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A Look at Theories: Part II Human Growth and Development

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A Look at Theories: Part II Human Growth and Development
A Look at
Theories: Part II
Human Growth and Development
Copyright
Terms of Service
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Contact TEA Copyrights with any questions you may have.
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2
Think of theories as windows
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3
Erikson
Erikson believed that “each stage of life is
associated with a specific psychological
struggle, a struggle that contributes to a major
aspect of personality.”
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4
Psychosocial Theory - Erikson
 Childhood is very important in
personality development
 Accepted many of Freud's theories,
including the id, ego and superego
 Unlike Freud, felt that personality
continued to develop beyond five years
of age
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Erikson
 Children are not simply biological organisms that
endure
 Children develop in the context of society’s
expectations, prohibitions and prejudices
 Personality is shaped over the life span;
experiences later in life can heal problems in
early childhood
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Erikson
 Trust versus Mistrust (birth to 1 ½ years)
 Autonomy versus Shame/Doubt (2 to 3 years)
 Initiative versus Guilt (4 – 5 years)
 Industry versus Inferiority (6 – 11 years)
 Identity versus Role Confusion (12 – 18 years)
 Intimacy versus Isolation (18 – 35 years)
 Generativity versus Stagnation (35 – 65 years)
 Integrity versus Despair (over 65 years)
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Erikson
 Trust versus Mistrust (birth to 1 ½ years)
Children either learn that the world is a safe
and nurturing place or they learn to be
mistrustful and frightened
 Autonomy versus Shame/Doubt (2 to 3 years)
Children begin to have some control over their
own bodies and to some extent, their lives,
which allows for great independence and selfconfidence
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Erikson
 Initiative versus Guilt (4 – 5 years)
Children expand their world; learn to control
their new environments; acquire feelings of
competence and independence; develop
leadership skills
 Industry versus Inferiority (6 – 11 years)
Children begin to have more social
interactions; develop a sense of pride in
accomplishments
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Erikson
 Identity versus Role Confusion (12 – 18 years)
Main task of the adolescent is to achieve a
state of identity; to know who he/she is and
wants to be
 Intimacy versus Isolation (18 – 35 years)
Exploring relationships, moving to commitment
and long-term relationships; failure brings
isolation
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Erikson
 Generativity versus Stagnation (35 – 65 years)
Being in the world; thoughts of future
generations. What have we done to help
those we love and the world at large?
 Integrity versus Despair (over 65 years)
Reflecting back on life; few regrets or
bitterness?
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11
Erikson's Stages of
Psychosocial Development
Psychosocial Development - Part I
(click on link)
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12
Maslow
Selfactualization
• Morality, creativity, spontaneity, problem solving,
lack of prejudice, acceptance of facts
Esteem
Love/Belonging
Safety
• Self-esteem, confidence, achievement, respect
of others, respect by others
•Friendship and family
•Security of: body, employment,
resources, morality, the family,
health and property
Physiological
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•Breathing, food, water,
sleep, homeostasis and
excretion
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Maslow
 Basic physiological needs
Air, food, water, shelter, clothing, rest and
sleep
 Safety
Feelings of safety, ease and freedom from
anxiety
 Love and belonging
Friendships, family and intimate
relationships
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14
Maslow
 Esteem
Self-worth, confidence, achievement
and respect of others
 Self-actualization
Achieving who we can be; creativity,
aesthetic needs and fulfilling potential
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15
Maslow's Hierarchy of
Human Needs
Maslow's Online Game
(click on link)
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16
Kohlberg’s Levels of Morality
 Level I – Pre-conventional (4 – 10 years)
Stage 1: Punishment and obedience. Children
obey to avoid being caught and punished
Stage 2: Naive instrumental behaviorism. Children
obey rules but only for pure self-interest. “You
scratch my back, I’ll scratch yours.”
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17
Kohlberg’s Levels of Morality
 Level II: Conventional (10 – 13 years)
Stage 3: Mutual interpersonal expectations.
Children seek approval of others and adopt
the “good boy-good girl” mentality. They base
moral judgments on whether or not someone
meant to do well.
Stage 4: Law-and-order mentality. Children are
concerned with authority and maintaining the
social order. Correct behavior is “doing one’s
duty.”
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18
Kohlberg’s Levels of Morality
 Level III: Post-conventional (13 years and older)
Stage 5: Social contract. Laws are obeyed
because they have been accepted by
society as a whole
Stage 6: Universal ethical principles. Individuals
follow their own conscience about what is
right. Behavior is the same no matter who is
present.
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19
Kohlberg's Theory of Moral
Development
Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development
(click on link)
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20
Bio-Ecological Systems Theory
Microsystem
Mesosystem
Exosystem
Macrosystem
Chronosystem
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21
Urie Bronfenbrenner’s Theory
Ecological Systems Theory
(click on link)
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22
Life Course Theory
 Glen Elder - born 1934
Studied not only
children
Searched for
patterns of
development
Observed the impact
of society
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23
Death and Dying
 Elizabeth Kubler-Ross
Five stages of grief
Denial
Anger
Bargaining
Depression
Acceptance
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24
Owning Our Grief
Transformative Power of Grief
(click on link)
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25
Conclusion
 Theories help us
understand human
behavior
 Theories give us questions
to ask about human
nature
 Theories offer aspects with
different views
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26
Questions?
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27
References and Resources
Images:

