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Document 2090165
2013 International Conference on Agriculture and Biotechnology
IPCBEE vol.60 (2013) © (2013) IACSIT Press, Singapore
DOI: 10.7763/IPCBEE. 2013. V60. 24
Larvicidal Effects of Leaf Powder of Calotropis Procera and Argimone
Mexicana against 4th Instar of American Boll Warm, Helicoverpa
Armigera (Hubner) (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera)
Deepali Lall1, Sudha Summerwar2, Jyoutsna Pandey3 and Arti Prasad4
1
P.G. Department of zoology. S.D. Govt. College, Beawar, Rajasthan, India.
2, 3
Research scholars, S.D. Govt. College, Beawar, Rajasthan, India.
4
M.L.S. University Zoology Department, Udaipur 313004 India.
Abstract. The resistance of pesticide by the pest is an important matter of concern .The pesticide of plant
origin having nontoxic biodegradable and environmental friendly qualities. The frequent spraying of toxic
chemicals developing resistance to the pesticide. Leaf powder of the plants like Argimone Mexicana and
Calotropis procera is prepared, Different doses of these plant extracts is given to the Fourth instar stages of
Helicoverpa armigera through feeding methods, To find their efficacy the experimental findings will be put
under analysis using various perameters. The effect on paritrophic membrane is also studied.
Keywords: Distillation plant, Acetone, Alcohol, pipette, Castor leaves, Grams pods, larvae of Helicoverpa
armigera, plant extract, vails, Jars, Cotton etc.
1. Introduction
The problem of insect pest is intensified by a large number of insects of nuisance value to man and
having a broad spectrum of their harmful effects .The most common example of this category is the
Lepidopterain pests that are interfering in maintenance of a hygienic environment for healthy leaving. This
moth is the single major pest for global plant agriculture. This moth and its close relatives over come
chemical insecticide to attack over 100 crop plant species at an annual cost of over US $ five billion [1]. The
gram (Cicer aretinum) is an important vegetable crop grown in the country, unfortunately this vegetable crop
suffers heavily from various insect pest and disease which reduces not only to its yield but also spoil
thequality [2]. Among the various pests the gram pod borer has been reported to cause maximum economic
damage to the gram crops in India In agricultural pest management botanical insecticides are best suited for
us in organic food production in industrialized countries but can play a much greater role in the production
and post harvest protection of food in developing countries[3]. The use of simple formulation of plants such
as leaf, flower or seed powder extracts needs of to be popularized. Their being safe to non target organism,
including human [4].
2. Material and Methods
The selection of the pest was mainly based on the local pest problem and the rearing possibilities of the
selected pest species under laboratory conditions. The gram pod borer Helicoverpa armigera belongs to
order lepidoptera and family Noctuidae. It’s a phytophagous pest. For rearing, adults were collected from the
field by light trap method. They were allowed to mate and lay eggs in glass troughs which contain moist soil.

Corresponding author. Tel.: + 09549995657.
E-mail address: [email protected]
122
The sides of the troughs were provided with paper so that female could rest and lay eggs on them. Water
was added to the soil to maintain the humidity. The honey soaked cotton was changed daily. Soon after
hatching of the egg, the 1st instar larvae transferred to the plastic vials containing fresh castor leaves. After 3rd
instar stage the larvae were kept individually in plastic vials to avoid canabolism. 4th Instars were treated with
the different doses of plant extract of Argimone maxicana and calotropis procera, observations were
recorded up to F1 generation. Doses were applied on the gram pods and also on the constant area of casor
leaves with the help of pipette. The larvae were allowed to feed on them after the acetone were allowed to
evaporate. In control the insect were fed on acetone treated food only. Doses applied from 25,50,75,100 ppm.
and temp. was 27+3o.
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. Calotropis Procera (leaf extract):
Mortality increases as the dose level increases. At the dose levels of 10,25,50,75 and 100ppm, the
percent corrected mortality comes to 41.17,52.17,69.56,100 as compared to 8 percent mortality in control
(Table-1). There is a significant increase in the average larval periods. At the dose levels of 10,25,50 ppm.
average larval period comes to 22.2,19.1and 20.0 respectively as compared to 6.0,9.2,6.0 days respectively.
In control the average larval and pupal periods coms to 14.0,7.13 days respectively. There is no adult
emergence at the dose level of 75ppm and higher. The adult emerged out of the treated forth instar larva
show reduced fecundity and fertility. Prolongation in pre-oviposition period is occurred [5].
}
3.2. Argimone Mexicana (leaf extract):
Higher dose levels are very effective at the dose of 10, 25.50.75, and 100,the percent corrected mortality
comes out to be 17.30,21.74 34.78,41.30,100as compared to 8 percent mortality in control (Table- 2).
Abormalities maily observed at a very high dose level which mainly affects the fecundity n fertility [6]. In
action the plant extracts are found to be larvicidal, pupicidal and adulticidal as evident by the occurrence of
high mortality, peculiar abnormalities as well as reduced reproductive capability of the adults emerged out of
treated developmental stage. Feeding treatment is found to be more effective to early instars in terms of
abnormalities and reproductive potentiality of the adult emerged. [7]. Sharma at all (2009) reported the
larvicidal properties of some plant extracts against S. Litura. [8].
