The Great War!

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The Great War!
The Great War!
The War Years
• The war ran from 1914 to 1918.
• 4 years is a relatively short time considering
we have been fighting the War on Terror now
for over 10 years.
Why the Great War?
• The war was originally called the Great War
because no one thought they would need to
start numbering them.
The Cause or Causes of the Great War
• The assassination of the Archduke of AustriaHungary sparked the was but the real causes
were brewing for years before the murder of
Franz Ferdinand. Europe was like a powder
keg or gas leak, all it needed was a spark to
blow. The assassination provided that spark.
Cause #1
• Nationalism – a feeling of loyalty and unity felt
by people who share the same history,
culture, and language.
How could Nationalism be a cause of
the war?
• Isn’t it a good thing? Well, two ways actually:
one is that not all nations are free but would
like to be. For example, Native Americans are
a nation of people was live in American and
must live by American laws and not native
laws. The other way it can be bad is that
nations will do what is best for their nation
and that could harm another nation, which
can result in a war.
Examples from WWI
• Germany wanted all German speaking areas
to become part of Germany and this would
mean they might have to take over other
• The Bosnians were a part of Austria-Hungary
but wanted to be free of their rule. A 19-yearold Bosnian boy acted on behalf of his people.
Cause #2
• Imperialism – When one nation tries to take
control over another nation.
• Remember the main powers of Europe have
branched out around the world to improve
their power and economy.
How did Imperialism become a cause
of WWI?
• Many European countries were competing for
colonies around the globe. Germany was
jealous of the vast territory taken by the
British and French and wanted some of that
land for themselves. Nations in Europe were
ready to fight each other over how to divide
Africa and other places that didn’t even really
belong to them.
Cause #3
• Militarism – a policy where a nation rapidly
builds up military strength.
How did Militarism become a cause of
• All of the major powers at the time (Britain,
France, Germany, Russia, USA, Italy, Japan,
Ottoman Empire, and Austria-Hungary) all
began building massive armies. They all
appear to be preparing for war and they make
each other very nervous. It also is obvious that
if war does break out it will be very
destructive and deadly because of the large
Ironic Twist
• Why were most of these countries building up
They were trying to AVOID war. They thought
their strength would stop other nations from
messing with them.
Can you think of a nation that
practices this same policy?
Old Rivalries Existed
• Some of these European countries hadn’t
been friends for a very long time. Germany
still hated France because of Napoleon. Old
feuds and hatreds were many.
What is a Rivalry?
• Just like North vs. South a rivalry exists when
two groups are in competition for something
and do not particularly like one another.
• The countries in Europe began to compete
economically. They all wanted wealth but
needed resources to do that. Thanks to the
modern technology and machines, these
countries were able to design bigger and
better ways to kill their enemies.
Extra Info!!!
• People forgot how nasty war could be
– There hadn’t been a full-scale war in Europe for 40
• There were no veterans around to remind people of
the BLOOD and Gore of war. If you have seen war
you will do anything to avoid it! There were actually
people who thought it would be glorious!! Everyone
thought it would be a quick and easy war. That is
what happens when people lost their perspective of
what war really is… Death!!
• When countries join together for trade or
protection, it is a bit like being in a gang. You
have each others back!
How could this cause W.W.I?
• If two countries attack each other, all the allies
have to join in. If one member of a gang is
jumped, all his friends will join in.
In the years before the war two major
alliances existed
• Triple Alliance: Austria-Hungary, Germany,
• Triple Entente: Great Britain, France, Russia
• These alliances will change as the war starts.
While Europe was readying to explode
in 1914, what was up in the USA?
• Notice the USA did not belong to an
• This was the USA’s foreign policy during the
WWI years. It just means America decided to
stay out of the war or remain NEUTRAL.
• What is foreign policy?
• Who decides America’s foreign policy?
The Moat Theory
• As long was we (USA) had friends to the North
and South and Oceans to the East and West…
who could mess with us? The USA was like a
great castle and the oceans were our personal
moat. Why worry about Europe? I guess we
were truly ISOLATED from any enemies. There
were no planes, missiles, or boats that could
attack us.
Why was it hard for America to take
1. Most Americans didn’t want war.
2. We were trading partners with most nations
in Europe on both sides.
3. Americans had relatives and friends all over
Europe that they DID NOT WANT TO KILL!!!
The Outbreak of War
• Archduke Franz Ferdinand:
The young heir to the throne of AustriaHungary was greatly disliked throughout his
kingdom because of his political policies.
Gavrilo Princip and The Black Hand
• Princip was a member of the terrorism group
known as the black hand and tried to free
Serbia from the clutches of Austria-Hungary.
• Imperialism causes Ferdinand’s AustriaHungary to try to control Princip’s nation of
Bosnia and Serbia.
The War is ON!
• Illusions and Surprises:
All sides thought the war would be quick and
easy. They were shocked at the nastiness and
horrible fighting.
• Trench Warfare and Stalemates:
This was the fighting methods used.
• Nationalism causes Princip to want to shoot
and kill Ferdinand.
• This event is the “SPARK,” but alliances and
militarism will cause the situation to explode.
