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International Electrical Engineering Journal (IEEJ) Vol. 6 (2015) No.5, pp. 1905-1912

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International Electrical Engineering Journal (IEEJ) Vol. 6 (2015) No.5, pp. 1905-1912
International Electrical Engineering Journal (IEEJ)
Vol. 6 (2015) No.5, pp. 1905-1912
ISSN 2078-2365
http://www.ieejournal.com/

Hybrid Power Generation Systems:
A Holistic View
S. F. Mekhamer1, A. Y. Abdelaziz2, M.A.L. Badr3, M. A. Algabalawy4
1, 2, 3
Electrical Power and Machines Department, Ain Shams University, Abbassia, Cairo, Egypt
4
Electrical Maintenance Engineer, General Motors Egypt
1
[email protected],
2
[email protected]
3
[email protected]
4
[email protected]
II. HPGS SURVEY
Abstract—the importance of the hybrid power generation
systems (HPGS) increased especially in the last few years.
HPGS are used to share the load with the utility grid and these
systems are termed as HPGS-utility grid. In addition, they are
used to transmit the power to the remote areas. In this case,
these systems are termed as stand-alone HPGS.
HPGS consist of different power sources such as photovoltaic
systems (PV), wind turbine (WT), micro-turbine (MT), storage
battery (SB), diesel generator, and fuel cell (FC). These sources
are considered the prominent elements. The importance of the
HPGS can be carried out via classifying these systems based on
their combinations.
This paper gives a literature survey for different combinations
of HPGS that consist of different combinations of PV, WT, SB
MT, diesel generator, and Fuel Cell.
Index Terms— Hybrid power generation, PV, wind turbine,
fuel cell, battery bank, and standalone power source.
I. INTRODUCTION
Continuous increasing of electric demand, and long term
of electric shortage may be considered the main the reasons
of initiation of hybrid power generation system. The hybrid
power system may include PV, wind turbine, diesel
generator, fuel cell, and storage battery. There are several
combinations of the above mentioned power sources.
As known, HPGS are constructing from different energy
sources to form many combinations, which may be
represented as follows:
1- PV/Wind Hybrid Power System
In reference [1], D. Xu, L. Kang, L. Chang, and B. Cao
aim to design a standalone renewable hybrid power systems,
considering renewable energy resources, generators, energy
storages and loads. They apply the genetic algorithm (GA)
with elitist strategy to obtain the size of the standalone
hybrid WT/PV hybrid system. The most important objective
is selected as minimizing the total capital cost, subject to the
constraint of the loss of lower supply probability (LPSP).
They prove in their studies, that the genetic algorithm can
obtain, which they consider, the optimally sizing standalone
hybrid wind/PV power systems.
M. Muralikrishn and V. Lakshminarayan, reference, [2],
try to evaluate a feasibility combination of PV-wind hybrid
system considering the load demand. They develop a
methodology to simulate the life cycle cost (LCC) for
economic evaluation of stand-alone photovoltaic system.
Stand-alone systems may be; wind system, and PV-wind
hybrid system. They study, in detail, a comparative cost
analysis of the grid line with PV-wind hybrid system. They
consider that, the PV-WT hybrid system returns the lowest
unit cost values to maintain the same level of loss of power
supply probability (LPSP) as compared to standalone PV
and WT systems.
M. Alsayed, M. Cacciato, G. Scelba, and A. Consoli,
reference [3], describe the Multi Criteria Decision Analysis
1905
Mekhamer et. al.,
Hybrid Power Generation Systems: A Holistic View
International Electrical Engineering Journal (IEEJ)
Vol. 6 (2015) No.5, pp. 1905-1912
ISSN 2078-2365
http://www.ieejournal.com/
(MCDA) and consider it an optimal sizing procedure used to
obtain the optimal size of the PV/WT grid connected power
generation systems. They claim that the advantage of the
proposed approach is that it enables users to apply different
conflicting criteria with different weights, thus leading to
more realistic and practical solutions of the problem. In
addition, their model is reliable and simple to be adapted
according to user needs while guaranteeing the dynamic
behavior of PV/WT systems, keeping into account the
effects of the environment variable nature.