Microsoft Clip Art: Used with permission from Microsoft.
Periodicals

Elder, G. (1998). The Lifecourse as Developmental Theory. Child Development, Vol. 69, No. 1
(Feb., 1998), pp. 1-12. Retrieved from
http://www.jstor.org/stable/1132065.

Mitchell, B.A. (2003)“Life Course Theory,” in J.J. Ponzetti, Jr. (ed). International Encyclopedia of
Marriage and Family, 2nd ed., pp. 1051-1055, New York: Macmillan.

Swick, J. and Williams, R. (2006). An Analysis of Bronfenbrenner’s Bio-Ecological Perspective for
Early Childhood Educators: Implications for Working with Families Experiencing Stress. Early
Childhood Education Journal, Vol. 33, No. 5, April. DOI: 10.1007/s10643-006-0078-y
Textbooks:

Berk, L. (2008). Infants and children: prenatal through middle childhood. (6th ed.). New York, NY:
Pearson Education, Inc.

Crain, W. (1985). Theories of development. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Dacey, J., Travers, J., Fiore, L. (2009). Human development across the lifespan. (7th ed). New
York, NY: McGraw-Hill Companies.
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28
References and Resources
Websites:

Boeree, C.G.
Erik Erikson.
http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/erikson.html

BrainyQuote
Share our extensive collection of famous quotes by authors, celebrities, newsmakers and more.
Enjoy our Quotes of the Day on the web, Facebook and blogs.
http://www.brainyquote.com

Davis, D. and Clifton, A.
Psychosocial Theory: Erikson.
http://www.haverford.edu/psych/ddavis/p109g/erikson.stages.html

Elizabeth Kubler-Ross Foundation
On death and dying.
http://www.ekrfoundation.org/

Erikson Institute
Erik Erikson.
http://www.erikson.edu/about/history/erik-erikson/

Free Online Puzzle Maker
Free puzzle maker—make crossword and word search puzzles instantly online!
http://www.puzzle-maker.com

Maslow’s Online Game
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs.
http://www.purposegames.com/game/maslows-hierarchy-of-needs-quiz
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29
References and Resources
YouTube™:

Ecological Systems Theory
Urie Bronfenbrenner (1917-2005) developed the ecological systems theory.
http://youtu.be/fXqcYXTgpB4?list=PLCA4ED379AEC83CB3

Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development- Part 1
This videos reviews the first four stages of Erikson’s developmental construct.
http://youtu.be/8_IY-pFK3qI

Kohlberg’s Theory
Theory of Moral Development.
http://youtu.be/svDYaQUVWfI

OjaiWomen – Alana Sheeren – Owning Our Grief
Alana Sheeren believes in love, beauty and the transformative power of grief. After the stillbirth
of her son she began writing about her personal journey into grief and whole-self healing.
http://youtu.be/gqX3Ygy8NOo
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