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Planning and Design of a Production Facility at Transnet Rail Engineering
Planning and Design of a Production Facility at
Transnet Rail Engineering
By
Christiaan Adam Fouché
04431189
Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of
BACHELORS OF INDUSTRIAL AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING
in the
FACULTY OF ENGINEERING, BUILT ENVIRONMENT AND INFORMATION
TECHNOLOGY
Supervisor: Dr. Chris de W. van Schoor
University of Pretoria
October 2011
Acknowledgments
My deepest gratitude is extended to Dr. van Schoor for providing me with true mentorship,
guidance and aspiration in completing this project.
Secondly I’d like to thank Martin Slabbert (business manager) and all the devoted personnel
of the Power Electronics Department, for their insight and continued assistance throughout
the year.
Lastly, to my parents for their sense of humour and unwavering support, and to Willéne:
“We did it! I love you for knowing me better than I do myself”.
Laudate Dominum, Semper Fidelis.
Summary
Transnet is a cornerstone in the locomotive market of South Africa and serve both foreign
and domestic needs. The Power Electronics Department of Transnet Rail Engineering produces four types of electronic frames that regulate, transform, convert and resist the flow of
electricity making them critical components in locomotive.
There are certain existing problems that are forcing the department to relocate. The current production facility is shared with another department which leads to spatial limitations.
Theft, material handling and fundamental layout flaws are all contributing factors. A facility
has become available and the necessary planning, design and problem solving techniques are
required to turn the new facility into a flagship for the production departments of Transnet.
Best practices in facilities planning were researched as basis for this project. The research
aided in creating a project specific methodology to systematically complete each step of the
project.
In order to identify current problems and design considerations, the current facility with
all its operating procedures and workstations were analysed and a summary of all the data
was recorded in a table. Analysis techniques included from-to charts as well as Relationship
charts. A brief analysis of the new facility was conducted to highlight the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats that it contains.
After extensive research and analysis, the two alternative layouts were created. A new
system of production is introduced in both alternatives. Instead of collecting components
one-by-one from a store, all the components required for assembling a frame will be place in
a trailer thus creating a frame-kit. The new facility will be divided into three main areas: the
store, the workshop, and the exterior store (were all frames to be refurbished are kept). The
new alternatives will incorporate the modification area into the facility, but due to financial
and spacial constraints, the painting booth will remain in its current location.
The first alternative utilises a truck with a mounted crane to unload frames whereas alternative two uses an overhead bridge crane. All frames are placed on trolleys that increase
the ease of mobility. All areas within the alternatives are similar apart from the assembly
areas and the position of the testing facility. In Alternative 1 the flow of material and the
frame is greatly improved from the current system. Alternative 2 is an improvement from
Alternative 1, minimizing the material handling and increasing security. In Alternative 1
frames are assembled, manually transported to the testing facility and then transported to
the store. In Alternative 2 frames are placed on a rail at their assembly stations. After completion they can be directly transported to the testing facility and move directly into the
store since the testing room and store are connected via a door.
Both layouts were measured against certain weighted criteria and the best alternative
was chosen. Alternative 2 rated the highest as a result of its decrease in distances travelled,
overall aesthetic appeal, ease of material handling and efficiency of production. The creation
of detailed designs followed. They include: requirements for upgrading, detailed operational
procedures, detailed workstation specifications and the costing of all elements.
The epilogue of this project is the conclusion that includes all recommendations for implementatio
Contents
1. Chapter One: Introduction
1.1. Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.1.1. Company background . . . . . . . . .
1.1.2. Purpose of electronic frames . . . .
1.1.3. Electronic frame production . . . .
1.2. Problem statement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3. Project aim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.4. Project scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.5. Document structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2. Chapter Two: Literature Review
2.1. Overview of facilities planning . . . . . . . .
2.2. Approaching the problem . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3. Project-specific methodology . . . . . . . . . .
3. Chapter Three: Current Facility Analysis
3.1. Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2. Current workstations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.1. Frame stripping department . . . . .
3.2.2. Modification department . . . . . . .
3.2.3. Modified frame storage area . . . . .
3.2.4. General storage area . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.5. Painting department . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.6. HT1 and HT2 assembly area . . . . .
3.2.7. LT and Invertor assembly area . . .
3.2.8. Testing room . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.9. Receiving areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.10. Supervisor office . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.11. Workshop meeting area (Letsema) .
3.2.12. Module assembly area . . . . . . . . .
3.2.13. High voltage wire preparation area .
3.2.14. Store . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.15. Valuable metal store . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.16. Workshop kitchen area . . . . . . . . .
3.2.17. Restroom facilities . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.18. Gas store . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3. Workstation specification summary. . . . . .
3.4. Current facility from-to chart. . . . . . . . . .
3.5. Current facility relationship chart . . . . . . .
3.6. The available production facility . . . . . . .
3.6.1. SWOT analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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4. Chapter Four: Conceptual Designs
4.1. The frame-kit system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2. Alternative layout 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.1. Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.2. Alternative 1 production flow . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.3. Alternative 1 workstation summary . . . . . . .
4.2.4. Alternative 1 from-to chart . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3. Alternative layout 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.1. Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.2. Alternative 2 production flow . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.3. Alternative 2 workstation summary . . . . . . .
4.3.4. Alternative 2 from-to chart . . . . . . . . . . . .
5. Chapter Five: Final Design
5.1. Alternative layout evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2. Upgrading of the available building . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3. Operating procedures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4. New workstations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.1. Receiving office . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.2. Receiving area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.3. Store kitchen/Letsema . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.4. Component inspection area and kit assembly.
5.4.5. Valuable metal stores. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.6. Completed frame storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.7. Painted frame storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.8. Loose component store. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.9. Store supervisor’s office . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.10. Module assembly (LV) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.11. Wire preparation (HV) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.12. HT1 and HT2 assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.13. LT and Invertor assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.14. Testing room. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.15. Workshop supervisor’s office . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.16. Stripping areas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.17. Workshop kitchen/Letsema . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.18. Modification area. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.19. External frame store . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6. Chapter Six: Conclusion
6.1. Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2. Implementation plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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References
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Appendix A
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Appendix B
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List of Figures
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Flow of high-level frame manufacturing operations . . . . . . .
HT1 electronic frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
HT2 electronic frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LT electronic frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Inverter electronic frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Muther’s Systematic Layout Planning (Tomkins et al, 2010)
Apple’s plant layout procedure (Tompkins et al, 2010) . . . .
Winning Facilities Planning (Tompkins et al, 2003) . . . . . .
Reed’s Plant Layout Procedure (Tomkins et al, 2010) . . . . .
Facilities planning process (Tompkins et al, 2003) . . . . . . . .
Measuring instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example of a from-to chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example of a relationship chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A SWOT analysis diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Project specific methodology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Weight classification scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Flow diagram of the current operating procedures . . . . . . .
Stripping area with workbenches. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Old frame to be refurbished . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nearby waste collection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Project specific methodology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Project specific methodology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Modified frame storage area. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General storage area. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The painting booth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Paint-booth trolleys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Paint storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Notifications of potential hazards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
HT1 and HT2 assembly area. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LT and Invertor assembly area. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The testing room. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Receiving areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Supervisor offices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Workshop meeting area (Letsema) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Module assembly area. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Module assembly area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Component store . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Valuable metal store . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Workshop kitchen area . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Restroom 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Restroom 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Gas store . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Current facility from-to chart. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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27
44.
45.
46.
47.
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
44:
45:
46:
47:
Current facility relationship chart.
Examples of a frame-kit trailer . . .
Alternative 1 from-to chart.. . . . .
Alternative 2 from-to chart.. . . . .
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28
30
35
40
List of Tables
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
Table
Table
Table
Table
Table
Table
Table
Table
Table
Table
Table
Table
Table
Table
Table
1:
2:
3:
4:
5:
6:
7:
8:
9:
10:
11:
12:
13:
14:
15:
Workstation specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Alternative 1 workstation specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Alternative 2 workstation specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Alternative layout measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stripping of LT frame. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stripping of HT1 frame. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stripping of HT2 frame. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Modification of HT1, HT2, LT and the building of the Invertor frame
Prepare an painting of the frames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Build Invertor frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rebuild HT1 frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rebuild HT2 frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rebuild the LT frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Testing and calibrating the LT Voltmeter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Testing of frames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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26
34
39
43
70
70
70
71
71
72
72
74
75
76
76
List of Acronyms
DC
–
Direct current
AC
–
Alternating current
HT1
–
High tension 1
HT2
–
High tension 2
LT
–
Low tension
PED
–
Power Electronics Department
FFBD –
Functional Flow Block Diagram
HV
–
High Voltage
LV
–
Low Voltage
BOM
–
Bill of materials
1. Chapter One: Introduction
1.1. Background
1.1.1.
Company background
Transnet Limited is an integrated freight transport company formed around five (5) core operations: Rail Engineering, Freight Rail, National Ports Authority, Port Terminals and Pipelines. Transnet Rail Engineering serves as a fundamental cornerstone for the South African
railway industry. There are 130 depots, 6 factories and 13,000 employees that work within
the Transnet Rail Engineering community.
This division of Transnet Limited focuses on the maintenance, repair, upgrade, conversion and manufacture of freight wagons, mainline and suburban coaches, diesel and electric
locomotives as well as wheels, rotating machines, rolling stock equipment, castings, auxiliary
equipment and servicing. This project will focus on the Rail Engineering business of Transnet located at the Koedoespoort plant North of Pretoria.
1.1.2.
Purpose of electronic frames
A locomotive requires electricity to operate and mobilize itself from one place to another. A
locomotive receives 3000 Volts from overhead power lines supplied by Eskom. It’s impossible
for a locomotive to gain speed from this large initial amount of electricity. A more gradual
input of power is required. The HT1 (high tension 1), HT2 (high tension 2), LT (low tension) and Invertor electronic frames provide this feature.
The HT1 and HT2 frames consist of various electronic switches that resist the flow of electricity. These switches gradually switch on and off as required, increasing or decreasing the
electrical flow and ultimately the speed of the locomotive. Opening and closing of these
switches is controlled via a control-panel located inside the locomotive.
The LT and Invertor frames provide electricity to other areas inside the locomotive and
convert the DC (direct current) from the main power lines to AC (alternating current). The
LT and Inverter frames successfully regulate and distribute AC within the locomotive.
1.1.3.
Electronic frame production
The Power Electronics Department (PED) of Transnet Rail Engineering is responsible for
the production and assembly of HT1, HT2, LT and Invertor frames. The steel framework
required for production is collected from discontinued locomotive models (6E model) and refurbished. These frames are cut, welded and modified to meet the new 18E model specifications. The Invertor frame needs to be built from scratch since it’s a new electronic component specifically designed for the 18E model locomotive. Some Invertor frames do exist for
refurbishment, but they are rare.
After modification, the frames are painted, let to dry and sent to the production facility.