In reference, [4], F. Caballero, E. Sauma, and F. Yanine
present a method for the business design of a small gridconnected HGPS comprised of PV panels and WT, which
seeks to minimize the life cycle cost (LCC) of the system,
ensuring the system reliability in termed of loss of power
supply probability (LPSP). They claim that, their used
method allows the possibility to supply excess power
generated by the HPGS to the utility grid at a fixed sales
price or through a net metering scheme. In addition, they
consider the designed hybrid system represents a viable
alternative for grid-only power supply in rural/remote
communities. Their results indicate that the grid-connected
to HPGS is highly beneficial for the block since it reduces
long-term costs of electricity generation and supply while at
the same time supporting their energy consumption with
cleaner, renewable energy sources, and contributing to
reduce the load size of the utility grid power supply.
J.S. Uprit and A.M. Shandilya, in reference, [5], design a
hybrid energy system for a remote rural area for a particular
site in central India (Bhopal). For this hybrid system, they
collect the required meteorological data of solar isolation
and the pattern of load consumption. They apply the hybrid
optimization modeling energy resources (HOMER) software
to obtain the sizing of the hybrid systems. They validate the
result through evolutionary computing such as GA (genetic
algorithm), where the selected objective is minimizing the
total capital cost, subject to the constraint of the Loss of
Power Supply Probability (LPSP).
Y. Maklad, reference [6], designs a hybrid system WT-PV
to cover the electricity consumption of typical residential
buildings of various occupancy rates and relevant various
average of electrical daily consumption. He collects the
monthly average solar irradiance, monthly average wind
speed historical data over many periods per year. He
simulates the solar photovoltaic panels and wind turbines to
obtain the size of the hybrid system and with the lowest cost
as soon as possible. He checks the correlation between solar
and wind power data on an hourly, daily, and monthly basis.
In reference [7], I. Tegani, A. Aboubou, M.Y. Ayad, M.
Becherif, R. Saadi and O. Kraa apply the genetic algorithm
for sizing design and strategy control based on differential
flatness approach to the hybrid stand-alone PV-WT systems.
They aim to find the optimal number of units ensuring that
the 20 years round total system cost is minimized subject to
the constraint that the load energy requirements are
completely covered.
In reference [8], S. K. Ramjet and B.J. Kumar present an
approach of economical sizing of a hybrid PV-WT system
considering both of economic and ecological aspects. They
present various optimization techniques to design hybrid
PV-wind system. The hybrid system consists of PV, WT and
SB. They apply the genetic algorithm (GA) and Teaching
Learning Based Optimization (TLBO) techniques to
minimize the objective function, i.e. total cost, which
includes initial costs, yearly replacement cost, yearly
operating costs and maintenance costs and salvage value of
the proposed hybrid system. In addition, they present the
application and performance comparison of GA and TLBO
techniques for optimal sizing of Hybrid PV/WT energy
system.
In reference [9], M. Sekar, S. Arunkumar, and V.
Balasubramanian describe with analysis a local PV-WT
hybrid system for supplying electricity to a private house,
farmhouse or a small company with electrical power
depending on the need at the site. The PV-WT hybrid
systems extensively used to illustrate electrical concepts in
hands-on laboratories and demonstrations in the industrial
technology curriculum.
H. M. Farghally, F. H. Fahmy, and M. A. H.EL-Sayed,
reference [10], solve the sizing problem of complete PV-WT
hybrid systems for supplying electricity to emergency
hospital, school and home buildings according to their
energy requirements. They use the HOMER software to
solve the optimization problem to minimize the objective
function considering the different constraints and provide the
size of PV-WT hybrid systems. In addition, they develop a
neural network controller for achieving the coordination
between system components as well as control the energy
flows.
In reference [11], P. Gajbhiye, and P. Suhane propose a
hybrid energy system (HES) which combines PV and WT as
a small-scale alternative source of electrical energy for the
problem of sizing and economic assessment such that the
demand of residential area is met. They use diesel generator
(DG) and battery bank to cover the emergency loads energy,
where covering the load demand under varying weather
conditions. They consider all costs like capital cost,
replacement cost, operation and maintenance cost and fuel
cost. They claim that, their study would lead to feasible
solution for distributed generation of electric power for
stand-alone applications at remote locations.
