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KGAOLO Y A BONE 4.1 THULAGANYO II 4.2

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KGAOLO Y A BONE 4.1 THULAGANYO II 4.2
KGAOLO YA BONE
4.1
THULAGANYO II
4.2
MATSENO
Mo kgaolong e, go ya go tlhalosiwa tiriso ya dikakanyo tse: thitokgang,
kakanyetso Je dikgato tsa thulaganyo fa di lebagane Je terarna ya Se se
je/eng rre.
4.3.
THITOKGANG
Thitokgang ke kakanyo e rnokwadi a kwalang
se je/eng rre
thitokgang
e lebagane Ie
ka ga yona. Mo go Se
rnatlhakore
a Ie rnabedi:
la
maitsho)o Ie la matlhotJhape)o.
*
Thitokgang: Maitsholo
Mo terarneng e, maitsholo a lebagane Ie rnolwantshiwa, e leng
Selebi. Kgosi
Selebi ke rnoanelwa
gonne e Ie kgosi ya rnorafe, fela
kgosi
wa rnaerno a a kwa godirno ka
0
na Ie rnakoa. Makoa a gagwe a
tlholwa ke go ikgatholosa Ielapa la gagwe rnrne a ratana Ie rnosadi yo
rnongwe wa rnotse. Ka ntlha ya rnakoa a a gagwe rnorafe
rno nyatsa. Ka jalo
0
0
sirnolola go
wa rno rnaernong a gag we a bogosi, ka gonne
tiotio e a neng a e new a ke batho ba rnorafe wa gagwe, e a nyelela. Le fa
go ntse jalo, kwa bokhutlong kgosi Selebi
ka go re
gore
0
0
0
fetoga rnotho yo
0
siarneng,
kopa rnaitshwarelo rno go bakgosing pele a swa go bontsha
a lernoga gore se a neng a se dira ke phoso fela, Ie fa gona go
setse go Ie thari.
103
*
Thitokgang: MatlhotlhapeJo
Sekwalwa sa matlhotlhapeJo ke se se nang Ie ditiragalo tse di utlwisang
botlhoko jaaka dintsho gongwe rnathata a rnagoIo, a a sa kgonweng go
raraboIoIwa. Fa go ka buisiwa Se se jeleng rre
gore ditiragalo tsa rnatihotlhapelo ke tse di
sentle, go tla Iernogiwa
Ie loso lwa ga
Iebaganeng
kgosi Selebi Ie dintsho tse dingwe tsa boMrnapitsa Ie Bankgoditse.
Kgosi Selebi
0
welwa ke
rnatIhotlhapeIo ka gonne a na Ie rnakoa. Go
gana go reetsa dikgakoiolo tsa borangwanaagwe Ie banna ba Iekgotia ga
gagwe rnabapi Ie go nyatsa Ielapa Ia bogosi, go dira gore a iphitIheIe a
Ie rno rnathateng a go tsheIeIwa botlhole rno dijong. Makoa a a gagwe a
rno tsenya rno Iosong , ka jalo kgosi Selebi ga a arnogelwe ka ntlha ya
Ioso Iwa gagwe. Ke ka ntlha eo rnofuta
0
wa sekwalwa
rnatlhotlhapelo ka gonne rnorero wa sekwaiwa se
0
0
bidiwang wa
Iebagane gape Ie
rnanyaapelo.
*
Go
Kakaretso
Iernogilwe
gore Se se jeleng rre ke
tiragatso
e e theilweng
rno
godirno ga rnerero e Ie rnebedi: wa maitsholo Ie wa matlhotlhapelo. Ka
jalo go ka twe
Ntsirne
0
kwadile dikwaiwa di Ie pedi ka fa gare ga
sekwalwa se Ie sengwe. Kgang e, e ya go tIhokorneIwa sentle
fa go
sekasekwa dikgato tsa thulaganyo.
4.4.
KAKANYETSO
Fa go sekwasekwa terarna e, go ya go Iatelwa rnatihakore a Ie rnabedi
a kakanyetso jaaka Ietlhakore Ie Ie Iebaganeng Ie rnorero wa
Ie Ie Ie Iebaganeng Ie rnorero wa rnatIhotIhapeIo.
104
rnaitsholo
*
Morero wa maitsholo
Kakanyetso ya mofuta
0
wa sekwalwa e bontsha fa molwantshiwa e ka
nna motho wa maemo kgotsa wa ka gale, yo
0
nang Ie makoa, yo
isiwang kwa tlase ke makoa mme kwa bofeiong
terameng e, molwantshiwa, e leng kgosi Selebi,
0
0
0
a amogelwa. Mo
tlhagisiwa e Ie motho:
wa maemo yo
yo
yo
nang Ie makoa 0
yang kwa tlase 0
amogelwang 0
Kakanyetso ya mofuta
0
wa sekwalwa e ya go lekolwa fa e lebagane Ie
terama ya Se se jeleng rre.
*
Motho wa maemo
moanelwa wa maemo a a kwa godimo ka gonne ke
Kgosi Selebi ke
kgosi. Kgosi e bewa mo maemong a a kwa godimo ka go tlotliwa Ie go
boifiwa ke morafe.
*
Moanelwa yo
Bokoa jwa
ga
0
nang Ie makoa
kgosi
Selebi
ke
go
nyatsa
lelapa la gagwe. 0
ikgatholosa lelapa la gagwe Ie mosadi wa gagwe, Senwametsi mme
0
ratana Ie mosadi yo mongwe, Mmapitsa. Lerato Ia ga Mmapitsa Ie ne Ia
mo lebatsa gore
0
na Ie
mosadi. 0 simolola go bona Senwametsi e Ie
lekgalagadi Ie Ie se nang mosola.
105 *
Moanelwa yo
0
yang kwa tlase
Ka ntlha ya go nyatsa Ielapa la gagwe, kgosi Selebi
maemong a gagwe a bogosi.
0
iphitlhela a wa mo
Ditiro tsa gagwe tse di sa siamang di mo
nyatsisa ka morafe wa gagwe. Ga go sa tIhole go na Ie yo
0
mo tlotlang jaaka
kgosi. Mongwe Ie mongwe 0 bua Ie ena fela jaaka a rata.
*
Moanelwa yo 0 amogelwang
K wa bokhutlong, kgosi Selebi
diphoso fela, ka jalo
0
0
lemoga gore tse a neng a di dira ke
simolola go sokologela kwa go tse di siameng ka go
kopa maitshwarelo mo go bakgosing Ie Senwametsi, mosadi wa gagwe.
*
Morero wa matlhotlhapelo
Kakanyetso ya mofuta
0
wa sekwalwa e bontsha molwantshiwa e ka nna
motho wa maemo kgotsa wa ka gale, yo
0
nang Ie makoa mme kwa bofelong
a ka amogelwa kgotsa a ka se ka a amogelwa. Molwantshiwa wa Se se feleng
rre
0
tlhagisiwa e Ie motho:
- wa maemo - yo
- yo
*
0
0
nang Ie makoa sa amogelweng Motho wa maemo
Kgosi Selebi ke moanelwa wa maemo a a kwa godimo thata ka gonne ke
kgosi, ka jalo ke ena a okametseng morafe otlhe.
106 *
Moanelwa wa makoa
Kgosi Selebi
0
na Ie makoa ka gonne
0
ganne go ultwa fa a gakololwa
mabapi Ie go ratana Ie Mmapitsa. Mosadi wa gagwe, bommangwanaagwe,
borangwanaagwe mmogo Ie banna ba lekgotla ba lekile go bua Ie ena
gore a kgaogane Ie Mmapitsa, a tlhokomele lelapa la gagwe, fela Selebi
o ne a gana go reetsa.
*
Moanelwa yo
0
amogelwang
Morago ga go ja dijo tse Mmapitsa a di tshetseng
bolayang, kgosi Selebi
0
botlhole jo bo
a swa, ka jalo ga a amogelwe ka ntlha ya loso
10
a ipaketseng lona.
Go ka akaretswa ka go re
kakanyetso ke karolo e e botlhokwa ya
karolo ya sekwalwa ka gonne e thusa go tlhaola dikwaiwa go ya ka
mefuta ya tsona, jaaka matlhotlhapelo, maitsholo, botseka, jalo jalo. Go
peIe, kakanyetso e na Ie tiro e e botlhokwa e e lebaganeng Ie
tsweleia
tshekatsheko ya semelo sa baanelwa.
4.5.
TIRISO YA DIKGATO TSA THULAGANYO
4.5.1. Tshenolo
Go ya
ka tlhaloso go builwe gore tshenolo ke karolo ya ntlha ya
sekwalwa mo go fitlhelwang mokwadi a tlhagisa baanelwa, ditiragalo Ie
tikologo
(nako
Ie lefeIo)
jaaka
kgotlhang.
107 dielemente
tse
di
lebaganeng
Ie
o
Baanelwa
Fa go tlholosiwa semelo sa molwantshiwa Ie molwantshi go ya go latelwa
dintlha tsa kakanyetso tse di lebaganeng Ie mongwe Ie mongwe wa
baanelwabagolo ba.Semelo sa bona se ya go tlhalosiwa go ya ka
dipharologantshotshwanelo (essential characteristics), ke go re
dipharologantsho tse di botlhokwa.
Dipharologantsho tse di botIhokwa
Go ya ka Mojalefa (1995:12) dipharologantsho tse di botlhokwa di tlhalosa
semelo sa moanelwa kwa ntle ga go potologa ka gonne di lebagane Ie dintlha
di Ie pedi tsa ntlha tsa kakanyetso. Fa e Ie kakanyetso ya Se sejeleng rre,
ya re kgosi Selebi ke moanelwa wa:
- maemo a a kwa godimo - makoa Tlhaloso ya dintlha tse tsa semelo sa molwantshiwa Ie molwantshi e ya
go
tlhagisiwa go lebeletswe tlhaloso ya mokwadi, dipuo Ie ditiro tsa
moanelwa mmogo Ie
tse baanelwa ba bangwe ba di buang ka ga
go ya lebelelwa Ie dithekeniki tse mokwadi a di dirisang
gagwe. Gape
fa a tlhalosa semelo sa baanelwa ba.
Kgosi Selebi ke moanelwa
wa maemo a a kwa godimo ka gonne e Ie
kgosi. Fa
maemo
go
tlhatlhojwa
dipharologantsho
Mokwadi
0
tse di
a, a gagwe
rileng, tse di
go
tlhalosang
tlhagisa dipharologantsho tse di latelang
Tsona ke:
108
fitlhelwa
maemo
go na Ie
a, a gagwe.
tsa molwantshiwa.
bogosi
bogale
*
Bogosi
Mokwadi
0
tlhagisa Selebi e Ie kgosj. Go simoloa kwa Ienaneong la
baanelwa go fitlha kwa bokhutlong jwa ditiragalo tsa sekwalwa
0
ntse a
tlhagisiwa e Ie kgosi. Kgang e, e ka netefatswa ka go nopoia mafoko a
mokwadi fa are:
Kgosi Selebi
0
feta gaufj Ie ntlo ya ga Mmapitsa. 0 bua a Ie nosi ... [ts.l] Kwa ga kgosi Selebi ,go tsena Molefe, Tsietsi, Tshegofatso, Moserwa, Senwametsi Ie kgosi Selebi .. ~ [ts.14] Kgosi Selebi
0
bua a Ie nosi fa a ya kwa ga Mmapitsa [ts.2l] Kwa
ga Mmapitsa
go
tsena
kgosi
Selebi, Mmapitsa
Ie Mmasera ... [ts.69] Mokwadi
kgosi
0
dirisitse dithekeniki di Ie
pedi go tlhalosa maemo a ga
Selebi a a kwa godimo, a a Iebaganeng
Ie bogosi. Tsona
ke
tsepamiso Ie poeletso.
*
Tsepamiso
Groenewaid (1991:16)
0
tlhalosa kakanyo e ya tsepamiso ka go re ke fa
mokwadi a lebaganya moanelwa kgotsa go tIhaIosa moanelwa kgotsa
selo seo. Mo go Se se jeleng rre tsepamjso e tihageleia jaana:
109 Kgosi
Selebi
0
feta
gaufi
Ie ntlo
ya ga Mrnapitsa. Kgosi Selebi
0
bua a Ie nosi fa a ya kwa ga Mrnapitsa. K wa
ga Mrnapitsa
go
tsena
kgosi
Selebi, Mrnapitsa Ie Mrnasera. Mokwadi
0
dirisitse thekeniki ya tsepamiso ka gonne bogosi jwa ga
kgosi Selebi bo tlhagisiwa ke ena ka sebele, e bile ke ena a rno itseng.
o
tseparnisa dikgang tse tsa ga kgosi Selebi gore di bonagale di Ie
botlhokwa. Ka jalo rnokwadi
diragalang rnrne
0
Iebaganya rnoanelwa Ie tiragalo e e
tseparnisa dikgang rno rnoanelweng go gaisa rno
0
tiragalong e a e dirang, ka gonne
rnokwadi
0
ka tseparniso e ya ga kgosi Selebi,
gateleia ditiragalo ka ena. Go ka twe ka rnoanelwa yo, kgosi
Selebi, rnokwadi
0
lernosa mmuisi gore kgosi Selebi
kwa godirno. Mokwadi
0
0
na Ie rnaerno a a
dirisitse thekeniki e go senoIa rnaerno a ga
kgosi Selebi a a kwa godirno a a Iebaganeng Ie bogosi.
*
Poeletso
Fa a tlhalosa Iereo Ie Groenewald (1991 :23) a re poeletso ke fa rnokwadi
a gatelela tiragalo nngwe, mme kgang eo e ka buiwa nako Ie nako.
Mojalefa (1994: 11)
0
tlaleletsa
tIhaloso e ka go re thekeniki ya poeletso
e tlhagelela fa go boeletswa rno sekwaiweng. Tiragalo e, e boeletswa ke
rnotho a Ie rnongwe fela, e ka nna rnokwadi ,rnoanelwa kgotsa rnoanegi.
Mojalefa Ie Groenwald ba gateleia gore poeletso ke fa tiraglo e e rileng e
boeletswa ke rnotho a Ie rnongwe rno sekwalweng. Ntsirne are:
110 Kgosi
Selebi
Mmapitsa
0
feta
0
gaufi
Ie
ntlo
ya ga bua a Je nosi ... [ts.1] Kgosi Selebi
0
bua a Je nosi fa a ya kwa ga Mmapitsa ... [ts.21] Fa go ka tlhokomelwa puo e ya mokwadi, go tIa lemogiwa gore
0
dirisitse thekeniki ya poeletso ka gonne tiragalo e ya go bua ka nos; ga
kgosi Selebi e boeleditswe ke
mokwadi fela go godisa botlhokwa jwa
yona. Tiragalo e e boeletswang e, e botlhokwa ka gonne e lebagane Ie
kgotlhang ya ka fa gare ya ga kgosi Selebi, ke go re kgosi Selebi
Ie dikakanyo tsa gagwe. 0
0
lwa
itse sentle gore ga se tshwanelo gore a ka
nyala Mmapitsa ka gonne a thibelwa ke melao ya setso. Mosola
0
mogolo
wa thekeniki e, ke go senoIa maitsholo a ga kgosi Selebi. Ke go re fa a
sa itshware kwa bofelong
0
tIa kopana Ie mathata. Ka go bua ka nosi ga
gagwe, go lemogiwa semelo sa gagwe
yo
0
nang Ie manganga, e bile
kgosi Selebi ke motho yo
ka mokgwa
*
0 0
0
0
gore ke motho
yo
0
lenyatso,
laolwa ke maikutlo. Ka jalo go ka twe
boikgantsho, yo
0
dirisang maemo a gagwe
sa siamang.
Bogale
Kgosi Selebi
0
tIhagisiwa e Ie motho yo
0
bogale. 0
galefela mongwe Ie
mongwe jaaka a rata ka gonne a itse gore ke ena kgosi, e bile
ope yo
0
ka mo emang fa pele. Ka jalo kgosi Selebi
0
ga go
dirisa maemo a
gagwe a bogosi, go galefela batho ba bangwe. Kgang e, e ka gatelelwa
ka go nopola mafoko a mokwadi fa are:
Selebi
ka bogale ... [ts.3] Selebi
ka bogale ... [ts. 14] 111
Mokwadi
0
dirisitse
thekeniki
nngwe, ya poeletso, go
e Ie
tlhalosa
maemo a ga kgosi Selebi a a kwa godimo a a lebaganeng Ie bogale jwa
gagwe.
*
Poeletso
Go tla lemogiwa gore mokwadi
0
dirisitse thekeniki ya poeletso go
tsepamisa dikgang tsa bogale jwa ga kgosi Selebi ka boena, e seng ka
baanelwa ba bangwe. Bogale jwa ga kgosi Selebi bo lebagane Ie go
fitlha ditiro tsa gagwe tse di sa siamang. 0 bua ka bogale gore botlhe ba
mo tshabe. Go ka twe kgosi Selebi
0
dirisa maemo a gagwe ka mokgwa
o 0 sa slamang.
*
Kakaretso
Fa go tlhalosiwa maemo a ga kgosi Selebi a a kwa godimo go dirisitswe
dipharologantsho di Ie pedi, e leng bogosi Ie bogale. Go tswelela pele go
dirisitswe
dithekeniki
di Ie
pedi: tsepamiso Ie poeletso go
tlhagisa
molaetsa wa terama e, e leng maitsholo. Fa go bapisiwa dithekeniki
pedi tse, go tla lemogiwa gore mokwadi
0
tse
dirisitse thekeniki ya poeletso
go gaisa ya tsepamiso go gatelela maitsholo a ga kgosi Selebi a a sa
slamang.
o
Moanelwa ka boena
Kgosi Selebi ke moanelwa wa maemo a a kwa godimo ka gonne ke
kgosi. Go na Ie pharologantsho e Ie nngwe fela e e tlhagisiwang ke ena
ka sebele, e e tlhalosang maemo a gagwe, yona ke bogosi.
112 *
Bogosi
Kgosi Selebi
0
ipitsa kgosi . Fa a bua
0
gatelela bogosi jwa gagwe gore
ba ba buang Ie ena ba itse gore ba bua Ie kgosi mme ba ikokobetse.
