tahlaw i i n (http://www.aucegypt.edu/src/pdr/Research Briefs/014 ,
(2005:1)).
Romania has an estimated 6,000 children living on the streets. "Our team works daily
with them to identify childre n at risk before they are irreparably damaged by street
culture. Childre n ar e admitte d to ou r safe hous e "Cas a Pistruiatul". Th e aim is to
integrate them back into mainstream education. We also work long-term with family
support programmes to reunite children with their families - where this is possible".
Transition to a free market economy has lef t Romania a staggering 8 times poorer
22
than 1 0 years ag o wit h 44% of Romanians living i n poverty. However, this figure
rises t o 80 % i n rura l area s o f th e Nort h Eas t wher e w e work . Thi s ha s ha d a
devastating effec t o n famil y life . Facin g extrem e poverty , man y parents resort t o
home-made alcohol. Their children face the resulting brutality and a life of enforced
begging o r stealing . Mor e an d mor e childre n are runnin g awa y t o escap e thes e
hardships.
"The children migrate via the railway network and congregate i n large city stations.
Most children admitted to our house have a history of abuse at home. Historically,
the stat e has onl y intervene d onc e a chil d i s in trouble wit h th e polic e and has a
criminal record. For the childre n to have any chance of a healthy future, thi s is too
late". Sinc e its inception, the projec t ha s rescue d a total of 367 children from the
streets of Bacau. Th e youngest o f these was fou r years old . Of these children, 63
have bee n reunite d wit h thei r families , 9 0 hav e bee n fostere d wit h Romania n
families, 1 8 have been adopted by Romanians and 70 have remained with us at the
safe house unti l they have left wit h a job and accommodation. Sadly, 110 childre n
have run away. The frequent "run- a ways" are usually the older children who have
been on the street s a long time and have migrated to Bacau from elsewhere. Their
independence and , often, substanc e abuse , makes it difficult fo r them to adapt to a
more regulate d life . W e have 1 6 childre n currently residen t wit h us" . D r John
Chandler, PhD British Executive Services Overseas, monitoring report June 2002) in
(http://wwwelifflmdforromania.co.UK/romaniastreet childre n detailed.htm.
2005: 1).
23
Efforts hav e bee n don e regardin g thi s proble m i n different part s of the world . In
Romania there is a charity organization engaged in helping a wide range of groups in
need, suc h a s stree t children , the sick , elderl y an d destitut e communities . "This
project i s run by a great team of dedicated young Romanians. Every day they patrol
the street s of "Bacau" North - Eastern Romania , a major railwa y hub, lookin g for
new faces amon g the homeless children . The aim is to intervene a s soon as possible
before th e youn g runaways ge t to o use d t o lif e o n the streets" . Dr John Chandler,
PhD British Executive Services Overseas monitoring report June 2002) in
(http://wwweliffundforromania.co.UKyromania stree t childre n detailed.ht m
(2005:1)).
Ethiopia counts one of the largest populations of orphans in the world: 13 per cent of
children throughout th e countr y are missing one or both parents. This represents an
estimated 4.6 million children - 800,00 0 of whom were orphaned by HIV/AIDS. The
country ha s see n a stead y increas e i n the numbe r o f children becoming orphane d
because o f AIDS . I n th e past , famine, conflic t and othe r disease s were th e mai n
factors that claimed the lives of parents.
UNICEF, in partnership wit h federal and regional HIV/AIDS Prevention and Control
Offices, a s well as government ministries , is responding to the needs of orphans and
vulnerable childre n i n Ethiopi a throug h collaboration s wit h non-governmenta l
organizations, an d yout h an d community-base d organizations . Ther e ar e aroun d
10,000 Anti-AID S Club s i n th e country , an d UNICE F Ethiopi a see s thes e
partnerships a s the most efficient way to reach children who are infected or affecte d
24
by HIV/AIDS. The above quotation is according to Sabine Dolan contributed to this
report from New York in,
( http://www.umcef.org^infobycountry/ethiopia 3078 3 .html.2005:1)
UNICEF i s als o tryin g to reduc e children' s vulnerabilit y to HI V by ensuring that
they have access to their rights to health, education, equality and protection. Children
have becom e th e mos t vulnerabl e an d most pron e grou p t o b e infecte d wit h HIV.
This is particularly true of adolescent girl s and young women - thos e aged 15-2 4 who constitute betwee n 4 0 an d 5 0 per cen t of all ne w infections. "Th e Stree t has
been my home since I can remember. I t has been more than one year since I moved
here (Bahr Dar) and all this time, I have not seen one good thing about living on the
street. Everything is horrible," says 14-year-ol d Mandefro Kassa, who grew up as an
orphan on the streets of Woreta, a provincial town in Ethiopia. The above quotation
is accordin g t o Sabin e Dola n contribute d t o th e repor t from New Yor k i n
http://www.umcef.org/iffobycountry/ethiopia_30783.html.2005:1
In Nairobi, Kenya , "at leas t 30,00 0 homeless childre n roam the city . This destitute
population i s expectin g t o gro w a t a n estimate d rat e o f 1 0 percen t annually . I n
Nairobi, Stree t childre n spen d thei r day s begging , scavenging , sniffin g glu e an d
engaging in petty theft".
(http://www.populationaction.org/securitydemomphic/pdfs/SecurityDemogra c
hapter6.pdf 2005 : 65). In Tanzania, we estimated 730 , 000 AID S orphan s who are
being cared for by extended family members .
(http://www.aucegypt.edu/src/pdr/Research Briefs/01 4 Mah a Ghobashi.pdf#searc h
=Tanzania%20street%20children%20data 2005:6) .
,
,
25
However, man y carer s ar e to o old , young o r il l to mee t th e need s o f orphane d
children. This results t o a big number o f orphans movin g to urban street s for their
livelihood. Fo r exampl e i n Dodoma, the Tanzania n administrativ e capita l has it s
share of street children. Even more alarmin g is that the risin g number o f working
children is a new phenomenon in Tanzania.
Although reliable statistics ar e rare, availabl e information suggests that the number
of stree t childre n remains extremel y high . Ther e ar e approximatel y 3,00 0 stree t
children today livin g in streets of Dodoma while available statistics indicat e that in
1994 there were only 1,000 street children.
(http://www.aucegypt.edu/src/pdr/Research_Briefs/014 Mah a Ghobashi.pdftfsearc h
=Tanzania%20street%20children%20data 2005:6) .
t
,
In Arush a and Kilimanjaro Region , Tanzania there is a project whic h provides care
and suppor t fo r vulnerable children . The project i s a new initiative for Mkombozi
that combines its previous work of providing care services for street children with a
new focus o n testing different approache s t o working with vulnerable children and
HIV orphans . Working with children and youth on the streets, with their families and
in a residential care setting the project will document what works well and with what
groups o f children . We hop e tha t thi s stud y wil l contribut e t o improve d socia l
services provisio n to vulnerabl e childre n i n Tanzania . Additionally , th e suppor t
services provided by the project to street children and HIV orphan s wil l relieve them
from abus e and change behaviour to become responsible young adults.
26
During it s initia l phas e of 3 years the projec t wil l directl y impac t upo n ove r 73 0
children an d yout h i n Arusha an d Kilimanjar o Regions . "Thes e youn g peopl e ar e
vulnerable eithe r because they spend time o n the street s or have been orphaned by
HIV/AIDS. Th e pilo t projec t wil l develo p pioneerin g procedure s t o foste r car e
programme an d th e placin g o f vulnerabl e childre n wit h carers . Mkomboz i wil l
respond to the psychosocial and physical needs of street children in a residential care
centre and on the streets".
(http//www.mkombozi.org/our-library/report/2005/BBBS_kilimanjaro_2pg. 1)
.
In Ruvuma region, th e numbe r of vulnerable childre n is increasing yea r after year.
For example , i n 2001 orphans were 4, 764, Disabled 1,735 an d Street children 94. In
2003 the numbe r of orphans was 6,492 , Disable d 1,98 3 an d stree t children 473. In
2004 the number of orphans was 13,225 , Disabled 2,057 and street children 474, and
in 200 5 th e number s o f orphan s ar e 13,006 , Childre n with disabilitie s 5,69 5 and
street childre n 479 . (Chil d Surviva l Protection an d Developmen t (CSPD ) Annua l
Reports 2005: 60).
Songea Municipa l is leadin g i n Ruvum a regio n b y havin g man y Stree t childre n
numbering 468 , followe d b y Tundur u Distric t whic h ha s 11 ; Songe a rura l an d
Mbinga District s hav e n o stree t childre n i n thei r areas . Source : (Chil d Surviva l
Protection and Development (CSPD ) Annual Reports 2005: 60).
27
3.4. Policy
Review
All ove r the world there are a lot of policies related to the development of children.
These policies help to protect children out of various problems which can affect them
or the community . The policies help to control various issues related to the social ,
economic, and cultural life. For example, in China the policy lies on family planning;
Poster of Chinese birth control policy with the slogan "sweet achievement"
What i s commonly known as th e One-chil d Polic y i n the Wes t is a term used to
describe th e birt h control policies by the governmen t o f the People' s Republi c o f
China. The term is based on a popular misconception that the birth control policy in
China, (literally "planne d birth") requires all couples in mainland China to have no
more than one child. In reality, having one child has been promoted as an ideal, and
the limit has been strongly enforced in urban areas; the actual implementation varies
from locatio n to location . In mos t rura l areas , familie s are allowe d to hav e two
children, if the first child is female. Second bom children are subject to birth spacing
(usually 3 or 4 years) . Additiona l childre n result i n fines, o r mor e frequentl y th e
families are required to pay economic penalties, and can not receive bonus from the
birth control program. Some children who are in one-child family pa y less than the
children in other families.