The selected bio pesticides block the molting process at the level of synthesis of new cuticle and there by
death occurs at exuviations. On treatment to larvae the effective doses were determined based on parameters
mortality, abnormalities and reproductive potentiality of the emerged adults [9]. In general the effect of the
pest includes the fall in natality due to disruption in development and growth and increase in mortality due to
toxic action and death during moulting because of inadequate mode of action by the plant extracts. [10].
Adverse effects on reproduction which includes the following:
Occurrence of larvae- pupae and pupae adult intermediate stage in capable of becoming adult [11].
Adverse effect of larvae, such as darkening of skin and change in behavior.
Reduction in fecundity and fertility. [12].
Suppression of f1 generation. Eliman et al. (2009) suggested that compounds present in plants may
individually or collectively contribute to produce larvicidal, pupicidal, adult emergence inhibition and other
bioactivities against insects. [13].
3.2.1
Behavioural Aspect:
Treated fourth instar larvae becomes sluggish at higher dose level. The body becomes very dark, they
become very lethargic. Food intake capacity become slow down, the average pupal period increases at a
higher dose level.
4. Mode of Action
The prevailing view of mode of action is further supplicated the histopatholical studies on midgut of the
larvae of Helicoverpa armigera treated with the plant extract of Argimone Mexicana and Calotropic procera
123
at the doses level of 25 ppm, 50 ppm, 75 ppm and 100 ppm respectively . The mid gut gets broken,
dismantled and intermingled with the totally displaced epithelial cells Thus it is concluded that both these
biopesticides have enough potentiality to suppress the dangerous pest Helicoverpa armigera, a better scope
for agriculture and environment.
Table 1. Effect of plant extracts on mortality of 4th instar larva of H. armigera
Plant
extracts
Calotropis
procera
(Leaf)
Dose
(ppm)
10
25
50
75 to
100
10
25
50
75
100
Average larval
period
(days)
22.02 ±0.28a
19.01±0.06a
20.02±0.22a
-
Percent
larval
mortality
40
48
68
100
Average pupal
period
Percent pupal
emergence
Percent total
mortality
6.02±0.14a
9.2±0.48a
6.01±0.15a
-
60
52
32
NIL
16
9.02±0
84
20
9.04±0.02a
80
36
9.02±0.64a
64
40
9.1±0.10a
60
100
NIL
Control
14.01±0.17
7.13±0.07
92
A=Values are significantly different from control (P‹0.01)
B=No significance between treated and control values. Number of test larvae Treated =25
=Individual died after undergoing very little or no morphogenetic change. Control=25
Died with severe morphogenetic change.
Argimone
Mexicana
(Leaf)
19.6±0.34
20.01±0.30a
22.35±0.41a
21.4±0.21a
Percent adult
emergence
44**
56**
72
100
Percent
corrected
mortality
41.17
52.17
69.56
-
28*
40*
46**
100
8
17.39
21.74
34.78
41.30
-
76
72
60
54
NIL
92
56
44
28
NIL
Table 2. Fecundity and fertility of 2 pairs of adults emerged out of of 4th instar larvae of H. armiegra treated with the
plant extract Argimone mexicana and Calotropis procera by feeding method
Plant Extracts
Dose
(ppm)
Calotrpis
procera (leat)
25
Argimone
Mexicana (leaf)
25
50
75
Control
Total
180
402
304
296
584
Number of eggs adult
Eggs/female
90.4
170.0
152.0
148.0
292.0
(%) Hatching
22.12
50.00
40.78
33.78
85.56
5. Acknowledgement
The Authors acknowledge the women farmers of fields for their keen interest regarding our work on
biopesticide and the harmful consequences of pesticidal spray. Thanks to U.G.C. New Delhi for financial
support.
6. Referencess
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Exp. Biol. 1974, pp. 575-576.
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273-276.
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fly Bactrocera zonata sounders Diptera: tephritidae. Jouranl of bio Pesticides. 2008, 1(2): 177-181.
[4] O. Koul, M.P. Jain, and V.K. Sharma. Growth inhibitory and antifeedant activity of extracts from Melia dubia to
Spodoptera litura and Helicoverpa armigera, Indian Journal Exp Biology. 2000, 38(1): 63-68.
[5] A. Sharma, R. Gupta and R. Kanwar. Larvicial effect of some plant extracts against Spodoptera litura (Fab) and
Pieris brassicae (Linn). Journal Entomol Res. 2009, 33: 213-218. s
[6] O.N. Oigiangbe, I.B. Igbinosa, and M. Tamo. Insecticidal activity of the medicinal plant, Alstonia booonei De
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124
Spodoptera litura and Helicoverpa armigera, Indian Journal Exp Biology 2000., 38(1): 63-68.
[9] G. Sundavarajan, and R. Kumuthakalavalli. Antifeedant activity of aqueous extract of Gnidia glauca Gilg and
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[10] A.M. Eliman, K.H. Elmalik and F.S. Ali. Efficacy of leaf extract of Caltopis procera Ait. (Asclepiadaceae) in
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95-100.
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Pieris brassicae (Linn). Journal Entomol. Res. 2009, 33: 213-218.
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controlling Anopheles arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. Saudi. Jour. Of Biol. Sciences. 2009, 16:
95-100.
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125
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