Selebi are:
Ke go reng fa ke feta gaufi Ie ntlo e pelo ya me e ubauba, e kibakiba? A ke go re dipheko tsa lelapa Ie di a nkimela? A mme dipheko tsa
kgosi
di ka imelwa ke tsa motlhanka? Kana dipheko tsa me di na Ie tomela e kgolo. Lenaka la me Ie lometswe ka legata la motho, Gore ke tie ke gate batlhanka ba ntshabe lefeke; E re ke rotola matlho ba ribege difatlhego. Tomela ya lenaka la me e tshwanetse go ripitla dipheko tsa batlhanka. E tshwanetse go di ripitla gore ba khubame fa ba mpona. Ga ke dumele gore ke dipheko tsa lelapa Ie tse di dirang jalo ... [ts.l] Fa go buisiwa puo e ya ga Selebi ka tlhokomelo go tla lemogiwa gore
mokwadi
0
dirisitse dithekeniki di Ie tlhano go rulaganya dikgang tsa maemo
a a kwa godimo, a ga kgosi Selebi, a a lebaganeng Ie bogosi jwa gagwe.
Tsona ke mmuaesi, phapologantsho, poko, kgeJekiso Ie pheteJetso.
113 *
Mmuaesi
Serudu (1989:41) fa a tlhalosa lereo Ie are:
Ke polelo e teletSana yeo go yona moanegwa a
ntShago maikutlo a a lego pelong ya gagwe, a
hlabosa lentsu pele ga babogedi mo sefaleng.
Mmuaesi
0
lebagane Ie rnaikutlo a rnoanelwa yo
0
rileng, yo
0
buang
dikgang ka boena a Ie nosi. Le fa Serudu a gatelela gore puo e, e tshwanetse
go tlhagisiwa ka Ientswe Ie Ie kwa godimo, fela go a kgonagala gore
moanelwa a ka bua a Ie nosi a sa buele kwa godimo, kgotsa a ka bua ka
tidimalo, ka mo pelong.
Puo ya mofuta
0
e bidiwa itlhagiso ya kakanyo.
Mo tshekatshekong e go ya go tlhokomelwa ka moo mmuaesi
ka teng rno seraleng.
dirisitsweng
0
Ke go re fa moanelwa a buela kwa godimo, e seng
itlhagiso ya kakanyo. Mo puong e ya ga kgosi Selebi go tlhagelela thekeniki
ya mmuaesi. Thekeniki e, e senoIa maikutlo a ga kgosi Selebi. Mo
maikutlong a go lemogiwa semelo sa gagwe gore ke motho yo
Ke motho yo
0
fekeetswang ke maikutlo, ka jalo
0
sa siamang.
0
bokoa, fela go Iemogilwe
gore gantsi maemo a dirisa batho diphoso ke ka moo kgosi Selebi Ie ena a
tagwang ke maemo a bogosi ka teng.
*
Phapologantsho
Mohlala ( 1994 : 70 )
0
tlhalosa phapologantsho ka go re ke thekeniki e
mokwadi a e dirisang go Iekalekanya ditshwantsho kgotsa dikakanyo di Ie
pedi ka mokgwa wa go di farologanya. Serudu (1989: 39)
0
tsweledisa
kakanyo e pele ka go re phapologantsho ke mokgwa wa go bapisa dikao tse
pedi tse di sa tshwaneng ka maikaelelo a go tlhalosa kgang kgotsa tiragalo ka
mokgwa wa kgogedi.
114 Mo mmuaesing wa ga kgosi Selebi
fa godimo,mokwadi
0 0
0
dirisa thekeniki
e ka go re:
Selebi: A mme dipheko tsa kgosi di ka imelwa ke
tsa motlhanka. (ts.1)
Se se botihokwa
mo
mmuaesmg
0
wa
ga kgosi
Selebi ke go re go
bapisiwa maemo a batho ba Ie babedi ka go a farologanya gore go
Iemogwe fa ba sa Iekane mo botshelong. Kgosi Selebi ke wa maemo a
a kwa godimo mo Ietihakoreng Ie Iengwe Mmapitsa
0
tlhalosiwa e Ie wa
maemo a a kwa tlase.
Botlhokwa jwa thekeniki e, ke go re mokwadi
0
rata go senoIa tiriso e
e botihaswa ya maemo a a kwa godimo a kgosi Selebi a go pateletsa
dikeletso tsa gagwe tse di maswe tsa Ierato, ka go dirisa maemo ao. Ka
jalo maemo a a kwa godimo a tihalosiwa fa a Iebagane Ie bosula kgotsa
go
tlhoka
tshiamo
ga
kgosi
Selebi. Ke yona kgogedi
e e ngokang
kgatlhego ya mmuisi.
*
Kgelekiso
Fa a tlhalosa thekeniki ya kgelekiso, Baidick (1990: 189) are ke:
a question asked for the sake of persuasive
effect rather than a genuine information.
Baldick
0
gateleia gore kgelekiso e Iebagane Ie potso e e nang Ie karabo
e e nang Ie tihotlheletso. Ke ka moo Serudu (1989:41) a reng:
115 Ke potsiso yeo e botSiswago eupsa e sa tsorne
karabo. Nepo
ke
go
gatelela taba go feta
bolelwa thwii. Mongwadi
rno
fe
tsebe
ba
ge e
hlohla rnrnadi gore a
0
kgone
go sogisana
seo
a se
bolelago.
Se se botlhokwa rno puong e ke go re rnokwadi
0
rata gore rnrnUlSI Ie
ena a nne Ie seabe rno sekwalweng.
Fa
go ka lebelelwa
rnrnuaesi
0
wa
ga
kgosi
Selebi, go
tlhagelela
thekeniki e ya kgelekiso:
Selebi: A ke go re dipheko tsa lelapa Ie di a nkirnela? A rnrne dipheko tsa kgosi di ka irnelwa ke tsa rnotlhanka? Go tla tlhokornelwa gore dipotso tse
kgosi Selebi a ipotsang tsona ke
tse di sa batleng karabo ka gonne dikarabo tsa tsona di a itsege.
A ke go re dipheko tsa lelapa Ie di a nkirnela? A rnrne dipheko tsa kgosi di ka irnelwa ke tsa rnotlhanka?" Dikarabo tsa dipotso tse ke tse di Iatelang:
Karabo ya potso ya ntlha ke go re kgosi Selebi ga a irnelwe ke dipheko
tsa Ielapa Ia ga Mrnapitsa,
0
a itse gore ke Ierato Ia ga Mrnapitsa Ie Ie rno
tihakanyang tlhogo. Karabo ya potso ya bobedi ke go re dipheko tsa
116 kgosi di ka se ka tsa imelwa ke tsa motlhanka ka gonne dikgosi di
tshwarwa ka dipheko tse di tiileng ke dingaka tse dikgolo.
Thekeniki e, e lebagane Ie tlhotlheletso ka gonne mokwadi
mmuisi go lemoga se sengwe kwa pele. Kgosi Selebi
0
0
tlhotlheletsa
a itse gore tiro e
a e dirang ya go ratana Ie Mmapitsa ke e e sa siamang fela
ka jalo mmuisi
0
0
a e pateletsa,
emetse mathata a Selebi a a pateletsang go diragala.
Thekeniki e, e botlhokwa ka gonne e gatelela se se itsiweng gore se
kgang
e, e lebagane
Ie
kgogedi
ka
gonne
bonagale
bonolo, mme
mokwadi
0
gwetlha mmuisi go buisetsa kwa pele ka jalo go ka twe
mokwadi
0
godisa maemo Ie kitso ya mmuisi ka go dira gore Ie ena a
nne Ie seabe mo sekwalweng.
*
Poko
Serudu (1984: 194)
kgang
0
tlhalosa poko ka go re ke fa mokwadi a tlhagisa
ka puo e e seng ya ka metlha. Puo e e bofitlha mme e na Ie
kgogedi e e lebaganeng Ie maikutlo a mmoki ka gonne e se puo e e
tlwaelegileng. Mmuisi
0
lemoga maikutlo a mmoki ka puo e e ntseng
jalo.
Mokwadi
0
dirisitse thekeniki ya poko mo mmuaesmg wa ga kgosi
Selebi:
Selebi: Ke go reng fa ke feta gaufi Ie ntlo e pelo
ya me e ubauba e kibakiba?
A ke go re dipheko tsa lelapa Ie di a
nkimela?
117
A mme dipheko tsa kgosi di ka imelwa ke tsa motlhanka? Kana dipheko tsa me di na Ie tomela e kgolo; Lenaka Ia me Ie lometswe ka legata la motho; Gore ke tie ke gate batIhanka ba ntshabe lefeke ... (ts.I) Puo e mokwadi a e dirisitseng e lebagane Ie metara (puo ya mmoki) go
gaisa porousu (kanedi). Ka jalo ga se puo ya ka metlha ya moanedi
kgotsa mmuagale. Go lemogiwa maikutIo a mmoki, e leng kgosi Selebi
ka boena, e seng a mokwadi. Ka poko e go lemogiwa khuduego e e
bontshang lerato Ie Ie tukang mo pelong ya ga kgosi Selebi.
Ntsime
0
dirisa thekeniki e, go godisa maikutlo a ga kgosi Selebi gore
a lemogwe bonolo mo matIhong a mmuisi ka go dirisa puo ya poko.
*
Pheteletso
Mohlala (1987:39)
0
tIhaIosa kakanyo e ka go re :
Ke sekapuo se ka sona mongwadi a phagamisago boemo bja selo go feta ka moo bo tsebjago, nepo e Ie go gateIeIa botIhokwa bja taba ye a e tsweletsago. Se se gateIeIwang ke go re pheteletso e oketsa maemo a kgang gore e
tIhaIoganyege botoka.
118
Mo mmuaesing wa ga kgosi Selebi go tiageIeia thekeniki e, ya
Pheteletso.
Mokwadi
0
dirisa Iefoko 'lefeke' , e Ieng Ieina Ie Ie tswang mo leetsing,
feke! go kaya go tshaba go go feteletseng go tihagisa pheteJetso. Ka
thulaganyo e e ntseng jaana ya puo
mokwadi
0
godisa
kgang
gore
mmUlSI a e Iemoge bonoio. Ke ka moo go ka tweng thekeniki e, e tiisa
kgogedi e e Iebaganeng Ie maemo a a kwa godimo a kgosi Selebi.
Fa go tlhalosiwa pharologantsho ya bogosi, go dirisitswe dithekeniki di
Ie
tJhano, e leng
mmuaesi, pharologantsho,
kgeJekiso, poko
Ie
pheteJetso go bontsha maemo a ga kgosi Selebi a a kwa godimo a a
Iebaganeng Ie bogosi jwa gagwe.
o
Puo Ie ditiro tsa baaneJwa ba bangwe
Dipuo Ie ditiro tsa baanelwa ba bangwe Ie tsona di supa fa kgosi Selebi e
Ie moanelwa wa maemo a a kwa godimo. Go ya go Iekolwa maemo a, a
gagwe fa a Iebagane Ie pharologantsho ya bogosi fela.
*
Bogosi
Selebi ke kgosi mme bogosi jwa gagwe bo itsiwe ke batho botlhe. Fa
batho ba bua Ie ena ba a itse gore ba bua Ie kgosi ya bona. Rantho fa a
gatelela _bogosi jwa ga kgosi Selebi are:
Rantho: Kgosi ya me, ke a itse kemotlhanka.
Fela itse gore
0
borre ba.
119
kgosi ka nna Ie
Kgosi Selebi, bogosi jwa motse wa gaga bo fedile . Fa
0
nna kwa ga Mmapitsa bogosi bo iIe; Gonne re a itse gore Mmapitsa
0
itse go tshereanya banna. Le dikgosi ga a tshabe go di Iekelela. Rona re ka se tsaIeIwe kgosi ke Mmapitsa. Mmapitsa
ke
motlhanka
wa
madi
a
masesane;
Motihanka
wa madi
a a tlhantseng
(ts.59)
Mokwadi
0
dirisitse dithekeniki
di Ie tharo, e leng phapologantsho,
pheteletso Ie phefofatso, go tlhalosa maemo a kgosi Selebi a a kwa godimo
a a lebaganeng Ie bogosi.
Kwa ntle ga Rantho, go sa ntse go na Ie baanelwa ba bangwe gape ba Ie
bona ba buang ka bogosi jwa ga kgosi Selebi. Mmapitsa fa a bua ka
kgosi Selebi are:
Mmapitsa: Motho yo
0
lebileng kwano yo,
0
ka
0
tlile
re ke kgosi Selebi.
Tota fa e Ie gore
0
tla kwano
go dira eng?
Kana ga a tlwaela go tsena ka lelapa
Ia me.
Tota
0
tlile go batla eng?
Ke dirile eng se se bosuIa?
Tota 0 tla kwano
120 Jjoo! Ke dirile eng?.. (ts. 22) Mo puong e ya ga Mmapitsa, go dirisitswe dithekeniki di Ie tharo, ke
kgelekiso, lelatlhelwa Ie mmuaesi.
Jaanong go ya go lekolwa ka moo Ntsime a dirisitseng
dithekeniki tse
ka teng.
*
Phapologantsho
Mo puong ya ga Rantho e e fa godimo, mokwadi
0
dirisa thekeniki ya
phapologantsho :
Rantho: Kgosi ya me, ke a itse ke motlhanka ... [ts.59]
Mokwadi
0
bapisa maemo a batho ba Ie babedi, e leng kgosi Selebi Ie
Rantho ka go a farologanya gore mmuisi a lemoge gore batho ba, ga ba
lekane ka
maemo
a botshelo. Kgosi
Selebi
ke wa
maemo
a a kwa
godimo ka gonne e Ie moeteledipele wa setshaba mme mo letlhakoreng
Ie lengwe Rantho
0
kaiwa e Ie wa maemo a a kwa tlase ka gonne e Ie
motlhanka.
Ka thekeniki e, mokwadi
0
bapisa maemo a batho ba Ie babedi a a sa
tshwaneng, a a tlhagisang fa kgosi Selebi a Ie botlhokwa go gaisa Rantho.
*
Pheteletso
Pheteletso e tlhalositswe fa e Ie thekeniki e e godisang dilo gore di
121 bonagale di Ie botlhokwa. Go ya go tlhokomelwa ka moo mokwadi a
dirisitseng thekeniki
e ka teng go tIhaIosa bogosi jwa ga kgosi Selebi, jo
bo lebaganeng Ie maemo a a kwa godimo.
Rantho: Mmapitsa ke
motihanka wa
madi
masesane. Motlhanka wa madi a a tihantseng ... [ts.59] Mokwadi
0
dirisa
"madi a masesane" Ie "madi
a a tlhantseng" go
feteletsa maemo a a kwa tlase, a botlhanka a ga Mmapitsa. Go ka twe
mokwadi
0
godisa maemo ao gore a lemogege bonolo, ke ka moo a sa
diriseng "motlhanka" fela fa a tlhalosa maemo a, a ga Mmapitsa ka
gonne tlhaloso eo e ne e ka se lemogege sentle.
Thekeniki e, e lebagane Ie go godisa kgang e e reng
itsalanya
Ie
batlhanka
Ie ena
0
tla fetoga
fa kgosi Selebi a
motlhanka;
0
tla
wa
mo
maemong.
*
Phefofatso
Lesele (1989:101) fa a tlhalosa thekeniki e, are ke fa:
Mafoko a a bogale a tlhofofatswa ka go dirisa a
a bonolo a a amogelegang.
Se se botihokwa ka puo e ke go re mokwadi
0
dirisa puo e e bonolo go
fapoga go kgopisa batho, ka maikaeIeio a go tlotla yo a buang Ie ena.
Thekeniki e, e tlhageleia mo puong ya ga Rantho:
122 Rantho: Gonne re a itse gore Mmapitsa
0
itse go
tshereanya banna ... [ts.59]
Mo puong e, mokwadi
dirisa lefoko go "tshereanya" go bontsha
0
gore moanelwa yo, Rantho,
bua a lebagane Ie motho yo
0
0
kwa godimo
ga gagwe ka maemo, e Ieng kgosi Selebi. Ke ka moo a tshwanetseng go
tlhofofatsa
puo ya gagwe. Fa
e Ie gore
e ne
0
bua
a Iebagane
Ie
Mmapitsa, ka gongwe a ka bo a thatafaditse puo ya gagwe mme a dirisa
Iefoko "tlaetsa" kgotsa "gafisa" .
Thekeniki e, e botlhokwa ka gonne e Iebagane Ie tlotlo. Rantho fa a bua
Ie kgosi Selebi
0
bontsha tlotlo ka go fapoga puo e e kgopisang, ka gonne
kgosi Selebi ke motho wa maemo a a kwa godimo.
*
Mmuaesi
Mmuaesi
moanelwa
0
tlhalositswe fa e Ie thekeniki e e lebaganeng Ie maikutlo a
kgotsa
mokwadi. Go ya go lebelelwa ka moo
mokwadi
dirisitseng thekeniki e go tlhalosa maemo a ga kgosi Selebi a bogosi:
Mmapitsa: Motho yo
0
lebileng kwano yo,
o ka re ke kgosi Selebi. Tota fa e Ie gore
0
tla kwano, o tlile go batla eng? Kana ga a tlwaela
go tsena
ka lelapa la me Tota
0
tlile go batia eng? Ke dirile eng se se bosula? ... [ts.22] 123 a
Mo puong e, Ntsime
0
dirisitse thekeniki ya mmuaesi go senoIa maikutlo a
moaneIwa, e Ieng Mmapitsa, e seng a mokwadi. Maikutio a, a senoIa dilo
di Ie
pedi, e Ieng
(a) letshogo
Ie (b)
kgakgamalo. Maikutlo
a a
Iebaganeng Ie kgakgamalo ke fa Mmapitsa are:
Tota fa e Ie gore
0
tla kwano,
o tlile go batla eng? Kana ga a tlwaela go tsena ka lelapa la me. Maikutio a a Iebaganeng Ie letshogo ona ke fa Mmapitsa are:
Ke dirile eng se se bosula?