The policies are controversial , both inside and outside o f China. Traditionally , the
majority of Asian children have been subject to intense education, and in some cases,
over-achievement. I n th e 1990's , urba n childre n became mor e involve d i n extracurricular weekend/after schoo l activities such as piano, violin, drawin g lessons, or
some sort of a board game. To the cultural backdrop of an emphasis of achievement
28
in education, many parents depend on their only child as their face-providing support
in public.
To add to the problem, many parents of only one child were inadequately educated ,
and were ofte n dissatisfie d with their places i n society, and naturally, pushed their
children to do better, so that they would not have the same fate. Chinese education is
highly standardized, and the workload is immense. The overall grades of students are
often displaye d for the entir e clas s to view, often addin g to the guil t and low selfesteem o f those who are les s proficient in academics. Their parents, in turn, fill u p
their weeken d schedule s with tutor s an d prep-classes , allowin g n o fre e time .
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/one chil d polic y 2005:2)
American researchers, wh o traveled to Chin a in the 1970' s durin g the lat e Cultural
Revolution (1966-1976) , foun d tha t there were numerou s conference s i n factorie s
and i n healt h center s abou t th e importanc e o f famil y plannin g an d use s o f
contraceptives. I n th e Cultura l Revolution , th e People' s Republi c of China bega n
implementing women's health care policy. It is individualistic in each case but most
people follow the on e chil d policy. In some instances th e male or female woul d be
sterilized, o r mor e commonl y abortio n wa s recommende d (Wegman , 193:222) .
Healthcare was something that women workers are entitled too. It was required that
every femal e worke r i n Chin a receive s urinalysi s an d systemati c vagina l
examinations every year (Wegman, 1973:222).
Tanzania has implemente d plans an d taken certai n steps aimed at promotin g child
development. These steps, to mention a few, include provision and strengthening of
29
maternal an d Chil d care , establishmen t o f pre - schoo l and provisio n of primary
education for all. Other steps taken include ratification of the U N Conventio n on the
Rights of the Child, signing the OA U charter on the rights of children; the enactmen t
and revie w of laws aimed a t promotin g and protecting th e right s an d interest s o f
children; the preparation an d implementation of the National Programme o f Action
concerning child survival, protection and development in the 1990s.
The Governmen t ha s create d a specia l Ministr y t o coordinat e chil d developmen t
programme an d encourag e no n - governmenta l organization s an d individual s to
establish centres for children in difficult circumstances ; to set up special schools and
institutions t o cate r fo r childre n wit h particula r problems ; t o se t u p voluntar y
associations t o serv e an d defen d children ; and to establis h juvenile courts s o that
those suspected o f breaking the law are dealt with in such a way that their status as
children is not violated.
(Ministry of Community Development Women Affairs and Children (1996:2-3)).
The policy sho w that children in Tanzania constitute mor e tha n 4 6 percent o f the
population an d tha t o n averag e a househol d i n Tanzania has a t leas t 6 children.
Therefore, childre n ar e a n importan t segmen t o f society . Th e problem s facin g
children ar e largel y similar; they diffe r fro m rural to urba n environment . I n urban
areas where there is overcrowding and a diversity of traditions and customs, children
are face d b y problems o f early employment , lac k of moral direction, and lac k of
communal responsibilit y for thei r upbringing , living o n the streets , temptations t o
30
participate i n illegal businesses , abuse , an d involvement in drug abuse, poo r living
conditions as well as problems of travelling to and fromschool.
(Ministry of Community Development Women Affairs and Children (1996:4)).
To cur b the above problems, various models were introduced in different areas in the
country to overcome the problem of orphans, which is currently contributing more to
street children. Some internationa l NGO s suppor t project s suc h a s "Humaliza " in
Kagera an d Regiona l Psychosocia l Initiativ e (REPSSI ) fo r Childre n an d yout h
affected b y HIV/AIDS , whic h i s sponsore d b y Swis s and Swedis h developmen t
authorities. REPSS I i s no w th e larges t competenc e networ k i n th e region .
"The various levels and elements o f our intervention strategy, whic h differ s fro m
one area to another depending on priorities, include the following:
Strengthening o f familie s whic h hav e take n i n AID S orphans , strengthenin g o f
village communities , Acces s t o educatio n an d healthcare , Actio n plan s o f
governments, Educatio n an
d information
,
(Ovartisfoimdationxom/en/projec
2005. Htm: 5 )
"Even with the combine d efforts o f NGOs like St. Joseph's an d International Chil d
Care, there are stil l thousand s of street children who wil l reac h adulthoo d (o r die
trying) without ever having had a chance to be a child. They will fal l asleep on a pile
of rags on a dirt floor and awake to a world that barely acknowledges their existence.
It is a grim reality of life i n Haiti, but thankfully one that has no t gon e unnoticed.
Although NGOs cannot reach every child, they will continue to help as many as they
31
can, one by one. As long as someone takes notice of them, the street children of Haiti
will not suffer invisibly", ( http://www./dpi.net/ 2005:5)
The implementation of child Development Policy in Tanzania is as follows:Despite effort mad e b y the Governmen t to improv e education, health service s and
household food security, many children in the country are stil l prone to diseases and
malnutrition, whic h mean s tha t the y d o no t gro w physicall y an d mentall y a s
stipulated in the policy.
Child developmen t i s affecte d b y gende r biase d custom s an d traditions . Childre n
themselves ar e blindl y adoptin g corrup t foreig n behaviours becaus e of the lac k of
any syste m t o contro l these behaviours. Parent s prefe r t o educat e boys tha n girls
which lead to un equal distribution of power in the society.
The moral development of the child is affected by family conflicts, the use of abusive
language b y parents, marriage brea k down , adult involvemen t in harming children
(defilement, harassment , abuse , rape ) especiall y gir l children , overcrowdin g in
homes which entails parents and children living in the same home or some children
sleeping in the neighbourin g houses and parents having no time to pay attention to
bringing up their children.
The above outlined theoretical, empirical and policy reviews show that the problem
of street children exists internationally, nationally and locally. The problem escalates
and ha s th e impac t o f increase d numbe r o f street children , which ca n affec t th e
32
communities and the natio n in general. Deliberate measures must b e taken to curb
the situation. Some of the measures to arrest the problem are; To establish a system
of carin g for stree t childre n by identifyin g them an d recognizin g their need s and
enabling them t o engag e in vocational training for their betterment ; To encourag e
traditional syste m o f car e an d suppor t o f childre n in difficul t circumstances ; T o
educate and mobilize parents, guardians, communities and institutions to understan d
and prioritize the implementatio n of child right; and to revisit, review and abandon
outdated laws , then pass appropriate law s and take ste m actio n against violator s o f
children's rights.
Thus this study wil l loo k at the increas e of street children in Songea Municipal and
finding mechanism to help street children through such means as Vocational training
in orde r t o sustai n th e bes t o f thei r lif e an d identifyin g th e existin g traditional
systems o f caring and supportin g o f vulnerable/street childre n in the communities.
The study aim s at coming out wit h sustainabl e way s of taking care an d support of
street children. The research methodology is reported in fourth chapter.
33
CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 RESEARC
H METHODOLOGY
4.1. Overview
This chapter cover s methodology used in this study and has eight sections. The first
section offers the description of the study area with regard to location and the criteria
used fo r selectio n o f wards. Th e secon d sectio n cover s th e researc h desig n used ,
while the thir d section is about the samplin g procedure used . Sectio n four presents
method of data collection and section five describes preparation an d instrument use d
in the study . Section six offers descriptio n about measurement of variables. Section
seven narrates data processing and analysis. The last section offers generalizatio n of
the findings.
4.2. Location
The Songe a Municipa l share s borders wit h Namtumbo an d Songe a Distric t to th e
East an d b y Songe a Distric t t o th e North , Wes t an d South . Th e Municipa l i s
characterized by undulating hills particularly around Matogoro Mountain and gently
sloping hills to the North and West with altitudes rangin g from 980 to 110 0 meters
above se a level . Th e Municipa l experience s temperature s ranging from 25.6 ° C to
31.4 ° C with average annual rainfal l o f 1263.7m m which falls between Decembe r
and March. The Municipal covers an area of 750.055 sq.k m of which 659.95 sq.km
is arable land . The Municipal i s divided into two divisions and thirteen wards . The
Municipal ha s a n estimate d populatio n o f 146,60 0 people . Th e population growth
rate is 3 percent per year. Population density is 371 persons per sq. km.
34
There are various Employment sectors which act as magnet fo r immigration of rural
population within the Region. (National Bureau of Statistics 2003: 4).
43. Internal
validity
In order to ensure accuracy and quality of the study, both nominal and ordinal scales
were used in the study. Nominal rating scale was used in categorizing responses by
respondents i n lin e with th e grou p t o whic h the y belon g suc h a s geographical
locations lik e ward, division, district , region and group based o n sex and religion.
Ordinal scal e was used to rank the reasons for children to be in the streets. Before
conducting surve y pre-testing wa s conducte d an d th e necessar y recommendation s
were adjusted.