The various frames are assembled with new components, rewired, tested and dispatched as a
set. Each set contain an HT1, HT2, LT and Invertor frame. The PED produces 4 to 6 frame
sets each month. The diagram below displays the high-level processes of frame production.
1
Strip
Modify
Paint
Assemble
Test
Dispatch
Fig. 1: Flow of high-level frame manufacturing operations
Fig. 2: HT1 electronic
nic frame
Fig. 3: HT2 electronic frame
Fig. 4: LT electronic fram
frame
Fig. 5: Inverter electronic frame
2
1.2. Problem statement
The current facility for electronic frame production was originally intended to be used only
for producing the various frames as discussed above, but due to spacial and facility limitations within the Koedoespoort plant, the facility is shared with another electronic production
department. The spatial limitation places the department under pressure to produce the required frames on schedule. The predominant problems that exist within the current facility
are:
→ Space limitations
• The HT1 and HT2 frames are similar in size and currently only 4 frames (2 of each)
can be assembled at a time. The designated assembly space is not adequate and workers enter each other’s designated space regularly.
• The LT and Inverter frames are also similar in size. The same spacial restrictions apply in this area.
• The cutting and grinding area is not ergonomically designed to accommodate a worker
whilst working. Certain areas are too small for the required operations, whereas other
areas are too large and unutilised.
→ Fundamental layout problems and inefficiencies
• The high voltage (HV) wire production area produces wires on a make-to-stock principle but fail to be co-ordinated with the assembly areas.
• The low voltage (LV) module area faces the same problem as above.
• A lack of coordination with suppliers leads to stock shortages and production delays.
• When assembling a product, components are gathered one by one from the store, thus
increasing travelling time.
→ Demand
• Although the demand is constant and set at 4 to 6 frame sets per month, the department struggles to meet this demand. A backlog is created forcing workers to work
overtime, resulting in added financial costs for Transnet.
→ Theft
• Theft of components and precious metals (Copper) contribute to financial losses and
is regarded as a drawback of operating in the current environment.
• In some cases if a worker loses or damages a component, he/she merely replaces it
with a new item from the store without giving any notice to the workshop manager.
→ Material flow and handling
• Certain frame components are very heavy and require up to three (3) workers to position and fasten them. This disrupts the flow of work.
• After a frame is completed, it has to be tested. The frames transported manually into
a testing room. Both the HT1 and the HT2 frames are extremely heavy and require
up to 6 workers to manoeuvre.
3
These problems are the contributing factors that hinder the rate of production and the manner in which processes are completed. The PED of Transnet Rail Engineering has the opportunity to relocate the current production line to a facility that has become available. The
designer is tasked to eradicate all problems through thorough research, planning and innovative design.
1.3. Project aim
The aim of this project is to design an efficient facility layout for the Power Electronics department (PED) of Transnet Rail Engineering for the production of electronic frames used in
locomotives.
1.4. Project scope
The scope of this project will contain four (4) predominant phases: research, design, documentation and closeout. Constant reviewing will ensure that the project is on track with the
allocated tasks. The implementation of this project is not included in the scope and is the
responsibility of the PED within Transnet Rail Engineering. Final implementation relies
heavily on the financial viability of relocation. All matters concerning the final decision will
be up to the discretion of the PED. The final facility design can be adopted in its entirety or
merely certain elements thereof.
The facility to which the current production line has the opportunity to relocate is an
existing facility and no additional building structure is required. The facility is however dilapidated and requires upgrades. These upgrades are included in the overall design layout
and clear distinctions between existing and upgraded components are made. A study and
assessment of the current production facility is conducted and all resulting data is captured.
Design drawings of the current facility will be created in Microsoft Visio® and utilised to
design new layout alternatives.
Key factors to consider when designing the facility is the safety of people, machines and
products, the ease of production flow, waste management, sustainability, upgradeability and
the working environment.
Limiting factors within the project is time, financial constraints (as discussed above) and
the available space within the new facility. Another hurdle is the resistance of people to
change and with the new facility layout, many employees may find the transition troublesome. The timeframe in which the project is to be completed is roughly two months.
1.5. Document structure
In Chapter two, literature is studied and analysed to create an overview and understanding
of facilities planning. Chapter two graphically displays the various facilities planning as well
as the final project specific methodology. Chapter three contains the analysis of the current
production facility. All data concerning current operations is found in this chapter. In Chapter four, proposed layout alternatives are discussed and in Chapter five the final design is
chosen. A detailed description regarding the final design is discussed in this chapter. The
project concludes with Chapter six and the various appendices follow afterwards.
4
2. Chapter Two: Literature Review
Literature
Review
Current Facility
Analysis
Conceptual
Designs
Final Design
Conclusion
2.1. Overview of facilities p
planning
The ever-changing economic
nomic climate has created a wave of innovation, technology and free
thinking to be the predominant driving forces that empower organizations. The term Facilities Planning is defined as the ability of an organization to achieve Supply Chain Excellence
(SCE) by utilising certain methods and approaches (Tompkins et al, 2010). In the past,
past Facilities Planning
lanning was considered to be a science but more recently it is regarded as a strategy
that encapsulates the vision and objectives of a comp
company
any (Tompkins et al, 2010). SCE, with
regards to Facilities Planning,
lanning, is a highly sought after objective only obtainable through
proper
per organizational introspection and exploration of key areas. Tompkins et al (2003) ded
fines these areas as:
→ Business as usual
By focussing on best processes, procedures and practices, an ordinary department is transformed into a leading cornerstone with
within the Supply Chain (SC).
→ Link excellence
Removing of internal boundaries will result in an organization functioning as a single unit.
→ Visibility
This is the ability of a department to view the current status and operations of other ded
partments by receiving and interpretin
interpreting a continuous flow of current information. Visibility
allows departments to become aware of their role and re
responsibilities
sponsibilities within the SC. This
element is seen as the first real step in achieving SCE.
→ Collaboration
Collaborating with other companies and entities provide the best ch
chance
ance for an organization
to meet the demand of the ultimate customer. True partne
partnerships
rships can benefit all parties ini
volved but are only established with trust and consensual understanding.
→ Synthesis
The unification of all SC links to form a whole. Synthesis results in increased return on asa
sets (ROA), improved customer satisfaction and reduced costs. The ability to achieve synsy
thesis doesn’t happen overnight and takes time
time.
5
→ Velocity
The term velocity is understood as the speed at which an organization can achieve synthesis.
Since the current business environment demands speed, this is a critical area to consider.
The Planning side of Facilities Planning is vital for the efficient utilization of available
resources (D.R. Sule, 1988). Since the start of the industrial revolution, man has been concerned with the most effective means of completing a task that benefit both him and society.
It is important to understand that only an efficient organization can survive (D.R. Sule,
1994). One of the primary goals of an organization is to increase overall productivity. Effective implementation of facilities planning methods can increase productivity by removing any
and all activities that are wasteful and unnecessary (Tomkins et al, 2010).
Facilities planning strives towards improved customer satisfaction, maximizing operational speed and efficiency, reducing cost, reducing waste, integrating the SC, supporting the
organizations vision and mission, maximizing the return on investment (ROI), providing employee safety and increasing the company’s return on assets (ROA) by maximizing continuous improvement (Tompkins et al, 2003).
2.2. Approaching the problem
In order to resolve any and all problems and anomalies currently faced by the PED of
Transnet Rail Engineering, a systematic sequence of events have to occur. Many procedures
exist with various similar steps. There are five (5) popular methods of approach: the Facilities Planning Process, Muther’s Systematic Layout Planning (SLP), the Winning Facilities
Planning Procedure, Apple Plant Layout Procedure as well as the Reed Plant Layout Procedure (Tompkins et al, 2003). These procedures have aided designers to understand the context of a situation, to create feasible designs and to implement them.
* +
"
( )
"
#
& !
'
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! "
#
Fig. 6: Muther’s Systematic Layout Planning (SLP) (Tomkins et al, 2010)
6
Fig. 7: Apple’s plant layout procedure (Tompkins et al, 2010)
% U
x * +
O%
U "
#
z
* %
" # #
U
"
"
( O%
#
z
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& %
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+z " % * " # " ( # "
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Fig. 9: Reed’s Plant Layout Procedure (Tomkins et al, 2010)
7
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Fig. 10: Facilities planning process (Tompkins et al, 2003)
2.3. Project-specific methodology
The various frameworks discussed above serve as a guideline towards the creation of a project-specific methodology. The steps below represent the processes followed to successfully
complete this project. With each step, where applicable, the available and appropriate problem solving technique is identified and explored. The systematic processes are:
→ Analyse the current operating facility
Niebel and Freivalds (2003) argue that whether you create a new workstation or improve a
current process, the most critical step is to identify the problem in a clear and logical form.
Assessment and analysis of the current layout and operations will result in problems being
highlighted. The purpose of assessing the current facility is to obtain the procedures that result in the assembly of an electronic frame. Unlike other scenarios where only the current
operational layout is redesigned, this project focuses on the relocation of the entire production line to an available facility. Methods of analysis include:
Physical measurement of the facility and departments
These measurements are utilised to create a graphical floor layout that gives a holistic perspective of departments and their position. Measurement tools such as measuring tapes (8m
and 100m) are used to accomplish these tasks.
Fig. 11: Measuring instruments
8
Travel or from-to charts
These charts are helpful in the assessment process (Niebel and Freivalds, 2003). The travelling distance of material or workers is very important since travelling time equals wasted
time (Tompkins et al, 2003). Figure 12 is an example of a from-to chart, showcasing the distances between departments
6
22
&
34
18
21
$
14
13
39
10
24
7
13
14
27
11
32
12
21
16
8
8
17
36
12
9
11
15
(
&
$
T
(
*
11
*
Fig. 12: Example of a from-to chart
Relationship chart
Various relationships exist between activities or departments within any facility. A relationship is defined by Niebel and Freivalds (2003) as the relative degree of “closeness”, desired or
required, among different activities, areas, departments, etc., as determined from information
supplied by from-to charts. The closeness values categorised as: absolutely necessary (A),
especially important (E), important (I), ordinary (O), unimportant (U) and not desirable
(X). Underneath the closeness value a reason for the closeness is given. Closeness values also
have ratings from 4 to -1 assigned to them to determine a quantifiable value of relationship
activities. Figure 13 is an example of a Relationship Chart.
Fig. 13: Example of a Relationship Chart
9
→ Analyse the available facility
Since this project involves relocation rather than redesign, an analysis of the available facility is required.. This analysis will include all physical measurements, grading of the building
and the creation of a SWOT analysis.
!
W
O
T
Fig.14: A SWOT analysis diagram
→ Define the overall requirements
After the current
ent facility assessment, d
discussions with the business manager will occur where
the requirements of the new facility are discussed. The requirements will be a result of examexa
ining and attempting to solve the current problems while still focussing on quality and the
production of electronic frames.