Digging a Trench
Trench Diagram
Weapons of the Great War
• Between trench warfare and improved
weaponry the loss of life was a staggering 9.7
MILLION people. (roughly 6 million civilians
were killed)
• At the time, more soldiers lost their lives in
WWI then any other war in recorded history.
Machine Gun
• Machine guns were the trademark weapon of
WWI. They had the fire power of 100 guns
and needed multiple men to fire the weapon.
Machine guns were one of the main reasons
for the high death tolls in the trenches.
Heavy Artillery
• German Heavy Artillery, like Big Bertha,
allowed them to bombard Paris from over 7
miles away with 16 inch shells.
• There were also large canons and howitzers
mounded on railroad cars to make them
Chemical Weapons
• Chlorine gas – A deadly poison that burned
your throat and lungs as you slowly choked to
death. The weather must be right for this gas
or it would blow all over you.
• Mustard gas – The most deadly weapon of
WWI. It could be shot into the trenches and
took about 5 weeks to kill the victims.
• This was an interesting weapon… They were
military blimps that dropped bombs on the
• These did not last long because they were
rather easy to shoot down.
• This was the first war in which tanks were
used. They moved rather slowly (4-5 mph) and
lacked the punch that modern tanks have.
Also, tanks were unable to get over trenches
which limited their effectiveness.
• Planes were used for the first time in warfare
in WWI too. The first planes were used for
spying, transporting goods and dropping
bombs. Later, planes were equipped with
machines guns and started fighting while in
the air.
• “Dog-fighting” is the term used to describe
WWI mid air battles.
• These were German submarines that
terrorized Allied shipping boats and played a
major role in influencing the United States
entry into the war.
The Western Front
• The fighting on the Western Front was
categorized by trench warfare and stalemates.
• The sluggish fighting on the Western Front
stopped the German’s Schieffen Plan, saved
Paris and allowed the rest of the war to play
out as it did.
Western Front Cont.
• Because of the slow fighting many battles
were repeated on the same site.
– 1st and 2nd Battle of the Marne
– 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Battle of Ypers
– 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Battle of Aisne
Battle of the Marne 1914
• This battle stopped the German offensive
outside Paris.
• A French counter attack split the Germans in
two and even the fight in the Western Front.
• 600 Taxi cabs ushered reserve troops from
Paris to the front lines.
2nd Battle of Ypers 1915
• A German offensive using poisonous gasses
tried to break the French lines.
• Although the French took heavy losses they
held their lines and stopped the German
Battle of Verdun 1916
• Germans attempted to “bleed the French
white” by attacking a historic French city.
• This battle only caused harm on both sides”
– 550,000 French Casualties
– 434,000 German Casualties
The Battle of Ameins 1918
• This battle gave the French belief that they
could defeat the Germans.
• French Tanks finally broke through German
lines and crushed their morale.
The Eastern Front
• While not nearly as popular at the Western
Front, the Eastern Front played a major role in
the war and in shaping the coming century.
Different Type of War
• Unlike the Western Front, the Eastern Front
maintained traditional warfare categorized by
strategy and maneuverability.
Battle of Tannenberg 1914
• This battle was a disaster for the Russians.
Miscommunication and poor planning led to a
complete Russian defeat.
Battle of Masurian Lakes 1914
• The second half of the Russian offensive that
wasn’t destroyed at Tannenberg retreats after
a rather thorough defeat.
• These two battles almost completely
destroyed Russia’s desire to mass an offensive
against Germany.
Russian Revolution
• With all the military losses the Russian
government falls apart leaving the door open
for radicals to campaign for control of the
Lenin and the Bolsheviks
• After being exiled from Russia at the onset of
war, Vladimir Lenin returned to Russia to lead
the Socialist Bolshevik Party to prominence in
• At the end of the war the German’s supported
the Bolshevik “Red” Army against Russian
“White” Army.
Beginning of the End for Russia
• This is the turning point in the History for
Russia where they transform from a powerful,
agricultural monarchy to a Communist,
dictatorial power.
The United States Enters the War!
• We tried to stay neutral! Or did we?
• What role did the U.S. play early on?
– Neutrality, but we did trade with Allies and Central
Powers. (mainly allies)
What finally dragged us into the war?
• Blockades – When one country tried to cut off
shipping to another country. We were
shipping to all of them.
• The British Blockade of Germany – Britain,
with its superior Navy blockaded all of
Germany’s ports. No war materials were
getting in.
What finally dragged us into the war?
• The Sussex Pledge – Germany promised to
warn all ships before attacking with their subs
on March 24, 1916.
• The Zimmerman Note – Was an intercepted
message between Germany and Mexico.
Germany’s foreign secretary sent a note to
Mexico asking them to attack the USA so we
would leave Germany alone.
What finally dragged us into the war?
• Propaganda – Just like the Spanish-American
propaganda helped to develop public
sentiment in favor of joining the war.
• The Russian Revolution – Russia was getting
pounded in the war. Czar Nicholas was forced
out of power and the new communist
Bolshevik party pulled Russia out of W.W. I in
March of 1917.
What finally dragged us into the war?
