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Document 2227340
t
r
WEB-BASED
DIFFERENT
GENERATIONS FOR WEB-BASED
DIFFERENT GENERATIONS
ADMINISTRATION
TEACHING:
PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
TEACHING: A PUBLIC
PERSPECTIVE
PERSPECTIVE
P.A. Brynard
Administration
School
Management and Administration
School of Public Management
Pretoria
University
University of Pretoria
Pretoria
Pretoria
ABSTRACT
ABSTRACT
·
T
T
proml'nent uuniv
he commitment
commitment of prominent
electronic course
• development
development of eleqronic
de ~
.: (WWW)
abou
stimulated debate
(WWW) has stimulated
unique
that the ~ unique
learning.
learning. Some argue that
virtua.
arid virtu
linearity,
de-centering, and
linearity, de-centering,
match. nth
classroom
classroom could never match.
vide
and vide'
animations, and
images, sounds, animations,
distraction.
distraction.
~ ~
Claims
To
help evaluate
these competing
co~~in.~ claim
evaluate .these
To help
su_rt; the
The
survey SUf;l,*,i"t
th~
tile ~survey
The results of the.
course tHat ~
"Webified"
IlWebified" course (Le., a covrsetllatW!1.
or no inter
web documentS
documents with little or~oJfltet~vity)dij
educationalex
improvements
experien<;:e;'TI
improvertlents in their edu<;ational
use
for course work, iri~\{.
use of the WWW for
of
Examples of
have to be developed.
developed. Examples
recprd;edfntervi
links to audio archives,
inti
e
archives, recorded
thedassr06m
live video conferences
.in.theclasst~
confe~ncesin~
read,?thint<,
encourage
encourage their students to read'ithink,
al
INTRODUCTION
INTRODUCTION
technology
electronic technology
of electronic
proliferation of
he
computing power and the proliferation
of computing
explosion of
he explosion
uni-
colleges, uni­
of colleges,
classrooms of
has
World Wide Web (WWW) into the classrooms
the World
brought the
has brought
has
,
example has
for example,
School, for
Business School,
• versities,
professional schools. The Harvard Business
and professional
versities, and
Weba
through a Web­
students through
its students
to its
information to
invested
organize
e and deliver information
to organiz
million to
$11 million
invested $11
T.~
17H
01 Puhli, Adminis/rallon " '-',71 3lJ no 3.1 " Sel1tember2003
l
[
;,
based curriculum. Using the School's Research and Technology Laboratory, students
work from the web sites that have been created for all of the School's more than 70
classes and organize their assignments, notes from professors, and links to other Web
sites on their personalized home pages. Other business schools, such as Duke and the
University of Michigan are offering M.B.A. courses on the WWW (The Chronicle of
Higher Education, November 15, 1996, pp. A29-A31).
UCLA has embarked on a more ambitious project: the College of Arts and Sciences plans
to offer a Web site to all of its (more than 3 000) non-tutorial courses. The College's
Instructional Enhancement Initiative will be implemented by hiring 60 to 80 technology
consultants, mostly students, and it will be funded by fees ranging from $10 to $14 per
course. Although college administrators anticipate that the initiative will create an "exci­
ting educational environment" and "unprecedented opportunities to enhance instruc­
tion," others, including professors, who wonder "if the Web pages are merely gimmicks,"
and students, who will have to pay more than $100 in additional fees, have expressed
doubts about the project (The Chronicle of Higher Education, August 1, 1997, pp. A21­
All).
The commitment of the Harvard Business School, as well as UCLA and other education­
al institutions, to the development and maintenance of electronic course syllabi for the
Web has brought a debate about the efficacy of information technology like the WWW
for promoting learning to center stage. Educators, faced with tight budgets and multiple
demands for resources, are beginning to ask hard questions about applications of the
new computer technology: Is there a role for the Web in the classroom? If so, what is the
most effective way to take advantage of the unique properties of the World Wide Web?
Do mandatory electronic syllabi for every class help to enhance the learning of students?
If so, is it worth the additional effort and cost?
THE DEBATE
. ".
W
;While the unique properties of the World Wide Web offer a range of opportu­
'./ "·',.l nities that ~ standard chalk ~nd talk c1~ss coul~ never match, questions a?out
)
J the educational value of thiS burgeOning medium loom large. Do the Visual
images, sounds, animations, and videos really add to the learning experience or does
hypermedia merely provide an entertaining on-line distraction? Both sides of this debate
are equally passionate and convinced of their positions. The enthusiasts believe it pre­
posterous that such an exceptional and exciting technology cou Id not provide educa­
tional benefits. The critics also argue that the WWW is just another gimmick being touted
as the next revolutionary technology to transform teaching. Do you remember filmstrips?
Do you remember educational television? Did any of us really take good notes and pay
as close attention to these instructional aids as compared to when the teacher was lec­
turing or leading a discussion?
r~A", 1J f'\.c'tl6l rtf
1 q
DIFFERENT GENERATIONS FOR WEB-BASED
TEACHING: A PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
PERSPECTIVE
P.A. Brynard
School of Public Management and Administration
University of Pretoria
Pretoria
ABSTRACT
T·..'
~
~·
development
of ofelectronic
he commitment
pro.minentcourse
u.niver.•. •. s•.m~tertal
•. i.tl.•..
.•:. .es. . •. •. an
. . . •. . . .d f()(thElwqrl~~·.~b··
.t>•. . . • r•. .• .• .• .• .• .es,.•5•.•.•.• IO
. . • . .• . .• n
. • .3•. . •. .• .t•.. .• . .• i..• .•••.• .• • . •.•.•h
•. •.O•. •. •. .·• .•O. •.• . •. .•.I..•s. •. •. .•. •.t. .•b. •. • . .•.d. •. . •Ie
. . .• . •. •. . •. (WWW) has stimulated debate about t\1(:l.efficacy ~t\1(:l·Web'R)r·~otihg.
learning. Some argue that the unique pr()~i(;$oft~;.~(<:~~~~r:~!l ...
linearity, de-centering, and virtual presfm~e),o{fElr()~t;Wf.)~~.ttlf!.t~.~Il~~Q
classroom could never match. Others cootend;that bYf,)erte~.iO(;ltjd~Q$ xis\Jal.
images, sounds, animations, and videos, merely treatesao Elnt~rtainiog:on-t.ine
distraction.
.
.
..
To help evaluate these competing daims,ty~ic~l~c~~~l~s~':w~(~.;r~~~.
The results of the survey support the HyPOthesiS ·.tha~ stuae?ts.·i?~a;·~p~t
'Webified" course (i.e., a course that has ll'lert.'y.. qln~~n~wa~riaJ~i~to
Web documents with little or no interactivity).d<:>notfjndt~eff0~~~.~ij~v~
improvements in their educational experience. To stimul~te.~t.int~e.Stiin tlJe
use of the WWW for course work, innovative applicationsofWebm~mrtals wilt
have to be developed. Examples of such innOVations include on~an(fvideps,
links to audio archives, recorded interviews withseholars;arldpolicyofficials,ahd
live video conferences in the classroom. FortOermore/inStriict()l'S wiHhave''to
encourage their students to read, think, and write in hypertext.
.
INTRODUCTION
he explosion of computing power and the proliferation of electronic technology
has brought the World Wide Web (WWW) into the classrooms of colleges, uni­
. versities, and professional schools. The Harvard Business School, for example, has
invested $11 million to organize and deliver information to its students through a Web­
T
17R
Journ,If m' I'uhlil /'dm!;u-ITill;on • \'/0138
flU
J.1 " $ep/emlwr l003
l
1
based
based curriculum.
curriculum. Using
Using the
the School's
School's Research
Research and
and Technology
Technology Laboratory,
Laboratory, students
students
work
work from
from the
theweb
web sites
sitesthat
thathave
have been
been created
created for
for allall ofofthe
the School's
School's more
more than
than 70
70
classes
classesand
and organize
organizetheir
their assignments,
assignments, notes
notes from
from professors,
professors, and
and links
links totoother
other Web
Web
sites
siteson
ontheir
theirpersonalized
personalized home
home pages.
pages. Other
Otherbusiness
business schools,
schools, such
suchasas Duke
Duke and
and the
the
University
University ofof Michigan
Michigan are
are offering
offering M.B.A.
M.BA courses
courses on
on the
the WWW
WWW (The
(The Chronicle
Chronicle of
of
Higher
).
HigherEducation,
Education, November
November 15,
15, 1996,
1996,pp.
pp. A29-A31
A29-A31).
UCLA
UCLAhas
hasembarked
embarkedon
onaamore
more ambitious
ambitiousproject:
project:the
theCollege
Collegeof
ofArts
Artsand
and Sciences
Sciencesplans
plans
to
to offer
offer aa Web
Web site
site toto all
all of
of its
its (more
(more than
than 33 000)
000) non-tutorial
non-tutorial courses.
courses. The
The College's
College's
Instructional
Instructional Enhancement
Enhancement Initiative
Initiative will
will be
be implemented
implemented by
by hiring
hiring 60
60 toto 80
80 technology
technology
consultants,
consultants, mostly
mostly students,
students, and
and itit will
will be
be funded
funded by
by fees
fees ranging
ranging from
from $10
$10 to
to $14
$14 per
per
course.
course. Although
Although college
college administrators
administrators anticipate
anticipate that
that the
the initiative
initiative will
will create
create an
an "exci"exci­
ting
ting educational
educational environment"
environment" and
and "unprecedented
"unprecedented opportunities
opportunities to
to enhance
enhance instrucinstruc­
tion,"
tion," others,
others, including
including professors,
professors, who
who wonder
wonder "if
"if the
the Web
Web pages
pages are
are merely
merely gimmicks,"
gimmicks,"
and
and students,
students, who
who will
will have
have to
to pay
pay more
more than
than $100
$100 in
in additional
additional fees,
fees, have
have expressed
expressed
doubts
doubts about
about the
the project
project (The
(The Chronicle
Chronicle of
of Higher
Higher Education,
Education, August
August 1,I, 1997,
1997, pp.
pp. A21A21­
A22).
An).
The
The commitment
commitment of
of the
the Harvard
Harvard Business
Business School,
School, as
as well
well as
as UCLA
UCLA and
and other
other educationeducation­
al
institutions,
to
the
development
and
maintenance
of
electronic
course
al institutions, to the development and maintenance of electronic course syllabi
syllabi for
for the
the
has
brought
a
debate
about
the
efficacy
of
information
technology
like
the
WWW
Web
Web has brought a debate about the efficacy of information technology like the WWW
for
center stage.
stage. Educators,
faced with
with tight
tight budgets
and multiple
for promoting
promoting learning
learning to
to center
Educators, faced
budgets and
multiple
demands
for
resources,
are
beginning
to
ask
hard
questions
about
applications
of the
the
demands for resources, are beginning to ask hard questions about applications of
Is
there
a
role
for
the
Web
in
the
classroom?
If
so,
what
is
the
new
computer
technology:
new computer technology: Is there a role for the Web in the classroom? If so, what is the
most
effective
way
to
take
advantage
of
the
unique
properties
of
the
World
Wide
Web?
most effective way to take advantage of the unique properties of the World Wide Web?