The surve y too k 1 2 day s t o intervie w 66 respondent s an d gende r issue s wer e
considered. Approximatel y hal f a n hou r wa s use d t o complet e intervie w one
respondent. Fiv e day s wa s use d t o intervie w 43 children , fou r day s wa s used to
interview 1 4 leaders and three days to interview 9 community members in Songea
Municipal.
4.4. Research
Design
Descriptive surve y desig n wa s use d i n orde r t o expoun d th e situatio n o f street
children i n the stud y are a couple d with th e causa l factor s present . Als o a cros s
sectional researc h metho d ha s bee n use d t o collec t th e data . I n cros s - sectiona l
survey design, data is collected at a single point in time (Creswell, 1994). This design
is favourable because of the limite d tim e for collecting data. Accordin g to Babbie
35
(1990) and Bailey (1978) this method is suitable for a descriptive study as well as for
the knowing the relationship between and among variables used in the study.
4.5. Sampling
Procedures
A sampl e o f three (3 ) Ward s ou t o f the Municipal' s 1 3 Ward s wa s selecte d t o
conduct the study on street children. The Wards selected were Lizaboni, Mfaranyaki
and Bombambili, mainly based on the high number of street children.
4.6. Population
The population of the study consists of all street children in the 1 3 Wards, the leaders
and the community members in Songea Municipality.
4.7. Sampling
frame
From purposely selected wards , a lis t o f street / vulnerabl e children was obtained
from the GS M an d KIWOHEDE leaders. From that list, it was possible to prepare a
sampling frame. The researcher compile d a list of those street / vulnerable children
who have been involved in the study. It was from this sampling frame that a random
sample of respondents to be interviewed was taken using a table of random numbers.
4.8. The
Sample Size
A sample siz e of 66 respondents was preferred t o the presen t the population . Te n
street children from eac h War d wer e selecte d fo r intervie w in Songea Municipal .
Random selection was done. Nine (9 ) vulnerable children, three (3) in each of the
selected Wards, four (4) street children attending vocational training, 12 leaders four
(4) in each Ward, nine (9) community members three (3) in each selected Ward, one
NGO leade r an d on e Municipa l leade r wer e selecte d i n th e sample . Gende r
consideration attaine d prominenc e i n sampl e selection . Sampl e selectio n wa s
carefully done to avoid bias.
36
4.9. Validity
of the Survey Instrument
Before administerin g the survey , th e surve y instrument s wer e submitte d t o th e
municipal Socia l Welfar e office r t o g o throug h an d mak e necessar y
recommendations an d adjustment s read y t o b e used . Th e validit y o f th e surve y
instruments wa s eviden t durin g the executio n of the exercis e by the efficien t and
effective response of the people interviewed to the questions asked.
4.10. Pre - testing of the instruments
The first draft of the questionnaire was protested in the field by a random sample of
10 street children, three vulnerable children, four street children attending vocational
training, four ward leader, three community members, one KIWOHEDE teacher and
one Municipa l socia l welfar e officer . Th e pre-test sample was not include d i n the
final sampl e o f 6 6 respondents . Pre-testin g wa s don e t o tes t th e validit y o f
questionnaire and thereafter, necessary adjustments an d corrections were done to the
instrument before its final administration.
4.11. Data
Collection
4.11.1. Primary Data
A structured interview schedule was used to collect primary data from respondents
(appendix 10, 11 and 2). The interview schedule consisted of closed ended questions
for item s lik e age , sex , marita l status an d educationa l level . Th e ope n - ende d
questions wer e used fo r solicitin g respondents ' view s and/or option s pertaining to
street children . Focuse d grou p discussio n wit h communit y member s an d ke y
informants were also sources of primary data.
37
4J 1.2. Secondary
Data
Secondary dat a wer e collecte d by goin g through relevan t document s whic h wer e
obtained fro m th e stud y ward s office , Songe a Municipa l Counci l office , GSM ,
KIWOHEDE office , Communit y Economic Development (CED) / Open University
of Tanzani a (OUT) library an d th e headquarter s o f the Ministr y o f Communit y
Development Gende r an d Children . Thes e involve d collectin g informatio n from
different source s includin g books, journals and official reports , in libraries, NGOs,
relevant government office s and other institutions. The electronic database such as
the CD - ROM s and Web sites were also explored.
4.11.3. Data Collection Procedures
Fieldwork wa s conducted during the perio d of July 200 6 by the researcher . Muc h
care and foresight were given to legitimizing research in the eyes of the ward leaders,
children a s wel l a s part y an d governmen t leader s i n th e Municipal . Sinc e th e
researcher had worked as a community development officer fo r about 22 years in the
region, it was not difficult to establish rapport. The approval and promised support of
the GSM , Municipa l counci l office , war d leaders and street children were obtained
prior to conducting interviews. Al l th e interviews were conducted in Kiswahili, the
language easily understood by both enumerators and respondents.
The researche r manage d t o b e i n each o f the thre e ward s (appendi x 9) . Eligibl e
respondents were interviewed through the guidanc e of the tw o GS M staff s and/o r
leaders wh o introduced the researche r t o th e respondents . O f the 6 6 interviewin g
schedules meant for streets/vulnerable children , community members, ward leaders,
all o f them were properly completed, constituting a return rate of 100 percent. As
38
much as possible the interviews were conducte d i n privacy, the place wher e th e
respondents fel t fre e an d comfortable an d lasted fo r an hour each . Whe n th e
interviewing proces s wa s complete d in one war d the researcher move d to next,
usually spending one day in each ward. Further - more, data was collected from10
respondents includin g communit y development office , GSM , KIWOHEDE , socia l
welfare, Municipal Council staffs an d RAS office throug h direct discussion with the
researcher. Th e researche r als o reviewe d the researc h record s an d othe r relevan t
information from th e Goo d Samarita n Missio n an d municipa l communit y
development files. It was also necessary to compile data from observation of some of
participant home, bus stand, and market centre in surveyed wards.
4.11.4. Data Processing
A majo r concern in preparing data for analysis was to summarize the data fromthe
bulky ke y informant' s questionnaire , childre n questionnaire , war d leade r
questionnaire and community member questionnaire to single sheet of paper. To this,
data were paraphrased whil e preserving the original details and original meanings as
accurately a s possible. Data originall y reporte d i n Kiswahil i wer e translate d int o
English and those written with obvious grammatical mistakes were corrected.
4.11.5. Data Analysis
Data collected from th e respondent s were edited, coded, summarised and analyzed
using the statistical package for social science (SPSS) computer programme. In this
statistical package, descriptive statistics as frequencies an d percentage were used to
39
analyze th e problem o f street children . Th e analysi s wa s guide d b y the study
objectives and descriptive analysis was used.
4.11.6. Qualitative Data analysis
Consultation with Good Samaritan Mission (GSM) staffs helpe d to identify some of
the information and data required. Preliminary analysis of data was done in the field .
The record of each interview was inspected for its accuracy immediately after i t was
completed, that is, before proceedin g to another respondent. The researcher himself
immediately after the field data collection verified the data in order to make sure that
the intervie w schedule s ha d been filled accuratel y an d completed. Open-ende d
responses were summarized ; similaritie s as well a s differences i n responses were
reviewed an d noted . Th e complete d intervie w schedule s wer e code d fo r further
analysis. Th e information collecte d throug h verba l discussio n wit h differen t
respondents suc h a s views, suggestion s wa s thu s analyse d i n detail wher e the
recorded dialogu e brok e dow n informatio n int o smalle r meaningfu l unit s of
information or themes and tendencies.
4.11.7. Quantitative data analysis
All quantitativ e analysi s reporte d i n this stud y wa s conducte d usin g statistica l
procedures fro m th e statistical packag e fo r social science s (SPSS) . Descriptive
statistics suc h a s frequencies, percentages an d reason s wer e use d t o obtain the
variability and central tendencies o f variables. The data collected through interview
were compiled , summarised an d analysed . Th e results , i n the form o f frequency
distribution tabl e wit h number o f respondents fallin g i n a particular attribut e and
respective percentage s were shown . The attributes analysed i n this sub-programm e
were the genera l characteristics o f respondents such as age, education level, religion
40
and sex ; Background of the stree t children, such as siz e of household, head o f the
family, potential relatives, and cause for street children; also, life of street children in
town, activitie s an d wher e the y sleep . Th e Vocationa l Trainin g par t include d
willingness to attend vocational training, type of training selected, type of facilitation
they like and existence of traditional methods.
4.11.8. External Validity
This study wa s conducte d i n only three wards i n Songea Municipal . However , the
findings ca n b e generalize d beyon d th e ward s studie d an d indee d beyon d Songe a
Municipal and Ruvuma Region. This is because the situation from which the findings
were derived is not unique to the three wards of Songea Municipal only. Specifically,
with respect to street children:
1. Th e structur e i n th e Municipa l ward s studie d reflect s th e situatio n whic h is
prevalent i n most urban wards all over Tanzania.
2. Th e methods applied i n the stud y ward s ar e no t specifi c to th e Municipa l bu t
applicable all over the country.
Therefore i t is considered that the implications drawn from this study will have direct
reference t o the studie d municipal wards and beyond. In summary chapter thre e has
described the methodology including location of the study area, research design, data
collection and analysis. The findings of the study are presented in the fourth chapter.
41
4.12. Limitation on Internal and External Validity
4.12.1. Fund
Due to the fact that, money is scarce and limited resource, it was not easy to cover a
large sample.