Thekeniki e, e botlhokwa ka gonne e Iemosa mmuisi maemo a ga kgosi
Selebi a a kwa godimo, a a Iebaganeng Ie bogosi. Ke ka moo batho ba
motse wa gagwe ba tshwanetseng go mmoifa Ie go mo gakgamaieia fa
ba mmona a dira dilo
tshabega,
0
dingwe tse di sa tIwaeIegang. Kgosi Selebi
tshwantshanngwa
Ie phoiogolo e e boifisang. Ka
jalo
0
a
go
Iemogiwa semelo sa gagwe.
*
Kge]ekiso
Thekeniki e ya kgelekiso Ie yona e setse e tIhaIositswe fa e Ie potso e e
sa tlhokeng
karabo. Fa go Iebelelwa mmuaesi
0
wa
ga Mmapitsa
tlhagelela thekeniki ya kgelekiso:
Mmapitsa: Ke dirile eng se se bosula? ... [ts.22]
Go tla tlhokomelwa gore potso e Mmapitsa a ipotsang yona ke e e sa
124
go
batleng karabo ka gonne karabo ya yona e a itsege. Karabo ya potso e
ke go re Mmapitsa
0
a itse gore ga a dira sepe
tshoge fa a bona kgosi Selebi, fela
0
se se ka dirang gore a
a tshoga ka gonne motho yo
tlang kwa go ena ke wa maemo a a kwa godimo
0
fa a bapisiwa Ie a
gagwe.
Thekeniki e, e lebagane Ie tlhotlheletso ka gonne
mokwadi
0
tlhalosetsa
mmuisi go lemoga tiragalo nngwe e e botlhokwa e e tlang. Go ya ga kgosi
Selebi kwa ga Mmapitsa go raya go re kgang e teng. Ka jalo mmuisi
0
emetse kgang eo, e leng lerato la ga kgosi Selebi Ie Mmapitsa.
Botlhokwa jwa
thekeniki e,
ke
go gatelela se se itsiweng gore se
bonagale sentle, mme kgang e e na Ie kgogedi, ka go nne e godisa semelo
sa ga kgosi. Selebi. Mokwadi
0
pateletsa mmuisi go buisetsa kwa pele go
bona gore ke eng Mmapitsa a tshoga fa kgosi
Selebi a tla kwa ga
gagwe. Ka jalo go godisiwa maemo Ie kitso ya mmuisi gore Ie ena a nne
Ie seabe mo sekwalweng.
*
Lelatlhelwa
Go ya ka Matseke (1968:118) lelatlhelwa ke:
Lefoko Ie Ie latlhelwang mo polelong go oketsa
natefo.
Paulos (1990:434) fa a tlaleletsa kgang e are:
The interjection
that
is
IS
defined as word or phrase
used in syntactic isolation
expresses sudden emotion.
125 and
that
Go ya
ka
ditlhaloso
tse,
lelatlhelwa, ga
Ie na
kgokagano
epe Ie
dikarolwana tse dingwe tsa puo, Ie ka dirisiwa fela ka bolona, gape Ie
tlhagisa maikutlo a a rileng mo puong, e ka nna maikutlo a a itumedisang
kgotsa a a sa itumediseng.
Thekeniki ya lelatlhelwa e dirisitswe go tlhalosa maemo a ga kgosi
Selebi a a kwa godimo.
Mmapitsa: ljoo! Ke dirile eng? ... [ts.22]
Lelatlhelwa Ie Ijoo! Ie Iebagane Ie maikutlo a ga Mmapitsa a a sa
itumediseng ka ntlha ya gore a supa Ietshogo. Maikutlo a, a Iebagane Ie
maemo
a moanelwa
Mmapitsa
0
yo Ielatlhelwa
Ie Ie
Iebisitsweng
kwa
go
ena.
tshosiwa ke maemo a ga kgosi Selebi ka gonne e Ie a a kwa
godimo ka jalo go ka twe kgosi Selebi ke motho yo
0
nang Ie seriti. Ke
ka moo batho ba mmoifang.
Fa go tlhalosiwa
pharologantsho
ya
bogosi Jwa ga
kgosi Selebi, e e
tlhagisiwang ke baanelwa, go dirisitswe dithekeniki di Ie thataro, e Ieng
phapologantsho,
pheteletso,
phefofatso,
mmuaesi,
kgelekiso
Ie
lelatlhelwa go tlhagisa maemo a ga kgosi Selebi a a kwa godimo a a
Iebaganeng Ie bogosi jwa gagwe.
*
Moanelwa wa makoa
Go ya go tlhokomelwa molwantshiwa, e leng kgosi Selebi, e Ie motho wa
makoa go ya ka moo a tlhalosiwang ke mokwadi, moanelwa ka boena Ie
tse di buiwang ke baanelwa ba bangwe ka ga gagwe.
126 *
Mokwadi
Kgosi Selebi ke moanelwa yo
0
nang Ie makoa ka ntlha ya go re
0
nyatsa
lelapa la gagwe. Fa go lebelelwa makoa a, a gagwe go fitlhelwa go na Ie
pharologantsho
e Ie
nngwe
fela
e e t1hagisiwang
ke
mokwadi, e e
t1halosang makoa a gagwe, e leng tenego.
*
Tenego
Mokwadi
tlhalosa kgosi Selebi e Ie motho yo
0
rate fa a bontshiwa diphoso tsa
ratang
0
nang Ie makoa. Ga a
gagwe, ke ka moo a tenegang gore ba ba
go mo gakolola ba palelwe ke go
bua Ie ena. Kgang
e, e ka
gatelelwa ka go nopola mafoko a mokwadi fa are:
Selebi: (0 tenegile) ... [ts.l] Selebi: (0 sa ntse a tenegile) ... [ts.3] Selebi: (ka tenego) ... [ts.14] Mokwadi
0
dirisitse thekeniki e Ie nngwe, ya poeletso, go tlhalosa makoa
a ga kgosi Selebi, a a isang maemo a gagwe a bogosi kwa tlase.
*
Poeletso
Thekeniki ya poeletso e dirisitswe go senoIa makoa a ga kgosi Selebi.
Selebi: (0 tenegile) ... [ts.l] Selebi: (0 sa ntse a tenegile) ... [ts.3] Selebi: (ka tenego) ... [ts.14] 127
Go tla tlhokornelwa gore tiragalo e e boelediwang rno puong ya rnokwadi
ke ya go tenega ga kgosi Selebi. Mokwadi
0
a e boeletsa ka ntlha ya go
re e botlhokwa , ka jalo rnrnuisi a e tlhokornele go gaisa tse dingwe. Kgosi
Selebi
ka
go gana
go
gakololwa,
0
iphernela
ka go tenega
gore
Senwarnetsi, Ie borangwanaagwe ba palelwe ke go diragatsa rnaikaelelo
a bona a go rno gakolola. 0 itse sentle gore fa a tenegile ba tla rnrnoifa
rnrne ena a tswelela ka ditiro tsa gagwe tse di sa siarnang.
Ka
thekeniki
e
rnokwadi
gatelela
0
rnakoa
a ga kgosi Selebi
a a
Iebaganeng Ie go tenega ga gagwe.
o
Moanelwa ka boena
Kgosi Selebi ke rnoanelwa yo
0
nang Ie rnakoa ka gonne
0
nyatsa
lelapa la gagwe. Go na Ie dipharologantsho tse di rileng tse di tlhalosiwang
ke ena
ka sebele tse di
senolang
rnakoa
a gagwe,
e Ieng Jerato
Ja
bonyatsi, lenyatso, maaka Ie tenego.
*
Lerato la bonyatsi
Kgosi Selebi
ke rnotho yo
0
nang Ie Ierato, fela Ierato Ie, Ie senoIa
rnakoa a gagwe ka gonne Ie Iebagane Ie go nyatsa Ielapa Ia gagwe. Lerato
Ie a tshwanetseng go rata Senwarnetsi ka Iona,
0
Ie neela rnosadi yo
rnongwe, e leng Mrnapitsa. Fa kgosi Selebi a bua ka rnokgwa
Mrnapitsa ka teng are:
Ntlhang
0
ka re ke rata rnosadi wa Ielapa Ie!
Ee, fa ke rno gopola dipounarna tsa me di a
ngeba.
128
0
a ratang
Fa ke rno gopola pelo ya me e a sweufala. Jaanong ke tla dira jang gonne Ierato Ie, Ie tla tsala sekgopi, Ietlhoo Ie kilano. Fela nna ke a rno rata ... [ts. 1] Mokwadi
0
dirisitse dithekeniki di Ie supa, e Ieng rnrnuaesi, kgelekiso,
lelatlhelwa, rnotifi, poelornorago, tshwantshiso Ie leele go tlhalosa Ierato
Ia ga kgosi Selebi rno go Mrnapitsa, Ie Ie Iebaganeng Ie rnakoa a gagwe.
*
Mrnuaesi
Go ya go tlhokornelwa ka moo rnokwadi a dirisitseng thekeniki e ka
teng:
Ntlhang 0 ka re ke rata rnosadi wa Ielapa Ie! Ee, fa ke rno gopola dipounarna tsa me di a ngeba. Fa ke rno gopola pelo ya me e a sweufala. Mo rnrnuaesing
0 0
fa godirno rnokwadi
0
senoIa rnaikutlo a rnoanelwa, e
Ieng kgosi Selebi a a ka fa teng. Maikutlo a, a Iebagane Ie lerato Ie kgosi
Selebi a ratang nyatsi, Mrnapitsa, ka Iona. Ka thekeniki e, rnokwadi
0
tlhagisa kgotlhang e e Ieng ka fa gare ga kgosi Selebi. Kgotlhang e, e
Iebagane Ie lerato Ia rnosadi wa gagwe, Senwarnetsi, Ie Ia nyatsi, Mrnapitsa.
Ka jalo kgosi Selebi
0
tshwanetse go tsaya tshwetso ya go re
rno go bona ba babedi. Kwa bofelong kgosi Selebi
0
0
rata ofe
itlhophela go arnogela
Ierato la nyatsi go gaisa Ia rnosadi wa gagwe.
Ka thekeniki e, rnokwadi
0
senoIa sernelo se se Iebaganeng Ie rnaikutlo
129
a lerato la nyatsi, sa ga kgosi Selebi gore a lernogwe fa e Ie rnoaneIwa
yo
0
*
nang Ie rnakoa, yo
0
fekeetswang ke rnaikutlo.
Kgelekiso
Mo rnrnuaesing wa ga kgosi Selebi go tlhageleIa thekeniki ya kgelekiso:
NtIhang
0
ka re ke rata rnosadi wa lelapa Ie! ... [ts.l] Go t1a lernogiwa gore potso e kgosi Selebi a ipotsang yona, e leng:
ntIhang
0
ka re ke rata rnosadi wa lelapa Ie, ga e batIe karabo ka gonne
karabo ya yona e a itsege. Karabo e e itsegeng ya potso e e bodiwang ke
go re ke nnete kgosi Selebi
0
rata Mrnapitsa. Ka go botsa potso e e nang
Ie karabo e a e itseng rnokwadi
0
dirisa rnoanelwa, e leng kgosi Selebi
go gatelela botlhokwa jwa potso e. Kgang e a e botsang e lebagane Ie
lerato rno nyatsing. Lerato Ie, ke lona Ie Ie tlholang kgotIhang ya ka fa
gare
rno
go kgosi Selebi. Ka
jalo rnokwadi
0
dirisa thekeniki, ya
kgelekiso go tsweledisa pele kgogedi, ka gonne go Ie gantsi kgotlhang e
lebagane Ie kgogedi, Ie fa go Ie jalo rnokwadi
0
dirisa thekeniki e go
tlhagisa rnakoa a ga kgosi SeIebi.
*
Lelatlhelwa
Mokwadi
0
dirisa thekeniki e nngwe gape rno rnrnuaesmg wa ga kgosi
Selebi, e leng lelatlhelwa .
. Ee, fa ke rno gopola dipounarna tsa
me di a ngeba ... [ts.l]
130
Ee! ke Ielatlhelwa Ie Ie Iebaganeng Ie maikutlo a a itumedisang a ga
kgosi Selebi. Ke maikutlo a a itumedisang ka gonne a Iebagane Ie Ierato
Ia ga kgosi Selebi mo nyatsing, Mmapitsa. Ke maikutlo a a Iebaganeng Ie
Ierato Ie Ieswa, Ie Ie bonagalang Ie na Ie maatla. Maatla a Iona a godisiwa
ke go re ga Ie ise Ie nne Ie diphoso mo go Iona.
Thekeniki e e senoIa makoa a ga kgosi Selebi ka ntlha ya go nyatsa
Ielapa Ia gagwe. Ka jalo maemo a ga kgosi Selebi a a kwa godimo a ya
kwa tlase ka ntlha ya makoa a gagwe.
*
Motifi
Abrams (1981: 111)
0
tlhalosa motifi ka go re:
A motive
IS
device or
formula
an,
element
a type
which recurs
of
incident,
frequently in
literature.
Serudu (1989:35) fa a tlaleletsa se se buiwang ke Abrams are motifi ke
lefokonyana, tiragalo, polelwana kgotsa
lefoko
Ie Ie
sekwalweng. 0 tswelela pele ka go re ona motifi
boeletswang
0, 0
mo
ka dirisiwa go
tlhagisa semelo sa moanelwa, mekgwa ya gagwe ya go bua, popego ya
gagwe gongwe makoa Ie bokgoni jwa gagwe.
Se se gatelelwang ke go re motifi
0
lebagane Ie go boeletswa mme ka
ona go ka tlhaloganngwa semelo sa moanelwa.
Mokwadi
0
tlhagisa thekeniki ya motifi mo mmuaesing wa ga kgosi
Selebi:
131
Ee, fa ke mo gopola dipounama tsa me di a
ngeba
Fa ke mo gopola pelo ya me e a sweufala [ts.l]
Ie
Ntlhang
0
ka re ke rata mosadi wa Ielapa Ie!
Ke tia dira jang gonne lerato Ie ... fela nna ke a
mo rata ... [ts.1]
Mafoko
a a ntshofaditsweng
mo
nopolong e e fa godimo
a tlhagisa
thulaganyo ya motifi.
"Fa ke mo gopola" e a boeletswa ka gonne e Ie botlhokwa. Ka yona
mokwadi
0
tlhagisa kakanyo e e Ieng ka fa teng ga kgosi Selebi.
Kakanyo e, ke ya Ierato mo nyatsing, Mmapitsa. Polelwana e, e supa fa
kgosi Selebi a itse Mmpitsa, ke ka ntlha e a kgonang go akanya ka ga
gagwe.
Go tswelela pele Ntsime
0
boeletsa Iefoko Ie "rata" go gateleia maikutlo
a ka fa teng a ga kgosi Selebi. Maikutlo a, ke a Ierato Ie Ie Iebaganeng Ie
go nyatsa Ielapa Ia gagwe ka gonne Ierato Ie,
e seng kwa
0
Ie Iebisitse kwa nyatsing
mosading wa gagwe. Ka fa teng ga maikutlo a ga kgosi
Selebi, go Iemogiwa kgotlhang ya ka fa gare ka gonne a sa itse gore
bakgosing ba ya go reng ka Ierato Ie Ia gagwe Ie Mmapitsa. Kgosi Selebi
o swetsa ka go re
0
tla emela sengwe Ie sengwe se se tlang.
Ka thekeniki e, mokwadi
0
tlhagisa maikutlo a ga kgosi Selebi
a a
Iebaganeng Ie go senoIa ditiro Ie maitsholo a gagwe a a maswe gore go
Iemogiwe semelo sa gagwe se se gatelelang makoa a gagwe.
132 *
Poelomorago
Serudu (1989:45)
tlhalosa poelomorago ka go re:
0
Tekolanthago ke
tatelano
ya
kanegelong
tsenatseno
metIheng
goba
ukama ditiragalo
ya
ya
ditiragalo
papading ka
tseo
di
moela wa
mo
nepo
ya go
setsego di
diregile
eupsa di nago Ie kama no Ie tSa bjale.
Se se gatelelwang ke go re ditiragalo tse di diragetseng kwa morago di na
Ie kamano Ie tsa jaanong, ke ka ntIha e Abrams (1981:41) a tiisetsang
tlhaloso e ka go re ke:
Interpolated narratives or scenes often justified
as
memory or
a
confession
by one
of the
characters which represents events that happened
before the time at which they opened.
Abrams
0
gatelela gore
tsona
ditiragalo
tse
di setseng
di fetile
di
akanngwa gape. Mo mmuaesing wa ga kgosi Selebi go tIhagelela thekeniki
ya poelomorago:
Fa ke mo gopola pelo ya me e a sweufala ... [ts.l]
Ka puo e go lemogiwa tiragalo nngwe e e diragetseng kwa morago. Fa
tiragalo e, e diragala Iwa ntIha mmuisi ga a e lemoga, jaanong ke gona a e
lemogang fa e diragala Iwa bobedi: kgosi Selebi
gagwe mo go Mmapitsa. Go raya gore kgosi Selebi
133 akanya ka lerato la
0
0
sa Ie a ratile
Mmapitsa letsatsi la ntlha fela fa a mmona ke ka moo a boang gape mo
kakanyong ya gagwe.
Thekeniki e, e Iebagane Ie go senoIa dikakanyo tsa ga kgosi Selebi. Go
Iemogiwa gore kakanyo ya Ierato la ga kgosi Selebi mo go Mmapitsa ga
se ya jaanong. Ke bogologolo e Ie teng. Ka jalo makoa a gagwe a go
nyatsa Ielapa a a tlhagisiwa.
*
Tshwantshiso
Fa a tlhalosa tshwantshiso Lesele (1989: 99) are:
Yona ga e re
selo "se tshwana Ie" ya re selo "ke". Ka go rialo e bitsa selo ka se sengwe. Gantsi tshwantshiso e bonwa ka kopulatifi "ke", fela lemoga gore ka nako nngwe e a tlogelwa. Se se tlhalosiwang ke Lesele ke go re tshwantshiso e lebagane Ie go
fetola selo go nna se sengwe. Ke ka moo Beckson Ie Ganz (1989:127) ba
gatelelang kakanyo e ka go re ke:
A figure of speech in which two unlike objects are compared by identification or by substitution of one for another. Mokwadi
0
dirisitse thekeniki ya tshwantshiso mo puong ya ga Selebi:
Pelo ya me e a sweufala.