Do mandatory
mandatory electronic
electronic syllabi
syllabi for
for every
every class
class help
help to
to enhance
enhance the
the learning
learning of
of students?
students?
Do
so, is
is itit worth
worth the
the additional
additional effort
effort and
and cost?
cost?
IfIf so,
THE DEBATE
DEBATE
THE
·.
W
the unique
unique properties
properties of
of the
the World
World Wide
Wide Web
Web offer
offer aa range
range of
of opportu­
opportuhile the
i.ihile
...... ; . . . i/ nities
nities that
that astandard
standard chalk
chalk and talk
talk class could never
never match,
match, questions
questions a.bout
about
J
i
the
educational
value
of
this
burgeoning
medium
loom
large.
Do
the
visual
.1'
i the educational value of thiS burgeoning medium loom large. Do the Visual
does
images, sounds,
sounds, animations,
animations, and
and videos
videos really
really add
add to
to the
the learning
learning experience
experience or
or does
images,
hypermedia
merely
provide
an
entertaining
on-line
distraction?
Both
sides
of
this
debate
hypermedia merely provide an entertaining on-line distraction? Both sides of this debate
oftheir
their positions.
positions. The
The enthusiasts
enthusiasts believe
believe itit pre­
preareequally
equally passionate
passionateand
and convinced
convinced of
are
an
exceptional
and
exciting
technology
could
not
provide
educaposterous
that
such
posterous that such an exceptional and exciting technology could not provide educa­
tional benefits.
benefits.The
Thecritics
criticsalso
alsoargue
arguethat
thatthe
theWWW
WWWisisjust
justanother
anothergimmick
gimmickbeing
beingtouted
touted
tional
as
the
next
revolutionary
technology
to
transform
teaching.
Do
you
remember
filmstrips?
as the next revolutionary technology to transform teaching. Do you remember filmstrips?
Doyou
you remember
remembereducational
educational television?
television?Did
Didany
anyof
ofusus really
reallytake
takegood
good notes
notesand
and pay
pay
Do
as
close
attention
to
these
instructional
aids
as
compared
to
when
the
teacher
was
lecas close attention to these instructional aids as compared to when the teacher was lec­
leadingaadiscussion?
discussion?
turingororleading
turing
·.. l \
~
~nd
c1~ss coul~
J~A.Bnnalr!
Bnnarr!
I~A.
11 77QQ
t
~
interof inter­
hostof
offers aa host
filmstrip. ItIt offers
from aa filmstrip.
The
different from
quite different
Web"hqwever,
ever, isis quite
Wide Web,.h9r-r
World Wide
The World
course.
any
nearly
of
needs
ar
particul needs of nearly any course.
the particular
for the
active
customized for
be customized
ca'r1 be
that can
possibilities that
active possibilities
the
over the
debate over
The debate
obstacles. The
and obstacles.
problems and
ItIt also
different problems
very different
some very
with itit some
carries with
also carries
alspecific
more
Web
Wide
World
the World Wide Web more specifical­
of the
value
and of
general, and
in general,
technology in
computer technology
of computer
value of
famimaking
been
have
sides
Both
decade. Both sides have been making fami­
ly,
past decade.
the past
over the
little over
relatively little
changed relatively
has changed
ly, has
neifar nei­
So far
data. So
empirical data.
definitive empirical
amass definitive
liar
to amass
trying to
while trying
counterclaims while
and counterclaims
claims and
liar claims
ve
instructi
is
debate
this
of
issues
major issues of this debate is instructive
ther
the major
of the
review of
but aa review
victory, but
claim victory,
can claim
side can
ther side
future.
the
in
and
now
teaching
in
Web
Wide Web in teaching now and in the future.
for
World Wide
the World
using the
of using
merits of
the merits
evaluating the
for evaluating
CLAIMS
TECHNOLOGY CLAIMS
PRO-INFORMATION
PRO-INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
(Hentrel
bold (Hentrel
are bold
classroom are
the classroom
in the
he
technology in
information technology
of information
support of
in support
claims in
he claims
the
that the
is
heard
nly
and
Harper
1985,
9).
Perhaps
one
of
the
most
commonly
heard
refrains
is
that
commo
most
and Harper 1985, 9). Perhaps one of
1997,
fun
1997,
77;i
Web
increases
student
motivation
and
makes
learning
fun
(Bolton
makes
Web increases student motivation
reprel
graphica
using
By
1996).
15,
Shechter,
1991,
9;
Slonaker
and
Schmitt
january
15,
1996).
By
using
graphical
repre­
Schmitt January
Shechter, 1991, 9; Slonaker
learning
with learning
those with
at-risk students and those
sentations
retain at-risk
concepts, it also helps retain
teach concepts,
to teach
sentations to
claim
Another
10).
1988,
Cunniff,
and
Taylor
disabilities
8;;
1988, 10). Another claim
1985,8
(Hentrel and Harper, 1985,
disabilities (Hentrel
learn
will
they
ork,
schoolw
y
everyda
is
that
by
having
students
use
computers
in
their
everyday
schoolwork,
they
will
learn
use computers
is that by having
64-65;
1985,
l
important
skills
for
the
job
market
(Hentrel
and
Harper,
1985,
9;
Noble,
1985,
64-65;
(Hentre
important skills for
of
number of
the number
that the
Oppenheimer,
estimates vary, many cite studies that
1997). While estimates
July 1997).
Oppenheimer, july
to
continue
will
r,
(Drucke
"
jobs
requiring
computer
skills,
or
"knowledge
workers"
(Drucker,
1990),
will
continue
to
workers
"knowledge
jobs requiring computer
y.
econom
tion
informa
the
of
ment
develop
information economy.
increase
globalization and the development
result of globalization
a result
as a
increase as
T.
co-operative
and co-operative
promoting group work and
Computers
the Web are also praised for promoting
and the
Computers and
10;
1989, 10;
(Kaye,
course
lecture
standard
learning
(Kaye, 1989,
ways that would not occur in a
in ways
learning in
more
te
contribu
to
students
the
allows
to contribute more
Slonaker
January 15, 1996). This
Schmitt, january
and Schmitt,
Slonaker and
rather
knowledge rather
facilitator of knowledge
directly
instructor a facilitator
learning process, making the instructor
the learning
to the
directly to
benefit
major
a
as
d
promote
often
is
than
promoted
a major benefit
interactivity
Similarly, interactivity
repository of it. Similarly,
sole repository
the sole
than the
problem
improved problem
in maintaining
student interest and as a catalyst for creative thinking and improved
maintaining student
in
onals
professi
and
rs,
professo
,
connecting
students, professors,
professionals around
around
solving. By
ting students to other students
By connec
solving.
e
rld relevanc
real-wo
of
brings
sense
real-world
relevance
the
globe,
the
Internet
expands
their
horizons
and
a
horizons
the globe, the Internet
examine
to
first
the
be
to
red
conside
study,
considered
the first to examine
to classroo
classroom
(Oppenheimer,
heimer, 1997). A recent
m (Oppen
to
the "effect
"effect of
of online
online work on learning
learning,"
online material
materialss did
did
," show that students who used online
the
from
graders from
sixth
and
fourth
at
looked
better work
work than
than those
those who did not. This research
sixth graders
better
October 26, 1996). While
Is, October
seven cities
cities in
in the United States (Mende
(Mendels,
While the
the claims
claims made
made
seven
Multimedia
and
ers
Comput
the
in
Computers and Multimedia
by technol
technology
proponents
nts are ones that many users
ogy propone
by
ict the
ts in some cases directly contrad
Section have
have experien
experienced,
arguments
contradict
the
ced, the critics' argumen
Section
sts.
enthusiasts.
claims of enthusia
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY CRITICS' CLAIMS
.0."·· . '.
~e of th~ bi~gest I~ghtning.rods for criti:ising efforts to use the Worl~ Wi~~ Web
In teaching IS the Issue of Implementation. As more colleges and UniverSIties try
to jump on the Internet bandwagon, the charge of inadequate prior planning
and unclear, unfocused goals have been made by many critics. Lack of training or poor
training are often cited as reasons for failure of technology integration projects as well
(Mendels, july 17, 1997; Shechter, 1991, 12-15). How can one reasonably expect an
instructor to utilize the benefits of the WWW if he/she has never been taught how to
write HTML code, let alone the basic computer skills beyond word-processing necessary
to navigate the Web?
.
.. J
Opponents of this technology claim that the relative dearth of good software and reliable
information on the Internet detract from the learning process and in some cases lead to
student papers that emphasize flash over substance (Bolton, 1997, 11; Mendels, July 17,
1997; Slonaker and Schmitt, january 15, 1996). Indeed some claim that much of the
material on the Web are out-of-date summaries of summaries, leading to a decline of stu­
dent papers that rely heavily on virtual sites (Rothenberg, The Chronicle of Higher
Education, August 15, 1997).
The strain put on school budgets by computer and software purchases and their subse­
quent upgrades is also a major concern. Critics argue that these purchases mean that less
money is spent on the basics of teaching, such as books, teachers' salaries, and even
basic building maintenance. Moreover, many fear that the offers of free or reduced-price
computers and software is a Trojan horse. Critics say that after this support disappears,
the budget-devouring needs of upgrades and maintenance will create a crisis for admin­
istrators faced with the prospect of either funneling further resources into the black hole
of technology, or losing on the investment entirely (Bolton, 1997, 9-10).
The most damaging evidence against use of the Web is a spate of studies that show little
or no positive effect in the classroom (Mende Is, july 17, 1997; Oppenheimer, 1997 i
Slonaker and Schmitt, january 15, 1996). These studies point to unimproved test scores
and assignments, as well as teacher and student surveys that suggest the supposed
benefits of this new technology are not being realized. In addition, some of the critics
claim that the skills students do learn will be of no advantage to them in the future
(Rothstein, july 7, 1997). This is a direct contradiction of other studies (some of which
have been presented on APSA's Computer and Multimedia Section panels), which have
shown there are benefits derived from using the Web (Boykin, et al. 1996; Ward, et al.
1996).
What conclusions can be drawn from this debate? Both sides can produce studies and evi­
dence to support their research expectations. How can such radically different conclu­
sions be drawn from studies that try to measure the same thing: does the WWW have a
H(l
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!r"
\th??f,ni..;/r,-ii:, In
•
\-'0138 no 7.1
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_'-.eph·rnht-:>r 'lOO')
:,
,~,' (. fl,'·
1 R'l
t
'?
lhe~orl~ Wid~We~h~~~ver,
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY CRITICS' CLAIMS
PRO-INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY CLAIMS
1""'
··.····. '. ne of the biggest lightning rods for criticising efforts to use the World Wide Web
1""·.·.······
.,.
. in teaching is the issue of implementation. As more colleges and universities try
,in
...'' .'"to
to jump on the Internet bandwagon, the charge of inadequate prior planning
and unclear, unfocused goals have been made by many critics. Lack of training or poor
and~~c1ear,
training are often cited as reasons for failure of technology integration projects as well
(Mendels, July 17,
1997; Shechter, 1991,
12-15). How can one reasonably expect an
17,1997;
1991,12-15).
instructor to utilize the benefits of the WWW if he/she has never been taught how to
write HTML code, let alone the basic computer skills beyond word-processing necessary
to navigate the Web?
is quite different from a filmstrip. It offers a host of inter­
active possibilities that can be customized for the particular needs of nearly any course.
