Entertainment Education COMT 480/580

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Entertainment Education COMT 480/580
Entertainment Education
COMT 480/580
Lessons Learned
• What is entertainment education?
• The synergy of entertainment and education consists of
deliberately combining the joy of entertainment with the
empowering potential of education to achieve social
progress for all.
The International ee 2000 Event
The Third International Entertainment Education for Social Change
September 17-23, 2000 Arnhem and Amsterdam, the Netherlands
• Entertainment education—also termed enter-educate,
pro-social entertainment, pro-development
entertainment, edu-tainment and infotainment—is
defined as:
– the process of putting educational content in entertaining
formats and messages in order to:
• increase knowledge
• create favorable attitudes
• change overt behavior concerning an educational issue
• Role modeling (Bandura’s Social Learning Theory – We
learn by identifying w/ characters and modeling their
behavior when we see it’s rewarded)
– Positive role models
– Transitional characters
– Negative role models
• Efficacy
– Individual
– Collective
• Population Communication International
– www.population.org
– Tinka, Tinka Sukh (Happiness Lies in Small Things) 1996
Radio soap opera in India
Against child marriage
Gender equity
Against dowry
Girls education
Family planning
HIV prevention
Tinka Tinka Sukh
• Village like Lutsaan
– Progressive & traditional
– Characters identified with
• Messages:
– Dowry
• Poonam, bride, is beaten by her husband & in-laws (negative role models) for
not providing adequate dowry. She is sent back to her parents after
incorrectly being accused of infidelity, and then commits suicide.
– Child marriage
• Kusum is married at 18, gets pregnant, & dies.
– Efficacy
• Sushma is left by her husband & starts a sewing school (positive role model)
• Sunder, a drug addict, gets clean and finds a job.
• Villagers construct a new hospital
• Tinka Tinka Sukh
– Poster-letter from Village of Lutsaan, India
Vowed to oppose dowry
Shyam Club supported girls’ schooling
Endorsed family planning as a cost-saver
Claimed emotional involvement with characters –
– tailor id’d w/ Ramlal (pampered son who becomes a
development officer) as a transitional character
• Limited media access (only 60 radios for pop. 6,000)
How or why effective?
• Tailor & Post-master
Opinion leaders
Diffusion of innovations (Everett Rogers)
Interpersonal communication
Transitional role model
• Parasocial interaction
– Tailor’s shop
Untapped Potential
• Entertainment media
– Most pervasive genre
– Tells us how to think, speak, dress
• 3 reasons it should be tapped
– Development problems are huge, resources scarce
– Leisure & entertainment is mega-trend
• Media access growing worldwide
– Positive audience reception to social messages on
• Entertainment degradation programs
– Lots of sex & violence
– Little media deals w/ consequences
• Boredom education programs
• Entertainment education
– Sesame Street, PBS
• Cognitive learning skills
– Archie Bunker (negative role model for bigotry)
– Embedded messages (Winsten, 1999)
• Designated driver campaign on 77 shows, e.g. LA Law
Lessons learned
• Entertainment education can be used to educate
• Start-up costs high
• Formative research crucial
• Balance creative & communication research
• Can be transferred across cultural boundaries
• Economies of scale
• TV content shaped by eco & political realities
Ethics of Entertainment-Education
• Ethics in the field of Entertainment-Education should:
– Participation
• Encourage full and informed participation of all stakeholders, including
– Information
• Based on appropriate information
– Design
• Culturally tailored messages
• Include careful design and monitoring of implementation processes
– Monitor
• Monitor effects & societal consequences
• Goals:
– conducting and sharing research to the development of the
Entertainment-Education field
– fine-tuning of current research methods
– new and more comprehensive approaches for formative,
monitoring, and evaluation research
– set a research agenda that includes study into the role of
performing artists, their involvement in social subjects, and
intended and unintended effects
• expand professional expertise through continuing preservice and in-service training and education in related
professional fields
• promote sound business practices that will support
sustainability, including branding and marketing, to
optimize cost-effectiveness with a fair and equitable
financial return to all participants
• The organizing parties of the International ee 2000 Event
committed to:
– develop a network of associates that will facilitate the
exchange of information and materials
– sustain this network, establishing and coordinating a Web
site, developing a global distribution system for existing
Entertainment- Education materials, and other initiatives.
– plan for future meetings amongst our organizations and with
other interested parties
– establish awards to recognize excellence in the
Entertainment-Education field
• E-E 2000
E-E 2000 took place from September
17-23, 2000 in the Netherlands.
– The E-E 2000 Event will consist of five
days of interactive programs with
plenary sessions, multimedia
presentations, expert panels, and "real
life" clusters.
Haiti: "Zanmi" Music Video
• The Youth Reproductive Health project, Sept. 1995
– Target = youth between the ages of 15-24 in the metropolitan
area of Port-au-Prince.
– Goal = to promote reproductive health issues among youth
– Context = The project was designed during a period of
political unrest and financial crisis in Haiti, during the 1995
UN tightening of the embargo imposed on the country. It is
the first project of its kind in Haiti.
Formative research
• One-week message &
materials development
– Fondation de Santé
Reproductive et d'Education
Familiale (FOSREF),
– Center for Development and
Health (CDS)
– Johns Hopkins University
Population Communication
Services (JHU/PCS)
– Members of target audience
Message development
• During the workshop the young participants
developed the following materials:
a sexual responsibility game
a song for a music video
three radio spots
three photonovelas
a poster
a general information leaflet
Messages (cont’d)
• Zanmi
A song and music video were products of the Youth
Reproductive Health Project. Their themes are:
– protecting and respecting yourself and your relationships and
– Sexual responsibility
• Both the song and the video were produced by King
Posse, a well known rap group in Haiti
– with financial support from the United Nations Population
Fund (UNFPA) and technical support from ASPHA (Haitian
Public Health Association).
Rap song
• Lyrics (translated from
Let's take care! Let's control
When we are ready, So as
not to have any regrets!
You love me, I love you! Let's
take care!
You love me, I love you!
Let's control ourselves!
You love me, I love you!
When we are ready!
• “The video continued to be played on
commercial TV in Haiti and the song was heard
regularly on the radio. It is an excellent example
of the ‘enter educate’ approach because the
song is perceived by the Haitian public as just
another song by King Posse and not as a song
with a health-related message. Everybody,
particularly adolescents, knows the lyrics of the
song.” – JHU/CCP web site.
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