134 Pelo e e kaiwang fa, ga se ya madi Ie nama ka gonne ga se pelo e e
tsamaisang madi, ke e e kayang sengwe go gaisa pelo ya madi Ie nama.
Se se kaiwang fa ke Jerato. Fa go ka tlhokomelwa sentle go tla lemogiwa
gore pelo e na Ie tiro e e rileng, e leng go rata. Ke lerato. Go ka twe pelo
ke bonno jwa lerato. Lerato Ie tswa mo pelong ya motho, e seng mo
tlhaloganyong ya gagwe. Kgosi Selebi
0
rata Mmapitsa ka lerato Ie Ie
tswang mo botennyeng jwa pelo ya gagwe. Fa a akanya ka ena, pelo ya
gagwe e tlala lerato Ie Ie mo lebatsang lelapa Ia gagwe.
Go na Ie Iefoko Ie lengwe gape Ie Ie lona mokwadi a Ie rulagantseng ka
mokgwa
wa
tshwantshiso, mme
lona ke
"sweufala". Sweufala e go
buiwang ka yon a ga se ya mmala ka gonne pelo ga e na mmala
e na Ie mmala
mmala
0
0
mosweu
mohibidu. Mmala
0
mosweu
0
mosweu,
kaya boitumelo ka gonne
tsamaelana Ie boitumelo fa mmala
0
0
0
mohibidu ona
0
tsamaelana Ie ntwa.
Fa go ka tlhokomelwa pelo e e kayang Ierato, Ie sweufala e e kayang
boitumelo di
tlhalosa lerato Ie Ie tlholang boitumelo mo pelong ya ga
kgosi Selebi. Thekeniki e e dirisitswe go gateleia lerato Ie boitumelo jo bo
mo pelong ya ga kgosi Selebi fa a Ie kwa ga Mmapitsa.
*
Leele
Cuddon (1991:321)
A form
0
tlhalosa leele ka go re ke:
of expression, construction or phrase peculiar to a language and often possessing a meaning other than its grammatical or logical one. 135 Se Cuddon a se gatelelang ke go re leele ke puo e e bofitlha e e
tlhagisang bokao jo bo farologaneng Ie se se buiwang.
Serudu (1989:112) fa a gatelela se se buiwang ke Cuddon are ke:
SehlophantSu gob a sekafoko sa polelo e itsego seo hlaloso ya sona e sa arnanego Ie pope go ya sona. Fa
go
buiwa
gore
rnaele a na Ie tlhaloso e e bofitlha e gantsi e sa
tsarnaelaneng Ie popego ya se se buiwang.
Ntsirne
0
tlhagisa thekeniki ya Ieele ka go re:
Fa ke rno gopola pelo ya me e a sweufala ... [ts.l]
Puo e e dirisitsweng fa ga se ya rnetlheng, ke e e bofitlha. Go na Ie puo e
e bonolo, e rnokwadi a ka e dirisang rno boernong jwa "go sweufala
pelo" e leng go itumela. Mokwadi
0
itlhophela go dirisa puo e e bofitlha
ka gonne go na Ie sengwe se se botlhokwa se a ratang gore mmuisi a se
lernoge, e leng boiturnelo jwa lerato la ga kgosi Selebi rno nyatsing ya
gagwe. Lerato Ie, go ya ka ena, ke lona Ie Ie gaisang rnarato otlhe rno
lefatsheng, ke ka ntlha e a Ie iturnelelang.
Mokwadi
0
rulaganya puo ya gagwe ka thekeniki e, go ngoka rnaikutlo
a rnrnUlSI gore a lernoge sernelo sa ga kgosi Selebi se se senolang
rnakoa a gagwe.
136 o
Lenyatso
Kgosi Selebi ke rnotho yo
0
Jenyatso. Lenyatso Ia gagwe Ie tlhageIeia fa
a bua Ie ngaka Lefifi ka rnokgwa wa go nyenyefatsa kitso ya gagwe ya
bongaka ka go re:
Selebi: Ehe, Ie tswa go rnpiletsa sengakana yo, Ie
tswa go rnpiletsa rarnaaka, Lefifi!
o itse eng fa a ntse jaana? Ga a ka ke a bona sepe. Sa gagwe ke rnaaka fela ... (ts.64) Go dirisitswe dithekeniki di Ie thataro, e Ieng kgeJekiso, motifi, Ielatlhelwa,
kobiso, nyenyefatso Ie tshotlo go tlhagisa Ienyatso Ia ga kgosi Selebi Ie
Ie Iebaganeng Ie rnakoa a gagwe.
*
Kgelekiso
Thekeniki e ya kgelekiso e tihageIeia jaana:
o itse eng
fa a ntse jaana? ... (ts.64)
Potso e kgosi Selebi a ipotsang yona ga e tlhoke karabo ka gonne
karabo ya yona ke go re kgosi Selebi
0
a itse gore Lefifi ke ngaka ya
nnete. Ke ena a ntseng a tshwara Ielapa la gagwe, go ka twe ke ngaka ya
kgosi. Go a gakgarnatsa gore kgosi Selebi a botse potso e ka gonne go
rno pepeneneng gore
0
botsa potso e a itseng
karabo ya yona. 0 a e
botsa ka gonne go ya ka ena, e botihokwa. Botlhokwa jwa yona bo
lebagane Ie go fitlha rnakoa a gagwe a go nyatsa lelapa la bogosi.
137 *
Motifi
Thekeniki e nngwe gape e mokwadi a e dirisitseng ke ya motifi, Selebi a
re:
Ehe, Ie tswa go mpiletsa sengakana yo!
Le tswa go mpiletsa ramaaka Lefifi.
Mo nopolong e, mokwadi
0
rulaganya dikgang tsa lenyatso ka thekeniki
ya motifi. "Le tswa go mpiletsa" e a boeletswa ka gonne e botlhokwa. Ka
yona mokwadi
0
tlhagisa maikutlo a ga kgosi Selebi a lenyatso. 0 dirisa
lenyatso go bontsha borangwanaagwe Ie banna ba lekgotla gore ena ke
kgosi mme ga a tshosetswe ka ngaka. Kgosi Selebi
Lefifi
jalo
0
0
0
a itse gore ngaka
tlile go senoia makoa a gagwe a go nyatsa lelapa la gagwe; ka
iphemela ka go dirisa lenyatso. 0 akanya gore fa a dirisa lenyatso
ngaka Lefifi
0
tla ngala mme a se ka a tlhola a rno tlhatlhoba.
Ka thekeniki e, mokwadi
0
rulaganya puo ya gagwe go senoia lenyatso
la ga kgosi Selebi Ie Ie lebaganeng Ie go fitlha makoa gore semelo sa
gagwe se bona gale sentle.
*
Lelatlhelwa
Thekeniki ya lelatlhelwa e dirisitswe mo puong e ya ga kgosi Selebi:
"Ehe," Ie tswa go mpiletsa sengakana ... [ts.64]
"Ehe," ke lelatlhelwa Ie Ie tlhagisang
lenyatso. Kgosi Selebi
0
maikutlo a a supang pelaelo Ie
dirisa lelatlhelwa Ie, go gatelela pelaelo ka gonne
o lemoga e kete sengwe ga se diragale ka tshwanelo. 0 simolola go
138
Iemoga gore borangwanaagwe Ie banna ba Iekgotla ba tswa go mmiletsa
ngaka. 0 ntse a belaela gore se, se ka diragala fela a se na bonnete. Fa a
Iemoga bonnete jwa kgang e,
0
simolola go dirisa Ienyatso. 0 nyatsa
bokgoni jwa ga ngaka Lefifi, ka gonne
0
na Ie pelaelo ya go re se se
buiwang ke ngaka, ga se se se tswang mo ditaoleng mme ke se se
tswang mo go borangwanaagwe Ie banna ba Iekgotla. Ke ka ntlha e a
nyatsang bongaka jo jwa ga Lefifi, e Ie go Ieka go iphitlha gore a se ka
a Iemogiwa fa a na Ie makoa a go nyatsa Ielapa Ia gagwe.
*
Kobiso
Abrams (1985:97) Ie Serudu (1989:28) ba tlhalosa fa kobiso e Ie puo e
Ie kganetso ya se selo e leng sona. Serudu fa a tsweletsa
e Iebaganeng
pele kgang e a re ke:
Tsela
ya
mongwe
go
ka
ikemiseditsego
thusa go
go
dirisa
t1aisa/sotla motho
kganetso
ya
seo
go se tsweletsa. Taba yeo
tsweletswa ka go
yo a
e ka dirisa mantsu ao ditlhaloso tsa ona di fapanago Ie seo mantSu ao a se rago. Puo ya ga Serudu e gatelela gore kobiso ke puo e e t1hagisang kganetso
e e bogale, ke go re ka fa gare ga kganetso e, go na Ie mokgwa wa go
tshwaya diphoso.
Mokwadi
0
tlhagisa mokgwa wa go tshwaya diphoso ga kgosi Selebi ka
go dirisa thekeniki ya kobiso:
Le tswa go mpiletsa ramaaka, Lefifi ... [ts.64]
139 Kgosi Selebi a re ngaka Lefifi ke "ramaaka". Fa go ka tlhokornelwa
ditiro tsa ga ngaka Lefifi, ga go na rno terarneng e, rno rnokwadi a rno
tIhaIosang e Ie rnotho yo
rnaaka. 0 sirnoIoIa go nna rnotho yo
0
rnaaka
0
fa a tshwanetse go tlhatlhoba kgosi Selebi, rnabapi Ie rnathata a gagwe a
go nyatsa Ielapa. Ka go re kgosi Selebi ga a batle go tlhatlhojwa ke
ngaka
Lefifi,
Ieka go
0
rarnaaka. Nnete
ke go re
rnrnatla
ngaka
diphoso, ke ka
Lefifi
akaretswa Ie ena kgosi Selebi, ka jalo
nnete, e seng yo
0
0
ikantswe
ke
a
rnrnitsang
bakgosing, go
itsege jaaka rnotho yo
0
buang
maaka. Fa kgosi Selebi a re ngaka Lefifi ke ramaaka
ga a bue nnete ka gonne Ie ena
Mokwadi
0
0
moo
0
a itse gore ngaka Lefifi ke rannete.
rulaganya dikgang tse, tsa go godisa tiro ya ga ngaka Lefifi
ka go dirisa thekeniki ya kobiso go senoIa rnakoa a ga kgosi Selebi.
*
Nyenyefatso
BoSnyrnan (1990:9) Ie
boCole (1992:105) ba tlhalosa gore nyenyefatso,
e bo pilwe ka ditlhongwa - ana Ie - nyana rnrne ditIhongwa tse, di kaya
bonnye, bana, tlontlololo Ie lerato.
Ehe, Ie tswa go rnpiletsa sengakana yo ... (ts.64]
Go tla lernogiwa · gore
rno puong e ya ga kgosi Selebi thekeniki e, ya
nyenyefatso e, dirisitswe go supa tlontlololo, e seng bonnye, bana kgotsa
lerato. Kgosi Selebi
0
nyenyefatsa ngaka Lefifi ka go rno tlontloloia gore
a Iebege e Ie rnotho yo
0
nyatsegang. Ka go nyatsa bokgoni jwa ga
ngaka Lefifi jwa ditaola, Selebi
0
Ieka go rno thibela gore a se ka a rno
tlhatlhoba. 0 nyenyefatsa bongaka jwa gagwe gore bo bonagale e Ie jo
bo se nang thuso.
140 Ka thekeniki e, mokwadi
0
senoIa makoa a ga kgosi Selebi a go dirisa
lenyatso, Ie ka lona a nyenyefatsang ditiro tsa batho ba bangwe. Ka jalo
go lemogiwa semelo sa gagwe.
*
Tshotlo
Ganz (1993:247)
0
tlhalosa tshotlo ka go re ke:
The redicule of an idea, person or type of person, or even mankind in general, to lower it in the reader's esteem and making it laughable. Ganz
gatelela gore tshotlo e lebagane Ie go tlontlolola kakanyo kgotsa
0
mongwe ka go isa
maemo a gagwe kwa tlase Ie go mo tshegisa ka ba
bangwe.
Mokwadi
0
atlegile mo go tlhagiseng lenyatso la ga kgosi Selebi ka
thekeniki e, ya tshotlo:
Ehe, Ie tswa go mpiletsa sengakana ... [ts.64]
"Sengakana" mo nopolong e, ke puo e e supang tshotlo ka gonne e
kaya gore ngaka Lefifi ke seka-ngaka. Seka-ngaka ke motho yo
ngaka fela a sa itse sepe ka tiro ya bongaka, go ka twe
go
ipitsa
ngaka. Kgosi Selebi
0
sotla
ngaka
0
0
itirang
fora batho ka
Lefifi ka go
sengakana go supa lenyatso. Ka lenyatso Ie, kgosi Selebi
0
mmitsa
leka go
fitlha makoa a gagwe ka maikaelelo a go faposa matlho Ie dikakanyo tsa
borangwanaagwe Ie banna ba lekgotla mo go ena, go di lebisa kwa go
ngaka Lefifi gore ba mmone e Ie motho yo
141
0
nyatsegang.
Ka thekeniki e, mokwadi
0
senoIa makoa a ga kgosi Selebi, a a lekang
go a fitiha ka go sotla ngaka Lefifi. Ka jalo go Iemogiwa gore kgosi
Selebi ke motho yo 0 lenyatso.
o
Maaka
Selebi, ntswa e Ie kgosi ga a rate nnete. Gantsi fa a bua Ie batho
0
dirisa
maaka gore ba dumele mo go se a se buang. Maaka a gagwe a senoIa
makoa a gagwe. Mokwadi
0
tlhagisa maaka ka molomo wa ga kgosi
Selebi ka go re:
Senwametsi
0
bua maaka a matala. Ke nna mo lelapeng Ie la me. Ga ke itse gore
Mokwadi
o dirisitse
0
batla ke dire eng ... [ts.18] dithekeniki
di Ie
pedi, e leng
pheteletso Ie
kgelekiso go tlhagisa maaka a ga kgosi Selebi.
*
Pheteletso
Mokwadi
0
tlhagisa thekeniki e ka go re:
Senwametsi
0
bua maaka a matala ... [ts.18]
Mokwadi ga a re "maaka" fela,
Ka jalo ntsime
0
0
tsweIela pele ka go re "a matala".
dirisitse thekeniki e nngwe ka fa gare ga thekeniki e, e
leng Letlhalosi.
Letlhalosi Ie Ie atolosang leina 'maaka" ke a matala. A matala e tlhalosa
142 maaka. Ka go atolosa tlhaloso ka mokgwa
0,
mokwadi
0
gatelela maaka a
ga Senwametsi. Maaka a a godisitsweng a, a senoIa makoa a ga kgosi
Selebi a go nyatsa lelapa la gagwe. Kgosi Selebi
motho yo
0
0
bua fa Senwametsi e Ie
maaka . Puo e ya gagwe e senolela mmuisi gore motho yo
0
maaka ke ena. Ka jalo maaka a go tweng ke a ga Senwametsi a senoIa
semelo sa ga
kgosi Selebi
ka gonne mmuisi
0
lemoga gore motho yo
0
nang Ie makoa fa gare ga kgosi Selebi Ie Senwametsi, ke kgosi Selebi
ka sebele. Ka jalo thekeniki e e oketsa makoa a ga kgosi Selebi.
*
Kgelekiso
Ntsime
0
dirisitse thekeniki
e nngwe gape, e leng kgelekiso, go senoIa
makoa a ga kgosi Selebi:
Ga ke itse gore
0
batla ke dire eng? ... [ts.18]
Fa go ka tlhokomelwa potso e ya ga kgosi Selebi, e leng ga ke itse gore
o batla ke dire eng, go tla Iemogiwa gore ga e batle karabo ka gonne
karabo ya teng ke go re Senwametsi
mme a tlhokomele
0
batla gore Selebi a nne fa gae
lelapa Ia gag we. Ke yona karabo e kgosi Selebi a e
itseng e. Mokwadi
0
gatelela botlhokwa jwa potso e e nang Ie karabo
ka go ikgatholosa lelapa ga kgosi Selebi, ka ntIha ya lerato rno nyatsing.
Ka go rialo mokwadi
0
dirisa kgotlhang go tiisa tlobelelo e e godisang
rnakoa a ga kgosi Selebi.
D
Tenego
Kgosi Selebi
0
tenega fela ka ntlha ya go re ke rnotho yo
makoa. Ga a rate go bontshiwa diphoso tsa gagwe, ka jalo
143 0
0
nang Ie
iphemela
ka go tenega gore ba ba ratang go mo gakolola ba palelwe ke go bua Ie
ena. Kgang e e ka gatelelwa ka mafoko a ga kgosi Selebi fa are:
o se ka wa ntena monnayana ke wena!
o bona jang gore ga ke a itekaneIa? A ke tshereane? .. [ts.62] Dithekeniki tse di tlhagelelang mo nopolong e e fa godimo ke tse nne, e
Ieng
kgakgamaIo, nyenyefatso, kgelekiso Ie
phefofatso, tseo
di
tIhagisang tenego ya ga kgosi Selebi e e Iebaganeng Ie makoa a gagwe.
*
Kgakgamalo
Fa a tlhalosa kgakgamaIo, Groenewald (1980:25) a re ke:
Die gesprekgenoot tree in die geval as toehoorder en waarnemers op, maar me as aangesprokene nie, die rol
bespreking
word
kry die saak of persoon onder aan hom toegeDe, en
hy binne
as
sondanig hierdie geselskap veronderstel, daar word trouens nie oor hom nie, maar met hom praat. Se se gatelelwang fa ke go re mmUlwa
bolelelwa mme
0
0
fetoga go nna mmuisiwa. 0 a
fetoga go nna mmuisiwa. 0 a bolelelwa mme ga a
ikarabele.