It also carries with it some very different problems and obstacles. The debate over the
value of computer technology in general, and of the World Wide Web more specifical­
ly, has changed relatively little over the past decade. Both sides have been making fami­
liar claims and counterclaims while trying to amass definitive empirical data. So far nei­
ther side can claim victory, but a review of the major issues of this debate is instructive
for evaluating the merits of using the World Wide Web in teaching now and in the future.
·.
T
he claims in support of infonnation technology in the c1amoom are bold (Hentrel
•. and Harper 1985, 9). Perhaps one of the most commonly heard refrains is that the
•.. Web increases student motivation and makes learning fun (Bolton 1997, 7;
Shechter, 1991, 9; Slonaker and Schmitt January 15, 1996). By using graphical repre­
sentations to teach concepts, it also helps retain at-risk students and those with learning
disabilities (Hentrel and Harper, 1985, 8; Taylor and Cunniff, 1988, 10). Another claim
is that by having students use computers in their everyday schoolwork, they will learn
important skills for the job market (Hentrel and Harper, 1985, 9; Noble, 1985, 64-65;
Oppenheimer, July 1997). While estimates vary, many cite studies that the number of
jobs requiring computer skills, or "knowledge workers" (Drucker, 1990), will continue to
increase as a result of globalization and the development of the information economy.
Computers and the Web are also praised for promoting group work and co-operative
learning in ways that would not occur in a standard lecture course (Kaye, 1989, 10;
Slonaker and Schmitt, January 15, 1996). This allows the students to contribute more
directly to the learning process, making the instructor a facilitator of knowledge rather
than the sole repository of it. Similarly, interactivity is often promoted as a major benefit
in maintaining student interest and as a catalyst for creative thinking and improved problem
solving. By connecting students to other students, professors, and professionals around
the globe, the Internet expands their horizons and brings a sense of real-world relevance
to classroom (Oppenheimer, 1997). A recent study, considered to be the first to examine
the "effect of online work on learning," show that students who used online materials did
better work than those who did not. This research looked at fourth and sixth graders from
seven cities in the United States (Mendels, October 26, 1996). While the claims made
by technology proponents are ones that many users in the Computers and Multimedia
Section have experienced, the critics' arguments in some cases directly contradict the
claims of enthusiasts.
0.
Opponents of this technology claim that the relative dearth of good software and reliable
information on the Internet detract from the learning process and in some cases lead to
student papers that emphasize flash over substance (Bolton, 1997, 11; Mendels, July 17,
January 15, 1996). Indeed some claim that much of the
1997; Slonaker and Schmitt, January
material on the Web are out-of-date summaries of summaries, leading to a decline of stustu­
dent papers that rely heavily on virtual sites (Rothenberg, The Chronicle of Higher
dent
Education, August 15, 1997).
subse­
The strain put on school budgets by computer and software purchases and their subsequent upgrades
upgrades is also a major concern. Critics argue that these purchases mean that less
money is spent on the basics of teaching, such as books, teachers' salaries, and even
basic building maintenance. Moreover, many fear that the offers of free or reduced-price
computers and software is a Trojan horse. Critics say that after this support disappears,
admin­
the budget-devouring needs of upgrades and maintenance will create a crisis for administrators faced with the prospect of either funneling further resources into the black hole
of technology, or losing on the investment entirely (Bolton, 1997, 9-10).
The most damaging evidence against use of the Web is a spate of studies that show little
July 17,1997;
17, 1997; Oppenheimer, 1997;
or no positive effect in the classroom (Mendels, July
Slonaker and Schmitt, January 15, 1996). These studies point to unimproved test scores
and assignments, as well as teacher and student surveys that suggest the supposed
benefits of this new technology are not being realized. In addition, some of the critics
claim that the skills students do learn will be of no advantage to them in the future
July 7, 1997). This is aa direct contradiction of other studies (some of which
(Rothstein, July
have been presented on APSA's Computer and Multimedia Section panels), which have
have
at. 1996; Ward, et al.
at.
shown there are benefits derived from using the Web (Boykin, et al.
1996).
evi­
What conclusions can be drawn from this debate? Both sides can produce studies and eviconclu­
dence to support their research expectations. How can such radically different conclusions be drawn from studies that try to measure the same thing: does the WWW have a
1
@!
\-'01 31$
no
1» ,S{~f:ienlber '100:'1
everyone isis
not everyone
that not
possibility isis that
measurable impact
on the educational experience?
experience? One possibility
measurable impact on the educational
from
and from
class
to
class
from class to class and
greatly from
differ greatly
measuringg the
same phenomenon. Experiences
eriences differ
measurin the same phenomenon. Exp
e,
orat
elab
very
are
ns,
latio
simu
online simulations,
disciplinee to
discipline. Some attempts, such as online
are very elaborate,
of
disciplin to discipline. Some attempts,
e
rang
t
grea
the
of
ause
Bec
ambitious. Because of the great range of
while others,
such as online readings, are less
less ambitious.
while others, such as online readings,
identical.
are identical.
studies are
two studies
room, no two
class
applications of
the
World
Wide
Web
in
the
classroom,
e
applications of the World Wid
difficultechnical difficul­
by technical
undermined by
Moreover,r, attempts
to assess the impact of the Web are undermined
Moreove attempts to assess the impact
project.
the
in
lved
invo
bers
mem
faculty members
ties, changes
in software, or the rotation
involved in the project.
of faculty
rotation of
ties, changes in software, or
nology.
tech
new
ively
relat
a
evaluate a relatively new technology.
Perhaps the
wrong instruments are being
being used to evaluate
Perhaps the wrong instruments
they
on,
opti
r
bette
a
of
lack
a
of
mostly out
While the use
of standardized tests continues,
lack of a better option, they
inues, mostly
While the use of standardized tests cont
1997
July
r,
eime
penh
(Op
fits
bene (Oppenheimer, July 1997).).
are still a relatively
crude measure of performance
ormance and benefits
are still a relatively crude measure perf
capabili-
its capabili­
of its
advantage of
taking advantage
Another possibility
is that most uses of the Web are not taking
Another possibility is that most
book
from
rent
diffe
h
muc
is
ent
environm is much different from aa book
ties. As
was mentioned above, a hypermedia
edia environment
ties. As was mentioned above, hyperm
are
Web
the
of
fits
bene
the
s
case the benefits of the Web are
many cases
or handouts
used in courses. It could be that in many
or handouts used in courses. could
Mason
As Mason
media. As
traditional media.
terms of traditional
not beingg achieved,
because we are still thinking
thinking in terms
not bein achieved, because
best
to
medium to best
particular medium
designed for aa particular
and Kaye point
out, "information should
ld be designed
and Kaye point out, "information shou
the
of
value of the
the value
accurately the
more accurately
assess more
exploit its
unique advantage" (1990, 16) So, to assess
exploit its unique advantage" (1990,
the
tify
iden the
to identify
try to
and try
projects and
World Widee Web
one should step back from specialized
specialized projects
World Wid Web one should step
This
.
teaching This
in teaching.
usage in
Web usage
example of Web
most common
characteristics of a representative
representative example
most common characteristics
Web
Wide Web
ld Wide
Wor
the
of
ons
icati
appl
various applications of the World
calls for an
examination of the mode of the various
calls for an examination of the mode
date.
in the classroom
classroom to date.
GENERATIONS
APPLICATION
DIFFERENT GENERATIONS
APPLICATION OF DIFFERENT
..
K
their
with their
courses with
or co""s
"cyberclasses," or
ration "cyberciasses,'
lass
istration
Administ
Public Admin
41 PubHc
analyzed 41
6) analyzed
"digi(199
'ass (19961
was
.'. / '.. own
,•....
site
se
cour
cal
typi
the
Web pages on the Internet. He found
typical course site was aa "digi­
found that
own Web pages on the Internet.
t .,
-som
easily -some­eas easily
could just
materials that could
se materials
; .. tal
placee for
variety
course
just as
K
ty of cour
for aa varie
resting plac
tal resting
;
of
53.7% of
coded 53.7%
Klass coded
(1). Klass
format" (1).
printed format"
timess more
easily- be distributed to students
ents in printed
time more easily- be distributed stud
hyperand hyper­
syllabus and
only aa syllabus
of only
consisted of
the sites
sites as
stage"
cyberclasses,
rclasses, that is, they consisted
e" cybe
"first stag
as "first
the
that
activities that
included activities
that included
cyberclasses that
links to othe
otherr web
39.0%
stage" cyberclasses
"second stage"
% as "second
sites; 39.0
web sites;
links to
or
n,
simulatio or
assisted simulation,
computer assisted
e-mail, computer
dependent, such as interactive
were Internet
interactive e-mail,
were Internet dependent, such
or
s
offering or
stage" offerings
"third stage"
as "third
role-playing exercises involving use of the Internet;
Internet; and 7.3% as
role-playing exercises involving
boundaries."
temporal) boundaries."
etimes temporal)
virtual
"without
physical
sometimes
ical (or som
hout phys
courses "wit
virtual courses
offered
course offered
introductory course
team-taught introductory
MAX 123--Criticallssues for the United
States, a team-taught
United States,
MAX 123--Criticallssues for
a secexample of
cal example
University, is
in the College of Arts and Sciences at Syracuse
is aa typi
typical
of a sec­
cuse University,
in the College of Arts and Sciences Syra
scanned
with scanned
hypertext with
in hypertext
bus in
ists of a sylla
ond-stage cyberclass. This course
consists
syllabus
cons
ond-stage cyberclass. This course site
an
is an
tion, ther
In addi
reading. In
tional reading.
images and man
manyy hype
hyperlinks
to the WW
WWW
additional
addition,
theree is
W for addi
rlinks to
images and
ss
ions acce
so sect
or so
dozen or
electronic discussion forum
students from each of the dozen
sections
access
ing
electronic discussion forum that students
play
roletwo role-playing
includes two
se site also
by entering their user ID and password.
course
also includes
d. The cour
by entering their user 10 and a passwor
to
eyed to
were
s
Issue
cal
Criti
in
ents Critical Issues were surv
exercises that make use of the WWW. The stud
students
surveyed
exercises that make use of the WWW.
ses.
ergraduate cour
-based und
learn more about the teaching effectiveness
Web-based
undergraduate
courses.
ness of Web
learn more about the teaching effective
'10
,H.",I
0,
..\,in,ini,;ffr;,riof!
•
\/0/38
rIO
:t I
" SeplemlWf 2003
A more elaborate COurse site was developed by Gonick, who developed the Virtual
Seminar in Global Political Economy. This site, which qualifies as a stage third-stage
cyberclass, is an electronic dialogue among faculty members and students in different
locations around the world. The seminar consists of, among other things, scheduled
group sessions each week, led by a faculty member, a voluntary seminar cafe, and the
opportunity to join collaborative writing teams to produce joint papers. The seminar is
one of the few examples of courses that are not limited by time and space.