→ Analyse
yse future requirements
The market is changing rapidly (Tompkins et al, 2010) and change has become exponential,
it is therefore of utmost importance to create a facility that is both flexible and accommodataccommoda
ing towards changes in technology, demand, best practices and the market. Discussions regarding this matter are held with the business manager since he has a greater insight into
the unforeseeable future.
→ Develop layout alternative
All the data gathered in the research phase is analysed to produce a concept for a layout alternative. The alternative is designed and drawn in Microsoft Visio® and constantly rer
viewed. The layout alternatives
ernatives must in theory solve or at least attempt to solve all the
problems the current facility is facing.
→ Develop from-to chart (as discussed above)
→ Decide to create a new alternativ
alternative
e or to move to the next step
10
→ Create evaluation criteria
The alternative designs are evaluated by rating them against certain criteria. Flexibility, future expansion capability, flow efficiency, material handling effectiveness, safety, ease of supervision, appearance, aesthetic feel and cost are some of the criteria an alternative is measured against (Niebel and Freivalds, 2003). Muther uses a rating scale where 4 represents almost perfect, 3 represents especially good, 2 represents important, 1 represents ordinary, 0
represents unimportant and -1 represents unacceptable (Niebel and Freivalds, 2003). Weights
(typically from 1 to 10) are added to each criterion to signify their importance to the organization. The ratings are multiplied with the weights and summarized to result in a final score.
This best score will indicate the alternative to choose as the final design.
→ Measure and evaluate designs
→ Choose final design
→ Create workstation specifications
→ Do cost analysis
A project is only as feasible as the cost incurred to implement it. Since budget constraints
will always be a factor, it is the aim of the designer to create a layout that is both intelligently designed and within the limits of a designated budget. There could however be factors
that outweigh the cost element such as an increase in the ease of production or a decrease in
material handling.
→ Create layout process flow
The layout process flow is the systematic sequence of activities that an operating procedure
composes of. An example of an operation might be the arrival of new components. Swimlane
diagrams are utilised to feature the sequence of activities with the specific worker responsible.
→ Compile all data in a final report
→ Present project
11
+ " # ?
+ " " '
+ '
-
"
C" #
C k
C Y!
NO
C #
Phase 4 - Closeout Phase 3 - Document
Phase 2 - Design
Phase 1 - Research
Project-specific Methodology
C
j
Fig.15: Project specific methodology
12
3. Chapter
ter Three: Current Facility Analysis
Literature
Review
Current Facility
Analysis
Conceptual
Designs
Final Design
Conclusion
3.1. Overview
As discussed in Chapter one, the PED of Transnet Rail Engineering is responsible
respons
for producing the HT1, HT2, LT and Inve
Invertor frames. The quality of information
mation gathered
gat
greatly
affects the accuracy of the prooject results; a thorough analysis is thus required.
Throughout the production lifecy
lifecycle, frames move between three (3) primary departments: the stripping and modification area, the painting area and finally the assembly area1
(also known as the workshop)
workshop). In this workshop, all frames are assembled,
bled, rewired, tested
and dispatched. The three (3) departments are located in different areas within the Koedoespoort plant. The difference in location requires an increase in coordination of both matemat
rial and information. Travelling
ravelling time between departments increases the production lifecycle
and is regarded as wasteful but currently system, unavoidable.
An
n electronic frame undergoes several steps in the production lifecycle.
cle. Current
C
operations include: stripping, modification, painting, assem
assembly,
bly, testing and dispatching. Detailed
specifications regarding these operations are found in Appendix A. Appendix
ppendix A includes each
operation and its bill of material
materials (BOM) as well as an assignment of a weight class to each
component.
Weight classification is important since certain components require
re more than two (2)
workers to transport. The weigh
weight classifications are:: very light (VL), light (L), medium (M),
heavy (H)) and very heavy (VH). Figure 17 is a graphical representation of operations and
figure 16 below displays the weigh classification scale. The scale displays the various weight
classes and
nd the amount of workers required to transport the specific component.
Fig. 16: Weight classification scale
! # # *
13
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=
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* #
T % ;T
?
T ;T #
T <T # <T #
T <T* # <T* #
T # ;T #
#
x '
" Fig. 17: Flow diagram of the current operating procedures
14
B+ 3.2. Current workstations
An analysis of all workstation layouts and specifications is required in order to design improved layout alternatives for the available facility. All departments or areas discussed below
(excluding the paint booth and general storage area) are scheduled for relocation to the
available2. Other departments or areas that serve as support functions to the production of
electronic frames will remain in their current locations and will not relocate.
3.2.1.
Frame stripping department
As discussed in Chapter one, the steel frameworks that house the electronic components of
the HT1, HT2, LT and some cases the Invertor frames are sourced from discontinued locomotives. The Invertor frame is a new addition to the 18E locomotive structure, so only a few
Invertor frames are available for modification. The first decision made in the production lifecycle is whether to build the Invertor frame from scratch (due to a lack of available frames)
or to strip and modify an existing frame. Electronic frames are very heavy and are transported to the stripping area via an overhead bridge-crane3. Here the frame is stripped and
cleaned of most dirt and grime. Pneumatic tools loosen bolts and perform the required stripping tasks. Waste is collected in a designated bin.
Fig. 18: Stripping area with workbenches
Fig.19: Old frame to be refurbished
*
(
Fig.20: Nearby waste collection
! # # *
! # *
15
3.2.2.
Modification department
After the stripping process, frames move to their various modification stations located next
to the stripping area4. In this area the necessary welding, grinding and cutting of material
occurs. Most power tools used here are pneumatic and air is supplied via the plant compressor. Electrical equipment such as drill presses, cut-off saws and welding machinery are utilised to perform the required modifications. Frames are hoisted with an overhead bridge-crane
and position on concrete blocks that are raised about 0.5m from the ground. The frames
need to be raised in order to improve the ergonomical comfort of the worker performing his
duties. The HT1, HT2, LT and Invertor modification areas are separated with welding
screens to protect workers from the hazards of welding and grinding.
Fig. 21: LT and Invertor modification area
3.2.3.
Fig. 22: HT1 and HT2 modification area
Modified frame storage area
If a frame’s modification is completed but the painting department cannot accommodate the
frame immediately, it is temporarily stored in this area. An overhead bridge-crane is again
utilised for the frame movement. Frames will remain in this area until the painting department gives notice. The space allocated to this area is rather large and not fully utilised by
the modification department since a maximum of three (3) sets of frames are stored in this
area at a time.
Fig.23: Modified frame storage area
&
! # *
16
3.2.4.
General storage area
Frames to be refurbished, equipment, tools and miscellaneous items are stored in this area.
Other departments use this area to store certain items that they might require at a later
stage. This area also includes the waste containers used by the stripping department as well
as extra steel used in the modification process. It is clear that this area is very large and
serves the primary purpose of being a general storage space5.
Fig. 24: General storage area
3.2.5.
Painting department
If a frame’s modification is complete and the painting department can accommodate the
frame, it is placed on a paint-booth trolley via an overhead bridge-crane and transported to
the painting booth with the use of a tractor. There are three (3) types of trolleys in use:
paint-booth trolleys, stripping trolleys and assembly trolleys. The paint-booth was originally
intended to only paint locomotives, but since no other painting facility exists in close proximity to the workshop, all frames are painted here6.
The paint-booth is large enough to paint three (3) set of frames (12 frames in total) simultaneously, but since there is a lack of paint-booth trolleys, only one (1) set is painted at a
time. The painting of a locomotive is considered a priority and frame sets often have to wait
for long periods before they are painted. When inside the paint-booth, frames are cleaned
with thinners and prepared for painting. A few coats of paint are applied after all the necessary preparations have been made.
After painting, frames require 24 hours of drying time. After drying, frames are transported to workshop entrance 3 where they are offloaded onto assembly trolleys via the workshop bridge-crane7.
$
! # *
! # *
! # 17
Fig. 25: The painting booth
Fig. 26: Paint-booth trolleys
Fig. 27: Paint storage
3.2.6.
Fig. 28: Notification of potential hazards
HT1 and HT2 assembly area
All the HT1 and HT2 frames are assembled in this area8. Since these frames are of similar
size, the space requirement for each frame is the same. When frames arrive at the workshop
from the painting department, they are unloaded onto assembly trolleys. These frames are
bare and require only two (2) workers to manoeuvre. Once the bare frame is positioned in its
designated space, workers follow key assembly steps. These steps are:
→ Attach low voltage cables to the frame.
→ Fasten electronic components in their specific positions.
→ Attach the high voltage cables to the frame.
→ Connect all wires with the various electronic components.
→ Check connections.
→ Transport frame to testing room (the frame is very heavy (VH) at this point and up to
six (6) workers are required to transport it).
! # 18
Fig. 29: HT1 and HT2 assembly area
3.2.7.
LT and Invertor assembly area
All the LT and Invertor frames are assembled in this area. These frames are also of similar
size and the space requirement for each frame is the same. Frames from the painting department are unloaded onto assembly trolleys. These frames are bare and require only a single worker to transport. The LT and Invertor assembly area is located next to the HT1 and
HT2 assembly area9. Once the bare frame is positioned in its designated space, workers follow key assembly steps. These steps are similar to the assembly of the HT1 and HT2. These
steps are:
→ Attach low voltage cables to the frame.
→ Fasten electronic components in their specific positions.
→ Attach the high voltage cables to the frame.
→ Connect all wires with the various electronic components.
→ Check connections.
→ Transport frame to testing room.
Fig. 30: LT and Invertor assembly area
! # 19
3.2.8.
Testing room
Frame testing ensures that the assembly process, along with all its procedures, was executed
correctly. Frames are transported manually into the testing room. From here various connections to various testing equipment are made. A testing officer monitors the status of the
frames as they progress through the testing stages. If a frame is wired incorrectly or a component is found to be faulty, the frame is returned to the designated assembly station, the
fault is corrected and the frame is returned to the testing room where it’s retested. The testing room is air-conditioned to provide a suitable environment for frame testing.
Fig. 32: The testing room
3.2.9.
Receiving areas
Components used in the assembly of the electronic frames are delivered to the workshop receiving areas. After the required delivery documentation is completed, components are inspected and temporarily stored in this area. The two (2) receiving areas are located near
workshop entrance 1 and roll-up door 110.
Fig. 32: Receiving areas
! # 20
3.2.10. Supervisor offices
There are two (2) offices inside the workshop. These offices are used by the workshop supervisor as well as the loose components officer. Even though the offices are elevated, visibility
of the workshop floor is limited. The offices are equipped with desks, filling cabinets, computers with the required software and air-conditioning.
Fig. 33: Supervisor offices
3.2.11. Workshop meeting area (Letsema)
The health of any business is extremely important. In this area the supervisor can inform
workers about deadlines, demands, discrepancies or general ideas. This area serves as a platform for assisting the flow of information between manager and employee, thus removing any
confusion that might exist on the ground level of operations. This area is also known at
Transnet as a Letsema.