4.12.2. Response of respondents
It was difficult to get genuine answers especially from street children with small age.
4.12.3. Access to data
Some few data were difficult to obtain fromvarious sources due to confidentiality,
such as reasons for divorce.
4.13. Discussion of Results
4.13.1. Overview
This sectio n examine s th e genera l characteristic s o f respondents whic h ma y
influence the sustainable way of reducing number of street children i n towns. The
characteristics examined are respondent's educational level, age, sex, religion, size of
household, head of the family , potential relatives, cause of street children, activities
of street children, where they sleep, willingness to attend vocational training, type of
training selected, type of facilitation they like. These characteristics are described in
this section to give the general profile of the study population in relation to problem
of street children.
42
4.13.2. Street Children Education Level
Result i n Table 4. 1 show s tha t 70 % of street childre n interviewe d ha d primary
education, 20 % had no education, 4.5 % attendin g COBE T classes , an d 4.5% ar e
orphans, secondar y student s wh o had no school fees . Th e stud y realize d that ,
facilitating stree t childre n throug h vocationa l trainin g ha s been foun d possibl e as
70.5 % of the stree t children interviewed were STD VII leavers and 4.5 % attained
complementary Basi c Education Training (COBET). For secondary schoo l students
we made a discussion with Mfaranyaki and Bombambili Ward Executive Officer to
find schoo l fee s fro m differen t Donor s an d NGO s suc h a s Songe a Municipa l
Council, Regiona l Facilitatin g Agenc y (RFA) , Membe r o f Parliament fund , and
NGOs and it was possible for both students to continue with secondary education .
Table 4-1: Stree
t children Education Level
Education Level
Number of Respondents % of Respondents
No Formal Education
9
20.5
Primary Education
31
70.5
Secondary Education
2
4.5
COBET
2
4.5
Total
44
100.0
Source: Survey data, 2006
4.13.3. Respondents Age
Results (Table 4.2) Indicate the age of street children interviewed. The age of 13 - 1 7
years (79.5% ) had more respondents, followe d by age 8-12 year s (20.5%) . Thi s
shows that more street children have an age of 13 - 1 7 years the age in most cases
43
which students complet e standard seven and stay idle. To facilitate them in vocation
training is possible.
Table 4-2: Stree
t children Age
Age
Number of Respondents
%
8-12-Years
9
20.5
13-17-years
35
79.5
Total
44
100.0
Source: Survey data, 2006
4.13.4. Street children's Religions
Results (Table 4.3) indicate that Christians were 56.8% an d Muslims were 43.2%.
These result s sho w that al l street childre n belon g to religiou s families. Althoug h
Christians are comparatively more than Muslims in the study areas, generally there is
need for these religions to participate in taking care and facilitating stree t children.
Also the religious groups must educate and support the communities in development
ventures through faith and religious organization such as CARITAS.
Table 4-3: Respondent
Religion
s Religion
Number o
f
Respondents
%
Christian
25
56.8
Muslim
19
43.2
Total
44
100.0
Source: Survey data, 2006
44
4.13.5. Respondents sex
y
Results (Table 4.4) indicate that male street children were 61.4% and 38.6% female.
These result s indicat e tha t bot h mal e an d femal e ar e engaging i n street children
activities. T o assist these street children, in Songea Municipal there are two NGOs,
the Goo d Samarita n Missio n (GSM ) and Kiota Wome n Healt h Developmen t
(KIWOHEDE). Th e GS M provid e vocationa l trainin g to both mal e an d femal e
children while KIWOHEDE provide education to female only.
Table 4-4: Respondent
s Sex
Frequency
Valid Percent
Male
27
61.4
Female
17
38.6
Total
44
100.0
Source: Survey data, 2006
4.13.6. Young People Who Attended Vocational Training in GSM and
KIHOWEDE from 2004 - 2006
In (Tabl e 4.5 ) Indicat e th e street childre n who go t vocationa l training from their
centers ar e not traceable. Ou t o f 71 stree t children , wh o attende d Vocationa l
Training fro m 200 4 t o 2005 i n KIHOWED E an d GSM , onl y 1 5 street children,
which i s 21% practice Vocationa l skill s i n three Regions . They ar e three (3 ) i n
Mbeya, , four (4) in Dar es Salaa m and eight (8) in Songea. That is why there is a
need o f undertaking pos t managemen t o f street childre n eve n afte r completin g
vocational training.
45
Table 4-5: Youn
g People Who Attended Vocational Training in GSM and
KIWOHEDE from 2004 - 2006
No. Of Vulnerabl e
No. Of Street Children
Total No. Of Vulnerable ,
Known No. Of Trained
Children Attended
Attended Vocational
And Street Children
Street Children Who
Vocational Training
Training
Attended Vocational
Practice Training Skills.
Centre
Year
Training
M
F
TOTAL
M
F
TOTAL
M
F
TOTAL
M
F
TOTAL
GSM
23
27
50
5
3
8
28
30
58
2
1
3
KIWOHEDE
0
240
240
0
10
10
0
250
250
0
4
4
GSM
30
26
56
12
8
20
42
34
76
3
4
7
KIWOHEDE
0
300
300
0
5
5
0
305
305
0
1
1
GSM
29
31
60
7
9
16
36
40
76
-
-
-
KIWOHEDE
0
60
60
0
12
12
0
72
72
-
-
-
SUB
GSM
82
84
166
24
20
44
106
128
234
5
5
10
Total
KIWOHED
0
600
600
0
27
27 •
0
627
627
0
5
5
82
684
766
24
47
71
106
755
861
5
10
15
2004
2005
2006
E
GRAND TOTA L
SOURCE: Songea Municipal Council Report June 2006.
4.13.7. Size of Household of Respondents
Results in (Table 4.6) sho w that the majority o f street children, 45.5 % live i n the
family o f 4 - 6 people, 38.6% live in the family o f 1-3 people and 15.9 % live in the
family o f 7 - 9 people. Som e stree t childre n argue d tha t som e time s the y slee p
without eatin g foo d o r they at e once per day. Althoug h there results sho w major
problem of poverty, lack of family plannin g skills is also vivid in households in the
study area.
46
Table 4-6: Siz
e of Household
Size of Household
Number of
%
Respondents
1-3-People
17
38.6
4-6-People
20
45.5.
7-9-People
7
15.9
Total
44
100.0
Source: Survey data, 2006
4.13.8. Vulnerable children in family
Results (Table 4.7) indicate that 77.8% of community members interviewed have one
to three vulnerable childre n in their families and 22.2% have no vulnerable children
in thei r families . This increase i n family size leads to hardshi p o f life i n terms of
basic needs such as food, clothes, school fees and shelter.
Table 4-7: Hav
e Vulnerable Children in their families
Number of
Number of
Vulnerable Children
Respondents
0-Vulnerable
2
22.2
7
77.8
9
100.0
%
Children
1-3-Vulnerable
Children
Total
Source: Survey data, 2006
47
4.13.9. Head of the Household.
Results (Tabl e 4.8) indicate that 29.5 % of street childre n interviewe d live i n th e
house where mother is a head of the family, 20.5% live in the house where father is a
head o f the family, 13.6 % live in the house wher e grandmothe r i s a head o f the
family, 13.6 % live in the house where uncle is a head of the family, 13.6 % live in the
house where brother is a head of the family, 4.5% live in the house where aunt is a
head of the family,2.3% liv e in the house where sister is the head of the family and
2.3% live in the house where grandfather is a head of the family. Generally this result
shows that 75% of street children live without father and 70.5% live without mother.
Table 4-8: Hea
d of Household
Number of Respondents
%
Father
9
20.5
Mother
13
29.5
Grand Mother
6
13.6
Aunt
2
4.5
Uncle
6
13.6
Sister
1
2.3
Brother
6
13.6
Grand Father
1
2.3
44
100.0
Head of Household
Total
Source: Survey data, 2006
48
4.13.10. Close Relative
Results (Tabl e 4.9) indicate that the close relative of most o f street children are;
Uncle 29.5% , Grandmothe r 25% , Sister 11.4 % Cousin 9.1 % Step fathe r 9.1%
Brother 4.5% and Grandfather 4.5%.
Table 4-9: Clos
e Relative
Close Relative
Number of Respondents %
Uncle
13
29.5
Cousin
4
9.1
Grand Mother
11
25.0
Step Father
4
9.1
Step Mother
2
4.5
Brother
3
6.8
Sister
5
11.4
Grand Father
2
4.5
Total
44
100.0
Source: Survey data, 2006
4.13.11. Factors Contributing To the Emergency of StreetChildren
Results (Tabl e 4.10 ) indicat e tha t povert y wa s earmarke d b y 54.5 % of th e
respondents a s a majo r caus e o f stree t children . Mos t o f th e stree t childre n
complained o f shortage o f food an d clothes, despit e th e fac t tha t 20.5 % of the
interviewed childre n came fro m Mal e heade d household s an d 29.5% from Female
headed households. (Table 4-8 above).