Fa a tlhagisa tenego ya ga kgosi Selebi, mokwadi are:
o se ka
wa ntena monnanyana ke wena! ... [ts.62]
144 Fa go ka Iebelelwa polelwana e, go tla Iemogiwa gore kwa bofelong
Jwa yona go na Ie Ietshwao Ia tsiboso,
puo
e
e rulagantswe ka
mokgwa
0). Letshwao Ie, Ie bontsha gore
kgakgamalo. Mo
wa
puong
ya
kgakgamalo go Iemogiwa gore go na Ie mmui, e Ieng kgosi Selebi Ie
mmuisiwa, e Ieng Radinku. Kgosi Selebi
0
bua Ie Radinku ka ga go senoIa
makoa a gagwe a go nyatsa Ielapa Ia gagwe, ke ka ntlha e kgosi Selebi a
buang ka pefelo.
Ka thekeniki e, mokwadi
0
tlhagisa maikutlo a ga kgosi Selebi a a
bontshang tenego. Ka jalo go Iemogilwe semelo sa gagwe.
*
Nyenyefatso
Mokwadi
0
dirisitse thekeniki e nngwe gape, e Ieng nyenyefatso go
tlhagisa . tenego ya ga kgosi Selebi:
o se ka
wa ntena monnanyana ke wena! [ts.62]
Le fa thekeniki e, e dirisiwa go tlhagisa matlhakore a Ie mane, e Ieng
bonnye, bana, tiontloiolo Ie lerato, fela mo puong e ya ga Selebi
dirisitswe go supa tlontioloio. Kgosi Selebi
0
e
nyenyefatsa Radinku ka go
mmitsa monnanyana gore a Iebege e Ie motho yo
ga matlho a mmuisi. Ka tlontlololo e kgosi
0
nyatsegang fa pele
Selebi
0
Ieka go thibela
Radinku gore a se ka a senoIa diphiri tsa gagwe, ka mantswe a mangwe
go ka twe
Mokwadi
0
0
mo tswala molomo.
dirisitse thekeniki e, go senoIa makoa a ga kgosi Selebi, a a
Iekang go a fitlha ka go tlontlolola batho ba bangwe.
145 *
Kgelekiso
Fa go ka tlhokomelwa puo ya ga Selebi, go tla lemogiwa gore go
dirisitswe thekeniki ya kgelekiso:
o bona
jang gore ga ke a itekanela? A ke tshereane? ... [ts.62] Dipotso di Ie pedi
gore
tse kgosi Selebi
ga ke a itekanela? Ie
a ke
0
di botsang, e leng
tshereane?, ke tse
0
bona jang
di sa
tlhokeng
dikarabo ka gonne dikarabo tsa tsona di a itsege.
Karabo ya potso ya ntlha ke go re Radinku
kgosi Selebi
tsa go
ikgatholosa
lelapa
0
bona ka ditiro tsa ga
la gagwe gore ga a itekanela.
Karabo ya potso ya bobedi yona ke go re ke nnete kgosi Selebi
tshereane gonne
Thekeniki
0
e, e
botlhokwa, e leng
0
nna kwa nyatsing ya gagwe, Mmapitsa.
tlhotlheletsa
mmuisi
gore
a lemoge
go tenega ga kgosi Selebi
senoIa makoa a gag we. Selebi
0
a itse gore
nyatsa lelapa la gagwe ga e a siama, ka jalo
se se
go go lebaganeng Ie go
tiro
0
sengwe
e a e dirang ya go
leka go iphemela ka go
tenega gore a se ka a buisiwa.
Ka thekeniki e, mokwadi
0
gatelela tenego ya ga kgosi Selebi gore e
bonagale bonolo, mme kgang e, e tlhola kgogedi, ka go nne mokwadi
0
gwetlha mmuisi go buisetsa pete gore a lemoge makoa a ga kgosi
Selebi.
146 *
Phefofatso
Phefofatso e setse e tlhalositswe fa e Iebagane Ie tiriso ya rnafoko a a
bontshang tlotlo boernong jwa a a kgopisang. Ntsirne
0
dirisitse thekeniki
e, fa a tlhagisa tenego ya ga kgosi Selebi ka go re:
o
bona jang gore ga ke a itekanela? A ke tshereane? ... [ts.62] Go dirisitswe rnareo a Ie rnabedi
a e Ieng rnakaelagongwe, e Ieng go 'se
itekanele' Ie go 'tshereana'. Lereo Ia ntlha, go se itekanele, Ie lebagane
Ie thekeniki ya phefofatso. Fa rnotho a dirisa lereo Ie, go bontsha
tlotlo. Kgosi Selebi
Go raya go re
0
0
Ie dirisa go kaya gore ena
a itlotla ka gonne
0
tshedile sentle.
e Ie kgosi, ke ka ntlha e a dirisang
phefofatso. Fa a ka bo a ne a sa itlotle aka bo a dirisitse go "tsenwa".
Tiriso ya 'tshereane" rno puong
e ya ga kgosi Selebi e tIhagisa bokao
jwa tlotlo ka gonne tiriso ya Iefoko Ie e bogaIe, e bile
kete kgosi Selebi
0
katela Radinku rnafoko a a bogale a, rno leganong.
Se a se Iernogileng ke go re Radinku
0
a rno nyatsa, ke go re ga a rno
tlotle jaaka rno tirisong ya Iefoko go se
o dirisa
thekeniki
e a tIhaba. E
e
nngwe
gape
"itekanele". Ka jalo rnokwadi
ka fa
phefofatso, e leng ya tshotlo. Ka go rialo
gare
0
ga
thekeniki
e, ya
dirisa dithekeniki di Ie pedi
tse, go senoIa Ie go fitlha rnakoa a ga kgosi Selebi.
Mo
nopolong e ya pharologantsho, ya tenego,
dithekeniki . di Ie pedi rno rnoleng rnongwe
rnokwadi
Ie rnongwe
0
dirisitse
go tlhagisa
tenego ya ga kgosi Selebi. Mo rnoIeng wa ntIha go tlhagelela thekeniki
ya kgakgamalo Ie ya nyenyefatso. Mo rnoleng wa bobedi ke thekeniki
147 ya kgelekiso
Ie ya phefofatso, mme mo go wa
boraro gona go
tlhagelela
kgelekiso Ie tshotlo. Ka thulaganyo e ya tiriso ya dithekeniki
mokwadi
0
rata go bontsha totomatso ya makoa a ga kgosi Selebi ka
maikaelelo a go tsweledisa pele molaetsa wa terama e, e leng
go
nyatsa lelapa la gagwe.
Fa go tlhalosiwa
sebele, mokwadi
makoa a ga kgosi Selebi a a tlhagisiwang ke ena ka
0
dirisitse dipharologantsho di Ie nne, e leng lerato go
nyatsi, lenyatso, maaka Ie tenego. Go tswelela pele go tlhagisitswe
dithekeniki
di Ie supa mo
pharologantshong ya lerato go nyatsi, e leng
mmuaesi, kgelekiso, lelatlhelwa, motifi, poelomorago, tshwantshiso Ie
leele. Mo
pharologantshong ya
lenyatso
go
tlhagelela
di Ie
tlhano:
kgelekiso, lelatlhelwa, motifi, tshotlo Ie kobiso.
Mo go ya maaka gona go dirisitswe di Ie pedi: pheteletso Ie kgelek iso,
mme rno go ya tenego go tlhagelela di Ie tlhano, e leng kgakgamalo,
nyenyefatso, kgelekiso, phefofatso Ie tshotlo.
Go lernosegile fa pharologantsho e e botlhokwa mo terarneng e, e Ie ya
lerato go nyatsi, ka gonne e na Ie dithekeniki di Ie supa. Go tla ga
latela pharologantsho ya lenyatso
Ie ya tenego ka dithekeniki
tlhano
e
nngwe
Ie nngwe, rnme
e seng
botlhokwa
di Ie
thata
pharologantsho ya maaka ka gonne e na Ie di Ie pedi fela. Mokwadi
dirisitse
Monna
dithekeniki tse go tlhagisa
0
nyatsa lelapa la gagwe mme kwa bokhutlong
0
tsena mo
Dipuo Ie ditiro tsa baanelwa ba bangwe
Dipuo Ie ditiro tsa baanelwa ba bangwe Ie tsona di senoIa fa kgosi
148
0
molaetsa wa terama e, e Ieng:
mathateng.
•
ke
Selebi e Ie motho yo
nang Ie makoa. Go ya go Iekolwa makoa a
0
nne, e Ieng Ienyatso,
gagwe fa a Iebagane Ie dipharologantsho di Ie
tshereano, matlhapa Ie tenego.
•
Lenyatso
Kgosi Selebi
0
Ienyatso. Lenyatso Ia gagwe ga Ie fitlhege Ie fa pele
ga baanelwa ba bangwe. Kgang e, e netefatswa ka go nopola mafoko a
ga Senwametsi fa are:
Ehee, gompieno
0
mpona lekgalagadi!
Fa lerato Ie simolola go golofala,
Yo mongwe
0
bitsa yo mongwe Iekgalagadi
... [ts.3]
Mokwadi
0
dirisitse
dithekeniki
lelatlhelwa, kobiso, leele Ie motifi
di Ie
tlhano, e leng kgakgamaIo,
go tlhagisa Ienyatso Ja ga kgosi
SeJebi Ie Ie senolang makoa a gagwe.
*
Kgakgamalo
Thekeniki e, e tIhageIeIa fa Senwametsi are:
Ehee, gompieno
0
mpona lekgalagadi! ... (ts.3]
Fa go ka tlhokomelwa puo e ya ga Senwametsi, go tla Iemogiwa gore e
sup a
kgakgamalo
ka
ntlha
ya
Ietshwao
Ia
kgakgamaIo, Ie
dirisitsweng. Mo puong e ya kgakgamalo go tlhagisiwa
Senwametsi, fa a re gompieno
0
mmui, e Ieng
mpitsa IekgaJagadi, Ie mmuisiwa, e Ieng
149 Ie
kgosi Selebi, a reeditse fela. Senwarnetsi
kgosi Selebi
a Ie
supang
gakgarnatsa ka gonne
0
ka go
0
gakgarnadiwa ke lenyatso Ie
rnrnitsa
Iekgalagadi. Se, se
a rno
ne a sa soiofeia kgang e e ntseng jalo go tswa
rno go Selebi. Sona se, ke sona se se tlholang kgakgamalo.
Ka thekeniki
lenyatso
e, go senolwa rnaikutlo a ga Senwarnetsi a a tlhagisang
la ga kgosi Selebi. Ka jalo sernelo sa ga kgosi Selebi se
Iernogega bonoio.
*
Lelatlhelwa
Thekeniki
e nngwe gape e Ntsirne a e dirisitseng go
tlhagisa lenyatso
la ga kgosi Selebi ke ya lelatlhelwa:
Ehee, gornpieno
0
rnpona lekgalagadi!. .. [ts.3]
Ehee, ke lelatlhelwa Ie Ie Iebaganeng Ie tenego go galsa go durnela, ka
gonne Senwarnetsi
0
rile go lernoga a dumeia gore se a se lernogileng
ke nnete. 0 Iernogile gore botshelo jwa lelapa la gagwe bo a fetoga. 0
ntse a bona ka ditiro tsa ga kgosi Selebi
fela a ise a netefatse gore
se, se ka diragala. Ka ntiha ya tiriso ya puo ya lenyatso ya ga kgosi
Selebi, Senwametsi
0
Iemoga bonnete Jwa gore botshelo jwa lelapa la
gagwe ga e sa tlhole e Ie jo a bo itseng.
Thekeniki e, e botlhokwa ka gonne e senoia lenyatso la ga kgosi Selebi
Ie e leng lona Ie lemosang Senwametsi gore go sengwe se se ba tseneng
ka fa gare. Ka ntlha ya se, makoa a ga kgosi Selebi a a tlhagelela.
150 *
Kobiso
Ntsirne
0
tlhagisa thekeniki e, ka go re:
Ehee, gornplenO
0
rnpona lekgalagadi! ... [ts.3]
Senwarnetsi a re kgosi Selebi
rno terarneng
0
rnrnitsa lekgalagadi. Fa go ka lebelelwa
e, ga go na rno rnokwadi a tlhalosang Senwarnetsi e Ie
lekgalagadi. 0 sirnolola go nna lekgalagadi jaanong ka ntlha ya go re
kgosi Selebi
0
bone lerato Ie leswa, ka jalo
0
leka go batla diphoso rno
go Senwarnetsi gore a bone lebaka la go rno ikgatholosa. Nnete ke go re
Senwarnetsi ga se lekgalagadi. Fa kgosi Selebi a re Senwarnetsi ke
lekgalagadi, Ie ena
0
a itse gore ga a bue nnete, ke fela gore
0
dirisa
puo ya lenyatso go supa gore ga a sa rno rata.
Ka thekeniki e, ya kobiso, rnokwadi
0
rulaganya dikgang tsa gagwe go
godisa lenyatso la ga kgosi Selebi Ie Ie tlhagisang rnakoa a gagwe.
*
Leele
Mo puong ya ga Senwarnetsi, rnokwadi
0
dirisa thekeniki ya leele ka go
re:
Fa lerato Ie sirnolola go golofala ... [ts.3]
Puo
e e dirisitsweng
fa,
ga se ya
ka
rnetlha, ke
e e bofitlha. Mo
boernong jwa puo e e bofitlha e, e leng go golofala lerato, rnokwadi a
ka bo a dirisitse puo e e bonolo, e leng
go fela ga lerato. Mokwadi
ngoka rnrnuisi go tlhokornela se a se buang ka go dirisa puo e e
151 0
tlwaelegileng, kgang e, e ka se ka ya nna Ie kgogedi. Puo e, e lebagane
Ie go nyatsa lelapa
ga kgosi Selebi. Ke ona rnakoa a a tlhalosiwang ke
thekeniki e.
*
Motifi
Thekeniki ya motifi e dirisitswe rno puong ya ga Senwarnetsi:
Ehee, gornpleno
0
rnpona lekgalagadi! Yo mongwe 0 bitsa yo mongwe JekgaJagadi Mafoko
a a ntshofaditsweng
rno
nopolong
e e
fa
godirno, e
leng
"Iekgalagadi" Ie 'yo mongwe", a rulagantswe ka tsela ya rnotifi. Lefoko,
Jekgalagadi Ie a boeletswa ka gonne Ie Ie botlhokwa. Ke lona Ie Ie
tlhagisang lenyatso la ga kgosi Selebi rno go Senwarnetsi. Lenyatso Ie,
Ie supa gore kgosi Selebi ga a sa na sepe Ie lerato la ga Senwarnetsi, ka
gonne a ratana Ie Mrnapitsa.
Go tswelela
pele
Ntsirne
boeleditse
0
"yo mongwe"
kutlobotJhoko ya ga Senwarnetsi. Senwarnetsi
gore
0
0
go senoia
utlwisiwa botlhoko ke
lernogile gore kgosi Selebi ga a sa tlhole a rno rata, ke ka ntlha e
a rno kgobang ka rnafoko a a tlhabang fa a bua Ie ena. Puo e, e supa
gore lerato la ga kgosi Selebi rno go Senwarnetsi Ie fedile, se se setseng
ke puo ya lenyatso fela. Puo e ya lenyatso ke yona e e senolang rnakoa
a ga kgosi Selebi .
Go ka rungwa ka go re JekgaJagadi Ie yo mongwe di tlhagisa lenyatso
la ga kgosi Selebi, ka jalo rnrnuisi
0
152 lernoga rnakoa a gagwe.
*
Tshereano
Kgosi Selebi
0
tshereane. Go tshereana mo ga gagwe go lemogiwa ka
ntlha ya ditiro tsa gagwe tse di supang go tlhoka
go ikgatholosa Ielapa Ia gagwe. Mokwadi
0
tIhaIoganyo, e Ieng
gateIeia kgang e ka go
tlhagisa mafoko a ga Tshegofatso fa are:
Kgosi Selebi, ruri
Ke go re
Jaanong
0
0
tshereane. ratana Ie mosadi wa moloi. go bofile tlhaloganyo Ie maikutlo, 0
Ka dipheko tse di thata. Pelo ya gago yona a e apesa lefifi Ie Ientsho, Gore
se ka wa Iemoga sepe ... [ts.94] 0
Dithekeniki tse di dirisitsweng fa ke tse nne, e Ieng tsepamiso, tshotlo,
Ieele Ie letlhaodi go tIhaIosa tshereano ya ga kgosi Selebi
*
Tsepamiso
Mokwadi fa
0
tIhagisa thekeniki ya tsepamiso are:
Kgosi Selebi, ruri
Ke go re
Jaanong
0
0
0
tshereane. ratana Ie mosadi wa moloi. go bofile tlhaloganyo Ie maikutlo Ka dipheko tse di thata ... [ts.94] Dikgang tse, tsa tshereano ya ga kgosi Selebi, di buiwa ke Tshegofatso
ka ntlha ya go re ke ena a di itseng go gaisa baanelwa ba bangwe. Go
ka twe mokwadi
0
dirisa Tshegofatso ka ntlha ya go re ke ena yo
maleba go gaisa baanelwa ba bangwe, mmogo Ie mokwadi ka boena.
153
0
Thekeniki e, e godisa rnakoa a ga kgosi Selebi gore a lernogege bonolo
rno rnatlhong a rnrnuisi. Ka jalo mmuisi
*
0
lernoga sernelo sa gagwe.
Tshotlo
Mo puong ya ga Tshegofatso, go tlhagelela thekeniki ya tshotlo:
Kgosi Selebi, ruri
0
tshereane ... [ts.94]
Tiriso ya lefoko, tshereane rno puong ya ga Tshegofatso, e na Ie bokao
jwa tshotlo, ka gonne tiriso ya lefoko Ie, ke e e tlhabang rnaikutlo.
Tshegofatso
0
lernogile gore kgosi Selebi ga se rnotho yo
0
ka fiwang
tlotlo ka ntlha ya ditiro tse di sa siarnang, e leng tsa go nyatsa lelapa la
gagwe. Ke ka ntlha e a rno sotlang ka go re
0
tshereane, go rno dira
gore a sokologe.
Ka tiriso ya thekeniki e, ya
tshotlo, rnokwadi
0
senoia sernelo sa ga
kgosi Selebi se se tsarnaelanang Ie go tlhoka seriti.