Fig. 34: Workshop meeting area (Letsema)
21
3.2.12. Module assembly area
One of the supporting operations is the assembly of electronic modules. These modules are
low voltage (LV) components that form part of the main electronic frame structure. These
modules are assembled together with the main assembly. There are five (5) types of electronic modules produced at this station, these modules are: the RIOM (rapid input output
module) used in the HT2, the RIOM used in the LT, the FIB box, the small FIB box used in
the HT2 and the MPU used in the HT1.
Fig. 35: Module assembly area
3.2.13. High voltage wire preparation area
Next to the module assembly area is the high voltage (HV) wire preparation area. Here all
the high voltage (HV) cables used in the HT1, HT2, LT and Invertor assemblies are cut,
crimped and marked. This area is based on a make-to-stock principle. There are three (3)
types of wire that are prepared here. These wires are kept on large spindles and utilised as
required.
Fig. 36: Module assembly area
22
3.2.14. Store
All the components used directly or indirectly for the assembly of frames are kept inside this
store. The store is enclosed with palisade fencing and there are two (2) entrances. As discussed in Chapter one, theft of valuable metals is a major problem. All the workers have
constant access to the store and components, metal, wire and tools often go missing. Components are kept on shelves in alphabetical order. There are three (3) types of shelving in the
store:
→ Shelving type 1: L = 2.6m; W = 0.60m; H = 2.0m; 2 units
→ Shelving type 2: L = 0.9m; W = 0.75m; H = 2.1m; 36 units
→ Shelving type 3: L = 1.9m; W = 0.75m; H = 2.1m; 19 units
Fig. 37: Component store
3.2.15. Valuable metal store
High value items are kept in this location. The valuable metal store is a small room that
houses the most valuable items that could be possible targets for thieves. Desperation and
the greed is often the root cause of theft, thus making areas like these crucial to the sustainability of the business.
Fig. 38: Valuable metal store
23
3.2.16. Workshop kitchen area
This area serves both as a lunch room and a meeting area. Workers can store their previsions for the day in a fridge and use a microwave to reheat any item that requires it. This
area consists of a table with chairs as well as cabinets where cutlery and utensils are kept.
Workers can wash their cutlery in a sink that’s supplied with both hot and cold water.
Fig. 39: Workshop kitchen area
3.2.17. Restroom facilities
There are two (2) restroom facilities workers can choose from. The first is located inside the
workshop in the southern part of the facility11. This restroom can accommodate only one (1)
person of each gender at a time. The second restroom facility is much larger and is located
about 15m outside the workshop. This restroom is large enough to allow workers to change
their clothes before they start work each day.
Fig. 40: Restroom 1
Fig. 41: Restroom 2
! # 24
3.2.18. Gas store
A small gas store is located on the most southern point of the facility12. The reason the gas
store is located in this position is for safety since a gas explosion could be catastrophic. The
gas tanks are used for various tasks like welding and cutting of metal. The gas store as a capacity of nine (9) canisters.
Fig. 42: Gas store
*
! # 25
Storage space (m³)
Capacity (units)13
More storage required?
Workbench area (m²)
Frame stripping
8.5
6.5
55.3
13.3
11.3
215, 116
TS, TD
No
No
Modification
20
6.5
130
7.5
2.7
217, 218
TL, HW, TF
Yes
Yes
TL, U
-
-
Width (m)
Length (m)
Department
Space classification14
Total Area (m²)
More workbenches required?
3.3. Workstation specification summary
Modified frame storage
22.5
6.5
146.3
-
-
4419,8820
General storage
51.8
11.5
595.7
-
-
-
TL, U, TD
-
-
Painting booth
30.3
5.8
175.8
-
1.8
12
U, HW, TF
-
Yes
10
5
50
1.5
1.4
4
TS
Yes
Yes
11.5
5
57.5
1.2
2.5
4
TS, U
Yes
Yes
TS
-
No
HT1 and HT2 assembly
LT and Invertor assembly
Testing room
9.5
5.4
51.3
-
0.5
Receiving areas
-
-
34.3
-
-
-
U
-
-
Supervisor offices
6
4.6
27.6
-
2.1
-
TS, U
-
Yes
4.7
4.5
21.5
-
-
-
Workshop meeting area
Module assembly
Wire preparation (HV)
3.5
5
17.5
3.75
4.4
4
21
TS, U
-
-
4
22
TS
Yes
Yes
4
23
TD, U
Yes
-
4.2
5
21
5.8
-
-
-
166
-
114.1
-
TS, TD
-
Yes
Valuable metal store
4.3
2.1
9.03
-
11.3
-
TS
-
Yes
Workshop kitchen
4.9
7.3
35.8
-
-
-
F
-
-
Restroom facilities
-
-
93.5
-
-
-
F
-
-
Gas store
1
1.2
1.2
-
-
9
TS, HW
-
-
Store
Table 1: Workstation specifications
(
T" @, , A T" " "
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26
3.4. Current facility from-to chart
In order to track improvements in future alternative layouts, a from-to chart is created.
Travelling time is wasted time so a decrease in this activity is considered as a definite improvement. The distance between areas in the chart was calculated by drawing a straight
line between the centres of two (2) areas and then determining the distance between them.
In Chapter four, from-to charts are created for the all the alternatives. The alternative fromto charts can then be compared to the current facility’s from-to chart thus concluding if an
improvement was made or not.
)
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8.1
9.6
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10.6
12.1
2.7
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7.02
3.9
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5.1
8.3
13
15.8
9.2
7.1
5.4
13.8
16.4
10.2
5.3
!
13.4
9.7
10.8
10.3
10.9
17.2
15.1
# 24.8
19.7
22.4
22.5
23.2
28
23.2
12.2
<T <T* % 25.9
20.5
28.8
30.1
27
26.3
21
20.7
15.7
38.4
32.2
40
40.7
38.6
38.2
33.3
30.7
21.4 112.2
41.3
35.7
39.3
38.8
39.8
43.8
39.2
29.2
16.7
23.5
19.8
Wk" k
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39.1
43.7
43.4
43.9
47.2
42.3
33.5
21
24.4
17.6
5.3
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52.4
56.7
56.5
57
60.2
55.2
46.5
34.3
35.9
26.6
17.7
13
) *
30.2
28.3
37.5
40.1
33.7
25.6
23.8
36.2
39.5
26.7
34.5
50.2
50.6
61.2
G 67.1
61.1
68.4
68.9
67.3
67.3
62
58.6
47.4
41
29.1
35.2
29.5
23.1
59.2
"
# 64.7
58.8
64.3
64.2
64.6
66.1
60.9
54.2
41.7
40.9
29.9
26.3
20.8
9.7
63.9
# 98.8 100.7 106.6 109.3 102.8 93.8
95.4
110 116.1 103.8 110 127.1 127.1 136.4
# 100.5 102.2 107.6 110.7 104.5 95.3
96.9 111.8 118.4 106.3 112.7 129.5 129.6 139.2 79.2 130.8 139.7
127.5 136.7
81.6 134.2 142.7
4.5
9.5
5
90.5
93.4 107.8 116.1 106.3 114.7 129.5 130.6 141.4 79.9 136.4 143.3 24.8
20.9
17.6
# %" 63.2
59.6
69.5
71.6
66.3
60.1
56.5
64.2
60.6
45.1
42
61.4
58.2
62.2
36.8
46.6
58.9
86.9
90.7 101.6 116.9 96.2
# %" x
86.7
81.7
91.2
92.7
88.6
84.5
80
83.6
76.1
62.9
54.6
70.1
65.2
62.9
64.5
40.4
55.5 109.2 113.2 117.2 128.9 144.9 124.6
30
!
!
*
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# <T <T* % Wk" k
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G # # %" ! # Fig. 43: Current facility from-to chart
# %" x
G # 21.2
<T <T* ;T %
# 12
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27
83.4
# 98.3 102.2 104.7 98.9
;T %
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95.3
%
@;?A
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<T <T* 106.5 109.3 113.6 116.2 110.2 101.7 104.2 118.7 126.5 115.8 123.7 139.3 140 150.4 89.3 143.9 151.7 22.1 17.2 12.7
;T 114.9 118.4 121.5 123.9 118.4 110.3 113.5 127.7 136.6 127.2 135.8 150.3 151.5 162.5 101.1 157.7 164.5 39 34.5 29.7 17.2
%
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# 101.7 103.7 109 111.7 105.4 96.5 98.6 113.1 119.8 108.4 115.4 131.9 132.2 142
77
15.1
# To
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"
# ! # %
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@<?A
3.5. Current facility relationship chart
By identifying the various relationships that exist between departments, the necessary insight and design consideration can serve as input for designing an alternative layout. The
Relationship Chart is utilised to display all existing relationships. The term relationship refers to the closeness, i.e. the importance of departments being situated close to each other.
As discussed in Chapter one, the closeness ratings can be absolutely necessary (A), especially
important (E), important (I), ordinary (O), unimportant (U) or not desirable (X). The departments are given closeness ratings as well as reasons for the closeness rating. Figure 44 is
the Relationship Chart of all current departments.
T
# $
)
# !
Wk" # %
W
@<?A
!
?% Wk" k
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$
E
&
$
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U
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&
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&
U
$
U
$
U
$
U
$
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&
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$
U
$
U
$
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&
U
$
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&
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&
Code
Reason
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15
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&
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14
U
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U
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U
$
U
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13
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U
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, O
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O
O
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$
U
$
U
$
11
$
U , , $ U , ,
U $ U , U
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$
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U
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&
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+
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11
#
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18
Fig. 44: Current facility relationship chart
28
3.6. The available production facility
The primary purpose of this project is to conduct the necessary planning in order to relocate
the current PED to the available location. This available facility was previously used to store
Transnet branded clothing, but became available when the clothes became redundant and
were disposed of. This building is known as S20 and is located roughly 200m away from the
current facility in the most eastern part of the Koedoespoort plant24. The new facility was
measured and detailed sketches were designed to aid in forming a holistic view of the available space. The SWOT analysis provides a broad perspective on the strengths, weaknesses,
opportunities and threats that lay within the available space. This analysis is one of the
driving forces behind all decisions made when designing an alternative and the opportunities
element is intimately connected to the goals and objectives of the project.
3.6.1.
SWOT analysis
→ Strengths
•
•
•
•
Larger than current facility.
No spacial limitations when designing alternatives.
No extensive building is required since building is an existing facility.
Building is large enough to facilitate the modification department.
→ Weaknesses
•
•
Building is dilapidated and requires upgrades.
•
•
•
•
Theft is a possibility when relocating.
Building is located in a deserted part of the Koedoespoort plant and security surveillance is limited.
The facility is raised to a 0.8m elevation thus making ramps mandatory.
Limited electricity is supplied and 3-phase power needs to be routed to the building
Water and pneumatic air connections are unavailable.
→ Opportunities
•
•
To treat the new facility as a blank canvas and solve the current problems.
•
•
To design a layout that takes future requirements and demands into account.
To create a facility that will serve as a flagship for future investors by displaying
technology and innovation.
To work smarter, not harder and improving the efficiency of operations.
→ Threats
•
•
*&
Criminals who break into the facility.