49
Annual report (200 3 - 2004 ) of street child i n Africa indicate d some of the factor s
contributing to street children include "The stress of poverty, hunger, an d carrying
adult responsibility on his small shoulders drove Moses away from his home and to
the street s of Kitwe. A t night, he slep t rough in the marketplac e alon g with many
other boy s an d girls . H e had becom e a stree t child , www.streetchildafrica.org.uk
(2006:8)
Also Pau l found himself i n the streets of Accra, Ghana's capital city, at the age of
fourteen. Lik e s o many street children he was there as a result o f acute povert y in
Akatsi, his home region. His family was too poor to keep him so he made his way to
the street s o f Accr a t o tr y an d suppor t himself , www.streetchildafrica.org.uk
(2006:23)
Table 4-10: Factor
Factors contributin
s contributing Street children (Cause of Street Children)
g Number of Respondents
%
street children
Divorce
11
25.0
Poverty
24
54.5
Orphanage
8
18.2
Large Family
1
2.3
44
100.0
Total
Source: Survey data, 2006
50
4.13.12. Place to Sleep.
Results (Tabl e 4.11 ) indicat e tha t majorit y o f stree t childre n 79.5% slept home ,
18.25% slept in streets and 2.3% slept in ghetto. Thi s result is contrary to the study
conducted o n 10 0 boys from Alexandri a durin g the sprin g and summe r period of
1999-2000. The study showed that, majority of the children (94%) slept on the street
while only 6% slept at home on a regular basis. E.M. Salem 1 and F. Ab d El-Lati f 2
in http;//www.emro.who, int/Publications/EMHJ/0801/socio, htm (200:1 )
This difference betwee n the street children in the study area and that of Alexandria
may b e due to the fact that most street children in study area are not detached with
their families as compared to those o f Alexandria. These results also show positive
possibilities in applying traditional ways of rearing street children.
Table 4-11: Plac
e to Sleep
Place to sleep
Number of Respondents
%
Home
35
79.5
In street
8
18.2
Ghetto
1
2.3
Total
44
100.0
Source: Survey data, 2006
4.13.13. Activity in Town
Results (Tabl e 4.12) indicat e that 60 % of street childre n are engage d i n carryin g
luggage, 26.7% of all street children (about 100 % of female street children) engaged
in se x work, and 13.3 % engaged i n pet business . Annua l report (200 3 - 2004 ) of
street child Africa indicate d some street children story such as "Yolanda was on the
51
streets with her sister for three years. S o she returned to the streets and fell into the
sex trad e i n a desperat e attemp t t o suppor t he r brother s an d sisters" .
(www.streetchildafrica.org.uk: (2006:5)) . Therefore, al l female stree t children are at
risk of getting HIV/AIDs and other sexually transmitted diseases (STD) .
Table 4-12: Activit y in Town
Activities in Town
Number of Respondents
%
Pet business
4
13.3
Carrying Luggage
18
60.0
Sex
8
26.7
Total
30
100.0
Source: Survey data, 2006
4.13.14. Vocational Training
Results found i n this stud y sho w that, street children have show n readiness t o be
trained i n variou s discipline s such a s sewing , mechanic s an d COBET . Result s
(Table 4.13 ) indicat e tha t 41.7 % o f stree t childre n lik e mechanics , 37.5 % lik e
sewing, 16.7% like COBET and 4.2% like carpentry.
52
Table 4-13: Vocationa
l Training
Vocational Training
Number of Respondents
%
Carpentry
1
4.2
Sewing
9
37.5
Mechanics
10
41.7
COBET
4
16.7
Total
24
100.0
Source: Survey data, 2006
4.13.15. Type of facilitation they like after completing vocational training
and ready to establish economic groups.
Results (Tabl e 4.14 an d Table 4.15) indicat e that 100 % respondents prefe r t o get
working gear s afte r graduatin g vocationa l training an d the y ar e read y t o for m
Economic Groups.
Table 4-14: Typ
e of Facilitation they like after completing Vocational raining
Type of Facilitation
Number of
%
Respondents
Working Gears
Source: Survey data, 2006
4
100.0
53
Table 4-15: Read
y to Establish Economic Groups
Ready to Establish
Number of
Economic Groups
Respondents
4
Yes
%
100.0
Source: Survey data, 2006
4.13.16. Traditional system used to care vulnerable/street children.
Results (Table 4.16 and Table 4.17) indicate that 68.2% of street children show that
there is no clear system o f taking care o f street/Vulnerable childre n against 77.8%
from Communit y Members who responded tha t there is a system of taking care of
street children. They mentioned the syste m of using close relatives, where children
have lost all of their parents. This system has been in use for quite a long time and it
is still in use in most of the developing countries. Bu t due to poverty, street children
do not notice the differenc e an d see i t as if there is no traditional system of taking
care of street children.
Table 4-16: Car
e of Street/Vulnerable children (Street children)
Care of
Number of
Street/V ulnerable
Respondents
%
children
Yes
14
31.8
No
30
68.2
Total
44
100.0
Source: Survey data, 2006
54
Table 4-17: Traditio
(Community)
n System used to Care Vulnerable/Street Children
Availability of
Number of
Traditional System
Respondents
%
Yes
7
77.8
No
2
22.2
Total
9
100.0
Source: Survey data, 2006
The differen t opinio n betwee n stree t childre n an d communit y leader s o n th e
existence o f traditiona l syste m o f takin g car e o f stree t childre n ma y b e du e t o
dissatisfaction of street children to service offered b y those involved in the traditional
system. Another reason ma y be the fact that, having low level of understanding du e
to their young age, these children fail to perceive the presence of traditional systems
of caring them. However the traditional systems of taking care of street children may
not properl y wor k du e t o th e fac t tha t the clos e relative s wh o ar e i n existence ar e
mainly Uncle .29.5% and Grandmother 25%, (Table 4-9 above).
4.14. Monitoring
and Evaluation
This section cover s th e monitorin g and evaluatio n procedure s where th e indicator s
used fo r monitoring, type o f data; method use d to collec t data and analyz e data for
evaluation was outlined.
55
4.14.1. Monitoring
Monitoring o n research methodolog y aspect s was don e b y recordin g an d periodic
analysis of information and data collected through intervie w schedule, focu s grou p
discussion and observation. The information required to know during the Monitoring
was what data to collect, when and who gathered th e data . I n so doing' it helped to
provide the o n going picture of the research accordin g to plan. During the research ,
the monitoring indicators used were as follows: - Number of street children in the study area,
- Number of street children attending vocational training,
- Number of vocational centres facilitating street children,
- Number of vulnerable children living in families,
- Number of close relatives taking care of street children,
- Number of street children per factor (Poverty, divorce, orphanage) ,
- Number of street children living in streets,
- Number and variety of activities by street children,
- Number of street children established economic groups,
4.14.2. Evaluation
In this section the evaluation was conducted on the basis of research objectives . The
reason fo r conductin g evaluatio n wa s t o chec k whethe r th e researc h i s conducte d
according t o th e planne d objectives . Th e evaluatio n question s wer e accordin g t o
research questionnair e (Se e Appendi x 10-12) . I n evaluatin g thi s projec t th e
evaluation indicators were as follows: - Numbe r of families taking care of street children without stigmization,
- Numbe r of families facilitated to take care of street children,
56
- Numbe r of street children in established vocational training,
- Numbe r o f stree t childre n establishe d thei r ow n grou p economi c project s
after acquiring training skills
57
CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 IMPLEMENTATIO
N
Under chapte r fou r th e stud y ha s pinpointe d th e cause s o f stree t childre n an d
measures t o b e take n t o tackl e th e problem . Thi s chapte r discusse s ho w these
recommendations can be implemented. Several strategies to solve the problem have
been discussed. The output and product of this project is the establishment of some
means o f reducing the rat e of generating stree t childre n an d the numbe r o f street
children. Als o th e projec t aim s at facilitatin g th e increas e o f the numbe r o f street
children enrolled for vocational training and the number of street children completing
vocational training so that they may be made ready to stan d o n their own without
returning back to the street.
5.1. Project
Objectives
5.1.1. Main Objective
To capacitat e stree t children wit h relevan t education and training so that they can
undertake their own lif e independently.
5.1.2. Specific
Objective
1. Training , care and support of street children
2. Provisio n of capital grand to graduate street children.
5.2. Products
and Outputs
The product s and outputs whic h will hav e been accomplished by April 200 7 are as
follows;
First, mor e tha n 3 0 stree t childre n wil l hav e bee n identified . Righ t no w Goo d
Samaritan Missio n i s conductin g continuous researc h t o identif y stree t children .
58
Having identifie d them it wil l b e easy to take them to vocational training centres,
complementary basi c educatio n trainin g (COBET ) programm e an d /o r giv e them
assistance to enable them become self reliant so that they may not go back to street.
Secondly, about 1 5 to 20 street children will b e trained in Good Samarita n Mission
vocational trainin g centres. The y wil l b e traine d o n various skill s lik e carpentry ,
tailoring, importanc e o f group formatio n and development an d formatio n of small
association and joining saving and credit co - operative s (SACCOs) . Th e skill wil l
give the street children knowledge and enable them to apply it in order to improve
their life standards . Als o group formation and SACCOs wil l enable them take credit
to develop their skill s an d workshops after completin g their trainings. Thirdly, the
Good Samarita n Missio n wil l conduc t regula r supervisor y visit s to trainee s afte r
completing thei r training . Thi s wil l b e helpfu l becaus e trainee s wil l b e give n
equipments an d encourage d t o ope n workshop s an d th e Goo d Samarita n Missio n
supervisory teams will visi t the m and advice them on how best they ca n run their
businesses and make their businesses profitable for betterment of their lives.