These three courses take advantage in varying degrees of the unique properties of the
World Wide Web to promote learning inside and outside of the classroom. By virtue of
the hyperlinks to the WWW that are provided by the instructors, all three of them
encourage connectivity. Using the electronic syllabus as a starting point, students are
able to explore the Web and connect with course material, a first step in the process of
critical thinking. However, these courses, like most of the cyber courses that have been
examined, contain little connectivity within their own boundaries. Little effort has been
made by the instructors to integrate the material in one section of the course with that of
the other sections. Students can, to a limited extent, explore a few connections within a
typical electronic syllabus, but they quickly reach dead ends. Although students can read
the papers written by other students, hyperlinks between student papers have not been
provided, even among papers written on the same topic.
These cyber courses also achieve non-linearity through the networks of nodes and links
on the WWW, but also lack this property within the course sites, themselves. The elec­
tronic syllabi provided to students for these courses, and most of the other courses
reviewed, resemble the typical paper document, with the addition of hyperlinks to the
Web and a few images. The courses look very linear and this structure is reflected in the
course sites, themselves.
Given the linear structure of these course sites, it is difficult for students to take advantage
of another property of the WWW.de-centering or the continual shifting of the reader's
focus that begins to break down the distinction between the author and the reader. Since
both faculty members and students exist in cyberspace and have almost the same access
to the seminar, distinctions between authors (instructors) and readers (students) are more
difficult to sustain, and, as a consequence, de-centering is easier to achieve and maintain.
EFFECTIVENESS
'"
F
rom this review, it appears that the majority of the applications of the World Wide
;.t" , Web in Public Administration are modest endeavours that merely "Webify" printed
) materials. By "Webify," is meant the conversion of printed materials, such as syllabi,
hand-outs, and readings, into basic HTML documents with little interactivity or other fea­
tures, which the World Wide Web is capable of supporting. It could be stated that students
PA, fin/l1ml
1R~
measurable impact on the educational experience? One possibility is that not everyone is
measuring the same phenomenon. Experiences differ greatly from class to class and from
discipline to discipline. Some attempts, such as online simulations, are very elaborate,
while others, such as online readings, are less ambitious. Because of the great range of
applications of the World Wide Web in the classroom, no two studies are identical.
Moreover, attempts to assess the impact of the Web are undermined by technical difficul­
ties, changes in software, or the rotation of faculty members involved in the project.
Perhaps the wrong instruments are being used to evaluate a relatively new technology.
While the use of standardized tests continues, mostly out of a lack of a better option, they
are still a relatively crude measure of performance and benefits (Oppenheimer, July 1997).
Another possibility is that most uses of the Web are not taking advantage of its capabili­
ties. As was mentioned above, a hypermedia environment is much different from a book
or handouts used in courses. It could be that in many cases the benefits of the Web are
not being achieved, because we are still thinking in terms of traditional media. As Mason
and Kaye point out, "information should be designed for a particular medium to best
exploit its unique advantage" (1990, 16) So, to assess more accurately the value of the
World Wide Web one should step back from specialized projects and try to identify the
most common characteristics of a representative example of Web usage in teaching. This
calls for an examination of the mode of the various applications of the World Wide Web
in the classroom to date.
APPLICATION OF DIFFERENT GENERATIONS
'. /
K
la" (1996) analyzed 41 Publk Administ"tion "cybercIasses,"or courses with thei r
•
own Web pages on the Internet. He found that the typical course site was a "digi­
tal resting place for a variety of course materials that could just as easily -some;
times more easily- be distributed to students in printed format" (1). Klass coded 53.7% of
the sites as "first stage" cyberclasses, that is, they consisted of only a syllabus and hyper­
links to other web sites; 39.0% as "second stage" cyberclasses that included activities that
were Internet dependent, such as interactive e-mail, computer assisted simulation,
or
ll
role-playing exercises involving use of the Internet; and 7.3% as "third stage offerings or
virtual courses "without physical (or sometimes temporal) boundaries."
MAX 123--Criticallssues for the United States, a team-taught introductory course offered
in the College of Arts and Sciences at Syracuse University, is a typical example of a sec­
ond-stage cyberclass. This course site consists of a syllabus in hypertext with scanned
images and many hyperlinks to the WWW for additional reading. In addition, there is an
electronic discussion forum that students from each of the dozen or so sections access
by entering their user ID and a password. The course site also includes two role-playing
exercises that make use of the WWW. The students in Critical Issues were surveyed to
learn more about the teaching effectiveness of Web-based undergraduate courses.
'10
P.
\r!mi"i"II'.,r;on ' '1/0138
no 3.1 "
200]
A more elaborate course site was developed by Gonick, who developed the Virtual
A
Seminar in Global Political Economy. This site, which qualifies as aa stage third-stage
cyberclass, is an electronic dialogue among faculty members and students in different
locations around the world. The seminar consists of, among other things, scheduled
group sessions each week, led by aa faculty member, aa voluntary seminar cafe, and the
opportunity to join collaborative writing teams to produce joint papers. The seminar is
one of the few examples of courses that are not limited by time and space.
These three courses take advantage in varying degrees of the unique properties of the
World Wide Web to promote learning inside and outside of the classroom. By virtue of
the hyperlinks to the WWW that are provided by the instructors, all three of them
encourage connectivity. Using the electronic syllabus as aa starting point, students are
able to explore the Web and connect with course material, aa first step in the process of
critical thinking. However, these courses, like most of the cyber courses that have been
examined, contain little connectivity within their own boundaries. Little effort has been
made by the instructors to integrate the material in one section of the course with that of
the other sections. Students can, to a
a limited extent, explore a few connections within a
typical electronic syllabus, but they quickly reach dead ends. Although students can read
the papers written by other students, hyperlinks between student papers have not been
provided, even among papers written on the same topic.
These cyber courses also achieve non-linearity through the networks of nodes and links
elec­
on the WWW, but also lack this property within the course sites, themselves. The electronic syllabi provided to students for these courses, and most of the other courses
reviewed, resemble the typical paper document, with the addition of hyperlinks to the
Web and a
a few images. The courses look very linear and this structure is reflected in the
course sites, themselves.
Given the linear structure of these course sites, it is difficult for students to take advantage
of another property of the WWW.de-centering or the continual shifting of the reader's
focus that begins to break down the distinction between the author and the reader. Since
both faculty members and students exist in cyberspace and have almost the same access
to the seminar, distinctions between authors (instructors) and readers (students) are more
difficult to sustain, and, as aa consequence, de-centering is easier to achieve and maintain.
EFFECTIVENESS
t., rom this review, it appears that the majority of the applications of the World Wide
.....•.';.••
•. Web in Public Administration are modest endeavours that merely "Webify" printed
i, materials. By "Webify," is meant the conversion of printed materials, such as syllabi,
hand-outs, and readings, into basic HTML documents with little interactivity or other feafea­
tures, which the World Wide Web is capable of supporting. It could be stated that students
fF
f'A. 8rvnard
Brnlard
P.4.
1 R~
do not view these "Webified" efforts as effective improvements to the learning experien
experience.
ce.
do not view these "Webified" efforts as effective improvements to the learning
Accordingly, the
the hypothe
hypothesis
was
that
students
do
not
view
"Webified"
materials
as
ls
materia
course
d"
sis was that students do not view "Webifie
Accordingly,
enhancing their learning
learning experie
experience
by
surveying
students
in
under­
undertwo"
"stage
typical
a
nce by surveying students
enhancing their
graduate course: Critical Issues for the United States. The results
hypothesis.
sis.
hypothe
graduate course: Critical Issues for the United States. The results support the
Of the students who
who respond
responded
to
the
survey,
most
did
not
once
even
site
course
the
visit
ed to the survey, most did not
Of the students
a week during the semester. Only eleven out of 103 students
site more
a week during the semester. Only eleven out of 103 students visited the course
than ten times. The
The other
other 92
92 students
students visited
visited the
the course
course site
site 0-10 times, with the majority
than ten times.
of the total student sample (66%) visiting 1-5 times during
semester.
of the total student sample (66%) visiting 1-5 times during the semester.
To achieve a better understanding of what motivated the
the course
To achieve a better understanding of what motivated the students to access
site, students have
have been
been asked
asked ifif they
they used
used the
the site
site to
to explore
course-related
issues. Of
elated
course-r
explore
site, students
the 98 out of 112
students
who
responded
to
the
question,
49%
course
the
used
they
said
the 98 out of 112 students who responded to the question, 49%
site to explore
explore course
course related
related material
materialss while
while 51
51 %
% said they did not.
site to
levell- Key-pals, e-mail, mentorship
Students or pupils can communicate with other schools, both locally and international­
ly. This can contribute to language studies, in that students of foreign languages can com­
municate with mother-tongue speakers and gain meaningful practice. Although Public
Administration is culture-bound it could also benefit from international exposure of all
countries involved.
Arthur Goldstuck refers to Jacques Leslie who claims that electronic mail (e-mail) returns
the efficiency of the London postal service of the mid-19th century - when postal deli­
veries occurred every hour for 12 hours a day. "It's taken more than a century for tech­
nology to catch up, and finally race ahead" (Arthur Goldstuck, 1995, Hitchhiker's Guide
to the Internet, p.11l.
Perhaps even more revealing of what students think of the standard course site were the
Perhaps even more revealing of what students think of the standard
responsess of
the students who said they did use the Web site to explore course related
response of the students who said they did use the Web
ideas. Of the 46 students
who answered both questions, only 17,4% of them visited the
ideas. Of the 46 students who answered both questions, only
website more
than
10
times
during the semester, while
82,6% visited the site
website more than 10 times during the semester, while the other
1-10 times. None
None of
of those
those students
students claimed
to
have
never
visited
the
course site.
claimed to have never
1-10 times.
Poling classifies his classroom use of e-mail as the following activities: student questions,
counseling, class assignments, general class announcements, occasional quizzes, direct
communication to a particular student and posting grades. He reports that his experience
in using e-mail as a teaching supplement has been overwhelmingly positive and effective.
In light of the low
number of reported course site visits, it is not surprising
on Iy three
surprising that only
In light of the low number of reported course site visits, it is
as
of the students cited
materials
related
to
the
WWW.orthecoursesitespecifically.as
fically.
tespeci
oursesi
.orthec
of the students cited materials related to the WWW
something that could
have
made
the
learning
experience
of
the
course
more
valuable.
.
valuable
ce
something that could have made the learning experien
level 2 - BBS and Newsgroups
Why is it that despite
the efforts of the faculty members to develop a useful course site,
Why is it that despite the efforts of the faculty members to
their students do
not
appear
interested in taking advantage of it? One reason isis that
that most,
their students do not appear interested in taking advantage it?
but not all, of
the
material
on
the
site
were
also
made
available
as
hand-outs.
Another
ts.
hand-ou
as
e
but not all, of the material on the site were also made availabl
explanation could
be
that
nearly
all
the
information
on
the
Web
site
was
prepared
in
prepared
was
site
Web
the
explanation could be that nearly all the information on
advance and
made
available
at
the
beginning
of
the
semester,
instead
of
having
regular
regular
having
of
instead
,
advance and made available at the beginning of the semester
updates requiringg the
students to check the course site more often. Athird possibility
that
ty isis that
updates requirin the students to check the course site more often. Athird possibili
the course site,
while
the
product
of
hard
work
and
dedication,
was
not
innovative
enough
enough
ve
innovati
not
was
on,
the course site, while the product of hard work and dedicati
to attract the students'
attention. It was the product of a typical "Webification" of
standard
of standard
to attract the students' attention. It was the product of a typical "Webification"
site
course materials,s, rather
than
an
interactive
"cyber
experience."