H. Belmili, M. Haddadi, S. Bacha, and M. F. Almi,
reference [12], propose a sizing method of stand-alone PV–
WT hybrid systems based on techno-economic analysis and
using object-oriented programming. Their program uses
fundamentals photovoltaic and wind generators models,
storage capacity model, and loss of power supply probability
(LPSP) algorithm. They show that, their techno-economic
1906
Mekhamer et. al.,
Hybrid Power Generation Systems: A Holistic View
International Electrical Engineering Journal (IEEJ)
Vol. 6 (2015) No.5, pp. 1905-1912
ISSN 2078-2365
http://www.ieejournal.com/
algorithm to determine the system can guarantee a liable
energy supply with the lowest investment.
K.V. Induji and V. P. Samuel, reference [13], present a
model of stand-alone photovoltaic/wind turbine hybrid
system. Their system consists of photovoltaic array, wind
turbine, asynchronous (induction), generator, controller
converter and dc bus. They apply MATLAB software to
obtain the design of this system. In addition, they use the
maximum power point tracking algorithm to track maximum
power from the sun .Presence of sun is intermittent so wind
energy conversion system is connected with photovoltaic
system. The output from PV/Wind turbine hybrid system is
DC. This DC supplied to DC bus and to DC loads. The
inverter can be used to convert DC to AC and to AC loads.
Finally they claim that, the optimal design is achieved, and
the dynamic behaviors of the proposed model is examined
using 72 cell PV panel and with wind energy conversion
system. The output acquired from the simulation of hybrid
system is of 430V magnitude DC.
2- PV/ Wind/ Storage Batteries Hybrid Power System
H. Yang, W. Zhou, L. Lu, and Z. Fang, reference [14],
apply a sizing method to find the configurations of a hybrid
solar–wind system employing battery banks. They apply the
genetic algorithm (GA) with a method to calculate the
system configuration that can achieve the customers required
loss of power supply probability (LPSP) with an annualized
cost of system (ACS). The decision variables included in
this process are the PV module number, WT number, SB
capacity. The proposed method has been applied to the
analysis of a hybrid system under varying weather conditions
and the corresponding system cost that represent the two
major concerns in designing PV and/or wind turbine
systems.
A.Kaabeche, M. Belhamel, and R. Ibtiouen, reference
[15], present and recommend an optimal sizing model based
on iterative technique, to optimize the capacity sizes of
different components of hybrid PV/WT/SB. The
recommended model takes into account the sub models of
the hybrid system, and the deficiency of power supply
probability (DPSP). They use the iterative technique to
obtain technically and economically the sizing optimization
of grid-independent hybrid PV/WT hybrid system according
to the system reliability requirements. The proposed hybrid
project has been applied to a case study to supply a
residential household located Bouzareah, Algeria.
In reference [16], R. Huang, S. H. Low, U. Topcu, and K.
Mani build hybrid energy systems with renewable generation
in many remote areas. They present a case study of the
Catalina Island in California for which a system with PV,
WT, and SB systems is designed based on empirical weather
and load data. They formulate the objective function that
should be minimized. They apply the HOMER software to
determine the hybrid system elements capacities.
In reference [17], O. B Bilal, P. A.Ndiaye, C.M.F Kebe,
V. Sambou, and M. Ndongo present a methodology to
calculate the size of a stand-alone hybrid WT- PV-SB. They
study the influence of the wind and solar potential and the
shape of the load profile on the optimal configuration. They
calculate the power generated by the WT and the PV
modules for each hour of the day using the collected data of
one year of wind speed, solar radiation and ambient
temperature, recorded every hour in Kayar and Potou
located in the northwestern. They show that, the simulation
results give optimal configuration.
Y. Luo, L. Shi, and G. Tu, reference [18], present the
isolated grids comprising renewable energy generation and
energy storage. They try to determine the size of the hybrid
system elements taking into account the reliability
requirement and a bi-level control strategy of the isolated
grids. They recommend sodium–sulfur battery for power
balance control in the isolated grids based on comparative
analysis of current energy storage characteristics and
practicability. They apply the genetic algorithm and
sequential simulation to determine the size of the energy
storage system.
L. Liqun and L. Chunxia, reference [19], study the
feasibility analysis of a wind-PV-battery system for an offgrid power station specially located in remote village of
Dongwangsha, Shanghai. They build the simulation model
and obtain the results for the proposed hybrid WT-PV
system with SB backup. They discuss the greenhouse gases
(GHG) emissions, project costs and savings/income
summary, financial viability, and risk analysis. They
consider the hybrid system to be more environmental
friendly as compared with the diesel only system.