Budget constraints, limiting design innovation.
! # ( # &
29
4. Chapter Four: Conceptual D
Designs
Literature
Review
Current Facility
Analysis
Conceptual
Designs
Final Design
Conclusion
4.1. The frame-kit
kit system
A new system of production is introduced in all alternatives developed.. This new addition is
known as the frame-kit
kit system
system. All components required for assembling a frame25 is placed
inside an enclosed trailer. The kit is assembled at a different location within the facility (in(
side the store) and transported
ransported to the assembly area where it is kept until the assembly is
completed.
lecting components
With this new system,, workers don’t need to spend ample time in collecting
from the store, but can rather be more productive and finish assemblies ahead of schedule.
Trailers are enclosed for security reasons preventing theft of precious metals and compocomp
nents.. If at the end of the day there are still components left inside a workers trailer, he/she
can merely lock the trailer gate and continue work the following day.
It’s proposed that kit-trailers
railers are painted different colours to prevent confusion when asa
signing
ing frame kits to a certain assembly stations. The colour classification
tion is as follows:
→ HT1 frame kit :
→ HT2 frame kit :
→ LT frame kit:
→ Invertor frame kit:
Blue
Red
Green
Orange
Fig. 45: Examples of a frame-kit trailer
*$
! =O x +
30
4.2. Alternative layout 1
4.2.1.
Overview
By analysing all the gathered data, an alternative layout is created26. Alternative 1 features
various new innovations and solutions to the problems currently faced by the PED. There are
several prominent features of this alternative.
→ The store and workshop areas are completely separated by a solid wall running the width
→
→
→
→
of the building. This is for security reasons since theft occurs regularly and the wall will
limit the opportunity to steal high value components.
The modification and stripping departments are included in the layout.
An exterior store is erected to house the old frames to be refurbished.
A frame’s components are assembled in kit form (see above).
The facility will make use of a truck with a mounted crane to load and unload frames,
4.2.2.
Alternative 1 production flow
The flow of material is important for the effectiveness of an operational facility. Certain scenarios occur within a business that result in a product or a service being created or delivered.
The possible scenarios and procedures that will occur when alternative 1 is implemented are
explained below. These are only brief explanations. Detailed discussions on the final design
will follow in Chapter five.
→ Arrival of old frames to be refurbished
• Old frames are loaded onto a truck with an onboard crane attached. This onboard
crane will unload the frames that arrive at the exterior store.
• Frames arrive at the exterior store yard.
• Frames are unloaded onto stripping trolleys and transported into the exterior store either manually or via a forklift.
• Frames can alternatively be transported directly to the stripping area by connecting
the stripping trolley with its onboard frame to a tractor and transporting it. A forklift
can also be utilised in this regard.
→ Stripping of old frames
The worker responsible for stripping travels to the exterior store and request a frame.
The frame is transported to the specific stripping station via forklift or tractor.
The frame is stripped of all components and cleaned of most dirt and grime.
All waste from the stripping process is discarded into the designated refuse areas.
These containers are placed on pallets in order for a forklift to lift the container and
remove the waste to a designated area.
• If there are components that require further refurbishment, they are place in the designated containers that are also palletised.
•
•
•
•
*
! # $ #
31
→ Modification of frames
After stripping the frames move into the modification area.
Frames are cut, welded and modified according to the new 18E model specifications.
Modification workers will cut all the required metal inside this area.
After modification, frames exit from workshop exit 1 and are transported manually to
the modified bare frame holding area.
• The modification area has a roll-up door entrance, but a side door will be installed to
minimize delays and noise levels for the rest of the workshop.
•
•
•
•
→ Painting of frames
• The painting department collects frames from the bare modified frame holding area.
• The store crane is utilised to hoist the frames upwards and place them on a flatbed
truck or on individual painting trolleys.
• Frames are transported to the paint booth via truck/tractor where they are painted.
→ Arrival of bare painted frames
• After the frames have spent 24 hours drying, they are transported back to the facility.
• The frame delivery is made at store exit 1.
• Frames are transported into the store via the store crane and placed on assembly trolleys. The frames are bare at this stage and much lighter.
• Once inside, the painted frames are transported to the painted frame holding area.
→ Arrival of components
• Components arrive at the facility.
• Components are transported manually or via forklift inside the store to the temporary
component holding area. The components have to enter through store entrance 1 and
store entrance 2.
→ Component inspection and the assembly of kits
• Once components have arrived, store workers inspect the delivery.
• A store worker will asses if he/she needs to assemble a frame kit.
• If a component has passed inspection it will be included in the kit. Workers will follow
the B.O.M provided to ensure that all components are present.
• If a component fails inspection, the component will be transported to the failed component holding area.
• If no kits are to be assembled, all surplus components are stored in the components
store. This component store has a metal mesh that encloses it for security purposes.
→ Module assembly (Low Voltage)
• The person responsible for assembling the module travels to the store and request a
module kit.
• The store worker assembles the kit and hands it over to the workshop worker.
• The workshop worker returns to his/her workstation and assembles the module.
• After the assembly is complete the worker returns the module to the store where it is
incorporated into the various frame kits.
32
→ Preparation of high voltage cables
•
•
•
•
The workshop worker measures each cable according to certain specifications
Cables are cut, crimped and marked.
After all the cables sets are completed, the cables are transported to the store.
From here the cable sets are incorporated into the various frame sets.
→ Frame assembly
• The person responsible for the frame assembly travels to the store and request a frame
kit as well as a bare painted frame.
• If the request is approved the bare painted frame and the kit is transported to the assembly station either manually or via tractor (empty frames are considerably lighter
than completed frames and only require two (2) workers to transport).
• The frame-kit trailer is positioned next to the assembly station. There is adequate
space for trailers and frames to move freely past each other.
• The frame is assembled and wired
• All connections and wiring are check and inspected.
→ Testing of frames
• After assembly, all frames require testing.
• Each individual frames is transported to the testing room.
• Since manoeuvring of frames is very difficult considering the weight, frames are positioned on a turntable.
• The turntable has an embedded track which aligns the wheels of the assembly trailer.
• The turntable rotates until it is aligned with the testing room which also has its own
embedded track.
• The frames enter through the testing room entrance and are pulled inside via a mechanical pulley system.
• When a set of frames (HT1, HT2, LT and Invertor) is inside, all the necessary tests
are conducted.
• If the frames pass all the required tests, they exit through the testing room exit rollup door and onto another turntable.
• This turntable can rotate as well to align the assembly trolley with a tractor.
• After testing frame sets are moved inside the store to their holding position waiting to
be dispatched to the client. They exit through workshop entrance 1 and enter the
store through store entrance 1 and store entrance 3.
.
33
Capacity (units)
4
24.8
-
-
-
1.4
-
-
-
Store kitchen/Letsema
6.2
2.7
16.7
-
-
-
2.0
-
-
-
Component inspection
-
-
25.9
-
7.2
-
1.4
-
-
-
Kit assembly area
-
-
34.8
-
-
-
-
-
3, 4
-
Valuable metal store 1
6.2
5.8
36
298.7
-
-
25.6
126.2
-
-
Valuable metal store 2
6.2
5.8
36
298.7
-
-
25.6
126.2
-
-
Completed frame storage
4.2
9.1
38.2
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
Painted frame storage
4.45
9.1
40.5
-
-
-
-
-
8, 8
-
Component store (level 1)
7.3
9.1
66.4
-20
-
-
60
5.2
-
-
Component store (level 2)
7.3
9.1
66.4
-20
-
-
60
5.2
-
-
Store supervisor’s office
6.2
4
24.8
-
-
-
1.6
-
-
-
Module assembly (LV)
4.85
4.25
20.6
17.7
4.8
28.0
5.6
26.6
8
100
Wire preparation (HV)
4.85
4.25
20.6
-1.9
4.8
-17.2
1.7
-
-
-
HT1 and HT2 assembly
14.25
9
128.3
156.6
7.2
380
4.8
242.9
6
50
LT and Invertor assembly
11.1
9
99.9
73.7
9.6
700
6.4
156
8
100
Testing room
10.2
6.4
65.3
27.3
-
-
2.9
476
1
0
Receiving area
6.6
7.5
49.5
44.4
-
-
-
-
-
-
Workshop supervisor’s office
10.2
4
40.8
47.8
-
-
1.6
-23.8
-
-
HT1 and HT2 stripping
12.7
6.2
78.7
-
7.7
-
8.1
-
4
100
LT and Invertor stripping
7.6
7
53.2
-
5.2
-
1.9
-
6
600
Workshop kitchen/Letsema
7.6
6.8
51.7
44.4
-
-
2.2
-
-
-
Modification
5.6
19.5
109.2
-16
4.8
-36
3.2
18.5
4
0
External frame storage
25
12
300
-
-
-
-
-
-
Exterior store receiving office
3.2
3.6
11.5
-
-
-
0.7
-
44,
30
-
Gas store
1.9
4
7.6
533.3
-
-
-
-
14
55.6
Restroom
24.6
8.3
204.2
118.4
-
-
-
-
-
-
Width (m)
Length (m)
Table 2: Alternative 1 workstation specifications
34
% increase/decrease
% increase/decrease
6.2
Storage space (m³)
% increase/decrease
Receiving office
Department
Total Area (m²)
Workbench area (m²)
Alternative 1 workstation summary
% increase/decrease
4.2.3.
-
4.2.4.
Alternative 1 from-to chart
By analyzing alternative 1’s from-to chart, a clear decrease in distance travelled is observed.
This is a major improvement from the current facility from-to chart. A direct improvement
of efficiency is a result of a decrease in distance material, frames and workers have to travel.