*
Leele
Ntsirne
0
tlhalosa tshereano ya ga kgosi Selebi ka go dirisa thekeniki ya
leeIe:
Jaanong
0
go bofiJe tlhaloganyo Ie maikutlo Pelo ya gaga yona a e apesa lefifi Ie Ientsho ... [ts.94] Go tla Iernogiwa gore rnaele a "go bofa tlhaloganyo, Ie maikutlo" Ie
"go apesa pelo lefifi," ga se tiriso ya rnetlheng, ke puo e e bofitlha. Go
154 bofa tJha)oganyo Ie maikutJo ke go jesiwa ditIhare, fa go apesa pelo
Iefifi Ie lentsho go kay a go lebatsa ka ditlhare. Mokwadi
go dirisa maeJe
a go ngoka kgatlhego
tlhagisa molaetsa
wa terama e,
0 0
tIhophile
0
ya mmuisi ka maikaeIeIo a go
tsamaelanang Ie maitsholo a ga
kgosi Selebi a a sa siamang.
*
LetJhaodi
Mokwadi ga a re lefifi fela,
lentsho. Ka jalo Ntsime
0
0
tswelela peJe ka go t1halosa gore Ie
dirisitse thekeniki e nngwe gape ka fa gare
ga thekeniki ya Ieele, e leng Ietlhaodi
Pelo ya gago yona a e apesa Iefifi Ie Ientsho ...
[ts.94]
Letlhaodi Ie Ie atolosang bokao Jwa polelo yotlhe e, ke
lentsho
e oketsa tIhaIoso
mokwadi
0
ya lefifi. Ka
Ie lentsho. Le
tlhaloso e e ntseng jaana,
gatelela lefifi Ie Ie apesitseng pelo ya ga kgosi Selebi gore
go lemogiwe semelo sa gagwe se se Iebaganeng Ie makoa a gagwe.
o
MatJhapa
Kgosi ke moanelwa yo
tsa
gagwe
0
0
iphemela
matIhapa. Fa a tshwanetse go lemosiwa diphoso
ka go
dirisa ditlhapa. Mokwadi
matlhapa a gagwe ka puo ya ga Molefe fa are:
Selebi se tlhapatse rre Lefifi.
Molato ga se wa gagwe fa a Ie fa .
o tswa
go bitswa ke rona. Bogolo tlhapatsa rona ... [ts.64] 155 0
tlhagisa
Mokwadi
0
dirisitse dithekeniki di Ie nne, e Ieng tebelelo, phefofatso,
motifi Ie modirisotaelo go tihagisa ditlhapa tsa ga kgosi Selebi.
*
Tebelelo
Fa ba tlhalosa tebelelo Beckson Ie Ganz (1961:171) ba re ke:
The point from which the story
IS
seen or told. Ke go re ke ka mokgwa
0
motho a bonang
dikgang tsa tiragatso ka
teng. Lazarus Ie Smith (1983:122) ba tialeletsa kgang e ka go re:
The author may
tell
the story in the third person, focusing upon one character Se se botlhokwa ka puo e, ke go re mokwadi a ka dirisa moanelwa
kgotsa moanedi go anela dikgang tsa sekwaiwa. Mokwadi
0
dirisitse
thekeniki ya tebelelo ka go re:
Selebi se tihapatse rre Lefifi . ... Bogolo tlhapatsa rona [ts.64] Dikgang tse, tsa ditlhapa tsa ga kgosi Selebi, di buiwa ke motho yo
itseng , e leng moaneIwa, Molefe, ka gonne mokwadi
0
0
di
Iemoga gore ke
ena a di itseng go gaisa ba bangwe. Molefe ke wa ka fa bogosing, ka jalo
o itse
kgosi
Selebi
go galsa
morafe
amogelang dikgang tse, e Ie tsa boammaruri.
156 otlhe, ke ka
moo mmuisi a
Ka thekeniki e go senolwa makoa a ga kgosi Selebi gore mmuisi a
lemoge semelo sa gagwe.
*
Phefofatso
Mokwadi
tlhagisa thekeniki ya phefofatso mo puong ya ga Molefe:
0
Selebi se tlhapatse rre Lefifi ... [ts.64]
Mokwadi
0
tlhapatsa
dirisa
rogaka go
boemong jwa
lemosa
kgosi
Selebi gore tlotlo e botlhokwa mo botshelong jwa batho. Ka jalo
0
pateletsa kgosi Selebi gore a nne Ie maitsholo jaaka go solofetswe mo
mothong wa maemo a a jaaka a gagwe.
Thekeniki
e, e
gatelela
maitsholo
a
mantle, a kgosi
tshwanetseng go nna Ie ona. Ka jalo mmuisi
0
Selebi
a
Iemoga semelo sa gag we
se se sa slamang.
*
Modirisotaelo
Snyman Ie Mothoagae (1990: 103) fa ba tlhalosa modirisotaelo ba re ke
modiriso
0
lediri Ie dirisiwang go Iaela mme modiriso
0, 0
kaya ditaeIo,
dikopo Ie ditlhotloetso.
Se se gateIeIwang fa, ke go re molaetsa
0
tlhagisiwa ka Iediri, ka
mokgwa wa go laela, go kopa kgotsa go rotloetsa. Mo puong ya ga
Molefe, mokwadi
0
tIhagisa modirisotaelo:
Selebi, se tIhapatse rre Lefifi ... [ts.64]
157
Go ya ka moo modiriso
dirisitsweng ka teng,
0, 0
seng go kopa kgotsa go rotloetsa, ka gonne
0
0
supa go laela, e
lebagane Ie go laela go
gaisa go kopa kgotsa go rotloetsa. Fa tlhapatse. e dirisitswe ka mokgwa
wa
kganetso, e seng ka mokgwa
wa
tumelo
ka
ntlha ya gore
0
Iebagane Ie go ganetsana Ie ditiro Ie dipuo tsa ga kgosi Selebi tse di sa
slamang.
Thekeniki
e,
e botlhokwa
ka
gonne e Iemosa
mmuisi
kgaiemelo e
bakgosing ba kgalemang kgosi Selebi ka yona. Ka jalo makoa a gagwe a
a senoga.
*
Motifi
Thekeniki e, mokwadi
0
e dirisitse
go tlhagisa ditlhapa tsa ga kgosi
Selebi:
Selebi se tlhapatse rre Lefifi . . .. Bogolo tlhapatsa rona Ie o
tswa go bitsa ke rona Bogolo tlhapatsa rona ... [ts.64] Mo nopoiong e, mokwadi
kgosi
Selebi
ka go
0
boeletsa
rulagantse ditiragalo tsa ditlhapa tsa ga
mafoko
tlhapatsa Ie rona go ya ka
thulaganyo ya thekeniki ya motifi. Mokwadi
sup a
kgalemelo mo go
0
boeletsa mafoko a go
kgosi Selebi. Kgaiemelo e,
tshwaya diphoso gore a fetoge, e nne motho yo
0
e Iebagane Ie go
siameng. Ka go rialo
go lemogiwa semelo sa ga kgosi Selebi se se Iebaganeng
gagwe. Ke yona
Ie makoa a
tiro e kgolo ya thekeniki e, fa go rulaganngwa dikgang
tsa makoa a moeteledipele wa setshaba, e leng kgosi Selebi.
158
o
Tenego
Baanelwa ba bangwe ba lemoga kgosi Selebi
fela. Mokwadi
0
e Ie motho yo
tlhagisa tenego ya gagwe mo puong
0
tenegang
ya ga Senwametsi
fa are:
Se tenege, kgosi ya me, Ke buisiwa ke phetogo e ke e Bonang mo go wena o nkutlwelele
Mokwadi
sentle kgosi ... [ts.4]
dirisitse dithekeniki di Ie pedi, e leng
0
motifi Ie tebelelo go
tlhagisa tenego ya ga kgosi Selebi.
*
Motifi
Mo puong ya ga Senwametsi, Ntsime
0
tlhagisa thekeniki e ka go re:
Se tenege, kgosi ya me,
o nkutlwelele sentle kgosi ... [ts.4]
Mokwadi
0
boeletsa
lefoko "kgosi" go
bontsha
mmUlSI
gore
Ie
botlhokwa. Fa lefoko Ie, Ie buiwa lwa ntlha Ie ne Ie sa bontsha Ie Ie
botlhokwa mme jaanong fa Ie boeletswa lwa bobedi Ie simolola go nna
botlhokwa. Ka lona lefoko Ie mokwadi
0
rata go lemosa mmuisi sengwe
se se botlhokwa, e leng gore kgosi Selebi ga a na maitsholo a a siameng
ka gonne a tenega fela, Ie fa gona a gakololwa.
Ka thekeniki e, mokwadi
0
senoIa makoa a ga kgosi Selebi a go nyatsa
lelapa la gagwe.
159 *
Tebelelo
Thekeniki ya tebelelo e tlhagelela mo puong e, ya ga Senwametsi:
Se tenege, kgosi ya me, ke buisiwa ke phetogo
e ke e bonang mo go wena. 0 nkutlwelele sentle
... [ts.4]
Tenego ya ga kgosi Selebi e buiwa ke rnoanelwa yo rnongwe, e Ieng
Senwametsi, e seng mokwadi ka boena, ka gonne ke ena a mo itseng go
gaisa ba bangwe. Ke go re ke ena a itseng
dikgang tse, tsa monna wa
gagwe go gaisa batho botlhe. Ka jalo dikgang tse di ntseng jalo mmuisi
o di amogeia bonolo ka e Ie tsa boammaruri.
Mokwadi
0
rulagantse dikgang tse, tsa tenego ka thekeniki e, ka maikaelelo
a go godisa makoa a ga kgosi SeIebi.
Fa baanelwa ba bangwe
ba
dirisitswe dipharologantsho
tIhalosa
di Ie
makoa
nne, e leng
tlhapaolo Ie tenego. Go tswelela pele mokwadi
a ga
kgosi Selebi
go
lenyatso, tshereano,
0
tihagisa dithekeniki
di Ie tlhano mo pharologantshong ya lenyatso, di Ie nne mo go ya
tlhapaoIo Ie ya tshereano mme rno go ya tenego go tlhagisitswe di Ie
pedi. Pharologantsho ya
lenyatso
e
rulagantswe ka
dithekeniki
di Ie
tlhano ka gonne e Ie yona e e botlhokwa go gaisa tse dingwe mme ke
yona e tlhagisang rnakoa a ga kgosi Selebi sentle.
4.6.
KAKARETSO
Fa go sekakasekwa kakanyetso ya Se sejeleng rre, go tlhokometswe
160 merero e Ie mebedi ya sekwaia se, e Ieng maitsholo Ie matlhotJhapelo.
Go Iatetswe
dikarolo tse pedi, tsa ntIha, tsa kakanyetso e Ieng maemo Ie
makoa
go tlhalosa semelo sa ga molwantshiwa, kgosi Selebi. Dithekeniki
tse di
dirisitsweng
fa go
Iekolwa
semelo
se ke
phapologantsho,
kgelekiso, phefofatso, pheteletso, tshotJo, motifi, kobiso, IeIatJheIwa,
kgakgamaIo, Ieele, tsepamiso, tebelelo Ie puisano, go gatelela makoa a, a
ga molwantshiwa.
161 KGAOLO YA BOTLHANO 5.1.
THULAGANYO III
5.2.
MATSENO
Fa
go sekasekwa
molwantshi. Go
kgaolo e, go
ya go
ya
go
dirisiwa dikarolo
semelo
sa
tsa ntlha
tsa
tIhokomelwa
di Ie pedi
kakanyetso, e leng maemo Ie go tIhoka makoa ga gagwe.
5.3.
MOL W ANTSHI: SENWAMETSI
Tlhaloso
ya semelo sa mol wants hi e ya go tlhagisiwa go
tIhaloso ka mokwadi, dipuo Ie ditiro tsa
tsa baanelwa
ba bangwe. Gape
lebeletswe
moanelwa mmogo Ie dipuo
go ya go lebelelwa dithekeniki tse
mokwadi a di dirisitseng fa a tIhagisa semelo sa moanelwa yo.
5.3.1. Maemo a a kwa godimo
Senwametsi ke moanelwa wa maemo a a kwa godimo ka gonne ke
mosadi wa kgosi. Go ya go latelwa lenaneo la tlhaloso ya mokwadi,
dipuo Ie ditiro tsa moanelwa Ie dipuo tsa baanelwa ba bangwe fa go
tlhaloswa maemo a, a gagwe.
*
Tlhaloso ya mokwadi
Sekwalwa se, Se se jeleng rre, ke terama, ka jalo mokwadi ga a bua thata
mo go sona jaaka baanelwa. Ka ga maemo a ga Senwametsi, Ntsime ga
a bue sepe. Ka jalo maemo a moanelwa yo, a a kwa godimo aka se ka a
tlhagisiwa mo tshekatshekong
e fa a buiwa ke mokwadi, fela
162 0
mo
tlhagisa e Ie
rnoanelwa wa
rnaerno a a kwa godirno. Ke mmakgosi,
rnohurnagadi wa kgosi Selebi.
o
Dipuo Ie ditiro tsa molwantshi
Molwantshi, e leng Senwarnetsi,
a a kwa godirno. Mokwadi
0
0
tlhagisiwa e Ie rnoanelwa wa rnaerno
dirisitse pharologantsho e Ie nngwe fela, e
leng ya thuso, go bontsha rnaerno a a kwa godirno a gagwe.
*
Thuso
Senwarnetsi, Ie fa e Ie rnoanelwa wa rnaerno a a kwa godirno ga a lebale
gore rno botshelong
rnotho ga a iphetse a Ie
nosi, ke ka ntlha e a reng
fa a lernoga gore go na Ie rnathata rno lelapeng la gagwe a bo a batla
thuso. Ntsirne fa a tlhagisa go batla thuso ga Senwarnetsi, are:
Senwarnetsi: Bornrnangwane ke 10 biditse fanG go
itsheba Ie lona.
Ke bona botshelo jwa lelapa la me bo
rnphetogela.
Botshelo jwa lelapa la me bo fetoga
kgalola rnotshatsha.
Bo fetoga rnrnabatsane 0
0
babang
rnotho gore a tswe rnagotsane (ts. 5)
Mokwadi
0
dirisitse
dithekeniki di Ie thataro, e leng puisano, Ieele,
motifl, tshwantshiso, kemedi Ie pheteletso go
Senwarnetsi, a a kwa godirno.
163 tlhalosa
rnaerno
a
ga
*
Puisano
Baldick (1990:56)
0
tlhalosa kakanyo e ya puisano ka go re ke:
Spoken exchanges between or among characters
In
a dramatic or narrative
work, or a literary
form in a prose or verse based on a debate or
discussion, usually between two speakers.
Le fa Baldick a tlhalosa gore puisano e diragala fa gare ga batho ba Ie
babedi, fela
(1993:49)
0
e ka
diragala
Ie fa batho
ba
feta
bobedi. Groenewald
tsweledisa pele kakanyo e ka go re:
(point of view) e e
PolediSano ke tebelo
itsego ya go emela nnete.
Se se gatelelwang
fa ke go re dikgang tse di t1hagisiwang ke baanelwa
ke tsa boammaaruri. Ga se tse di tlhagisiwang
ke
sesupo
sa go re puisano
e
botlhokwa
ke mokwadi, ka jalo se
mo
terameng. Go tla
tlhokomelwa ka moo Ntsime a dirisitseng thekeniki e ya puisano ka
teng:
Bommangwane, ke 10 biditse fano go itsheba Ie
lona.
Ke bona
botshelo
mphetogela. ...
0 0
jwa
lelapa
la me
bo
babang motho gore a be a
tswe magotsane...... [ts.5]
Puisano ya dikgang tsa maemo a lelapa la ga Senwametsi e fa gare ga
164
Senwametsi
mokwadi
0
Ie
bommangwanaagwe
ba ba
fetang
bongwe, ke
go re
gatelela bontsi jwa batho ba ba buang Ie Senwametsi. Ke ka
ntlha e Baldick a reng
ke: "spoken exchanges between or among
characters" .
Dikgang tse di buiwang ke Senwametsi Ie bommangwanaagwe ke tse di
lebaganeng Ie nnete ka gonne di diragalela bona, ka jalo mmuisi
0
di
amogela e Ie tsa boammaruri.
Thekeniki e, ya puisano e godisa maemo a ga Senwametsi a go itsalanya
Ie mmuisi ka ntlha ya go re moanelwa yo,
*
0
batla thuso.
Leele
Mokwadi
0
tsweletsa pele go batla thuso ga Senwametsi ka thekeniki ya
leele:
Bommangwane ke 10 biditse fano go itsheba
Ie lona...... [ts.5]
Mo nopolong e, mokwadi
0
tlhalosa leele 'go itsheba' go senoia maemo
a lelapa la ga Senwametsi a a kwa godimo,
a bogosi. Ka puo e e
tlwaelegileng leele Ie Ie kaya go buisana Ie mongwe gore ba bangwe
ba se ka ba utlwa. Go ka twe mokwadi
0
dirisa puo e e bofitlha go
lemosa mmuisi maikutlo a ga Senwametsi a a lebaganeng Ie go busetsa
maemo a lelapa la gagwe kwa godimo. Mokwadi
godisa thuso ya go
0
dirisa thekeniki e go
aga lelapa la ga Senwametsi, ka jalo mmuisi
lemoga maemo a gagwe a a kwa godimo.
165 0
*
Motifi
Mo puong e ya ga Senwametsi go tihageleia thekeniki ya motifi:
Ke bona
botshelo
jwa
lelapa
la me
bo
mphetogela.
Botshelo jwa lelapa )a me bo fetoga kgalola
motShatsha ... [ts.5]
PoIeIwana e e boeletswang ke botshelo jwa le)apa)a me bo a fetoga.
Mokwadi
0
boeletsa poIeIwana ego lemosa mmuisi gore e botlhokwa ka
gonne e Iebagane Ie go aga Ielapa Ia ga Senwametsi. Senwametsi
0
Iemogile gore botshelo jwa maemo a a kwa godimo, jo a neng a bo tshela
Ie kgosi Selebi mo lelapeng la bona bo a fetoga, ke ka ntlha e a batlang
thuso gore botshelo jwa gagwe bo boele kwa maemong a kgale, a segosi.