In reference [20], L. J. Hu, D. M. Xi, S.S. Guo, and Y.J.
Fu discuss the capacity configuration model of the
WT/PV/SB hybrid system based on the analysis of the
constraint conditions the hybrid system. They consider
practical solutions to supply required power for the local
areas without the utility grid.
In reference [21], A.M. Eltamaly and M. A. Mohamed
introduce a design and simulation program for autonomous
hybrid PV/wind/battery energy system. They determine the
size of each component of the hybrid energy system for the
lowest price of kWh generated and the best loss of load
probability at highest reliability. They collect the required
data such as; hourly wind speed, hourly radiation, and hourly
load power. They use HOMER software to study the
changing of the penetration ratio of wind/PV with certain
increments. They calculate the required size of all
components and the battery size to get the acceptable
probability.
1907
Mekhamer et. al.,
Hybrid Power Generation Systems: A Holistic View
International Electrical Engineering Journal (IEEJ)
Vol. 6 (2015) No.5, pp. 1905-1912
ISSN 2078-2365
http://www.ieejournal.com/
In reference [22], D. M. Atia, F. H. Fahmy, N. M. Ahmed,
and H. T. Dorrah determine the design for renewable energy
system to power an aquaculture pond. They analyze the
feasibility of the standalone and utility connected system
using HOMER software, where the HOMER software
determines whether renewable energy resources satisfy
hourly electric demand or not. They compare the demand for
the electrical energy for each hour of the year with the
energy supplied by the system for that hour and calculate the
relevant energy flow for each component in the model. They
take into consideration all system parameters such as; wind
speed, solar irradiance, interest rate and capacity shortage.
They claim that, the simulation results indicate that the
hybrid system is the best choice in this study, yielding lower
net present cost.
3- PV/Wind/Storage Battery/Diesel Generator Hybrid
Power System
Z. Wei, in reference [23], develops a method to find,
which he considers, the global optimum configuration of
stand-alone hybrid (both PV-WT and PV-WT-diesel) power
generation systems. He uses genetic algorithm (GA) to
calculate the system configuration, where he tries to
minimize the total system cost by obtaining the number of
PV array, WT swept area and battery bank capacity,
considering the LPSP.
R. Belfkira, L. Zhang, G. Barakat, reference [24], present a
methodology of sizing of a stand-alone hybrid
wind/PV/diesel energy system, where they collect a 6
months data of wind speed, solar radiation and ambient
temperature recorded for every hour of the day. The
mathematical modeling of the main elements of the hybrid
WT/PV/diesel hybrid system is exposed showing the more
relevant sizing variables. They apply the Dividing
Rectangles (DIRECT) algorithm to minimize the total cost
of the system while guaranteeing the satisfaction of the load
demand. They also present a comparison between the total
cost of the hybrid WT/PV/diesel hybrid system with SB and
the hybrid wind/PV/diesel energy system without SB. The
reached results demonstrate the practical utility of the used
sizing methodology and show the influence of the battery
storage on the total cost of the hybrid system.
In reference [25], L. Zhang, G. Barakat, and A. Yassine
develop a deterministic approach to obtain the size of the
WT/PV/diesel/SB hybrid power systems based on the
DIRECT algorithm. The algorithm can provide, as they
think, the optimum values of commercially available system
devices ensuring that the system total investment cost has
been minimized. They assume that, the hybrid power
systems installed at an experimental remote ecological area
(EREA), in France, with 5-year period of average hourly
data; solar radiation, wind speed, ambient temperature and
electrical power demand of the load. Finally, they show that,
the obtained values are the optimal values of the system
components during a period of 20-year. These results
include the number of PV modules, the PV module surface
area, the number of wind turbines, the installation height of
the wind turbine, the battery bank number and the diesel
generator operating hours with their lowest system total
investment costs.
M.M Hoque, I.K.A Bhuiyan, R. Ahmed, A.A .Farooque,
and S.K, reference [26], design a hybrid power system
considering PV, WT and diesel generator. They apply the
HOMER software for analyzing the performance of the
system. They study different performance analysis like
feasibility, sensitivity, cost, and sustainability. In addition,
they use the environmental and economic analysis to discuss
the sustainability of a hybrid power system. They show that,
the hybrid system with photovoltaic, diesel generator, wind
turbine give better performance in terms of cost and
sensitivity.