In
this
case,
the
course
site
course
the
case,
this
In
course material rather than an interactive "cyber experience."
did not expand the
classroom
significantly.
The
different
generations
of
web-based
teach­
teached
web-bas
of
ons
did not expand the classroom significantly. The different generati
al.
ing and learning
are also referred to as the levels of learning. In this regard Fresen et
et al.
ing and learning are also referred to as the levels of learning. In this regard Fresen
(University of Pretoria)
supply
a
handy
taxonomy
of
uses
of
the
internet
for
learning.
.
learning
for
internet
(University of Pretoria) supply a handy taxonomy of uses of the
TAXONOMY
LEARNING
FOR LEARNING
INTERNET FOR
THE INTERNET
OF THE
USES OF
OF USES
TAXONOMY OF
'•.··
T
he taxonomy of
uses of the Interne.t for learning are divided into seven levels. The
The
he taxonomy of uses of the Internet for learning are divided into seven levels.
• mere awareness
of
these
levels
should
sensitise
web-based
instructors
in
Public
Public
in
rs
instructo
sed
web-ba
. mere awareness of these levels should sensitise
/ Administration
about the possibilities of web-based teaching and learning.
f)dministration about the possibilities of web-based teaching and learning.
11 R
R dLl
lournal oi
!'uhJic Administration" Vol 38 no 3.1 • September 2()()3
IOi/mal fif ['uMic A dminislration '" Vo! 38 no 3.1 • Septem ber 201n
BBS's (Bulletin Board Systems) are electronic meeting places for announcements,
debates, discussions and software exchange. They offer the cheapest access to the I-Way
(Information Highway).
The advantages of BBS's are the number of shareware or public domain programmes
available that can be downloaded free of charge. This is the most basic service offered
by most BBS's. They collect public domain software off the Internet and make it avail­
able for downloading to users without giving them access to the Net itself.
Other BBS's offer increasing levels of Net access, such as acting as interfaces between
the user and UNIX, providing a menu of commands the user needs never memorise,
accessing USENET news. The user is not directly connected to the Internet, but it will
seem as if he/she once latched on to a few favourite newsgroups.
Interlink, the service provider on BeiTel, provides a service on a par with Internet con­
nections through BBS's and offers options that are categorised as Chatting Services,
Online Games, Information Services and NASA Related Services.
The cost of BBS's is usually very low, sometimes even free. This is a good start for the
ordinary, low-tech I-way explorer. (Adapted from Hitchhiker's Guide to the Internet,
Arthur Goldstuck.) Often the first introduction to computer mediated communication
l: IL
t5 n' I),,,, !!
do not view these "Webified" efforts as effective improvements to the learning experience.
Accordingly, the hypothesis was that students do not view "Webified" course materials as
enhancing their learning experience by surveying students in a typical "stage two" under­
graduate course: Critical Issues for the United States. The results support the hypothesis.
Of the students who responded to the survey, most did not visit the course site even once
a week during the semester. Only eleven out of 103 students visited the course site more
than ten times. The other 92 students visited the course site 0-10 times, with the majority
of the total student sample (66%) visiting 1-5 times during the semester.
Levell
Level 1--Key-pa
Key-pals,
e-mail,mentor
mentorship
ls, e-mail,
ship
Students
nicate with
Studentsor
orpupils
pupilscan
can commu
communicate
withother
otherschools
schools,
both locally
locally and
and internat
international­
, both
ionally.
This
can
contribu
te totolanguag
e studies,
ly. This can contribute
language
studies,ininthat
thatstudents
studentsof
offoreign
foreign languag
languages
cancomcom­
es can
municat
e with
tongue speakers
municate
with mothermother-tongue
speakers and
and gain
gain meanin
meaningful
practice.
Although
Public
gful practice
. Althoug
h Public
Adminis
tration isis culturebound itit could
Administration
culture-bound
could also
also benefit
benefit from
from internat
international
exposure
of all
all
ional exposur
e of
countries
involved.
countrie
s involved
.
To achieve a better understanding of what motivated the students to access the course
site, students have been asked if they used the site to explore course-related issues. Of
the 98 out of 112 students who responded to the question, 49% said they used the course
site to explore course related materials while 51 % said they did not.
Arthur
ck refers
ArthurGoldstu
Goldstuck
refersto
toJacques
JacquesLeslie
Lesliewho
who claims
claims that
that electron
electronic
mail (e-mail)
(e-mail) returns
returns
ic mail
the
efficien
cy
of
the
London postal
postal service
service of
of the
the mid-19t
mid-19th
century -- when
when postal
postal delideli­
the efficiency of the London
h century
veries
d every
veries occurre
occurred
every hour
hour for
for 12
12 hours
hours aa day.
day. "It's
"It's taken
taken more
more than
than aa century
century for
for techtech­
nology
nology to
to catch
catch up,
up, and
and finally
finally race
race ahead"
ahead" (Arthur
(Arthur Goldstu
Goldstuck,
1995, Hitchhik
Hitchhiker's
Guide
ck, 1995,
er's Guide
to the
the Internet
Internet,
p.ll).
to
, p.ll).
Perhaps even more revealing of what students think of the standard course site were the
responses of the students who said they did use the Web site to explore course related
ideas. Of the 46 students who answered both questions, only 17,4% of them visited the
website more than 10 times during the semester, while the other 82,6% visited the site
1-10 times. None of those students claimed to have never visited the course site.
Poling
s his
m use
Poling classifie
classifies
his classroo
classroom
use of
of e-mail
e-mail as
as the
the followin
following
activities:
student question
questions,
g activitie
s: student
s,
counsel
ing,
class
assignm
ents,
counseling, class assignments, general
general class
class announc
announcements,
occasional
quizzes,, direct
direct
ements, occasio
nal quizzes
commu
nication to
ar student
communication
to aa particul
particular
student and
and posting
posting grades.
grades. He
He reports
reports that
that his
his experien
experience
ce
in
using
e-mail
as
a
teaching
ent has
in using e-mail as a teaching supplem
supplement
has been
been overwh
overwhelmingly
positive and
and effective
effective..
elmingly positive
In light of the low number of reported course site visits, it is not surprising that only three
of the students cited materials related to the WWW.orthecoursesitespecificaIlY.as
something that could have made the learning experience of the course more valuable.
Level 2 - BBS and Newsgr
Newsgroups
oups
Why is it that despite the efforts of the faculty members to develop a useful course site,
their students do not appear interested in taking advantage of it? One reason is that most,
but not all, of the material on the site were also made available as hand-outs. Another
explanation could be that nearly all the information on the Web site was prepared in
advance and made available at the beginning of the semester, instead of having regular
updates requiring the students to check the course site more often. A third possibility is that
the course site, while the product of hard work and dedication, was not innovative enough
to attract the students' attention. It was the product of a typical "Webification" of standard
course materials, rather than an interactive "cyber experience." In this case, the course site
did not expand the classroom significantly. The different generations of web-based teach­
ing and learning are also referred to as the levels of learning. In this regard Fresen et al.
(University of Pretoria) supply a handy taxonomy of uses of the internet for learning.
TAXONOMY OF USES OF THE INTERNET FOR LEARNING
T
he taxonomy of uses of the Internet for learning are divided into seven levels. The
mere awareness of these levels should sensitise web-based instructors in Public
~dministration about the possibilities of web-based teaching and learning.
1 Rd
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~
\/0138 no
,~.I
BBS's
BBS's (Bulletin
(Bulletin Board
Board Systems
Systems)) are
are electron
electronic
for announ
announcements,
ic meeting places for
cements,
debates
,
discussi
ons
debates, discussions and
and software exchang
exchange.
cheapestt access
access to
to the
the I-Way
I-Way
e. They offer the cheapes
(Information
Highway).
(Informa
tion Highwa
y).
The
ges of
of BBS's are the number of sharewa
shareware
domain program
programmes
The advanta
advantages
re or public domain
mes
availabl
e
that
can
ded free of charge. This is the most basic
available that can be downloa
downloaded
basic service
service offered
offered
by
by most
most BBS's.
BBS's. They
They collect public domain software off the Internet and
and make
make it
it avail­
avail-
able
for
downlo
ading
able for downloading to users without giving them access to the
the Net
Net itself.
itself.
Other
increasing levels of Net access, such as acting as
BBS's offer
offer increasing
Other BBS's
as interfaces
interfaces between
between
the
user
and
UNIX,
providing a menu of commands
the user and UNIX, providing
commands the user needs never
never memorise,
memorise,
accessing USENET
USENET news. The user is not directly connected
accessing
connected to the Internet,
Internet, but
but itit will
will
seem as if he/she once latched on to a few favourite
seem
favourite newsgroups.
newsgroups.
Interlink, the
the service
service provider
provider on
on BeITel,
BeiTel, provides
provides aa service
Interlink,
service on
on aa par
par with
with Internet
Internet con­
connections
through
BBS's
and offers
offers options
options that
nections through BBS's and
that are
are categorised
categorised as
as Chatting
Chatting Services,
Services,
Online Games,
Games, Information
Information Services
Online
Services and
and NASA
NASA Related
Related Services.
Services.
The cost
cost of
of BBS's
BBS's isis usually
usually very
very low,
low, sometimes
The
sometimes even
even free.
free. This
This isis aa good
good start
start for
for the
the
ordinary
,
low-tech
I-way
explorer
(Adapted from
ordinary, low-tech I-way explorer.. (Adapted
from Hitchhiker's
Hitchhiker's Guide
Guide to
to the
the Internet,
Internet,
Arthur Goldstuck.)
Goldstuck.) Often
Often the
the first
first introduction
introduction to
Arthur
to computer
computer mediated
mediated communication
communication
• .' ieplember 200.'1
[}
-, .,
-J-
""'J'
,.'\. l'f",,t,,,
'1
i)n
~
,',
~.
,
(CMe)
(CMC) is through a bulletin board. The technical requirements to make such "links" are
relatively unsophisticated; even the oldest and slowest modems can be used, though the
down-loading of files could be expected to be a rather tedious and not very cost-effec­
cost-effective process. Most BBS software remains DOS-based, although much has been adapted
to be accessed through the Windows platform.
All BBS's require a person to register by providing a number of personal details to the
"SysOp" or System Operator, who will then register the user's password and, depending
upon the BBS await a registration or membership fee before activating that user's
"account".
However, many BBS's are accessed by particular interest groups, and although users are
allocated passwords, membership is free, ego Christian Network BBS. Signing up with an
internet service provider may also allow one free access to associated BBS's ego PiX sub­
subscribers have free access to the Digitec Online BBS.
The primary advantages of using BBS's lie in the easy access to useful utility files, docu­
documents discussing issues one may find relevant in particular subject areas, and the ability
to enter "CHAT" sessions (on-line screen text conversations) with whoever may be on­
online at that time, or with particular people by prior arrangement. One may also join "con­
"conferences" i.e. discussion fora on an on-going basis, providing comment as one feels one
has something to offer.