5.3. Project
Planning
The projec t pla n based o n the project objective s whic h are ; Identificatio n of street
children, training, care and support of street children and provision of capital grant to
graduate street children.
59
5.3.1. Implementation Plan
The implementations plan for the above objectives as from May 2006 to April 2007 is as follows:Table 5.3-1: Objectiv e (1): Identification of Street Children
s/no
Activities
1.
Preparation
Of proposal to Donor
(RFA/TACAIDS)
Submit proposal to Donor
2.
Resource
needed
Three
personnel
3.
Identification and verification
of street children areas
4.
Identification an
categorization o
children
5.
Selection of street children to
be facilitated.
f stree
d
t
Person responsible
- CE D Studen t an d
GSM
Three
personnel
Transport
Three
Personnel
Finance
Stationeries
Three
personnel
Stationeries
- CE D Studen t an d
GSM
- CE D Studen t an d
GSM
Transport
Three
Personnel
Finance
- CE D Studen t an d
GSM
- CE D Studen t an d
GSM
60
Table 5.3-2: Objectiv e (2):- Training, Care and Support Of Street Children
s/n
Activities
Resource
needed
Person responsible
Training o f stree t
children o n grou p
formation
- One personnel
-Stationeries
- CE D Student an d
GSM
0
1.
Table 5.3-3: Objectiv e (3). Provision of Capital Grant to Graduate Street Children
s/no
Activities
Resource
needed
1.
Professional categorizatio n of
graduate street children
Three - CE D Studen t and
personnel GSM
2.
Provision o f capital gran d in
the form of working tools
Three - CE D Studen t and
personnel GSM
3.
Supervision
-Transport
-Three
Personnel
-Finance
4.
Monitoring and Evaluation
Three - CE D Studen t and
personnel GSM
Person responsible
- CE D Studen t and
GSM
61
5.3.2. Inputs Indicator
In the implementation of the above project various inputs will used as shown in table 5-4 below.
Table 5.3-4: Projec t Goal: - To Capacitate Street Children So That They Can Undertake Their Own Life.
S/NO
OBJECTIVE
1.
Identification of street children
INPUTS
- Transportatio n Tsh. 39,000.00.
- Financ e Tsh. 1,039,000.00
- Thre e personnel.
2.
Training, care and support of street children
- Financ e Tsh. 16,000.00
- On e personnel.
3.
Provision of capital grand to graduate street children.
- financ e Tsh. 2,249,000.00
- Tw o Personnel
62
5.4. Staffing
Pattern
Table 5-5 below represents the Good Samaritan Mission staff pattern which will be dealing with street children.
Table 5.4-1: Staffin g Pattern
S/NO
PROGRAM
POSITION
TRAINING NEED S
SUPERVISORY R O L E
RESPONSIBILITY
1.
Identification o f street children Youth an d communit y - Training in research methodology
worker
2.
Training, car e an d suppor t of Youth an d communit y
street children
worker
- Ensur e stree t childre n ar e
identified.
Training i
n Communit
y - T o ensur e stree t childre n
Development o r short course in group are trained and well cared.
formation and developmen t
3.
Provision o f capita l gran t t o Coordinator
graduate street children.
Project proposal design.
- Acces s dono r fund s an d
provision o f th e gran d t o
street children group.
63
5.5. Project
Implementation Report
According to the plan the project wil l end in April 2007 . However, righ t now the
project has been implemented to some degree. This is according to evaluation done
in December 2006. The implementation is shown below.
2.1.4. Objective.1: Identification of streetchildren
In implementing this project some Tsh. 3,600,000.0 0 has been received by the Good
Samaritan Mission from Regional Facilitatin g Agency (RFA/TACAIDS ) an d street
children identification has been done.
Thirty children out of 43 interviewe d have been identified as street children in three
wards (Mfaranyaki, Lizaboni and Bombambili) through visiting bus stands, car wash
areas and market centres and interviewing street children who are engaged in various
pet businesse s suc h a s sellin g roaste d groundnuts , washin g cars , an d carin g
passengers' luggag e t o mentio n th e commo n ones . Ou t o f 3 0 identifie d stree t
children 18 had either one or no parent, and 12 had both parents.
Out o f 3 0 identifie d stree t childre n onl y 16 were selecte d fo r vocationa l trainin g
based o n th e degre e o f hardshi p the y face , willingnes s of th e stree t childre n
themselves to stud y in vocational training centres, age , and education background.
Other 4 childre n wer e selecte d t o join Complementar y Basic Educatio n Training
(COBET) an d 10 were dropped out.
Three staff (human resource) and Tshs. 285,000.00 have been used in accomplishing
the activitie s above . Th e objectiv e o f identificatio n o f stree t childre n wa s
successfully met at a 100% rating .
64
2J. 5. Objective 2: Training, care and support of streetchildren
The activities accomplished under this objective were:In implementin g thi s objective , 1 8 stree t childre n (las t year' s intake ) hav e been
trained in group formation in a participatory way. The major content was, what is a
group, ho w grou p i s formed , stage s of a grou p formation , problem s solvin g i n a
group and element of sustainability in a group. About Tshs . 25,000.00 were utilized
as planned and one staff (CE D student ) was involved. The objective of training, care
and support of street children was met at a rate of 100%.
2.1.6. Objective 3: Provision of capital grant to graduate street children.
The activities under this objective will be done in January 2007. Capital grant (about
Tsh. 2,400,000.00) is being processed by RFA/TACAIDS an d the implementation is
90%.
2.1.7. Project Implementation Gant Chart
The implementation s o f Gan t char t base d o n th e abov e objective s ar e a s pe r
appendix 5 . The Monitoring, Evaluatio n and Sustainability are reported i n the sixt h
chapter.
65
CHAPTER SIX
6.0 MONITORING
, EVALUATION AND SUSTAINABILITY
6.1. Monitoring
Participatory monitoring on street children identification and capacitating i n Songea
Municipal was conducted b y ensuring systemati c recordin g and periodic analysis of
information that had been chosen and recorded. By so doing it helped to provide the
ongoing pictur e b y givin g roo m fo r immediat e solutions , maintainin g goo d
standards, facilitating effective us e of resources and providing information for futur e
use. Th e reason s fo r monitorin g wa s t o determin e whethe r th e activitie s ar e
progressing a s planned and are leading to the objectives o f the project, henc e ensure
early adjustments of the projects. Th e project goa l was to capacitate street children so
that they can undertake their own life.
The project objectives were as follows: 1. Identificatio
n of street children,
2. Training
, care and support o f street children,
3. Provisio
n of capital grant to graduate street children.
The activities conducted to overcome the abov e objectives were;
1. Preparatio
n of project proposal,
2. Identificatio
n of street children through interviews,
3. Categorizatio
4. Selectio
n of street children,
n of street children for facilitation in vocational training,
66
5. Trainin
g stree t childre n i n GS M vocationa l trainin g centre s i n grou p
formation
6. Professiona
7. Provisio
8. Supervisin
l categorization o f street children,
n of capital grant in the form of working gears,
g the groups of street children and their tasks.
The information require d t o kno w during monitoring was the identificatio n of what
data t o gather , when , an d wh o gathe r th e data . Tabl e 5-6 , show s th e detaile d
information.
67
Table 6-1: Informatio n for monitoring project operations.
S/no.
1.
Categories o
Information
Work Pla
Activities
f
What to Monitor
What record to keep
n
-Timing of activities.
-Availability o f personne l
and resources.
-Monthly/
quarterly
- Work plan.
-Work schedule.
- Implementation report
Who collect
s
Data
-GSM Director.
-Supervisor
Who uses Data
-GSM Director.
-Donor
- Songe a Municipa l
Council
-Other Stakeholders
How t
o us
information
-Ensure childre n an
other resource s ar
available
To facilitat
knowledge o
f th
project out puts
-Ensure fund s ar
available t o execut
activities
e
d
e
e
e
2.
Cost an
Expenditure
d
-Budgeted amounts , fund s
(Tsh. 3,600,000.0 0 ) o n
hand and expenditures
-Balance i n budge t b y
approved cost categories
-Ledger of expenditures
by budget category
-Receipts
-Bank transactions
-Report to Donor
-Financial
officer/
accountant
-GSM Director.
-Donor
-Auditor
3.
Staff an d Supe r
vision
-Performance review
-job descriptions
-Feedback fro
m
training attended
-Supervisor
-Trainer
-GSM Director.
-Motivate staf f an
resolve employmen
problems
4.
Working Tools
-Knowledge, attitude s an d
skills of staff
-Education level of staff
-Salaries and benefits
Job performance
-Stock
-Ordering
-Procurement regulation
-Stock registers
-invoices
-Field worker reports
-Coordinator
-GSM Director.
-Donor
5.
Results
30 stree t childre n
identified
- 1 6 Street children trained
on group formation
- 1 6 stree t childre n to ge t
capital grant s i n Januar y
2007.
-Student registers
-Field work report
-GSM Director.
-Field wor
k
report
-GSM Director.
-Donor
-Field supervisor
-Ensure availabilit y o f
working tool s i n stoc k
and distribut e t o stree t
children's
-Ensure goo d conditio n
of working tools
-Ensure objective s ar e
realistic
e
e
d
t
What decision s ca n b e
made
- Reschedul e activitie s and
deployment of resources as
needed.