C 16.1
17.8
F
% 16.4
16.4
3.8
?% 8.6
4.2
19.9
18.6
?% *
14.6
10.2
22.5
20.6
5.9
C #
17.2
11
16.5
14.1
8.6
6.9
#
13.4
14.9
12.9
10.7
13.8
12.4
5.5
C @ A
21.7
20.3
12.4
9.8
19.5
18.4
11.5
5.8
C @ *A
21.7
20.3
12.4
9.8
19.5
18.4
11.5
5.8
0
! ’ 0
4.1
16.9
16.4
9.1
14.6
14.3
17.4
21.5
21.5
% @;?A
28.1
26.6
15.7
13.9
25.9
24.4
17.6
12.1
6.4
6.4
27.9
W
@<?A
25.8
24.8
11.8
10.5
25.2
24.6
17.7
12.2
6.4
6.4
25.7
4.4
<T <T* %
36.8
36.1
21.7
20.6
36.3
34.8
29
22.4
16.8
16.8
37.2
11.8
11.1
;T %
50.4
28.3
34.7
34.3
50.3
49.8
43
37.4
31
31
50.7
25.5
25
14.5
T
# 32.1
32.6
14.5
15.9
34.5
35.1
28.5
23.6
18.9
18.9
32
17.6
13.2
12.8
19.7
)
# 6.6
7
11.5
10.2
10.6
14.5
10.7
12.2
15.7
15.7
6.2
22.5
19.9
29.6
43.5
26
Wk" ’ 32.1 32.6 14.5 15.9 34.5 35.1 28.5 23.6 18.9 18.9
32
17.6
13.2
12.8
19.7
0
26
<T <T* #
50.5
51
34
34.4
52.6
52.8
46.4
40
35.3
35.3
50
30.1
28.7
20.5
11.6
19
43.7
19
;T #
66.5
66.5
49.1
49.9
68
68
60.9
55.6
50.2
50.2
66
44.7
43.4
34
21.1
34.3
59.8
34.3
15.2
Wk" k
">;
67.8
67.4
51.1
51.2
68
67.3
60.5
54.8
48.9
48.9
67.7
42.9
43
32.4
18.3
36.5
60.9
36.5
19.7
12
73.4
73.6
56.5
56.6
74.1
73.6
67.2
61.5
55.7
55.7
73.4
50
49.3
39.2
25.3
41.6
66.8
41.6
22.8
9.5
8.7
x #
90.5
89.6
72.6
74.2
90.6
88.9
83.1
77.5
71.6
71.6
90.5
65.7
65.5
55.1
40.9
58.6
82.9
58.6
38.9
24.2
22.1
16.3
85.9 103.6 103.2 96.2
90.8
84.9
84.9 102.2
79
78.8
69.2
54.3
70.2
95.8
70.2
51.6
34.7
36.7
29.4
G 55.5
40.5
59.3
F
% ?% ?% *
C #
#
C @ A
C @ *A
! ’ % @;?A
70.4
64.1
42.5
64.1
64.1
! # # From
Fig. 46: Alternative 1 from-to chart
35
76.3
83.9
85.1
100 109.8 160.5
G 62.5
x #
55.1
55.5
;T #
54.6
Wk" k
">;
54.1
<T <T* #
55.3
Wk" ’ 49.4
)
# 46.9
T
# 43.6
;T %
)
44.7
<T <T* %
201 203.2 196.7 201.5 204.3 206.8 210.9 210.9 190.1 216.2 212.7 222.1 231.2 224.9 195.6 224.9 224.9 236.7 245.1 245.9 259.1 266.9
40.8
W
@<?A
189.6 193
C 14.6
! k
">;
# %"
102.2 102.7 85.4
)
3.9
# %"
! k
">;
)
# ! # # To
)
# 4.3. Alternative layout 2
4.3.1.
Overview
This is the second alternative. Some alterations were made in positioning of certain areas27
within the layout. Many of the production flow operations of Alternative 2 are similar to
those of Alternative 1. The biggest change is the orientation of the assembly stations and the
testing room. Just as in Alternative 1, the following elements are important additions:
→ The store and workshop areas are completely separated by a solid wall running the width
→
→
→
→
of the building. This is for security reasons since theft occurs regularly and the wall will
limit the opportunity to steal high value components.
The modification and stripping departments are included in the layout.
An exterior store is erected to house the old frames to be refurbished.
A frame’s components are assembled in kit form (see above).
The facility will make use of an overhead bridge crane situated between the facility and
the neighbouring facility to load and unload frames,
4.3.2.
Alternative 2 production flow
The flow of material is very important to the effectiveness of any operational facility. Certain
scenarios occur within a business that result in a product or a service. The possible scenarios
and procedures that occur in alternative 2 are explained below. These are only brief explanations. Detailed discussions will follow in chapter 5.
→ Arrival of old frames to be refurbished
• Old frames are loaded onto a normal truck.
• Frames arrive at the exterior store yard.
• The driver positions the truck underneath the overhead bridge crane that is connected
between the S20 and E44 buildings.
• Frames are unloaded onto stripping trolley and transported into the exterior store either manually or via a forklift.
• If the frame needs to be transported into the facility immediately, the bridge-crane
unloads the frame and places it on a stripping trolley positioned on the 0.8m raised
platform.
• From there a tractor or forklift transports the frame to the stripping area.
→ Stripping of old frames
•
•
•
•
*
The worker responsible for stripping travels to the exterior store and request a frame.
The frame is transported to the specific stripping station via forklift or tractor.
The frame is stripped of all components and cleaned of most dirt and grime.
All waste from the stripping process is discarded into the designated refuse areas.
These containers are placed on pallets in order for a forklift to lift the container and
remove the waste to a designated area.
! # # 36
• If there are components that require further refurbishment, they are place in the designated containers that are also palletised.
→ Modification of frames
After stripping the frames move into the modification area.
Frames are cut, welded and modified according to the new 18E model specifications.
Modification workers will cut all the required metal inside this area.
After modification, frames exit from workshop exit 1 and are transported manually to
the modified bare frame holding area.
• The modification area has a roll-up door entrance, but a side door will be installed to
minimize delays and noise levels for the rest of the workshop.
•
•
•
•
→ Painting of frames
• The painting department collects frames from the bare modified frame holding area.
• The store crane is utilised to hoist the frames upwards and place them on a flatbed
truck or on individual painting trolleys.
• Frames are transported to the paint booth via truck/tractor where they are painted.
→ Arrival of bare painted frames
• After the frames have spent 24 hours drying, they are transported back to the facility.
• The frame delivery is made at store exit 1.
• Frames are transported into the store via the store crane and placed on assembly trolleys. The frames are bare at this stage and much lighter.
• Once inside, the painted frames are transported to the painted frame holding area.
→ Arrival of components
• Components arrive at the facility.
• Components are transported manually or via forklift inside the store to the temporary
component holding area. The components have to enter through store entrance 1 and
store entrance 2.
→ Component inspection and the assembly of kits
• Once components have arrived, store workers inspect the delivery.
• A store worker will asses if he/she needs to assemble a frame kit.
• If a component has passed inspection it will be included in the kit. Workers will follow
the B.O.M provided to ensure that all components are present.
• If a component fails inspection, the component will be transported to the failed component holding area.
• If no kits are to be assembled, all surplus components are stored in the components
store. This component store has a metal mesh that encloses it for security purposes.
→ Module assembly (Low Voltage)
• The person responsible for assembling the module travels to the store and request a
module kit.
• The store worker assembles the kit and hands it over to the workshop worker.
• The workshop worker returns to his/her workstation and assembles the module.
37
• After the assembly is complete the worker returns the module to the store where it is
incorporated into the various frame kits.
→ Preparation of high voltage cables
•
•
•
•
The workshop worker measures each cable according to certain specifications
Cables are cut, crimped and marked.
After all the cables sets are completed, the cables are transported to the store.
From here the cable sets are incorporated into the various frame sets.
→ Frame assembly
• The person responsible for the frame assembly travels to the store and request a frame
kit as well as a bare painted frame.
• If the request is approved the bare painted frame and the kit is transported to the assembly station either manually or via tractor (empty frames are considerably lighter
than completed frames and only require two (2) workers to transport).
• The frame-kit trailer is positioned next to the assembly station and the assembly trolley containing the bare painted frame is positioned inside an embedded track that
runs the length of the assembly stations.
• The frame is assembled and wired.
• All connections and wiring are check and inspected.
• After the frame is completed it is pulled forward via a pulley system towards a turntable.
• The turntable rotates to align its embedded track with the embedded track that leads
to the testing room.
→ Testing of frames28
• After assembly, all frames require testing.
• When frames are positioned on the various turntables, they are pulled towards the
testing room via a pulley system.
• The frames enter through the testing room entrance and are pulled inside via another
mechanical pulley system.
• When a set of frames (HT1, HT2, LT and Invertor) is inside, all the necessary tests
are conducted.
• If the frames pass all the required tests, they exit through the testing room exit rollup door and enter directly into the store.
• The embedded track leads from the testing room exit to the store turntable that sits
directly underneath the store overhead crane.
• When frames are to be dispatched the store crane hoists the individual frames upwards and positions them onto a truck waiting outside the store exit door.
*
! # 38
Width (m)
Total Area (m²)
% increase
Workbench area (m²)
% increase
Storage space (m³)
% increase
Capacity (units)
% increase
Alternative 2 workstation summary
Length (m)
4.3.3.
Receiving office
6.2
4
24.8
-
-
-
1.4
-
-
-
Store kitchen/Letsema
6.2
2.7
16.7
-
-
-
2.0
-
-
-
Component inspection
-
-
25.9
-
7.2
-
1.4
-
-
-
Kit assembly area
-
-
34.8
-
-
-
-
-
3, 4
-
Valuable metal store 1
6.2
5.8
36
298.7
-
-
25.6
126.2
-
-
Valuable metal store 2
6.2
5.8
36
298.7
-
-
25.6
126.2
-
-
Completed frame storage
16.5
1
16.5
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
Painted frame storage
4.45
5.9
40.5
-
-
-
-
-
4, 8
-
Component store (level 1)
7.3
9.1
66.4
-20
-
-
30.24
-47
-
-
Component store (level 2)
7.3
5.9
43.07
-48.1
-
-
50
-12.4
-
-
Store supervisor’s office
6.2
4
24.8
-
-
-
1.6
-
-
-
Module assembly (LV)
4.4
4.25
20.6
6.9
4.8
28.0
5.6
26.6
8
100
Wire preparation (HV)
4.4
4.25
20.6
-11
4.8
-17.2
1.7
-
-
-
HT1 and HT2 assembly
14.25
9
128.3
156.6
7.2
380
4.8
242.9
6
50
LT and Invertor assembly
11.1
9
99.9
73.7
9.6
700
6.4
156
8
100
Testing room
10.2
6.4
65.3
27.3
-
-
2.9
476
1
0
Receiving area
6.6
7.5
49.5
44.4
-
-
-
-
-
-
Workshop supervisor’s office
10.2
4
40.8
47.8
-
-
1.6
-23.8
-
-
HT1 and HT2 stripping
12.7
6.2
78.7
-
7.7
-
8.1
-
4
100
LT and Invertor stripping
7.6
7
53.2
-
5.2
-
1.9
-
6
600
Workshop kitchen/Letsema
7.6
6.8
51.7
44.4
-
-
2.2
-
-
-
Modification
5.6
19.5
109.2
-16
4.8
-36
3.2
18.5
4
0
External frame storage
25
12
300
-
-
-
-
-
44, 30
-
Exterior store receiving office
3.2
3.6
11.5
-
-
-
0.7
-
-
-
Gas store
1.9
4
7.6
533.3
-
-
-
-
14
55.6
Restroom
24.6
8.3
204.2
118.4
-
-
-
-
-
-
Department
Table 3: Alternative 2 workstation specifications
39
4.3.4.
Alternative 2 from-to chart
By analyzing alternative 2’s from-to chart, a clear decrease in distance travelled is observed.
When compared to the current facility, this is a major improvement from the current facility
from-to chart and Alternative 1 from-to chart. A direct improvement of efficiency is a result
of a decrease in distance material, frames and workers have to travel.