This writer's observation of an incident involving a student using this "CHAT" facility may
condemonstrate its educational potential: The student, having some difficulty with the con­
struction of an HTML document for the School's
Schoo/'s WWW page, logged on to the BBS to
which he is registered through his internet service provider. He entered the "CHAT" mode
and threw out a plea for help into cyberspace. Within minutes other users were supply­
supplying answers to his query.
The learning potential from BBS access is great even when the focus of a particular BBS
is rather narrow. Rather like the special reference shelf or a collection of thematic refer­
references in a library.
One point to be made concerning the usefulness of BBS's in down-loading files, particular­
particularly large ones: they are fast! Generally when the "web strands" or the internet are very busy,
the rate at which data is received is very slow no matter how fast one's modem is, "like
(GoJdstuck, A. (1995). Slow is slow!
driving a Ferrari on the highway during peak traffic" (Goldstuck,
proBBS downloads are very fast since a direct modem to modem link is in place, and pro­
viding the service supplier has a fast modem and Telkom's line is free of interference data
arrives very efficiently.
$<}.'~)!
J 1
1#
There are over 3000 newsgroups on the Internet ranging in topics from government sites
to childsupport to nintendo-addicts to pollution to hyper channel to hardware networking
to travel to media. There is something for almost every interest. Material is posted from
any site and received by anyone reading the group. Selection of suitable newsgroups is
necessary for educational purposes, as well as a watchful eye for undesirable behaviour.
Level 3 - Mailing lists and list servers
There are many mailing lists concerned with educational matters on the Internet. Once
the user has subscribed, the user automatically gets all the mail posted to that list. On
first getting e-mail access one is very enthusiastic and join many lists, and may subse­
quently drowns in the mail. It is better to select a few mailing lists with care.
The user should decide what he/she wants to learn when selecting a list. It should be
noted that the telephone lines will be busy unloading your mail for periods of time, some
of them lengthy.
The mailing list Kidsphere deals with educational matters, has details of projects, has
requests for greetings, pupils post surveys to the list and enter into general educational
discussion. It is an international mailing list with an American flavour. The mailing list
Ednet deals with educational matters and the Internet. It is also an international mailing
list with an American flavour. Another mailing list of interest, particularly to South
Africans is the Schoolza list. Stephen Marquard posts a list of all the schools in South
Africa with access to e-mail to the list, and there is discussion about education and the
Internet in South Africa.
The major professional associations in Public Administration in the USA have all got
mailing lists. Maybe, a mailing list should be considered for the South African
Association of Public Administration and Management.
Level 4 - World Wide Web
The World Wide Web (WWW) has become almost synonymous with the Internet. A
product first unveiled in 1990 and made available for public use in 1993, this tool for
research scientists to communicate globally, was originally developed in Geneva,
Switzerland, at the European Centre for Nuclear Research (CERN). So-called web
browsers such as Netscape Navigator and Internet Explorer, are required to access the
-web.
Bearing no relation to top-down menu-driven information services, the essence of the
"web" is that one begins at a particular information root, (URL or Uniform Resource
Seotend)kJ :!O(r-'%
Ii,,;}.:"';,!
to make such "links" are
(CMC) is through a bulletin board. The technical requirements
can be used, though the
relatively unsophisticated; even the oldest and slowest modems
and not very cost-effec­
down-lo ading of files could be expected to be a rather tedious
much has been adapted
tive process. Most BBS software remains DOS-based, although
to be accessed through the Window s platform.
personal details to the
All BBS's require a person to register by providing a number of
d and, depending
"SysOp" or System Operator, who will then register the user's passwor
activating that user's
upon the BBS await a registration or membership fee before
"account".
and although users are
However, many BBS's are accessed by particular interest groups,
BBS. Signing up with an
allocated passwords, membership is free, ego Christian Networ k
ed BBS's ego PiX sub­
internet service provider may also allow one free access to associat
scribers have free access to the Digitec Online BBS.
useful utility files, docu­
The primary advantages of using BBS's lie in the easy access to
areas, and the ability
ments discussing issues one may find relevant in particular subject
r may be on­
whoeve
to enter "CHAT" sessions (on-line screen text conversations) with
join "con­
also
may
One
line at that time, or with particular people by prior arrangement.
feels one
one
as
nt
ferences" i.e. discussion fora on an on-going basis, providing comme
has something to offer.
this "CHAT" facility may
This writer's observation of an incident involvin g a student using
difficult y with the con­
demonstrate its educational potential: The student, having some
logged on to the BBS to
struction of an HTML document for the School's WWW page,
the "CHAT" mode
which he is registered through his internet service provider. He entered
were supply­
users
other
and threw out a plea for help into cyberspace. Within minutes
ing answers to his query.
of a particular BBS
The learning potential from BBS access is great even when the focus
n of thematic refer­
is rather narrow. Rather like the special reference shelf or a collectio
ences in a library.
ading files, particular­
One point to be made concerning the usefulness of BBS's in down-lo
internet are very busy,
ly large ones: they are fast! Generally when the "web strands" or the
one's modem is, "like
the rate at which data is received is very slow no matter how fast
A. (1995). Slow is slow!
driving a Ferrari on the highway during peak traffic" (Goldstuck,
is in place, and pro­
BBS downloads are very fast since a direct modem to modem link
free of interference data
viding the service supplier has a fast modem and Telkom's line is
arrives very efficiently.
&-
"'--'0/
nn ,i f
f'
5eofern her 2003
sites
government sites
There
newsgroups on the Internet ranging in topics from government
3000 newsgroups
over 3000
are over
There are
ing
network
e
hardwar
to
to
pollution to hyper channel to hardware networking
nintendo-addicts to pollution
childsupport to nintendo-addicts
to childsupport
from
posted
is
l
Materia is posted from
to
something for almost every interest. Material
media. There is something
to media.
travel to
to travel
is
newsgroups is
suitable newsgroups
of
n
Selectio
any
site
and
received
by
anyone
reading
the
group.
Selection
received
and
site
any
ur.
behavio
ble
undesira
watchful eye for undesirable behaviour.
necessary
purposes, as well as a watchful
educational purposes,
for educational
necessary for
Level 3 - Mailing lists and list servers
Once
Internet. Once
the Internet.
educational matters on the
There
concerned with educational
mailing lists concerned
many mailing
are many
There are
On
list.
that
to
posted
mail
tically gets all the
user has
automatically
posted to that list. On
the
SUbscribed, the user automa
has subscribed,
the user
subse­
may
and
lists,
many
lists, and may subsefirst
enthusiastic and join
e-mail access one is very enthusiastic
getting e-mail
first getting
care.
with care.
lists with
quently
drowns in the mail. It is better to select a few mailing lists
quently drowns
be
should be
It should
list. It
selecting a list.
The
decide what he/she wants to learn when selecting
should decide
user should
The user
some
time,
of
periods
for
mail
unloading your
noted
of time, some
telephone lines will be busy unloading
the telephone
that the
noted that
of them lengthy.
has
projects, has
of projects,
The
educational matters, has details of
Kidsphere deals with educational
list Kidsphere
mailing list
The mailing
nal
educatio
general
into
enter
requests
general educational
greetings, pupils post surveys to the list and
for greetings,
requests for
list
mailing
The
flavour.
n
America
discussion.
international mailing list with an American flavour. The mailing list
is an international
It is
discussion. It
mailing
ional
internat
an
also
is
It
Internet.
Ednet
international mailing
educational matters and the Internet.
with educational
deals with
Ednet deals
South
to South
particularly to
list
American flavour. Another mailing list of interest, particularly
an American
with an
list with
South
in
schools
the
all
of
list
Africans
the schools in South
Marquard posts a
Schoolza list. Stephen Marquard
the Schoolza
is the
Africans is
the
and the
education and
discussion about education
Africa
access to e-mail to the list, and there is discussion
with access
Africa with
Internet in South Africa.
got
all got
have all
USA have
Administration in the USA
The
associations in Public Administration
professional associations
major professional
The major
African
South
the
for
red
conside
the South African
mailing
rnailing list should be considered
Maybe, a mailing
lists. Maybe,
mailing lists.
Management.
Association
Administration and Management.
Association of Public Administration
Level 4 -. World Wide Web
A
Internet. A
the Internet.
synonymous with the
The
Web (WWW) has become almost synonymous
Wide Web
World Wide
The World
for
tool
this
1993,
in
use
available for public
in 1993, this tool for
product
unveiled in 1990 and made available
first unveiled
product first
Geneva,
in Geneva,
developed in
original ly developed
research
globally, was originally
communicate globally,
scientists to communicate
research scientists
web
d web
So-calle
(CERN).
h
Researc
So-called
Switzerland,
European Centre for Nuclear Research
the European
at the
Switzerland, at
the
access
to
required
Explorer, are
to access the
browsers
Navigator and Internet Explorer,
Netscape Navigator
as Netscape
such as
browsers such
web.
.-web.
information
Bearing
menu-driven information
top-down menu-driven
relation to top-down
no relation
Bearing no
"web"
information root,
particular information
one begins at a particular
that one
is that
"web" is
services,
services,
(URL or
the
of the
essence of
the essence
the
e
Resourc
Uniform
Uniform Resource
Locator, which
which isis an
an "address"
"address" with
with aa very
very specific
specific identifying
identifying format
format beginning:
beginning:
Locator,
httpJ/www.....),
then
follow
anyone
of
innumerable
branches
until
the
information
file
httpJ/www.....), then follow anyone of innumerable branches until the information file
one
seeks
is
located.
A
network
of
interconnecting
hypertext
links
allows
one's
browser
one seeks is located. A network of interconnecting hypertext links allows one's browser toto
access information
information from
from sites
sites all
all over
over the
the world
world on
on aa particular
particular subject.
subject. Arthur
Arthur
access
Goldstuck(1995,
p.
96)
calls
the
WWWthe
"N1
of
the
information
superhighway
system".
Goldstuck(1995, p. 96) calls the WWWthe"N1 of the information superhighway system".
will doubtless reduce in cost with time. But essentially, anyone with a fast modem, a
video camera linked through a video capture card, and a microphone linked to a normal
sound card, is enabled to communicate audio-visually with anyone else similarly
equipped.
CONCLUSION
Level 55 -- Internet
Internet Relay
Relay Chat
Chat
Level
Until recently,
recently, live
live Internet
Internet communication
communication was
was confined
confined largely
largely to
to the
the transfer
transfer of
of text
text
Until
and
graphics
to
provide
the
aura
of
a
multimedia
wonderland.
The
next
level
that
has
and graphics to provide the aura of a multimedia wonderland. The next level that has
now
been
added
to
the
taxonomy
is
Internet
Relay
Chat.
Internet
Relay
Chat
(lRC)
makes
now been added to the taxonomy is Internet Relay Chat. Internet Relay Chat (IRC) makes
possible to
to log
log in
in to
to any
any IRC
IRC server
server in
in the
the world
world and
and join
join live
live chat
chat channels
channels with
with any
any
itit possible
number
of
individuals
typing
in
their
conversations
on
a
particular
topic.