In reference [27], M.S. Ngan and C. W. Tan show that
there are many different system configurations namely;
stand-alone diesel system, hybrid PV–diesel system with and
without battery storage element, hybrid WT–diesel system
with and without battery storage element, and PV–WT–
diesel system with and without storage element, that can be
studied and analyzed. They determine a technical feasibility
of the system and perform an economic analysis using
HOMER simulation software. They focus on the simulation
on the net present costs, cost of energy, excess electricity
produced and the reduction of CO2 emission for the given
hybrid configurations. At the end, the PV–diesel system with
battery storage element, PV–wind–diesel system with battery
storage element, and the stand-alone diesel system have been
analyzed based on high price of diesel.
In reference [28], Y. Y. Hong and R.C. Lian apply the
Markov-based GA for determining the size of hybrid
wind/PV/diesel a stand-alone power system. They state that,
their method considers cost minimization, and both
reliability and CO emission constraints, in addition it
reduces the CPU time greatly and provides competitive cost.
In reference [29], S. L. Trazouei, F. L. Tarazouei, and M.
Ghiamy present a design of a stand-alone hybrid
WT/PV/diesel power generation system using imperialist
competitive algorithm (ICA), particle swarm optimization
(PSO) and ant colony optimization (ACO). They try to
minimize the annual cost function of hybrid system
considering the reliability and loss of power probability
(LPSP) reliability index. Finally, they present the results that
include number of PV panels, number of WT, and capacity
of SB, total annual cost, and power diagram of hybrid power
system components and reliability diagram for
WT/PV/diesel hybrid systems.
In reference [30], T. Tahri, A. Bettahar, and M. Douanitry
design a WT/PV/diesel hybrid power system for a village of
AinMerane, Chlef, Algeria, considering the wind speed and
solar radiation measurements. They apply the HOMER
1908
Mekhamer et. al.,
Hybrid Power Generation Systems: A Holistic View
International Electrical Engineering Journal (IEEJ)
Vol. 6 (2015) No.5, pp. 1905-1912
ISSN 2078-2365
http://www.ieejournal.com/
software to optimize a hybrid WT/PV/diesel system in terms
of technical and economic feasibility. They make a
comparison between the performance of WT/PV/diesel
system and the WT/PV/diesel connecting to the utility grid
system.
In reference [31], Q. A. J. Jawad1, K. K. Gasem, and M.
R. Jawad design and simulate a WT/PV/diesel hybrid power
system (HPS) for the far areas of their country. They
compare their proposed connecting configurations to select
the one with the best efficiency of power consumption to the
consumers by considering each power sources
independently. They found that the best efficiency of power
consumption achieved with the Mixed-coupling HPSs, when
compared with the other topologies and the selected
topology used for further investigation.
T. Jima, reference [32], presents a design of a hybrid
electric power generation system utilizing both wind and
solar energy for supplying a cluster of three micro and small
enterprises (MSEs) working on wood and metal products at
the Welenchity site. The potential energy of wind and solar
sources for the desired site is investigated, where he collects
the wind speed and solar irradiation data for the site under
study. He uses the HOMER software to design the
standalone PV-WT/SB/diesel hybrid power system. The
optimization process has been carried out repeatedly for
certain defined sensitivity variables and the results have
been refined accordingly.
A. Bhowmik, reference [33], apply the Microsoft Excel
software-programming package to analyze the data
measurements of all the components of a studied hybrid
system. He uses MATLAB software package to develop the
simulation program for proper optimization of the cost. A
comparison has been done to ensure of the accuracy of the
results. Lastly, he apply the ‘observe and focus’ algorithm to
get more effective data, to enhance the optimization of the
hybrid system.
4- Hybrid Power Generation System Connected to Fuel
Cell
In reference [34], A. El-Aal studies the dynamic behavior
of hybrid photovoltaic system with hydrogen/air proton
exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell using transient system
simulation tool (TRNSYS) software. In addition, he studies
the variation of hydrogen tank pressure, PEM fuel cell
power, electrolyzer power, and PV cell electricity generated.