Thekeniki e e lebaganeng Ie go busetsa maemo a ga Senwametsi
kwa
godimo gore mmuisi a lemoge fa a sa batle a ya kwa tlase.
*
Tshwantshiso
Thekeniki e ya tshwantshiso Ie yona e dirisitswe go bontsha maemo a
lelapa la ga Senwametsi a a kwa godimo:
Botshelo Jwa
lelapa
la me
bo
fetoga kgalola motshatsha ... [ts.5] Botshelo ke selo, ga e sa Ie botshelo. Mo tshwantshisong go nyalantshiwa
dilo di Ie pedi tse di sa tshwaneng go fetola se sengwe go nna se sengwe.
166 Dilo tse pedi tse di nyalantshiwang ke botshelo Ie kgalola motShatsha.
Jaanong go ya go lekolwa ka rno botshelo e leng kakanyo fela mme bo
fetogang
kgalola rnotShatsha. Dilo
tse, 'botshelo' Ie
tse pedi
'kgalola
rnotShatSha' di kopanngwa ke selo se Ie sengwe, e leng bosula ka gonne
botshelo jo bo tshelwang ke Senwarnetsi ke jo bo bosula ke ka ntlha e bo
tshwantshanngwang Ie setlhare se se babang, e leng kgalola rnotShatsha.
Ka thekeniki e rnokwadi
0
lernosa rnrnuisi gore Ie fa Senwarnetsi e Ie
rnotho wa rnaerno a a kwa godirno, mathata ona 0 na Ie ona.
*
Pheteletso
Ntsirne
0
dirisitse thekeniki ya pheteletso:
Bo fetoga rnmabatsane
0 0
babang motho gore a
be a tswe magotsane ... [ts.5]
Mokwadi ga a re bo fetoga mmabatsane fela,
0
tswelela pele ka go re
'0
o babang motho gore a bo a tswe magotsane' go feteletsa rnaerno a
botshelo a lelapa la ga Senwametsi a a sa itumediseng, ka go rialo, go ka
twe rnokwadi
babang
0 0
0
godisa rnaerno a, gore a bonagale bonolo. Mmabatsane
godisitsweng,
0
0 0
senoIa maemo a lelapa la ga Senwarnetsi a a
kwa godirno gore rnrnuisi a a lernoge fa a ya kwa tlase. Ke ka ntlha e
rnokwadi a sa reng rnrnabatsane fela fa a tlhalosa rnaemo a a lelapa Ie, ka
gonne tlhaloso e, e ne e ka se ka ya bonagala sentle.
Thekeniki e e lebaganeng Ie go feteletswa ga rnaemo a ga Senwarnetsi
gore rnrnuisi a a lemoge fa e Ie a ka fa bogosing.
167 *
Kemedi
Fa atlhalosa kemedi Cuddon (1991:127) are ke :
A figure of speech in which the part stands for
the whole.
Mo puong ya ga Senwametsi go tlhagelela thekeniki ya kemedi jaana:
Ke bona botshelo jwa lelapa la me bo mphetogela... [ts.5] Mo nopolong e lelapa Ie dirisitswe go ya ka thulaganyo ya thekeniki ya
kemedi. Lelapa Ie, ke Ie Ie lengwe mme Ie emela batho ba Ie bantsi, e leng
Senwametsi, kgosi Selebi, borangwane Ie bommangwanaa Selebi, banna ba
lekgotla mmogo Ie morafe otlhe, ka ntlha ya go re ditiragalo tse di amang
kgosi Selebi Ie Senwametsi di ama morafe otlhe wa ga kgosi Selebi, ke
ka moo batho botlhe ba akaretswang ka lelapa.
Fa
go tlhalosiwa
maemo
a ga
Senwametsi
tlhagisiwang ke ena ka sebele, mokwadi
0
a a kwa
godimo
a a
dirisitse dithekeniki di Ie
thataro, e leng puisano, leele , motifi, tshwantshiso, pheteletso Ie kemedi
go gatelela maemo a, a ga Senwametsi.
*
Dipuo Ie ditiro tsa baanelwa ba bangwe
Dipuo Ie ditiro tsa baanelwa ba bangwe Ie tsona di supa fa Senwametsi
e Ie motho wa maemo a a kwa godimo ka gonne e Ie mohumagadi wa
setshaba.
168
Go ya go lekolwa rnaerno a, a gagwe jaaka a tlhagisiwa ka pharologantsho
e Ie nngwe, e leng bogosi ka gonne ke yona fela e tlhagelelang.
*
Bogosi
Senwarnetsi
ke rnosadi
wa kgosi, ka jalo
rnaerno
a
bogosi a a
rno
tshwanela. Fa baanelwa ba bangwe ba tlhagisa bohumagadi ba gagwe ba
re:
Mrnapitsa: Ee, ke a go utlwa.
Mrne
0
tla dirang
ka ngwana
wa ga
Senwarnetsi?
Kana mmaagwe 0 nyetswe ka dikgorno.
Ke ene
rnohurnagadi
wa
rnotse o.
[ts.97]
Go tswa rno nopoiong e, Ntsirne
0
dirisitse dithekeniki di Ie pedi, e leng
lelatlhelwa Ie kgelekiso go tlhagisa maemo a ga Senwametsi a a kwa
godirno, a a Iebaganeng Ie bogosi.
*
Lelatlhelwa
Fa a bontsha rnaemo a ga Senwametsi a bohumagadi, Ntsirne are:
Ee, ke a go utlwa.
169 Ee,
ke lelatlhelwa
Ie Ie lebaganeng
temogo, ka
Ie
ntlha
ya go
Mmapitsa, Ie fa a dumela mo go se se buiwang ke kgosi Selebi,
Iemogile gore ngwana yo
0
0
re
setse a
tshwanetsweng ke bogosi ke wa ga mango 0 a
itse gore ngwana wa gagwe e ka se ka ya nna mojaboswa wa bogosi jwa
kgosi Selebi ka gonne Senwametsi ke ena mohumagadi wa kgosi, yo
0
nyetsweng ke morafe, ka jalo ngwana wa gagwe ke ena mojaboswa wa
bogosi jwa ga rraagwe, e seng ngwana wa ga Mmapitsa. Thekeniki e, e
Iebagane Ie temogo ya mmUlSI malebana Ie maemo a a kwa godimo a ga
Senwametsi.
*
Kgelekiso
Mokwadi
0
dirisitse thekeniki e nngwe gape, e Ieng kgelekiso go tlhagisa
maemo a bokgosigadi a ga Senwametsi:
Mme 0 tla dirang ka ngwana wa ga Senwametsi?
Fa go ka tlhokomelwa potso e Mmapitsa a e botsang kgosi Selebi go tla
Iemogwa gore ga e batle karabo. Karabo ya yona ke go re ngwana wa ga
Senwametsi ke ena e tla nnang kgosi, e seng wa ga Mmapitsa, ka jalo go
bokete go baya ngwana yo a se nang madi a segosi mo
bogosi. Ka go rialo mokwadi
0
maemong a
gelekisa puo ya ga Mmapitsa go gatelela
maemo a Ielapa Ia ga Senwametsi a bogosi.
Ka thekeniki e mokwadi
0
godisa kgogedi ka gonne mmuisi a ka rata go
buisetsa pele go bona gore dikgang tsa bogosi jwa ga kgosi Selebi di ya
go
felela
kae. Ka
yona
thekeniki
Senwametsi a bogosi.
170 e
go
Iemogiwa maemo
a ga
Go
dirisitswe
tlhagisiwang
pharologantsho
ke
baanelwa
e Ie nngwe, e Ieng
ya
ba bangwe fa ba tlhalosa
bogosi, e e
rnaerno a ga
Senwarnetsi a a kwa godirno. Gape go dirisitswe dithekeniki di Ie pedi, e
Ieng leiatihelwa Ie kgelekiso go god isa rnaerno a, a bogosi.
5.3.2.
Go tlhoka makoa
Senwarnetsi ke moanelwa yo
0
se nang makoa ka ntlha ya go re ditiro tsa
gagwe ke tse di siarneng. Tshiarno e ya gagwe e tia lekolwa jaaka e
tlhagisiwa ke rnokwadi, rnoanelwa ka boena Ie baanelwa ba bangwe.
*
Mokwadi
Mokwadi
tihagisa Senwarnetsi e Ie rnotho yo
0
ga gagwe
tlhoka rnakoa
go tla
tlhokornelwa
0
se nang makoa. Go
fa go
lebagane
Ie
pharologantsho e Ie nngwe fela, e leng ya khutsafalo.
*
Khutsafalo
Senwarnetsi
0
tsheIeia rno khutsafalong ka ntlha ya go re kgosi Selebi
ga a rno thuse go aga lelapa la bona. Fa a leka go aga kgosi Selebi
0
a
thuba. Ntsirne fa a tlhagisa khutsafalo ya ga Senwarnetsi are:
Senwarnetsi: (0 bua ka khutsajalo) [ts.3]
Senwarnetsi : (0 hutsajetse) ... [ts.5]
Go tsweledisa pele khutsafalo e, ya ga Senwarnetsi, rnokwadi
dithekeniki di Ie pedi, e leng tsepamiso Ie poeletso.
171 0
dirisa
*
Tsepamiso
Ntsime fa a tsepamisa khutsafalo ya ga Senwametsi mo terameng e, are:
Senwamesti: (0 bua ka khutsajalo)
Mokwadi
0
dirisitse thekeniki ya tsepamiso ka gonne khutsafalo ya ga
Senwametsi e tlhagisiwa ke ena ka namana, e bile ke ena a mo itseng go
gaisa. 0 tsepamisa dikgang tse, tsa ga Senwametsi gore di bonagale di
Ie botlhokwa. Ka jalo mokwadi
diragalang, mme
0
0
Iebaganya moanelwa yo Ie tiragalo e e
tsepamisa dikgang mo moanelweng go gaisa tiragalo e
e diragalang go gatelela dikgang ka ena.
Ntsime
0
dirisa thekeniki e go tsepamisa dikgang tsa go tlhoka makoa
ga Senwametsi ka ena ka namana ka gonne ke ena a di itseng go gaisa
baanelwa ba bangwe, go akaretswa molwantshi Ie molwantshiwa. Ke ka
moo mmuisi a lemogang semelo sa molwantshi (Senwametsi).
*
Poeletso
Ntsime 0 t1hagisa thekeniki ya poeletso jaana:
Senwametsi: (0 bua ka khutsajalo) (ts.3) Senwametsi: (0 hutsajetse) (ts.5) Tiragalo e e boelediwang fa ke ya go utIwisiwa botlhoko ga Senwametsi, go
go Iebaganeng Ie go tlhoka makoa ga gagwe. Mokwadi
0
dirisa thekeniki ya
poeletso go tsalanya mmuisi Ie Senwametsi ka gonne e Ie motho yo
makoa.
172 0
se nang
Mokwadi
0
mo tlhagisa e Ie motho yo
0
bogisiwang ke kgosi Selebi, ke ka
ntlha e mmuisi a mo utlwelang botlhoko ka gonne
itsalanya Ie ena jaaka
0
motho yo 0 tlhokang makoa.
Thekeniki e, e botihokwa ka gonne e senoIa semelo se se Iebaganeng Ie
maitsholo a a siameng a ga Senwametsi, ke ka moo mmuisi a mo ratang.
Fa mokwadi a tlhalosa go tlhoka makoa ga Senwametsi go dirisitswe
pharologantsho e Ie nngwe fela, e Ieng khutsafal0.
Dithekeniki tse di
dirisitsweng tsona ke tsepamiso Ie poeletso mme ka tsona mokwadi
0
gatelela tshiamo ya ga Senwametsi.
o
Moanelwa ka boena
Senwametsi ke moanelwa yo
tlhagisitswe
0
dirang tshiamo, ka jalo ga a na makoa. Go
dipharologantsho
di
Ie
tharo,
e
leng
kutlobotlhoko,
matshwenyego Ie tshotlego tse di tIhagisiwang, ke moanelwa ka boena, e
bile e Ie tsona tse di tlhalosang go tlhoka makoa ga gagwe.
*
Kutlobotlhoko
Senwametsi
0
nna ka pelo e e utlwileng botlhoko ka ntlha ya ditiro tsa ga
kgosi Selebi tsa go nyatsa lelapa la gagwe. Fa a tIhagisa kutlobotlhoko ya
gagwe, Senwametsi are:
Mmangwane, pelo ya me e hupile botlhoko.
Go bitswa Iekgalagadi ke monna a go
nyetse go botlhoko.
173
Fela ke belaela gore kgosi e dira jaana, ka go bona ke sa tshwane Ie basadi ba bangwe, gonne ke otlilwe, ka kotlo e e botlhoko, e leng go tIhoka lesego la go tshola bana. Kotlo e, e botlhoko thata mo go nna. E huduile maikutlo a me gore a ferekane. Ka ga moo keletso ya botshelo e fedile. Go bonolo go tsaya kgole ka ikaletsa, kgotsa
ka
botlhole
ka
khutlisa botshelo... (ts.6) *
Tshotlo
Thekeniki ya tshotlo e dirisitswe jaana go tlhagisa kutlobotlhoko ya ga
Senwametsi:
Go bitswa lekgalagadi ke monna a go nyetse go botlhoko ... [ts.6] Fa go ka elwa tlhoko tiriso ya 'Iekgalagadi' mo puong e ya ga Senwametsi
go tla lemogiwa gore e na Ie bokao jwa tshotlo ka gonne e lebagane Ie
lenyatso Ie Ie lebisitsweng kwa mothong yo
godimo, e leng Senwametsi. Mmuisi
gonne
0
0
0
nang Ie maemo a a kwa
utlwela moanelwa yo botlhoko ka
a nyadiwa Ie fa a se na makoa, ka jalo mmuisi
gonne ga a na diphoso. Ke ka ntlha e a mo ratang.
174 0
itsalanya Ie ena ka
*
Motifi
Fa go ka lebelelwa puo e ya ga Senwametsi go tla lemogiwa gore go
tlhagelela thekeniki ya motifi
Gonne ke otlilwe ka kotlo e e botIhoko.
Kotlo e, e botlhoko thata mo go nna.
Ie
Ka ga moo keletso ya botshelo e fedile.
kgotsa ka botlhole ka khutlisa botshelo.
Mokwadi
0
rulagantse ditiragalo tsa kutlobotlhoko ya ga Senwametsi ka go
boeletsa kotlo e e botIhoko Ie botshelo go ya ka thulaganyo ya thekeniki ya
motifi.
Mokwadi
0
boeletsa ditiragalo tse, go senoIa maikutlo a ga
Senwametsi a a sa itumediseng.
Maikutlo a, a lebagane Ie go utlwisiwa
botlhoko ke kgosi Selebi ka ntlha ya go nyatsa lelapa la gagwe. Senwametsi
Ie fa e Ie moanelwa yo
0
siameng, fela
0
utlwisiwa botlhoko, ke ka ntlha e
mmuisi a mo utlwelang botlhoko.
Ka thekeniki e mokwadi
0
senoIa semelo sa ga Senwametsi gore mmuisi a
lemoge fa a siame.
*
Leele
Mokwadi
0
dirisitse maele a Ie mararo, e leng 'go hupa botlhoko', 'go
huduega maikutlo' Ie 'go khutlisa botshelo,' fa a rulaganya dikgang tsa go
tlhoka makoa ga Senwametsi. Maele
a Ie mabedi a ntlha a bua puo e Ie
nngwe, e leng go se itumele ga Senwametsi mme Ie Ie lengwe lona Ie bua go
ipolaya. Ditiragalo tse, di lebagane Ie bobe jo bo dirwang ke Senwametsi, Ie
fa go ntse jalo mmuisi
0
amogela ditiragalo tse di sa siamang tse, ka gonne
175 Senwarnetsi a dirisiwa diphoso ke rnoanelwa yo rnongwe, e leng kgosi
Selebi, ka jalo rnrnuisi
0
itsalanya Ie ena ka gonne ga a na rnakoa.
Ka thekeniki e, rnokwadi
0
godisa go tIhoka rnakoa ga Senwametsi gore
rnrnuisi a tIe a rno rate.
*
Pheteletso
Pheteletso e tlhalositswe fa e Ie thekeniki e e godisang dilo gore di bonagale
di Ie botlhokwa. Mokwadi
0
dirisa thekeniki e go tlhagisa go tlhoka rnakoa ga
Senwarnetsi:
E huduile rnaikutlo a me gore a ferekane ... [ts.6]
Fa go ka elwa tlhoko, rnokwadi ga are: 'e huduile maikutlo fela,
0
oketsa ka
go re 'a ferekane' go feteletsa kutlobotlhoko ya ga Senwarnetsi. Ka jalo go
ka twe rnokwadi
0
godisa rnaikutlo a a huduegileng a ga Senwarnetsi gore
rnrnuisi a a lernoge sentIe. Fa rnaikutlo a, a ne a sa feteletswa, a ka bo a ka se
ka a lernogega sentle, ke ka ntlha e a tshwanetseng go feteletswa gore ka ona
rnrnuisi a lernoge kutlobotlhoko ya ga Senwarnetsi rnrne a itsalanye Ie ena,
ka gonne ga a na rnakoa.
*
Matshwenyego
Senwarnetsi
0
nna a tshwenyegile rno rnoweng ka ntlha ya ditiro tsa kgosi
Selebi tsa go nyatsa Ielapa la gagwe. Fa rnokwadi a tIhagisa rnatshwenyego a
ga Senwarnetsi are:
176 Senwametsi: Borangwane, ke 10 biditse fano, go tla go Ie lotlegela matshwenyego a me. Borangwane ke tshwenngwa ke go nna ga Selebi kwa ga Mrnapitsa. Ke a itse gore 0 na Ie ngwana teng fela go nna ga gagwe kwa ga Mmapitsa go diphatsa... (ts.l09) Mokwadi
0
dirisitse dithekeniki di Ie tharo, e leng: tsepamiso, leele, Ie motifi
go tlhalosa matshwenyego a ga Senwametsi.
*
Tsepamiso
Borangwane ke 10 biditse fano .