Serious
connumber of individuals typing in their conversations on a particular topic. Serious con­
ference calls
calls are
are possible,
possible, but
but rare.
rare. IfIf aa user
user has
has friends,
friends, relatives
relatives or
or associates
associates with
with
ference
Internet
access
in
another
country,
he/she
can
arrange
to
link
to
the
same
IRC
server
at
Internet access in another country, he/she can arrange to link to the same IRC server at
the same
same time
time and
and have
have long
long chats
chats for
for the
the cost
cost of
of aa local
local call.
call. IRC
IRC software
software is
is required
required
the
in addition
addition to
to the
the normal
normal Internet
Internet software.
software. (Adapted
(Adapted from
from Hitchhiker's
Hitchhiker's Guide
Guide to
to the
the
in
Internet,
Arthur
Goldstuck).
Internet, Arthur Goldstuck).
Level 6
6 -- Internet
Internet Phone
Phone
Level
Internet
Internet Phone
Phone (Iphone)
(Iphone) is
is a
a new
new programme
programme that
that was
was released
released on
on the
the Internet
Internet and
and on
on
electronic
bulletin
boards
worldwide
on
12
February
1995.
Iphone
enables
the
user
electronic bulletin boards worldwide on 12 February 1995. Iphone enables the user to
to
speak
speak to
to anyone
anyone anywhere
anywhere in
in the
the world,
world, at
at the
the cost
cost of
of aa local
local call,
call, as
as long
long as
as both
both are
are
connected
connected via
via PC
PC and
and modem
modem to
to aa local
local internet
internet service
service provider.
provider.
IfIf the
the user
user isis connected
connected to
to the
the World
World Wide
Wide Web
Web via
via aa SLIP
SLIP account,
account, he/she
he/she can
can downdown­
load
a
file
called
Iphone25.exe,
put
it
in
to
the
same
directory
as
the
user's
Internet
load a file called Iphone25.exe, put it in to the same directory as the user's Internet softsoft­
ware,
ware, double
double click
click on
on the
the filename
filename in
in Windows
Windows Program
Program Manager,
Manager, and
and an
an icon
icon will
will
appear,
appear, showing
showing the
the globe
globe with
with aa phone
phone attached.
attached. On
On double
double clicking
clicking the
the icon,
icon, the
the syssys­
tem
tem goes
goes via
via the
the internet
internet service
service provider
provider to
to an
an on-screen
on-screen approximation
approximation of
of aa telephone
telephone
switchboard.
switchboard. There
There are
are still
still problems
problems with
with level
level of
of hardware
hardware required,
required, poor
poor line
line quality
quality
worldwide,
and
having
to
arrange
for
people
to
dial
into
the
same
IRC
site
at
worldwide, and having to arrange for people to dial into the same IRC site at the
the same
same
time.
time.
Level
Level 77--CU-SeeMe
CU-SeeMe
An
An exciting
exciting CMC
CMC product
product creates
creates aaone-to-one
one-to-one connection,
connection, or
or by
by use
use of
ofaa reflector,
reflector, aa
one-to-many,
several-to-several,
or
a
several-to-many
video
conference
depending
one-to-many, several-to-several, or a several-to-many video conference dependingon
on
user
userneeds
needsand
andhardware
hardwarecapabilities.
capabilities.The
Thehardware
hardwarerequired
requiredisisexpensive
expensiveatatpresent,
present,but
but
:1,.,
lOip
·.
C
izzi (1997), observes that although course sites can enhance the traditional
course by providing links to Web resources, an annotated hypertext syllabus,
i...! course readings, archives of lecture notes, and student presentations, "instructors
have barely begun to scratch the surface of potential uses for the World Wide Web in
Public Administration". Gizzi also goes on to explore what he calls the "second-genera­
tion" of course sites--"those that seek to make more innovative use of the Web", Here are
a few examples of how the second generation of course sites might take better advantage
of the opportunities offered by the WWW:
Instructors can videotape classroom simulations and make video clips for students to
access from the Web for further analysis and critique (see excerpts from a airline hijack­
ing simulation). Courses in Constitutional Law can link to Oyez, an extensive archive of
oral arguments before the USA Supreme Court, supplemented by background material
and written opinions that Goldman has developed. Others can create similar archives for
other fields of Public Administration. For example, Kreisler has posted transcripts of taped
interviews with "men and women who have made a difference" in history, and he has
begun to provide videos of these interviews on demand through the WWW
("Conversations with History"). The John F. Kennedy School of Government carries talks
by high level policy officials live over the Web, maintains an audio archive of previous
talks, and makes available transcripts in a series called, "Live from the Forum". Many
other applications that may serve as prototypes are available through the USA National
Demonstration Laboratory, which has an archive of over 200 multimedia applications,
mostly on CDs, CD-ROMs, or Videodiscs.
In addition to these opportunities, advances in video-conferencing technology have
made it possible to conduct point to point or multi-point video-conferencing for learning
(see level 7) over relatively inexpensive ISDN lines to enrich the classroom. It is feasible
for an academic specialist or policy official in one physical location to have a fully inter­
active video-conference with a classroom of students in another place. The conference
can be archived, providing a resource for other students to access on the WWW. Desktop
video-conferencing over the Internet, which can be done using inexpensive cameras and
software, provides the opportunity for students who are in remote locations to stay in
contact with their colleges and universities. For example, a student doing an internship
or research project abroad could use a desk top video-conferencing system to consult
with a faculty adVisor and exchange computer files.
Locator, which is an "address" with a very specific identifying format beginning:
http;l/www.....), then follow anyone of innumerable branches until the information file
one seeks is located. A network of interconnecting hypertext links allows one's browser to
access information from sites all over the world on a particular subject. Arthur
Goldstuck(1995, p. 96) calls the WWW the "N1 of the information superhighway system".
will doubtless
doubtless reduce
reduce in
in cost
cost with
with time.
time. But
But essentially,
essentially, anyone
anyone with
with aa fast
fast modem,
modem, aa
will
video
camera
linked
through
a
video
capture
card,
and
a
microphone
linked
to
normal
video camera linked through a video capture card, and a microphone linked to aa normal
sound
card,
is
enabled
to
communicate
audio-visually
with
anyone
else
similarly
sound card, is enabled to communicate audio-visually with anyone else similarly
equipped.
equipped.
CONCLUSION
CONCLUSION
level 5 - Internet Relay Chat
Until recently, live Internet communication was confined largely to the transfer of text
and graphics to provide the aura of a multimedia wonderland. The next level that has
now been added to the taxonomy is Internet Relay Chat. Internet Relay Chat (IRC) makes
it possible to log in to any IRC server in the world and join live chat channels with any
number of individuals typing in their conversations on a particular topic. Serious con­
ference calls are possible, but rare. If a user has friends, relatives or associates with
Internet access in another country, he/she can arrange to link to the same IRC server at
the same time and have long chats for the cost of a local call. IRC software is required
in addition to the normal Internet software. (Adapted from Hitchhiker's Guide to the
Internet, Arthur Goldstuck).
level 6 - Internet Phone
Internet Phone (I phone) is a new programme that was released on the Internet and on
electronic bulletin boards worldwide on 12 February 1995. Iphone enables the user to
speak to anyone anywhere in the world, at the cost of a local call, as long as both are
connected via PC and modem to a local internet service provider.
If the user is connected to the World Wide Web via a SLIP account, he/she can down­
load a file called Iphone25.exe, put it in to the same directory as the user's Internet soft­
ware, double click on the filename in Windows Program Manager, and an icon will
appear, showing the globe with a phone attached. On double clicking the icon, the sys­
tem goes via the internet service provider to an on-screen approximation of a telephone
switchboard. There are still problems with level of hardware required, poor line quality
worldwide, and having to arrange for people to dial into the same IRC site at the same
time.
level 7 - CU-SeeMe
An exciting CMC product creates a one-to-one connection, or by use of a reflector, a
one-to-many, several-to-several, or a several-to-many video conference depending on
user needs and hardware capabilities. The hardware required is expensive at present, but
"UN elWju
201 I!
·
G
izzi (1997),
(1997), observes
observes that
that although
although course
course sites
sites can
can enhance
enhance the
the traditional
traditional
izzi
. course
course by
by providing
providing links
links to
to Web
Web resources,
resources, an
an annotated
annotated hypertext
hypertext syllabus,
syllabus,
'. ".. ''course
read;ngs,
arch;ves
of
lecture
notes,
and
student
presentations,
course readings, archives of lecture notes, and student presentations, "instructors
have barely
barely begun
begun to
to scratch
scratch the
the surface
surface of
of potential
potential uses
uses for
for the
the World
World Wide
Wide Web
Web in
in
have
Public
Administration".
Gizzi
also
goes
on
to
explore
what
he
calls
the
"second-genera­
Public Administration". Gizzi also goes on to explore what he calls the "second-generation" of
of course
course sites--"those
sites--"those that
that seek
seek to
to make
make more
more innovative
innovative use
use of
of the
the Web".
Web". Here
Here are
are
tion"
a
few
examples
of
how
the
second
generation
of
course
sites
might
take
better
advantage
a few examples of how the second generation of course sites might take better advantage
of the
the opportunities
opportunities offered
offered by
by the
the WWW:
WWW:
of
.
";n~ructo~
Instructors can
can videotape
videotape classroom
classroom simulations
simulations and
and make
make video
video clips
clips for
for students
students to
to
Instructors
access
from
the
Web
for
further
analysis
and
critique
(see
excerpts
from
a
airline
hijack­
access from the Web for further analysis and critique (see excerpts from a airline hijacking simulation).
simulation). Courses
Courses in
in Constitutional
Constitutional Law
Law can
can link
link to
to Oyez,
Oyez, an
an extensive
extensive archive
arch ive of
of
ing
oral
arguments
before
the
USA
Supreme
Court,
supplemented
by
background
material
oral arguments before the USA Supreme Court, supplemented by background material
and written
written opinions
opinions that
that Goldman
Goldman has
has developed.
developed. Others
Others can
can create
create similar
similar archives
archives for
for
and
other
fields
of
Public
Administration.
For
example,
Kreisler
has
posted
transcripts
of
taped
other fields of Public Administration. For example, Kreisler has posted transcripts of taped
interviews with
with "men
"men and
and women
women who
who have
have made
made a
a difference"
difference" in
in history,
history, and
and he
he has
has
interviews
begun
to
provide
videos
of
these
interviews
on
demand
through
the
WWW
begun to provide videos of these interviews on demand through the WWW
("Conversations with
with History").
History"). The
The John
John F.
F. Kennedy
Kennedy School
School of
of Government
Government carries
carries talks
talks
("Conversations
by
high
level
policy
officials
Jive
over
the
Web,
maintains
an
audio
archive
of
previous
by high level policy officials live over the Web, maintains an audio archive of previous
talks, and
and makes
makes available
available transcripts
transcripts in
in aa series
series called,
called, "Live
"Live from
from the
the Forum".
Forum". Many
Many
talks,
other
applications
that
may
serve
as
prototypes
are
available
through
the
USA
National
other applications that may serve as prototypes are available through the USA National
Demonstration Laboratory,
Laboratory, which
which has
has an
an archive
archive of
of over
over 200
200 multimedia
multimedia applications,
applications,
Demonstration
mostly
on
CDs,
CD-ROMs,
or
Videodiscs.
mostly on CDs, CD-ROMs, or Videodiscs.