He claims that the results of his work can get better
understanding for the dynamic behaviors of the each
components of the hybrid system that helps in improving
component’s efficiency.
J. Lagorse, D. Paire, and A. Miraoui, reference [35],
present a stand-alone street lighting systems based on the
classical configuration combined from PV and SB. They
propose the FC that is also combined to improve the
classical PV/SB hybrid. However, their key issue in the
sizing problem of hybrid systems is obtaining the cheapest
system. They apply two optimization methods; the first is
genetic algorithms, then the simplex algorithms. They use a
simulation model to evaluate the validity of the different
hybrid configurations. Finally, they show that their obtained
configuration is the optimal.
In reference [36], H. V. Haghi, S. M. Hakimi, and S. M.
M. Tafreshi develop a PSO-embedded stochastic simulation,
perform numerous statistical analyses for the wind power,
and load demand data. They show a set of sizes obtained as
final outputs, which have been analyzed to provide a
measure for making the required decision. They consider
that, the obtained results show the optimal solution with an
improved total cost. In addition, they think that it is better to
mention that the hybrid system of WT-FC with the obtained
optimal costs is practically suitable for Kahnouj area.
Because there is a good wind speed profile over the year, a
considerable amount of agricultural waste is available, and
the fuel transportation is costly.
In reference [37], M. Vafaei develops a micro-grid for a
remote community in northern Ontario (Canada) that
combines WT, as a renewable source of energy, and a
hydrogen-SB, with the goal of meeting the demand. He
studies a micro-grid system. He uses a wind turbine to
generate electricity, an electrolyser to absorb the excess
power from the wind source, a hydrogen tank to store the
hydrogen generated by the electrolyzer, a fuel cell to supply
the demand when the wind resource is not adequate, and a
diesel generator as a backup power. He analyze the results of
the optimization problem, where he shows that the lowest
cost of the system results from all-renewable scenarios. In
addition, he shows that, the parallel operation scenario is the
next most economical scenario: two diesel units operate in
parallel with the wind turbine in order to supply the demand.
In reference [38], A.A. Elbaset Adel describes the
development of a general methodology for an autonomous
hybrid system composed of PV-electrolyzer hydrogen
storage tank-FC. He explains the procedure of the design of
the control strategy, which he considers, determines the
economic performance of a PV/FC hybrid system taking into
account all losses in the system. He applies the MATLAB
software to determine the design, the control strategy, and
the economic performance of the PV/FC hybrid power
generation system.
In reference [39], Y. A. Katsigiannis, P. S. Georgilakis,
and E. S. Karapidakis investigate the performance of two
popular optimization methods, namely, Simulated Annealing
(SA) and Tabu Search (TS), for the solution of HPGS
optimal sizing problem. Moreover, they propose a hybrid
SA-TS method that combines the advantages of each one of
the above-mentioned methods. In their study, the key point
is in minimizing the objective function, which is cost of
energy (€/kWh). The design variables are: 1) WT size, 2)
PV size, 3) diesel generator size, 4) biodiesel generator size,
1909
Mekhamer et. al.,
Hybrid Power Generation Systems: A Holistic View
International Electrical Engineering Journal (IEEJ)
Vol. 6 (2015) No.5, pp. 1905-1912
ISSN 2078-2365
http://www.ieejournal.com/
5) FC size, 6) SB, 7) converter size, and 8) dispatch strategy.
They apply the hybrid optimization methodology for a large
number of alternative scenarios via sensitivity analysis.
Finally their conclusion is that their proposed hybrid SA-TS
improves the obtained solutions, in terms of quality and
convergence, compared to the solutions provided by
individual SA or individual TS methods.
D. Debnath, A. Kumar, and S. Ray, reference [40] propose
a hybrid power generation system for remote area for
agricultural application. This system consists of PV/FC/SB.
They consider the climate change which is one of the
greatest challenges which faced them in their design. They
use the fuel cell as auxiliary source, which is combined with
PV system to ensure a reliable supply without interruptions.
Finally, they carry out the analysis of such a hybrid system
feeding a load center with the application of HOMER
software, to obtain the optimal size of the system
components.