- T o facilitat e decisio n
making
- Modifying work plan
-Authorize expenditures
-Make budge t an d project
revisions
-Determine nee d fo r other
funding sources
-Placement
-Training needs
-Promotion
-Disciplinary action
-Quantity to order
-When to order
-Revise Objectives
-Revise projec t strateg y
and approach
68
6.2. Management
information System
6.2.1. Monitoring Questions
In gatherin g th e monitorin g informatio n th e followin g monitorin g question s wer e
used:
1. Wha t is the number of identified street children?
2. Wha t are the categories of identified street children?
3. Ho w many street children will b e selected fo r training in the vocational training
centre?
4. Hav e street children been trained in group formation for their sustainability?
5. Ar e street children in vocational training centres categorized professionall y fo r
easy capital grant facilitation?
6. Hav e the capital grant interims of working gears been provided to street children
vocational training centre graduate?
7. Ar e th e group s o f vocationa l trainin g centr e graduat e stree t childre n wel l
supervised?
6.2.2. Research Method used in Monitoring
During Monitoring process the checking of on going implementation of project was
conducted by using documentation; throug h comparing what was planned in the
work plan against the implementation within a given period of time; comparing the
budget planned against the actual expenditure i n implementation. By so doing it
helped to determine whether or not the activities were progressing as planned.
69
6.23. Indicator and tools
During monitoring, the direct and indirect indicators were used to answer the monitoring questions as follows:Table 6.2-1: Direc t and Indirect Indicato r
INDICATOR AN D TOOLS
DIRECT INDICATO R
INDIRECT INDICATO R
TOOLS
ACTIVITIES
S/NO.
To Prepare proposal and submit to Donor One proposal Prepare d an d submi t to Tsh. 3,600,000.0 0 receive d fro m Financial records
1.
(RFA/TACAIDS),
Donor (RFA/TACAIDS),
(RFA/TACAIDS),
2.
To identify and verify stree t children
3.
To identif y an d categoriz e 1 6 stree t
children.
To select street children to be facilitated.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
To prepare one group formation module
To trai n stree t childre n o n grou p
formation
To categoriz e stree t childre n graduate s
according to their Professions .
Provision of capital grant in the for m of
working tools an d supervisio n t o street
children.
30 stree t childre n identifie d an d
verified
16 stree t childre n identifie d an d
categorized
16 stree t childre n selecte d t o b e
facilitated.
one group formation module prepared
16 stree t childre n traine d o n grou p Number of group formed
formation
16 stree t childre n categorize d
graduates according t o Profession s
16 stree t childre n provide d capita l Number o f street , children usin g
grant in the form of working tools and working tools for their betterments.
supervision.
GSM students records
GSM students records
GSM students records
GSM students records
GSM students records
GSM students records
GSM stor e record s
and students records
70
6.2.4. Monitoring Team
The GS M genera l meeting with the help of stakeholders suc h as RFA/TACAIDS ,
Ward leaders, community members, Municipal leaders, to mention a few, appointed
the monitoring team. The monitoring team included three staff members from GSM
and on e outsider ( a community development officer) . Th e team representative s
conducted the evaluation as part of their job responsibilitie s but the outsider was to
be paid . Th e information obtained wa s analyzed basin g o n the indicators used
relevant to the required standard/level. The analyzed information was presented by
using texts, histograms and diagrams, pie charts, and percentage, an d was handed to
GSM, stakeholders, beneficiaries, donors, and the government.
6.2.5. Analysis of Presentation
The stud y was conducted on 30 street children from Songe a Municipal in July 2006.
The result s reveale d that , stree t childre n i n Songea Municipa l ca n generally b e
categorized into either of the two groups. The first group is made up of completely
abandoned childre n who live i n the streets (17%), without homes. Thes e children
scavenge fo r food o r seek shelte r i n the streets and have n o contact wit h thei r
families. They sleep in the streets and public places, such as in frontof stores, shops,
bars, ghettos , an d bus stand. The second group is made up of children who spend
their day s i n the streets (76%) , fetchin g water , washin g car s an d doing pett y
businesses, but as night falls they return home. These children live with their families
and contribut e to the daily family earning s (willingl y or not) to assist in the famil y
economic survival.
71
6.2.6. Summary Monitoring
Table 6-2: Summar
y Monitorin g
S/No. Narrative summary
What/How to monitor When
Planned
GOAL
-May 200 6 April 2007
-Timing o f activities
To capacitat e stree t children -Availability o
f to Apri
so tha t the y ca n undertak e personnel an
d 2007
their own life .
Actual
l
resources
OBJECTIVES
1. Identificatio n o f stree t -Timing of activities
children
-May t
-Availability o
f October
personnel an
d 2006
o -July 2006
resources
2. Training
, car
support.
e an
d -Timing o f activities
-July 2006
-Availability o
f
personnel an
d
-July 2006
resources
3. Provisio n o f capital grant -Timing o f activities
-November
to graduat e stree t childre n -Availability o
f 2006 t
and supervision
d January
personnel an
resources
2007
o
72
6.2.7. Evaluation
The evaluation was conducted on the basis of the objectives and activities identified
earlier. The reason for conducting evaluation was to check whether the activities of
the projec t wer e relevan t t o th e objective s s o a s t o b e abl e t o decid e whethe r to
continue or terminate th e project. I n evaluation questions the lis t of questions were
ranked in order of importance and the following questions were used;
1. Ho w many stree t childre n di d th e Goo d Samarita n Missio n (GSM ) trai n i n
vocational training centre?
2. Ho w many stree t childre n were give n working capita l in the for m o f working
gears?
3. Ho w many street children among those given working gears are still using them?
6.2.8. Research Methods used in Evaluation
The common practice of Evaluation is comparing pre - project observations and post
project observations . I n thi s project , th e researc h method s used i n evaluating the
project were observation and secondary data.
Observation
Observation was used to look at the actual ongoing activities such as the number
of street children attending vocational training; the number of street children in
streets.
- Secondary
data
Secondary data was obtained through reading and analyzing various reports from
regional, Songe a Municipa l Council , Goo d Samarita n Missio n (GSM ) and
reports from other stakeholders.
73
6.2.9. Composition of Evaluation Team
The Good Samaritan Mission general meetin g wil l appoin t the evaluatio n team. The
composition o f th e evaluatio n tea m wil l includ e thre e GS M staff an d Municipa l
Community Development Officer as an outsider and also a specialist in the field. The
results of the evaluatio n team will b e presented to GS M genera l meetin g within one
week after evaluation to allow timely decision.
6.3. Performance
Indicator
The performanc e indicato r an d informatio n source s wer e base d o n evaluatio n
questions. Table 6.3 Shows details on key indicator and information sources .
Table 6-3: Indicator
S/No.
s and Information Sources
Evaluation Questions Key indicator
Information Sources
Where
1.
-How man
y stree
t -Number o f stree t -GSM Offic e -GSM Studen t
children wer e traine d i n children trai n i n
Vocational Trainin
Centre by GSM?
2.
-How man
y Stree
Tool to us e
Register book.
g Vocational Trainin g
Centre by GS M
t -Number o f stree t -GSM Offic e -GSM stor
Children wer e give n children give
n
Ledger.
working capita l i n th e working gears.
form of working gears?
3.
-How man
y stree
t -Number o f stree t -Street
- Observation
children amon g thos e children stil l usin g children
-Supervision
given workin g gears ar e given workin
reports
still using them?
gears.
g groups
working
areas.
e
74
6.3.1. Needed Skills and Labour
The Evaluatio n tea m i s composed o f three GS M Staff an d on e specialist o f
Municipal Community Development. The three GSM staff s ar e specialist s of social
work and Community Development. Therefore, the evaluation team is self sufficient.
6.3.2. Information Gathering and Analysis
Information gatherin g an d analysi s wil l b e don e i n accordance wit h agreemen t by
Evaluation team but should not take more than one week.
6.3.3. Person Responsible
All the members of Evaluation team will be involved in information gathering. Both
quantitative and qualitative information will be collected.
6.3.4. Analysis and Presentation of Results
In Augus t 200 6 th e Regio n conducted annua l revie w meetin g a t Emmau centre
Peramiho. Th e meetin g invite d different stakeholder s suc h as , loca l governmen t
Authority staff , Centra l Governmen t staff , an d NGO S representative s including ,
Good Samarita n Mission , Ruvum a Orphans Associatio n (ROA ) t o mentio n a few.
Various developmen t issue s wer e discusse d an d some way s of improving some of
the problem s facin g th e region wer e suggested . Th e problem s discusse d were :
Village developmen t projects , nutrition , immunization , deat h o f children an d
pregnant women , primar y schoo l enrolment , primar y schoo l dropout , water ,
vulnerable childre n including orphans, th e disable d and street children. The report
shows that Ruvuma Region has 547 street children and Songea Municipal is leading
75
by having 468 o f them which is 86%, followed by Songea District Council 47 street
children which is 9%, Namtumbo District Council 25 which is 5%, Tunduru Distric t
council 7 street children which is 1%. The meeting concluded tha t there was the need
of providing sof t loa n to the rural people through establishment of economic group s
and savings and credit cooperatives (SACCOS).
Figure 1: Street Children in Ruvuma Region - June - 2006
Source: Regional Annual Review Meeting Report August 2006
76
6.4. Summary
Table 6.4: Summar
S/No.
1.
2.
Evaluation
y Evaluation :
Narrative
Summary
GOAL:
To capacitate street
children s o tha t
they ca n undertake
their own life
Performance Indicator
Expected Out comes
-Number o f stree t childre n traine d b y
GSM.