16.1
17.8
F
% 16.4
16.4
3.8
?% 8.6
4.2
19.9
18.6
?% *
14.6
10.2
22.5
20.6
5.9
C #
17.2
11
16.5
14.1
8.6
6.9
#
13.4
14.9
12.9
10.7
13.8
12.4
4.7
C @ A
21.7
20.3
12.4
9.8
19.5
18.4
6.5
5.8
C @ *A
21.7
20.3
12.4
9.8
19.5
18.4
5.6
5.8
0
! ’ 0
4.1
16.9
16.4
9.1
14.6
20.3
17.4
21.5
21.5
% @;?A
28.1
26.6
15.7
13.9
25.9
24.4
18.7
12.1
6.4
6.4
27.9
W
@<?A
25.8
24.8
11.8
10.5
25.2
24.6
15.4
12.2
6.4
6.4
25.7
4.4
<T <T* %
36.8
36.1
21.7
20.6
36.3
34.8
24.7
22.4
16.8
16.8
37.2
9.5
13.7
;T %
50.4
28.3
34.7
34.3
50.3
49.8
35.5
37.4
31
31
50.7
20.9
25.4
11.5
T
# 32.1
32.6
14.5
15.9
34.5
35.1
13.5
23.6
18.9
18.9
32
10.2
10.3
12.4
22.5
)
# 6.6
7
11.5
10.2
10.6
14.5
15.3
12.2
15.7
15.7
6.2
21.6
17.2
30.8
42.9
23.3
Wk" ’ 32.1 32.6 14.5 15.9 34.5 35.1 13.5 23.6 18.9 18.9
32
10.2
10.3
12.4
22.5
0
26
<T <T* #
50.5
51
34
34.4
52.6
52.8
40.9
40
35.3
35.3
50
23.3
27.7
15.7
9.4
28.1
43.7
28.1
;T #
66.5
66.5
49.1
49.9
68
68
55.4
55.6
50.2
50.2
66
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5. Chapter Five: Final Design
Literature
Review
Current Facility
Analysis
Conceptual
Designs
Final Design
Conclusion
5.1. Alternative layout evaluation
In order to choose the best possible layout,, each alternative needs to be measured against a
certain set of criteria. Each criterion is given a wei
weight or importance factor.
factor This weight is
multiplied by a rating from 1 to 10 that an alternative achieved for the specific criteria.
Topkins et al (2010) uses a numerical weight system from 1/10 to 10 with 1/10 classified as
extremely less important and 10 classified as extremely more important. The criteria include:
→ Distance travelled
travelling time between departments is wasted time. The
• This is important since travell
shorter the distance between operations, the better. By consulting each alternative’s
from-to chart and comparing it to the current facility’
facility’s from-to
to chart,
chart improvements
can be quantified.
→
Shop floor visibility
• In order for a supervisor to observe the current operations, the visibility of departdepar
ments within the layout is of great importance.
→ Aesthetics of the layout
• The look and feel of a facility is just as important as its functionality. Employees need
to be comfortable and productive in their working environment
environment.. Future customers will
judge a facility on its aesthetic attributes.
→ Personnel requirements
• A company’s employees are the backbone of the organization and no business can
function without them.. A facility needs to serve the basic needs of an employee. The
layout should serve the needs of the employee in a manner that provides contentment
without sacrificing on productivity. A fine balance is to be kept at all times.
41
→ Efficiency or ease of production flow
• This is perhaps the most primary evaluation criteria a layout should be measured
against. The method in which a product moves from the beginning of a production
cycle to the end signifies the effectiveness of the layout. The from-to charts provide
the necessary information in determining the total distance a product needs to travel
to complete the production cycle.
→ Security
• Does the layout protect the interests of the business? Is the probability of theft minimized or can high value components be stolen?
→ Safety of personnel
• Does the current layout provide a safe working environment and protect the health
and safety of its employees?
→ Ergonomics of design
• The ergonomics of a facility layout is focussed on the worker and how their physical
attributes are taken into consideration when designing a workstation or a task. An
example of this is the use of mechanical instruments to move heavy objects instead of
the worker moving the item manually.
→ Ease of material handling
• Material should be handled as little as possible as this adds no value to the product
but only adds costs (Niebel and Freivalds, 2003). Material handling can include the
transportation and positioning of a product from on position to another. The manner
in which material is transported is also important. More time and energy can be saved
if a forklift is utilised instead of using manual labour.
→ Space utilization
• Is the layout of an area adequately utilized? The justification of space allocation is
important since space is a valuable asset. A department should, for instance, not be
assigned a large area if it doesn’t need the space and won’t utilise it to its full potential.
→ Initial investment required
• The financial implication of an alternative is a key criteria when making the final decision. A proposal, no matter how innovative, will never be realised if the required
funds aren’t available.
42
No
Criteria
Weight
Alternative 1
Alternative 2
Rating
Score
Rating
Score
1.
Distance travelled
10
7
70
8
80
2.
Shop floor visibility
5
8
40
8
40
3.
Aesthetics of the layout
5
7
35
9
45
4.
Personnel requirements
5
7
35
7
35
5.
Efficiency of production flow
10
6
60
9
90
6.
Security
10
8
80
8
80
7.
Safety of personnel
5
7
35
7
35
8.
Ergonomics of design
5
6
30
7
35
9.
Ease of material handling
5
7
35
9
45
10.
Space utilization
10
8
80
7
70
11.
Initial investment required
5
5
25
6
30
76
525
85
585
Total
Table 4: Alternative layout measurements
Alternative 2 scored the highest rating when measured against all the criteria. This layout is
chosen for the final design and all detailed specifications that follow in this chapter will be
based on it.
5.2. Upgrading of the available building
The current electronic frame production department will relocate to the S20 facility. This
building is a pre-existing facility and no new building is required. The building is dilapidated
and certain upgrades are required before the new layout can be utilised. There are two (2)
railway tracks on the western and eastern sides of the building. These tracks were discontinued but the cost of removing such tracks is high. It is Transnet’s policy to build any structure a minimum of 2m away from any railway track for safety reasons. This design consideration especially affected the dimensions of the exterior store.
With all the necessary upgrades made, the facility will serve as a flagship for all departments within the Koedoespoort plant. Note that all elements on the drawings in RED are
newly added attributes29.
*
! # # 43
General requirements
Description
Cost (R)
→ Tree felling and garden services around the building.
2000
→ Repair of the double ramp on the north-western side of the building
(6m wide, 8.8m long, 0.8m high and 5.2° gradient).
3000
→ The building of a triangle shaped platform (3m x 3m, 0.8m high) that connects to
the platform mentioned above.
17000
→ Building of a raised platform (3m wide, 13m long, 0.8m high) on the south-western
side of the building. This platform is next to ramp 3.
24000
→ The building of a triangle shaped platform (3m x 3m, 0.8m high) that connects to
the platform mentioned above.
17000
→ Building of a new ramp (3m wide, 8.8m long, 0.8m high and 5.2° gradient) with a
platform (3m wide, 4.2m long and 0.8m high) on the south-eastern side of the
building. of guard-railing on the western platform and the platform of ramp 3 as
→ Installation
24000
21000
per drawing specifications.
10000
→ Repair of all broken windows.
5000
→ Painting of all windows according to production facility standards.
800000
→ Repairing and repainting of roof.
→ Installation of a new entry point into the facility workshop entrance 1.
12000
→ Tarring of area (3m wide and 55m long) on the eastern side of the building. Modified frames will be transported and stored here waiting for painting.
30000
→ Repair and repainting of all doors in the facility.
11000
→ Cleaning of facility and removal of unused material and clothing currently being
stored inside the facility.
3600
→ Installation of solid wall partition. One area will be known as the store and the
other as the workshop.
78000
2500
→ Repairing of all damaged or uneven floor areas.
→ Installation of electricity and power-points to all areas that require it.
74000
→ Installation of pneumatic pipes to departments requiring compressed air for tools.
45000
→ Installation of adequate lighting according to standards.
20000
→ Yellow and green paint for the designation of walkways inside the facility.
11500
→ White paint for the labelling of walkway direction, areas and general labelling.
3000
→ Proper ventilation ducts to facilitate workable conditions within the building.
15000
Total
44
5.3. Operating procedures
Chapter four provided a brief overview of the operating procedures or scenarios that will occur if an alternative is implemented. Since Alternative 2 is selected for the final design, detailed specifications of the procedures and scenarios are created. Operating procedures allow
the worker on the floor to know exactly which action follows another, removing confusion
and costly mistakes. A Swimlane diagram is utilised to display the sequence of events and
the person responsible for each action. These diagrams are found in Appendix B. The final
set of scenarios include:
→ Arrival of bare painted frames.
→ Arrival of frame components and the frame-kit assembly.
→ Arrival of old frames to be refurbished.
→ Frame assembly.
→ Modification of frames.
→ Painting of frames.
→ Pick-up of completed frames.
→ Production of high voltage cables.
→ Production of low voltage components
→ Stripping and modification of old frames
→ Testing of frames
5.4. New workstations
In order to grasp all the design concepts, a detailed design of each workstation or area is discussed. Areas and their functions are briefly described and all the general, electrical, pneumatic and water specifications (if any) are given. This encapsulates all the requirements a
specific are requires.
Within the final layout there are key areas that are fundamental to the successful production of electronic frames. These areas are:
Store
Workshop
Exterior store
Receiving office
Module assembly (LV)
External frame store
Receiving area
Wire Preparation (HV)
External store receiving office
Store kitchen/Letsema
HT1 and HT2 assembly
Gas store
Component inspection
LT and Invertor assembly
Kit assembly
Testing room
Valuable metal stores
Workshop supervisor’s office
Completed frame storage
Stripping areas
Painted frame storage
Workshop kitchen/Letsema
Loose component store
Modification area
Store supervisor’s office
Restroom facility
45
5.4.1.
Receiving office
Description
All delivery personnel will report to this office when delivering an item(s). The delivering
person will report to a receiving window where the receiving officer will assist them. The receiving officer will then proceed to record the delivery and update all current information.
All administration of ordering and receiving is executed in this office.
General requirements
Description
Cost (R)
→ Installation of a receiving window.
1500
→ Painting of interior and exterior walls.
1000
→ Air conditioning unit.
3000
10000
→ Office equipment (Desks, cabinets, computers, etc.).
1000
→ Minor repairs to the inside of the office.
500
→ Installation of secure door to office.
Total
17000
Electrical requirements
Description
Cost (R)
→ Installation of 4 regular 1-phase plugs
600
→ Installation of 2 dedicated 1-phase plugs
340
→ Installation of adequate office lighting
2400
→ Installation of double tray electrical conduit around room
1100
→ Routing of power to all areas that require it
3200
Total
Pneumatic requirements (none)
Water requirements (none)
46
7640
5.4.2.
Receiving area
Description
This is a general open area that will experience frequent traffic of personnel, visitors, components and frames. All deliveries will come through this area. There is seating allocated if persons have to wait for some reason. This adds to the aesthetic feel of the facility and adds a
sense of professionalism. Palisade fencing and two (2) sliding gates are installed to separate
the store from the receiving area.