In reference [41], S. Kumar and V. Garg simulate a hybrid
model of a solar / WT and fuel cell. They develop a hybrid
model and compare it with another hybrid model that is
using battery as its storage system instead of fuel cells. They
include all realistic components of the system. A
comparative study of hybrid model of PV/WT and fuel cells
system has been performed.
In reference [42], M. Mehrpooya and S. Daviran simulate
and introduce a PV-FC hybrid system, which produces
hydrogen in the daytime and stores it in the storage tank in
order to supply the required energy for the peak period of
demand. They analyze the dynamic behavior of the process
components under different conditions. They apply the
TRNSYS software to represent the performance of the
system components. They show, via their results, that the
component’s efficiency improved and the optimal size of the
system component is obtained.
A. Maleki and A. Askarzadeh, in reference [43],
recommend a framework to size a hybrid energy system
based on PV, WT and FC. For this aim, they model all the
components and define an objective function based on the
total annual cost. They show that, in the optimization
problem, the maximum allowable loss of power supply
probability (
) is also considered to have a reliable
system. In order to minimize the objective function, they
apply the bee swarm optimization (ABSO) algorithm. Their
simulation results show that, the PV/WT/FC is the most
cost-effective hybrid system and WT/FC and PV/FC systems
are in the other ranks, where they set the
by 0% as
a constraint.
In reference [44], O. H. Mohammed, Y. Amirat, M.
Benbouzid, and A.A. Elbaset design a stand-alone hybrid
PV and FC hybrid system without battery storage to supply
the electric load demand of the city of Brest, Western
Brittany in France. They show that, the proposed design is
focused on economical performances and is mainly based on
the loss of the power supply probability concept and based
on the simulation model developed using HOMER software.
M. S. Alam, reference [45], proposes a hybrid distributed
power generation (DG) system consists of WT and FC. He
uses the fuzzy logic controller for power management in an
optimally way. He applies this technique in the belief of
providing the required power to a residential load on a
continuous basis based on the feasibility of economic power
generation, where this controller directs power to a fixed
voltage bus in the power conditioning unit (PCU). The fixed
voltage bus supplies the load, while the excess power is
directed to the energy storage bank first and then to an
electrolyzer, which is used to generate hydrogen for the fuel
cell. He completes system modeling and simulation using the
HOMER software, and his hybrid controller has been
simulated in Simulink/MATLAB environment.
In reference [46], A. Maleki and A. Askarzadeh present a
model of PV/WT/FC hybrid system. They apply the hybrid
meta heuristic technique based on chaotic search (CS),
harmony search (HS) and simulated annealing (SA) to find
the required configuration. Many configurations have been
studied and compared.
B. Tudu, K. K. MandaI, and N. Chakraborty, in reference
[47], present the design and the sizing of a grid independent
hybrid energy system consisting of micro hydro, PV, WT
and FC for supplying a specific load. They apply the bees'
algorithm (BA) technique for the sizing of the hybrid
system. The technique is compared with the particle swarm
optimization (PSO) and also the system performance is
evaluated in terms of the cost of the system. They consider
the net present value in the belief of obtaining the optimal
sizing. The system is designed with the maximum utilization
of the renewable resources to reduce the system carbon.
Also, apart from renewable resources feeds the FC
electrolyzer. They show that the initiated system is quite
feasible in meeting the load and in terms of cost of energy
and the both algorithms are capable of giving global
solution, but PSO is fast in reaching it.
III. CONCLUSION
In this paper, a literature review has been carried out for
the last decade to show the importance of the topic, where a
lot of researchers do their best to obtain the HPGS in optimal
design; sizing, operation, and control. As mentioned above,
these systems have the clear role in improving the power
system reliability and quality. Also they have a great impact
on reducing the power generation cost. All these prospects are
the main motivation to do our survey. Our survey, as shown, is
classified according to the composition of the hybrid system,
where the main prominent elements are; PV, WT, FC, SB,
MT, and diesel generator. It is clear, from the existing
literature, that the hybrid power generation system, HPGS, is
challenging and still needs further research.
1910
Mekhamer et. al.,
Hybrid Power Generation Systems: A Holistic View
International Electrical Engineering Journal (IEEJ)
Vol. 6 (2015) No.5, pp. 1905-1912
ISSN 2078-2365
http://www.ieejournal.com/
[14] H. Yang, W. Zhou, L. Lu, and Z. Fang, "Optimal sizing method for
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