• The Germans use U-boats to blockade Britain – The
Germans respond with unrestricted submarine
warfare around Britain.
• The Lusitania – A British passenger ship carrying
both passengers and munitions (weapons) was sunk
on May 7th, 1915 by a U-boat. Over 100 Americans
The United States Officially Joins the
• April 6th, 1917 – The Germans sunk 3 more
U.S. ships. On this date President Wilson
signed Congress’ War resolution. The Senate
voted 82 to 6 and the House voted 373 to 50,
it’s unanimous… here we come Europe!
• We were not ready – At the time we went to
war, we had the 16th largest military in the
world. Only 100,000 men in uniform!
• Pershing to the Rescue? – At first, we only
14,000 troops and 3 billion dollars. General
John Pershing, nicknamed “blackjack
Pershing,” asked for a million men… and he
got them!
How did we get the troops?
• The Selective Service Act - A draft ordered by
Congress. 24 million men registered and 3
million won/lost the lottery and were drafted.
American Forces in Europe
• The American Expeditionary Forces – Our
Fighting force in WW I. Millions head “over
– The Doughboys – The nickname of our soldiers in Europe.
– Women – Over 25,000 served during WW I as nurses,
drivers, clerks etc.
– African Americans – Over 300,000 served but were not
allowed to do much more than manual labor. “Harlem Hell
Fighters” joined a French unit and fought bravely.
Naval Convoys
• The Amazing Convoys – How would we get
our guys “over there” and past the U-boats?
CONVOYS!!! We surround our large and slow
ships with quick fighting boats.
The Final Blows
• The Doughboys in Europe – “We dig no
trenches to fall back on.” The doughboys
went on the offensive and had little interest in
trenches. ATTACK!!
Effects of the Great War on the
American Homeland – A war touches
How do we pay for the WAR?!?! – Or any
war? …….Taxes!
– Liberty Bonds – you give the government money
now and cash the bond later and collect
Drumming up support with propaganda –
Information used to sway public
opinion in support of the war.
– Just like “freedom fries” they had “police dogs”
and Salisbury steak – High schools stop teaching
German, police dogs were German shepherds,
Salisbury steak was hamburger.
Americans learn how to do with less - We
needed supplies for the war so Americans
had to conserve supplies.
– Rationing – Distributing goods to people in fixed
amounts. You get a certain amount and no
The limits on our freedom – It became
illegal to protest the war or the President.
Freedom of Speech???
The Espionage Act
• The Espionage Act – It was illegal to write
negative stuff about the draft or war effort.
Eugene Debs, a socialist and Presidential
candidate, was jailed for protesting the draft.
The Sedition Act
• The Sedition Act – Made it illegal to discuss,
say or do anything disloyal, abusive or profane
about the American government.
The Great War Ends
• Armistice – is a cease-fire. The fighting
stopped but no war ending treaty
will be signed for about 7 months.
The Big Four carve out a Treaty – 1/19/19
Paris Peace Conference– The leaders of 27
countries met in Paris. The four main
Playa’s were:
Woodrow Wilson (United States)
David Lloyd George (England)
Georges Clemenceau (France)
Vittorio Orlando (Italy)
Wilson’s three allies wanted to destroy
Germany with the treaty. Why?
Notice who is missing from the Treaty
- Russia… they were busy having a
Fourteen Points
• Wilson’s Plan for Peace was called The
Fourteen Points – He looked at what caused
WW I and tried to stop it from repeating.
What would it do?
• Create a League of Nations – a world
organization that would keep the peace. If
one country broke the peace (A.K.A
Austria/Hungary) the others would all gang up
against them.
What would it do?
• Elimination of all secret alliances: Russia’s
and Serbia’s alliance was not that well know.
How might this help stop war?
• World would DE-militarize - All nations
including the U.S would scale back their
standing army
What would it do?
• All nations would have freedom of the seas,
which would end what?
• All nations would have self-determination Have the power to make decisions about their
own future
What would it do?
• “A harsh peace is no peace” – Woodrow
• What does this mean?
The Treaty of Versailles
• June 28th, 1919 … the war is officially over!
• Here is the result…
• Germany lost land and colonies.
France regained control of Alsace and
Lorraine and Germany lost colonies in
China, Africa and the Pacific.
• Germany had to get rid of almost all its entire
• Germany had to pay $33 Billion.
• The war guilt clause – Blamed the war on Germany
which made them responsible for paying Reparations
to the Allies.
• The Ottoman Empire split up into many Middle
Eastern countries
Ottoman Empire became Turkey
• Austria/Hungary split and lost land too.
Yugoslavia, Hungary, Austria,
Czechoslovakia, and Poland were all
created from Austria-Hungary. An
attempt was made to create nations of
similar ethnicities; however it was almost
impossible to be perfect. This created new
• The new European map was created and
Germany, Italy and Austria are mighty MAD!!!
• The world had seen something called
• 10 million men died
• What three monarchies ended?
Germany, Austria-Hungary and Russia
• Which Country became a new world economic
United States
• The German economy will not recover.
German people live in fear of being attacked.
The German people will look for someone else
to blame the war on.
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