In addition
addition to
to these
these opportunities,
opportunities, advances
advances in
in video-conferencing
video-conferencing technology
technology have
have
In
made
it
possible
to
conduct
point
to
point
or
multi-point
video-conferencing
for
learning
made it possible to conduct point to point or multi-point video-conferencing for learning
(see level
level 7)
7) over
over relatively
relatively inexpensive
inexpensive ISDN
ISDN lines
lines to
to enrich
enrich the
the classroom.
classroom. ItIt is
is feasible
feasible
(see
for
an
academic
specialist
or
policy
official
in
one
physical
location
to
have
a
fully
inter­
for an academic specialist or policy official in one physical location to have a fully interactive
video-conference
with
a
classroom
of
students
in
another
place.
The
conference
active video-conference with a classroom of students in another place. The conference
can be
be archived,
archived, providing
providing aa resource
resource for
for other
other students
students to
to access
access on
on the
the WWW.
WWW. Desktop
Desktop
can
video-conferencing
over
the
Internet,
which
can
be
done
using
inexpensive
cameras
and
video-conferencing over the Internet, which can be done using inexpensive cameras and
software,
provides
the
opportunity
for
students
who
are
in
remote
locations
to
stay
in
software, provides the opportunity for students who are in remote locations to stay in
contact
with
their
colleges
and
universities.
For
example,
a
student
doing
an
internship
contact with their colleges and universities. For example, a student doing an internship
or research
research project
project abroad
abroad could
could use
use aa desk
desk top
top video-conferencing
video-conferencing system
system to
to consult
consult
or
with
a
faculty
adVisor
and
exchange
computer
files.
with a faculty advisor and exchange computer files.
In the long run other potential uses of the World Wide Web, beyond the second gene­
generation of course sites, may have a significant impact on the both instructors and students
in Public Administration. To realize the full benefits of this new computer technology,
Public Administration education will have to be reconfigured for the 21st century.
Instructors will have to help students to think in hypertext by encouraging them to do
matenon-sequential reading and begin to make the connections among diverse kinds of mate­
rials, from the abstract academic to the everyday world of political activity. Instructors
will encourage their students to write in hypertext and create their own documents in
hypermedia that integrate the subject matter of the course. To take full advantage of the
Web, instructors will promote collaboration; not only within their classes, but also with
others outside of their classroom who have similar interests. The result will be the begin­
beginning of a global collaboration for learning.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Bolton, M. Kent. 1997. Using the Internet as Resources to Support Teaching: Making Certain the
Tail Isn't Wagging the Dog. Paper presented at the 1997 Annual Meeting of the International
Studies Association, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Boykin, Milton L.,
l., Terry Mays, and Marjie T. Britz. 1996. Teaching Effectiveness of Computers and
Multimedia Applications. Paper presented at the 1996 Annual Meeting of the American
Political Science Association, San Francisco, CA.
Drucker, Peter F. 1990. The New Realities: In Government and Politics/In Economics and Business/
In Society and World View. New York: Harper &
& Row, Publishers.
Goldstuck, Arthur. 1995. The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Internet. Sandton: Zebra Publishers.
A Guide for Education. Ann
Hentrel, Bobbie K. and Linda Harper. 1985. Computers in Education: A
Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.
Kaye, Anthony. 1989. Computer-Mediated Communication and Distance Education in Robin
Mason and Anthony Kaye (eds.), Mindweave: Communication, Computers, and Distance
Education. Oxford: Pergamon Press.
Landow, George P. 1992. Hypertext. The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and
Technology. Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
Robin Mason and Tony Kaye. 1990. Toward a New Pardigm for Distance Education in Linda M.
Harasim (ed.),
(ed.J, Online Education: Perspectives on a New Environment New York: Praeger.
Mendels, Pamela. 1996, October 26. Study Shows Value of Wired Classroom. New York Times
[Online], http://www.nytimes.com/libr<lry!cyber/weekl102f>study.html[November
http://www.nytimes.com/library!cyber!week!l 026study.htrnl [November 14, 19961.
1996J.
Mendels, Pamela. 1997, July 17. Study Faults Net Training for Teachers. New York Times [Online]
httpj!www.nvtimes.coln!liorary/cyber/week!071797henton.html·'
http://www.nvtimes.conl/library/cvber/weekl071797henton.html
Noble, Douglas. 1985. Computer Literacy and Ideology in Douglas Sloan (ed.l,
(ed.), The Computer in
Education: A
A Critical Perspective. New York: Teachers College Press.
Oppenheimer, Todd. 1997, July. The Computer Delusion. The Atlantic Monthly [Online]
http I/www.theatlantic.com/issllcs!Y7iul/computer.htm
j/WW\v. thea tIant i c. com/issucs/9 7 jul!com puter. htm
i
'"' " -;' lr no ;,1 "
';f':I.!r'n;;Lo.c
'~uo':
Rothenberg, David. 1997, August 15. How the Web Destroys the Quality of Students' Research
Papers. The Chronicle of Higher Education A44.
Rothstein, Edward. 1997, July 7. Educational Value of Computers May Be Highly Overrated. New
York Times [Online] http)/www.nytimes.com/library!cyber/techcol!070797techcol.html
Shechter, Theodore M. 1991. Promises, Promises, Promises: History and Foundations of Computer­
Based Training in Thomas M. Shechter (ed.), Problems and Promises of Computer-Based
Training. Norwood, New Jersey: Ablex Publishing Corporation.
Slonaker, Larry and Christopher H. Schmitt. 1996, January 15. Computers in School: Necessity or
Luxury? San Jose Mercury News http://www.sjmercury.com/news/locallschools/
Taylor, Robert P. and Nancy Cunniff, 1988. Moving Computing and Education beyond Rhetoric in
McClintock, Robert O. (ed.), Computing & Education: The Second Frontier.
Ward, Artemus, Jeffrey W. Seifert, Nicole Lindstrom, and Hannah Britton. 1996. Multimedia and
the Political Science Classroom: Smoke and Mirrors or a Legitimate New Pedagogy? Paper pre­
sented at the 1996 Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, San
Francisco, CA.
In the long run other potential uses of the World Wide Web, beyond the second generation of course sites, may have a significant impact on the both instructors and students
in Public Administration. To realize the full benefits of this new computer technology,
Public Administration education will have to be reconfigured for the 21 st century.
Instructors will have to help students to think in hypertext by encouraging them to do
non-sequential reading and begin to make the connections among diverse kinds of materials, from the abstract academic to the everyday world of political activity. Instructors
will encourage their students to write in hypertext and create their own documents in
hypermedia that integrate the subject matter of the course. To take full advantage of the
Web, instructors will promote collaboration; not only within their classes, but also with
others outside of their classroom who have similar interests. The result will be the beginning of a global collaboration for learning.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Bolton, M. Kent. 1997. Using the Internet as Resources to Support Teaching: Making Certain the
Tail Isn't Wagging the Dog. Paper presented at the 1997 Annual Meeting of the International
Studies Association, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Boykin, Milton L., Terry Mays, and Marjie T. Britz. 1996. Teaching Effectiveness of Computers and
Multimedia Applications. Paper presented at the 1996 Annual Meeting of the American
Political Science Association, San Francisco, CA.
The New Realities: In Government and Politics/In Economics and Business/
In Society and World View. New York: Harper & Row, Publishers.
Drucker, Peter F. 1990.
Goldstuck, Arthur. 1995.
The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Internet. Sandton: Zebra Publishers.
Hentrel, Bobbie K. and Linda Harper. 1985. Computers
Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.
in Education: A Guide for Education. Ann
Kaye, Anthony. 1989. Computer-Mediated Communication and Distance Education in Robin
Mason and Anthony Kaye (eds.), Mindweave: Communication, Computers, and Distance
Education. Oxford: Pergamon Press.
Landow, George P. 1992. Hypertext. The Convergence of Contemporary
Technology. Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
Critical Theory and
Robin Mason and Tony Kaye. 1990. Toward a New Pardigm for Distance Education in Linda M.
Harasim (ed.), Online Education: Perspectives on a New Environment New York: Praeger.
Mendels, Pamela. 1996, October 26. Study Shows Value of Wired Classroom. New York Times
[Online], http://www.nytimes.com/library!cyber/week/1026study.html[November 14, 1996J.
Mendels, Pamela. 1997, July 17. Study Faults Net Training for Teachers.
http://www.nylimes.com/library!cyber/weekl071797henton.html
New York Times [Online]
Noble, Douglas. 1985. Computer Literacy and Ideology in Douglas Sloan (ed.),
Education: A Critical Perspective. New York: Teachers College Press.
Oppenheimer, Todd. 1997, July. The Computer Delusion.
http://www.theatlantic.com!isslles!97jul/computer.htm
'
The Computer in
The Atlantic Monthly [Online]
,,1
4:
20f}"}
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How the
the Web
Web Destroys
Destroys the
the Quality
Quality of
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Students' Research
Research
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Chronicleof
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HigherEducation
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A44.
Papers.
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Edward. 1997,
1997,July
July 7.7. Educational
Educational Value
Value of
ofComputers
Computers May
May Be
Be Highly
HighlyOverrated.
Overrated. New
New
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York Times
Times [Online]
[Online] http://www.nytimes.com/library!cyber/techcol!070797techcol.html
http://www.nytimes.com/library!cyber/techcoI/070797tec!lcol.html
York
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TheodoreM.
M. 1991.
1991. Promises,
Promises, Promises,
Promises, Promises:
Promises: History
Historyand
and Foundations
Foundationsof
ofComputerComputerShechter,
Based Training
Training inin Thomas
Thomas M.
M. Shechter
Shechter (ed.),
(ed.), Problems
Problems and
and Promises
Promises of
of Computer-Based
Computer-Based
Based
Training. Norwood,
Norwood, New
New Jersey:
Jersey: Ablex
Ablex Publishing
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Larry and
and Christopher
Christopher H.
H. Schmitt.
Schmitt. 1996,
1996, January
January 15.
15. Computers
Computers inin School:
School: Necessity
Necessity or
or
Slonaker,
Luxury? San
San Jose
Jose Mercury
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News http://www.sjmercury.com/news/local/schools/
http://www.sjmercury.com/news/local/schools/
Luxury?
Taylor, Robert
Robert P.P. and
and Nancy
Nancy Cunniff,
Cunniff, 1988.
1988. Moving
Moving Computing
Computing and
and Education
Education beyond
beyond Rhetoric
Rhetoric in
in
Taylor,
Computing &
& Education:
Education: The
The Second
Second Frontier.
Frontier.
McClintock, Robert
Robert O.
O. (ed.),
(ed.), Computing
McClintock,
Ward, Artemus,
Artemus, Jeffrey
Jeffrey w.
W. Seifert,
Seifert, Nicole
Nicole Lindstrom,
Lindstrom, and
and Hannah
Hannah Britton.
Britton. 1996.
1996. Multimedia
Multimedia and
and
Ward,
the Political
Political Science
Science Classroom:
Classroom: Smoke
Smoke and
and Mirrors
Mirrors or
or aa Legitimate
Legitimate New
New Pedagogy?
Pedagogy? Paper
Paper preprethe
sented at
at the
the 1996
1996 Annual
Annual Meeting
Meeting of
of the
the American
American Political
Political Science
Science Association,
Association, San
San
sented
Francisco, CA.
CA.
Francisco,
Fly UP