... fela go nna ga gagwe kwa ga Mmapitsa go
diphatsa... [ts.l09]
Go tla lemogiwa gore mokwadi
0
dirisitse thekeniki ya tsepamiso ka gonne
0
dirisitse Senwametsi go tlhagisa matshwenyego a gagwe ka namana.
Senwametsi ke ena a itseng matshwenyego a, a gagwe a a tlholelwang ke
kgosi Selebi ka go nyatsa lelapa la gagwe.
Ka go dira jalo mokwadi
0
tsepamisa dikgang tse gore di nne Ie maikutlo a a tlholang tsalano fa gare ga
Senwametsi Ie mmuisi.
Ka thekeniki e rnokwadi
0
gateleia ditiragalo ka moanelwa gore mmuisi a
lemoge gore ke tsa boammaaruri,ka gonne di tlhagisiwa ke motho yo di mo
diragalelang, ka go rialo Senwametsi
ke ka ntlha e mmuisi a rno ratang.
177 0
lemogiwa e Ie motho yo
0
siarneng,
*
Leele
Ntsime
dirisitse maele "go lotlegela" Ie 'go nna diphatsa' go tlhagisa
0
matshwenyego a ga Senwametsi. Puo ya leele 'go lotlegela',fa e tlhalosiwa e
kaya go bolelela, fa 'go nna diphatsa' gona go kaya gore go kotsi.
Mokwadi
0
dirisitse maele a go gatelela kotsi e e ka tlhagelang kgosi Selebi
fa anna kwa ga Mmapitsa. 0 dirisa thekeniki e ka mokgwa wa go tlhagisa
maikutlo ka go dirisa maele. Ka jalo mmuisi ga a rate tiragalo e e dirwang ke
kgosi Selebi. Ke ka ntlha e mmuisi a itsalanyang Ie Senwametsi.
*
Motifi
Thekeniki e nngwe gape e mokwadi a e dirisitseng go tlhagisa matshwenyego
a ga Senwametsi ke motifi:
Borangwane ke 10 biditse fano.
Borangwane ke tshwenngwa ke go nna ga Selebi
kwa ga Mmapitsa
Ie
Borangwane ke tshwenngwa ke go nna ga Selebi
kwa ga Mmapitsa.
Fela go nna ga gagwe kwa ga Mmapitsa go
diphatsa... [ts.l 09]
Lefoko 'borangwane'le polelwana 'go nna ga Selebi kwa ga Mmapitsa',di
a boeletswa ka gonne di botlhokwa. Ka tsona mokwadi
0
tlhagisa
matshwenyego a a amang Senwametsi Ie borangwanaa kgosi Selebi, ka ntlha
ya go re go ya ka tsamaiso ya setso, sengwe Ie sengwe se se amang
mohumagadi wa kgosi ( Senwametsi) se ama Ie bakgosing. Bobedi jo,
Senwametsi Ie bakgosing, ke selo se Ie sengwe.
178 Ka thekeniki e mokwadi
0
godisa mathata a a ka tlhagelang lelapa la bogosi
gore mmuisi a lemoge gore fa mathata a ka nna teng a tla ama morafe otlhe.
Ke go re morafe otlhe 0 tla lelela loso lwa ga kgosi Selebi.
*
TshotIego
Senwametsi
Selebi,
0
0
sotlegile mo lenyalong ka gonne monna wa gagwe, kgosi
nyatsa lelapa la bona. Mokwadi fa a tlhalosa tshotlego ya ga
Senwametsi a re :
Senwametsi:Rangwane ke sotlilwe ke botshelo jwa lenyalo. Ke bona gore badimo ba tima dinaledi tsa me tsa masego. Tsa ntshofala gore ke tle ke kopanele monna yo. Gore a tie a ntshofatse botshelo jwa me
jwa lenyalo ... [ ts. 112]
Dithekeniki tse di dirisiwang fa no ke: Sekai, leele Ie motifi go tlhagisa
tshotlego ya ga Senwametsi.
*
Sekai
Fa a tlhalosa sekai Abrams ( 1985: 184) are:
The term symbol is applied only to a word or phrase
that signifies an object or event which in turn
signifies something or has a range of references
beyond itself.
179
Se se gatelelwang fa ke go re sekai se kaya selo (object) kgotsa tiragalo
(event). Selo se, e ka nna se se phelang kgotsa se se sa pheleng se mokwadi a
ipopelang sona Ntsime fa a tlhagisa thekeniki e a re :
Rangwane ke sotlilwe ke botshelo jwa lenyalo.
Mo puong e ya ga Senwametsi mokwadi
kayang bosula. Ke go re mokwadi
0
0
dirisa botshelo jaaka sekai se se
dirisa setshwantsho se se tshwantshang
dilo di Ie pedi, e leng botshelo Ie tiragalo e e bosula e e dirwang ke kgosi
Selebi ya go nyatsa lelapa la gagwe. Ka jalo bosula jo bo senolela mmuisi
tshotlego ya ga Senwametsi mo lenyalong, e e supang gore Senwametsi ke
motho yo
0
siameng fela ga a na boitumelo.
Ka thekeniki e, mokwadi
0
gatelela mathata a ga Senwametsi gore mmuisi a
itsalanye Ie ena .
*
Leele
Ntsime
0
dirisitse thekeniki e nngwe gape, e leng leele go tlhalosa tshotlego
ya ga Senwametsi
Ke bona gore badimo ba tima dinaledi tsa me tsa masego Ie Gore a tie a ntshofatse botshelo jwa me.. [ts.112] Maele a, 'go tima dinaledi' Ie 'go ntshofatsa botshelo' a dirisitswe go tiisa
tshotlego ya ga Senwametsi 'Go tima dinaledi' go kaya go t1hokisa katlego,
fa 'go ntshofatsa botshelo' gona go kaya go sulafatsa. Mokwadi
0
dirisa
maele a go gatelela mathata a Senwametsi a leng mo go ona. Ka ntlha ya go
180 re mathata a, a tlholwa ke monna wa gagwe, kgosi Selebi, e seng ena, mmuisi
o mo utlwela botlhoko ka gonne ga a na phoso.
*
Motifi
Thekeniki ya motifi e dirisitswe go gatelela tshotlego ya ga Senwametsi:
Rangwane ke sotlilwe ke botshelo jwa lenyalo. Gore a tle a ntshofatse botshelo jwa me jwa lenyalo. Tsa ntshofala gore ke tle ke kopane Ie monna yo ... [ts.112] Go ya go tlhokomelwa ka moo Ntsime a dirisitseng motifi, e leng 'botshelo
jwa lenyalo Ie 'ntshofala' ka teng. Ditiragalo tse di botlhokwa ka gonne ka
tsona go gatelelwa tshotlego ya ga Senwametsi. Puo e, e supa gore botshelo
jwa lelapa Ia ga Senwametsi ga bo itumedise ka ntlha ya go tlhoka tshiamo
ga kgosi Selebi. Ka jalo mokwadi
0
godisa semelo sa ga Senwametsi ka tsela
ya go mo tsalanya Ie mmuisi .
Mokwadi
0
dirisitse dipharologantsho di Ie tharo, e Ieng kutlobotlhoko,
matshwenyego Ie tshotlego go tlhalosa go tlhoka makoa ga Senwametsi .
Mo pharologantshong ya kutlobotlhoko go tIhagisitswe dithekeniki di Ie nne
mme mo go ya matshwenyego Ie tshotlego go tihageIeIa di Ie tharo mo go
nngwe Ie nngwe. Dithekeniki tsa pharologantsho ya kutlobotIhoko ke tsona
tse di botlhokwa ka gonne ke tse di Iebaganeng Ie go tsalanya mmuisi Ie
Senwametsi.
181 o
Baanelwa ba bangwe
Dipuo tsa baanelwa ba bangwe di senoIa Senwametsi e Ie motho yo
makoa ka ntlha ya go re ditiro tsa gagwe ke tse di siameng.
0
se nang
Mokwadi
0
dirisitse dipharologantsho di Ie nne, e Ieng tshiamo, boitshoko, tshotlego, Ie
khutsafalo go tlhagisa go tlhoka makoa ga gagwe.
*
Tshiamo
Senwametsi ke moanelwa yo
0
siameng:
Mosalagae : Kgosi Selebi , mohumagadi 0 bua nnete
o nna fela kwa ga Mmapitsa
Mme ka re Mmapitsa ga a kitla a re
tsalela kgosi.
Re ntse re na Ie mohumagadi a nyetswe
sentle... [ts .61]
Mo nopolong e mokwadi
0
dirisitse dithekeniki di Ie pedi, e Ieng motifi Ie
phapologantsho go tlhalosa tshiamo ya ga Senwametsi.
*
Motifi
Mafoko a a ntshofaditsweng mo nopolong e e fa godimo, e Ieng
'mohumagadi' Ie 'Mmapitsa', a a boeletswa ka gonne a botlhokwa.
Mohumagadi e e boeletswang e lebagane Ie Senwametsi, ke go re
mohumagadi Senwametsi. Go ka twe mokwadi
lemogiwe gore
0
bua ka mohumagadi yo
0
0
a boeletsa gore go
siameng. Mmapitsa yona e
boeletswa go gatelela Iefelo Ie kgosi Selebi a nnang kwa go lona. Ka fa gare
ga lefoko Ie mohumagadi go tsweletswa tlotlo. Mosadi yo
Senwametsi,
0
0
tlotlegang,
sotliwa ke kgosi Selebi ka go nna kwa ga Mmapitsa. Ka jalo
182 mmuisi
0
utlwela Senwametsi botlhoko ka gonne ga se tshwanelo gore
monna a nne kwa Ielapeng Ie Iengwe, Ie e seng Ia gagwe, bogolo jang e bile e
Ie kgosi.
Ka thekeniki e go Iemogiwa semelo sa ga Senwametsi yo
0
tlhokang makoa
mme a sotliwa ke monna wa gagwe ka basadi ba bangwe.
*
Phapologantsho
Fa go ka buisiwa nopolo e e fa godimo go tla Iemogiwa gore go dirisitswe
thekeniki e nngwe gape ya phapologantsho, ka gonne mokwadi
,0
farologanya batho ba Ie babedi, Senwametsi Ie Mmapitsa. Senwametsi
0
siame e bile ga a na makoa, fa Mmapitsa a na Ie makoa e bile a sa siama ka
gonne
0
tseela Senwametsi monna wa gagwe, ka go rialo go lemogiwa
dimelo tse di farologaneng tsa baanelwa ba babedi ba. Mmuisi
moanelwa yo
*
0
0
itsalanya Ie
siameng, Senwametsi, mme ga a itsalanye Ie Mmapitsa
Boitshoko
Senwametsi
0
na Ie boitshoko ka gonne
0
ishoketse mathata a Ielapa la
gagwe:
Moserwa: Ruri Senwametsi 0 itshoketse dikano tsa lenyalo.
Mosadi yo
0
sotlegile tota.
A sotliwake monna ka diganka tse dingwe
tsa basadi.
Mohumagadi a bidiwa Lekgalagadi ke
motho a mo nyetse.
Go ratiwa motlhanka wa madi a masesane a
a tlhantseng ... [ts.63]
183 Mo pharologantshong e, go dirisitswe dithekeniki di Ie tharo, e leng leele,
motifi Ie tshotlo go tlhagisa boitshoko jwa ga Senwarnetsi.
*
Leele
Go tswa rno nopolong e e fa godirno go dirisitse leele "go itshokela dikano"
go tlhagisa boitshoko jwa ga Senwarnetsi. Leele Ie Ie kaya go emelana Ie
mathata. Se se lernogiwang ka puo ya leele Ie, la ga Moserwa ke go re
Senwarnetsi
0
itshoketse rnathata a kwa bogadi. Mokwadi
0
sotla ka seane se
se reng 'Iebitla la mosadi ke bogadi'. Tiriso ya leele Ie, e godisa boitshoko
jwa ga Senwarnetsi. Kgang e, e bua gore Ie fa a na Ie rnathata a lelapa, ga a
tshwanela go nna Ie kakanyo ya go tlhala kgosi Selebi ka gonne Senwarnetsi
ke rnotho yo
0
nang Ie rnaitsholo a a siameng. Ka go rialo rnrnuisi
0
itsalanya
Ie ena.
*
Motifi
Mokwadi
0
dirisitse thekeniki ya motifi rno puong ya ga Moserwa. Sotliwa
e a boeletswa ka gonne e lebagane Ie tiragalo e e botlhokwa, e leng ya go nna
rno rnathateng ga Senwarnetsi ka go itshoka. Fa go ka tlhokornelwa go nna
rno rnathateng ga gagwe, go tlholwa ke rnonna wa gagwe. Ka jalo ena ga a
na phoso mme gona
0
tsena rno rnathateng. Kgang e e dira gore mmuisi a
iphitlhele a rno rata ka gonne Ie ena ga a rate fa Senwarnetsi a tsena rno
rnathateng.
*
Tshotlo
Ntsirne
0
dirisitse thekeniki ya tshotlo go gatelela boitshoko Jwa ga
Senwarnetsi rno lenyalong:
184 Mohumagadi a bidiwa lekgalagadi ke motho a mo
nyetse... [ts.63]
Fa go ka tlhokomelwa ka moo lefoko 'lekgalagadi' Ie dirisitsweng ka teng,
go tla Iemogiwa fa Ie sa tsamaelane Ie tlotlo, mme Ie Iebagane Ie lenyatso.
Lenyatso Ie Ie tlhagisiwa ke lefoko Ie Ie latelang mohumagadi. Lefoko Ie, Ie
Iebagane Ie batho ba ba nnang kwa sekakeng, e leng Masarwa. Mo setsong sa
Batswana, batho ba, ba nyatsegile ka e bile e Ie batlhanka kgotsa malata a
bona. Ka tlwaelo ke bona ba disang dikgomo tsa Batswana. Kgosi Selebi
0
bitsa mosadi wa gagwe 'Iekgalagadi', ka jalo mmuisi ga a amogele tshotlo e
e ntseng jaana ka gonne Senwametsi ke mohumagadi e seng lekgalagadi.
*
Tshotlego
Baanelwa ba bang we ba lemogile fa Senwametsi a sotlegile mo Ienyalong:
Moserwa: Selebi, ga ke bue tshele ke boammaaruri
tota.
Senwametsi
0
sotlilwe ke mosadi a itsege
ka boloi.
Mme
0
sotliwa ke monna e Ie wa gagwe
... [ts.63]
Mokwadi
0
dirisitse thekeniki e Ie nngwe fela ya motifi go tlhalosa tshotlego
ya ga Senwametsi.
*
Motifi
Lefoko Ie Ie ntshofaditsweng mo nopolong e, Ie dirisitswe go ya ka
thulaganyo ya thekeniki ya motifi. Sotliwa e a boeletswa ka ntlha ya gore ka
yona mokwadi
0
lemosa mmuisi gore Senwametsi
185
0
tshelela rno rnathateng,
ke ke ntlha e a sotlegang. Mathata a ga Senwametsi ke a a tlholwang ke kgosi
Selebi ka go ratana Ie mosadi yo mongwe.
Ka jalo mmuisi
0
utlwela
Senwametsi botlhoko fa a sotlega, ke ka moo a mo ratang ka gonne ke
moanelwa yo
*
0
siameng.
Khutsafalo
Senwametsi
0
tsheIeIa mo khutsafalong. Fa mokwadi a senoIa khutsafalo ya
gagwe are:
Sedialapa: Mmasera ga re supe lefufa lepe.
Re tshwenngwa ke go bona mosadi
a kgatlhegela go thuba lelapa la
yo mongwe.
Lona Ie itumelela go bona Senwametsi a
hutsafetse ka dinako tsotlhe.
Monna wa gagwe a mo neile mokwatla
... [ts.76]
Mokwadi
0
dirisitse thekeniki ya leele go tlhalosa khutsafalo ya ga
Senwametsi.
*
Leele
Go dirisitswe maele a 'go thuba lelapa' Ie 'go naya mokwatla' go
tsweledisa khutsafalo ya ga Senwametsi. Go thuba lelapa go kaya go senya
lenyalo la batho ba babedi, fa go naya mokwatla e Ie go ikgatholosa
motho. Mokwadi
0
dirisa maele a, go gatelela mathata a Senwametsi a a
tlholetsweng ke kgosi Selebi ka go tsenya motho wa boraro fa gare ga bona.
Ka jalo Senwametsi
0
a hutsafala ka gonne monna wa gagwe
186 0
mo
ikgatholositse ka go rialo mmuisi
0
lemoga kutlobotlhoko ya gagwe mme
mo utlwela botlhoko ka gonne ke moanelwa yo
0
0
se nang makoa.
Fa baanelwa ba bangwe ba tlhalosa go tlhoka makoa ga Senwametsi go
dirisitswe dipharologantsho di Ie nne, e leng tshiamo, boitshoko, tshotlego
Ie
khutsafalo.
Mo
pharologantshong
ya
boitshoko go
tlhagisitswe
dithekeniki di Ie tharo, mo go ya tshiamo ke tse pedi, mme mo
pharologantshong ya khutsafalo Ie ya tshotlego go fitlhelwa thekeniki e Ie
nngwe fela mo go nngwe Ie nngwe. Ka jalo go tla lemogiwa gore dithekeniki
tsa pharologantsho ya boitshoko di botlhokwa go gaisa tse dingwe ka gonne
di lebagane Ie go senolela mmuisi go tlhoka makoa ga Senwametsi.
S.4
KAKARETSO
Fa go tlhalosiwa semelo sa ga molwantshi go dirisitswe dikarolo di Ie pedi
tsa
kakanyetso:
maemo
Ie
go
tlhoka
makoa.
Go
dirisitswe
dipharoIogantshotshwaneIo tse mo go tsona go tlhagisitsweng puo ya
mokwadi, puo ya moanelwa ka sebele Ie dipuo Ie ditiro tsa baanelwa ba
bangwe go gateIela semelo se, sa molwantshi. Mokwadi
0
tsweletse pele ka
go dirisa dithekeniki tse di latelang: puisano, IeeIe, motifi, tshwantshiso,
pheteletso, kemedi, IeIatlheIwa, kgelekiso, tsepamiso, poeletso, tshotlo,
sekai Ie phapologantsho go
tlhagisa molaetsa wa terama e Ie go tihoia
kgogedi.
187 
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