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Florida ’ s Aquaculture

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Florida ’ s Aquaculture
Florida’s Aquaculture
Craig A. Watson
Tropical Aquaculture Laboratory
Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
University of Florida/IFAS
2003 Sales of Florida Aquaculture
Shrimp
5%
Aquatic Plants
21%
Alligators
3%
Catfish
2%
Clams
14%
Tilapia
2%
Other Fish
3%
Other Aquatics
1%
Live Rock
1%
Tropical Fish
48%
2003 Farm Gate Sales of Florida Aquaculture
$50.00
$45.00
$40.00
$35.00
$30.00
$25.00
$20.00
$15.00
$10.00
$5.00
$0.00
(Millions)
Tropical Fish
Aquatic Plants
Clams
Shrimp
Alligators
Catfish
Tilapia
Other Aquatics
Live Rock
Farm Gate Sales: Ornamentals
60
50
40
Live bearers
Egg Layers
Total
30
20
10
0
1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003
Millions of Dollars
Location of Farms
Orlando
Freeze-line
Tampa
Miami
Sources of Ornamentals
Freshwater Production
Freshwater Collection
Marine Collection
Markets
Market Flow Chart for Wild
-Caught Fish
Wild-Caught
Collector
Collector
“Consolidator”
“Consolidator”
Importer/Transhipper
Importer/Transhipper
Regional
Regional Wholesaler
Wholesaler
Wholesaler/Exporter
Wholesaler/Exporter
Wholesaler/Distributor
Wholesaler/Distributor
Retailer
Retailer
Hobbyist
Hobbyist
Market Flow Chart for Farm
-Raised Fish
Farm-Raised
Exporter/Wholesaler
Exporter/Wholesaler
Farmer
Farmer
Importer/Transhipper
Importer/Transhipper
Wholesaler
Wholesaler
Retailer
Retailer
Hobbyist
Hobbyist
== Domestic
-Produced
Domestic-Produced
== Foreign
-Produced
Foreign-Produced
Freshwater Production
Involves
Involves both
both tanks
tanks and
and ponds
ponds
Over
Over 800
800 varieties
varieties in
in production
production in
in Florida
Florida
Divided
Divided into
into livebearers
livebearers and
and egg-layers
egg-layers
Many
Many compete
compete with
with wild-caught
wild-caught equivalents
equivalents
Aquatic Plant Production
Began
Began with
with collection
collection from
from rivers
rivers and
and
streams
streams of
of the
the State.
State.
Today
Today some
some 200
200 species/varieties
species/varieties
are
are in
in production,
production, using
using state-ofstate-ofthe-art
the-art plant
plant production
production
techniques,
techniques, including
including tissue
tissue
culture
culture and
and hydroponics.
hydroponics.
Marine Ornamental Production
Requires
Requires controlled,
controlled, indoor
indoor
facilities
facilities except
except for
for live
live rock
rock
Limited
Limited to
to ~~ 22 Dozen
Dozen Species,
Species,
all
all with
with strong
strong parental
parental care,
care, and
and
small
small spawn
spawn size.
size.
Must
Must compete
compete head-on
head-on
with
with wild
wild caught
caught
specimens
specimens
Live Rock and Open Water Sites
Expanded significantly since ban on wild
harvest
Gulf of Mexico and Florida Keys
State and Federal Leases
Fish
• ~ 2 dozen species
• Still mostly substrate-spawners
• Direct to retailer/hobbyist
marketing
• Public Aquaria market opening
New Items
Invertebrates
• Live Rock still dominates
• “Value Added” Live Rock
• Tank-raised corals (mostly
“soft”)
• Tridacna Clams
Changing Market
“Big Box” wholesale/retail concept
Vertical integration of market from
producer all the way to retail.
Contract Growing.
=
2793410 579
Clams
Sturgeon
• 3 main producers in the state, all concentrating on nonnative species.
• Long term investment for caviar, but meat from males in
one to two year.
• First sales of caviar expected this year.
Shrimp
• One LARGE farm located in south Florida (Oceanboy
Farms, Inc.). Raising P. vannemi in low salinity ponds.
• Several failures since 1970’s to present day.
• Stiff foreign competition, and fluctuating commodity price.
Channel Catfish
•
•
•
Primarily limited to the western panhandle region (Escambia County).
~1,000 acres total.
Facing pressure from Asian imports, but holding their own.
Other specialty producers for stocking ponds (these producers typically
produce numerous species of native fish such as bass, bluegill, etc.)
Marine Finfish
• R&D at present. No commercial activity other than
fingerling production.
• Sexy segment of industry due to high retail value, but too
high in production costs for Florida producers today.
• Cobia, Amberjack, Snapper, Grouper, Flounder, Black
Seabass, etc.
• Regulatory, land, and economic constraints.
Research Needs
• Design criteria for reduction of
production costs
• Larval rearing
• Broodstock maturation
• Health and Medicine (especially
with invertebrates)
• New Species
• Environmental Issues
Extension Priorities
•
•
•
•
•
•
Chemical and Pesticide Usage
Water Quality Management
Health Management
System Design
Reproductive Technologies
Environmental Issues
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