-Number of street children given working
gears.
-Number o f street children continuin g t o
use the given working gears.
- 1 6 street children to b e trained
in vocationa l trainin g centr e by
GSM.
-16 street children to be provided
working gears by GSM.
-16 stree t childre n t o continu e
using working gears.
OBJECTIVES:
1. Identificatio n o f -Number of street children Identified.
street children
2. Training , car e -Number o f stree t childre n selecte d fo r
training in vocational training centre.
and support.
-Number o f stree t childre n traine d i n
group formation.
-Number of professional categorizatio n o f
street children.
3. Provisio n o f -Number of Professional categorizatio n of
capital gran t t o street children.
graduate stree
t -Number o f street children provided with
children an
d working gears.
supervision
-Number of supervision o f street children
groups.
-30 stree t childre n t o b e
identified.
-Two categor y (orphans and nonOrphans) to be Identified.
-16 street children to be selected
for training i n vocational trainin g
centre.
-16 street children to be trained in
group formation.
-16 street
-Carpentry an d sewin g (tailoring )
categories to be identified.
-16 street children to be provided
with working gears.
-Two supervisio n pe r yea r to b e
done.
Actual outcomes
-30 street children identified.
-Two categorie s of orphans and non orphans identified.
-16 stree t children have bee selected
for trainin g i n GS M vocationa l
training centre.
-16 stree t children have been trained
in grou p formatio n i n GS M
vocational training centre.
-
77
Participatory Monitorin g an d Evaluation (PAME) i s very important i n leading the
project activitie s towards achievin g project objectives . It helps the GS M t o do the
right things and getting things right. The efficiency an d effectiveness wa s maintained
as a result of PAME .
6.5. Sustainability
6.5.L Sustainability
Project
of Street Children Identification and Capacitating
The concep t o f the sustainabilit y is often reduce d to the questio n of whether loca l
institution will be able to continue providing the services that have been provided by
the donor - aide d project. Othe r important aspects of sustainability are institutional
sustainability; economic sustainability and social sustainability (CATAD 1998:283) .
In thi s study , the sustainabilit y of street children identification and capacitating is
based o n community involvement in the whol e process o f identification an d assist
them throug h contributin g i n vocationa l trainin g withou t externa l support .
Traditional syste m o f car e an d suppor t o f vulnerabl e childre n ma y reduc e th e
generation of street children.
6.5.2. Sustainability element
Continuing t o function , supporte d b y it s ow n resource s (human , materia l an d
financial), even when external sources o f funding have ende d i s very important to
any projec t t o b e sustainable . I n thi s projec t th e financial, political , an d socia l
circumstances that may affect th e host community and the viability of the project in
the future ar e as follow, the project depend on external donor; therefore, i f the donor
does not suppor t fun d t o th e project , i t wil l b e affected . Politically , i f changes on
policy of allowing non - governmenta l organization to participate in providing social
services t o vulnerabl e group s occur , th e projec t wil l b e affected . Socially , th e
78
increase o f epidemic and endemic diseases suc h as HIV/AIDS tha t have positive
effects i n increasing the number of people in vulnerable groups suc h as widows,
orphans and street children.
6.5.3. Sustainability plan
In orde r to improve the sustainability of the projec t th e Good Samarita n Mission
(GSM) mus t d o the following; th e Good Samarita n Mission (GSM ) mus t expand
donor suppor t framewor k t o ensur e prope r managemen t o f street children . The
support als o wil l hel p to fin d ne w plot and building moder n vocationa l trainin g
centre which will accommodate primary school, secondary school, vocational school,
day car e centre, community centre, and shopping centre. These will enable the Good
Samaritan Mission (GSM ) NG O t o establish small projects which the NGO wil l get
its ow n fun d to run the day to day activities.
The Goo d Samarita n Missio n (GSM ) NG O mus t involv e th e communit y in th e
identification of street children and pay a certain percentage of fees for the identified
street children. The government must reduce the number of vulnerable children by
facilitating the community through providing them with development projects. Apart
from furnishing the community with development projects, good environment must
be created by the government to enable the community to get soft loans and agro inputs subsidie s s o as to enabl e traditiona l system o f taking car e o f vulnerabl e
children to continue. The government must continue providing preventive measure
(education) on HIV/AIDS to the community so as to reduce the number of orphans
and widows . The above measure must be introduced in the financial year 2007.
79
6.5.4. Institutional Plan
The organizatio n sponsoring this projec t wil l first need t o accep t th e programme .
Although this program was done by organization sponsoring this project, it was done
in a differen t style . Th e organizatio n sponsorin g thi s projec t mus t adop t th e
suggested sustainabilit y elemen t above . Th e conclusio n and recommendatio n i s
reported in chapter seven.
80
CHAPTER SEVE N
7.0 CONCLUSIO
N AN D RECOMMENDATIO N
This section provides major conclusions and recommendations from the result of the
study and implementation of recommendations, based on how to improve the street
children identification and capacitating in the Organization (GSM).
7.1. Conclusion
Findings from thi s stud y hav e reveale d tha t povert y i s th e majo r caus e o f street
children followed b y divorce and orphanage i n the stud y area. Th e results see m to
agree with the real situation in the study area because the average annual income per
person is Tshs. 250,000.00 and about 38.7% of people in the stud y area earn below
Tshs. 1,000.0 0 per da y whic h i s below poverty lin e (Songe a Tow n Counci l Data
analysis Report 2004:29). As a result most marriages are not stable and this produces
more incidences of divorce. Death toll in the study area was about 53 5 in 2005 and
HIV/AIDs contribute d abou t 9 2 (17.2%) , (Songea Tow n Counci l HIM S Register s
2005: Book 2). This results into more orphanages fro m HIV/AIDs victims.
In reviewing the result of this project th e goal s and objectives did not change over
the lif e o f the project. Th e objectives which are full y achieve d are identification of
street children and training of street children where 30 street children were identified,
training of street children where 16 street children were trained. The objective which
is partiall y achieved i s provision o f capital grant t o graduat e stree t children . Th e
work remainin g to full y achiev e these objective s i s supervisio n of street children
economic groups.
81
Factors/ conditions which if they had been different would have enhanced my ability
to complet e al l elements o f the projec t ar e i f the dono r fun d woul d hav e bee n
reimbursed an d i f the trainin g period of the stree t childre n i n vocational trainin g
centre would have been completed.
No unexpecte d occurrences that greatly affected m y ability to complete the project
and achiev e al l m y state d goals . Th e expecte d outcome s ar e prope r an d fai r
identification an d selectio n of stree t childre n t o joi n vocationa l training centers,
sustainable facilitation o f street children graduating from vocationa l training centers
and reduce d numbe r o f vulnerabl e childre n an d henc e stree t childre n du e t o
education on fatal diseases such as HIV/AIDS and formulating development projects
to the community.
The succes s o f this project wil l b e realized if and only i f GSM, the implementing
agency wil l adop t th e approac h use d i n identification o f street children , training,
provision of working gear s an d post management o f graduated stree t children who
will b e i n economical groups. Also , thi s approac h needs to b e adopte d b y other
organizations dealin g with stree t childre n i n th e sam e approac h a s GSM . I t i s
important for the organizations that will implement street children projects using this
approach to have reliable capacities in terms o f good technical and financial base .
This may require such organizations to have economic projects that will furnish them
with additional funds.
82
7.2. Recommendation
In light of my experiences, I would recommend the following t o others attemptin g
similar projects; since the major cause of street children as per this project is poverty,
strategies o f poverty reductio n mus t highl y b e considere d suc h a s developing
development project s fo r the community. Also experienc e an d findings from this
project hav e reveale d tha t orphanag e cause d b y HIV/AID S ha s a significan t
contribution t o th e proble m o f stree t children , educatio n programm e t o th e
community on HIV/AIDS prevention is vital.
To reduc e dono r dependence , th e CBO/NG O implementin g simila r projec t mus t
strive t o have it s own developmen t project s fo r income generation . Community
participation i n this typ e o f a projec t i s ver y important . Th e community must
therefore b e sensitized to identify and assist vulnerabl e and street children in the
areas.
The strategies, best practices or models that are particularly helpful are, identification
of stree t children , hom e visi t fo r verificatio n o f stree t children , actua l hom e
environment, during vocational training the street children need to be given lunch at
the vocationa l trainin g centr e s o a s t o enabl e attai n ful l attendance , menta l
capacitating throug h training , group formatio n training and equipment facilitatio n
after vocational training and supervision is very important on the sustainability of the
project.
83
Steps t o furthe r advanc e thi s o r simila r projec t ar e a s follows , i t i s importan t to
expand vocationa l training centre s o tha t the y ca n accommodat e mor e childre n
(vulnerable and street children), facilitation of vocational training centres so that they
can put children (vulnerable and street children) in boarding. This has the advantage
of providin g goo d car e t o childre n and . hence improvin g th e attendance . Als o
improve the general habit of vulnerable and street children.
In order to implement this project successfully, the following are recommended:GSM mus t adop t th e implementatio n plan an d budge t alread y i n place.
(Appendix (5 and 7).
GSM must strive to have income generation projects and in a long term plan
must think of owning her own buildings for project activities.
Other Organizations doing similar projects lik e that of GSM mus t adopt this
approach.
Follow up of post management of graduated street children is very important.
84
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