General requirements
Description
Cost (R)
→ Seating
2100
→ Palisade fencing
8700
→ 2 Sliding gates
5700
Total
Electrical requirements (none)
Pneumatic requirements (none)
Water requirements (none)
47
16500
5.4.3.
Store kitchen/Letsema
Description
The Letsema area will be both a meeting place and area were the store workers can enjoy
their lunch or tea when they have a break. Since the number of store workers is minimal, the
store Letsema need not be too large.. The area will have a kitchen, tables and accessories.
General requirements
Description
Cost (R)
11000
→ Installation of kitchen cabinets fitted with double sink.
→ Refrigerator
4000
→ Tables, chairs, cutlery microwaves
6400
Total
21400
Electrical requirements
Description
Cost (R)
600
→ Installation of 4 regular 1-phase plugs
→ Installation of adequate lighting
3400
→ Refurbishment of the store sub-board
6350
→ Installation of the geyser
4300
→ Installation of the E-Boiler
3200
→ Routing of all power to where it is needed
3200
Total
21050
Water requirements
Description
Cost (R)
→ Installation of water pipes to the kitchen
4690
→ Relaying of drainage pipes to sink
6200
→ Connection of geyser
1600
400
→ Connection of E-Boiler
Total
48
12890
5.4.4.
Component inspection and kit assembly
Description
The store workers will use this area to inspect and assemble the kits required for the frame
assembly. The workers will work on workbenches and set aside the defective parts. Parts
that have passed the inspection are added to the kit. A list of all the components required
for a HT1, HT2, Inverter or LT frame (BOM) is provided to each worker. Next to the inspection tables will be the kit assembly area. It is recommended to assign a certain kit assembly to a certain colour.
General requirements
Description
Cost (R)
→ Four (4) workbenches
9000
→ Four (4) chairs at the workbenches to avoid strain on the worker’s back.
1200
→ Any tools required for inspection of the components.
4100
→ Measuring instruments (ruler, tape, etc.).
1050
→ Yellow and green paint to designate areas.
3400
420
→ White paint to label areas.
6200
→ Shelving for temporary component holding area
10200
→ HT1, HT2, LT and Invertor kit trolleys
Total
35570
Electrical requirements
Description
Cost (R)
600
→ Installation of 4 regular 1-phase plugs
→ Installation of adequate lighting
3400
→ Routing of all power to where it is needed
1100
Total
Pneumatic requirements (none)
Water requirements (none)
49
5100
5.4.5.
Valuable metal stores
Description
This store is used to store all components and wire that the store supervisor and management consider valuable. Since these items are of high value, the valuable metal store will be
very secure and again, only store workers will be allowed to handle these materials.
General requirements
Description
Cost (R)
→ Cleaning of the valuable metal stores and removing unwanted material.
750
→ Installation of shelving inside the valuable metal stores.
7600
→ Installation of locks on both doors (store door 1 and 2)
430
→ Green and yellow paint to designate areas within the stores.
375
Total
9155
Electrical requirements
Description
Cost (R)
600
→ Installation of 4 regular 1-phase plugs
→ Installation of adequate lighting
3400
→ Routing of all power to where it is needed
1100
Total
Pneumatic requirements (none)
Water requirements (none)
50
5100
5.4.6.
Completed frame storage
Description
After a frame is tested in the testing room, it exits through the test room exit. From here it’s
pulled forwards towards the store exit via a mechanical pulley system. Frames will remain on
the embedded tracks until the store crane hoist them up and places them on a truck ready to
be dispatched.
General requirements
Description
Cost (R)
5300
→ Installation of embedded track
34000
→ Installation of store turntable with embedded track
Total
Electrical requirements (none)
Pneumatic requirements (none)
Water requirements (none)
51
39300
5.4.7.
Painted frame storage
Description
When the modified frames are painted and delivered to the store, they are kept in this area.
There are two (2) specific areas where painted frames will be kept. The first area will be
solely for HT1 and HT2 frames. The area has a capacity of four (4) frames. The second area
will be for the LT and Invertor frames and that area has a capacity of eight (8) frames.
Since the frames will be placed on assembly trolleys, they can be manoeuvred more easily
inside the store.
General requirements (none)
Electrical requirements (none)
Pneumatic requirements (none)
Water requirements (none)
52
5.4.8.
Loose component store
Description
If all the kit trailers are occupied, but there are still components available, the workers
should stock the shelves of the loose component store for future use. The shelves should at
all times be fully stocked to avoid timely delays since lead times vary greatly. The shelves
are to be labelled correctly and alphabetically. This will increase the efficiency of the store.
The store will have two (2) levels to create adequate space.
General requirements
Description
Cost (R)
67900
→ Shelving for components
3200
→ Printed labels to mark the alphabetical categories on the shelves.
→ Steel mesh that will surround the store
17000
→ 2 lockable doors for level 1 and level 2
3150
Total
91250
Electrical requirements
Description
Cost (R)
600
→ Installation of 4 regular 1-phase plugs
→ Installation of adequate lighting
3400
→ Routing of all power to where it is needed
1100
Total
Pneumatic requirements (none)
Water requirements (none)
53
5100
5.4.9.
Store supervisor’s office
Description
The store supervisor’s office will overlook all procedures that occur within the store. The office will be built onto the receiving office with stairs leading up to it. Many administrative
and planning procedures of the store will take place in this office. This office needs to be
built since no such office exists in the current facility.
General requirements
Description
Cost (R)
32000
→ Building material.
2400
→ Installation of roof structure with 7° fall.
430
→ Painting of interior and exterior walls.
→ Air conditioning unit.
3000
→ Office equipment (Desks, cabinets, computers, etc.).
→ Installation of secure door to office.
→
→
7300
420
Total
45550
Electrical requirements
Description
Cost (R)
→ Installation of 4 regular 1-phase plugs
600
→ Installation of 2 dedicated 1-phase plugs
340
3400
→ Installation of adequate office lighting
780
→ Installation of double tray electrical conduit around room
1100
→ Routing of power to all areas that require it
Total
Pneumatic requirements (none)
Water requirements (none)
54
6220
5.4.10. Module assembly (LV)
Description
The module assembly area will be very similar to the thick wire preparation area with the
exception of the space required for a big spindle of wire, since the thin wire spindles are
much smaller and can be stored on top or underneath the workbench. The principle in this
area will also be make-to-stock with only the store supervisor having the authority to request
the stop of production.
General requirements
Description
Cost (R)
→ 4 workbenches to work from.
9000
→ 4 toolboxes
3220
→ Cutting tools for the wire
2500
→ 4 chairs for workers (to overcome bodily strain).
1000
900
→ Containers for various connectors and labels
Total
16620
Electrical requirements
Description
Cost (R)
600
→ Installation of 4 regular 1-phase plugs
→ Installation of adequate lighting
3400
→ Routing of all power to where it is needed
1100
Total
Pneumatic requirements (none)
Water requirements (none)
55
5100
5.4.11. Wire preparation (HV)
Description
All thick wires used in the assembly of frames are cut to size, labelled and fitted with connections in this area. There are three (3) different types of think wire: black, red and another
red wire with a smaller diameter. The wire is coiled up on a big spindle. Space is allocated
for the three (3) spindles of wire. A forklift will lift the spindles on their stands and from
there the worker will cut the various required lengths. The principle in this area is make-tostock. Only if the store supervisor notifies the worker that the wire capacity has been
reached, will production be stop. If this scenario occurs, the worker can be assigned to another department or be given other duties.
General requirements
Description
Cost (R)
→ 4 workbenches to work from.
9000
→ 4 toolboxes
3400
→ Cutting tools for the wire
1800
→ 4 chairs for workers (to overcome bodily strain).
1000
→ Heat gun
1450
430
→ Containers for various connectors and labels
Total
17080
Electrical requirements
Description
Cost (R)
600
→ Installation of 4 regular 1-phase plugs
→ Installation of adequate lighting
3400
→ Routing of all power to where it is needed
1100
Total
Pneumatic requirements (none)
Water requirements (none)
56
5100
5.4.12. HT1 and HT2 assembly
57
Description
This will be a very important area since the main assembly and wiring will take place here.
The space allocations are specifically designed for the assembly of HT1 and HT2 frames. The
layout can accommodate six (6) simultaneous assemblies. The area is designed to be functional and user friendly, limiting the distance a worker needs to travel. A worker positions
his trailer next to his empty frame. The worker has everything necessary to complete his
task. There are primarily two (2) reasons that trailers are used to carry the frame assembly.
Firstly it is convenient for the worker to have all parts present in one location, and secondly
it stops theft from occurring since the exact amount of components that the frame requires is
present. There is adequate space for the trailers and frames to move past each other if a
frame is complete.
General requirements
Description
Cost (R)
12000
→ 6 workbenches to work from.
1550
→ 6 toolboxes
40500
→ 2 Mechanical turntables
1200
→ 6 chairs for workers (to overcome bodily strain).
14900
→ Assembly power tools
Total
70150
Electrical requirements
Description
Cost (R)
800
→ Installation of 6 regular 1-phase plugs
→ Installation of adequate lighting
5650
→ Routing of all power to where it is needed
3200
Total
9650
Pneumatic requirements
Description
Cost (R)
→ Installation pneumatic air fittings at each station
13900
→ Installation of mini compressors where necessary
8900
35500
→ Routing pneumatic pipes to where it is needed
Total
Water requirements (none)
58
58300
5.4.13. LT and Invertor assembly
59
Description
This area is used to assemble the LT and Inverter frames. This area has specific space allocations for these frames with a capacity of six (6) frames to be assembled simultaneously.
Since the LT and Inverter frames are generally assembled faster than the HT1 and HT2
frames, more LT and Invertor frames will be available more frequently.
General requirements
Description
Cost (R)
12000
→ 6 workbenches to work from.
1550
→ 6 toolboxes
13600
→ 2 Mechanical turntables
1200
→ 6 chairs for workers (to overcome bodily strain).
17300
→ Assembly power tools
Total
45650
Electrical requirements
Description
Cost (R)
800
→ Installation of 6 regular 1-phase plugs
→ Installation of adequate lighting
4100
→ Routing of all power to where it is needed
2700
Total
7600
Pneumatic requirements
Description
Cost (R)
1290
→ Installation pneumatic air fittings at each station
→ Installation mini compressors where necessary
14600
→ Routing pneumatic pipes to where it is needed
3450
Total
Water requirements (none)
60
19340
5.4.14. Testing room
Description
This testing room is vital to the success of the production since the test specialist identifies if
frames are in a working condition. This room has to be built since no such room exists in the
current facility. Special attention is required when building this room since certain temperature conditions need to be maintained to do a successful test of the frames. Furthermore, no
dust is allowed inside this room. A key feature of this room is the exit door which leads directly into the store, providing efficiency and security.
General requirements
Description
Cost (R)
34900
→ Building material.
→ Installation of roof structure with fall.
4200
→ Painting of interior and exterior walls.
720
→ Air conditioning unit.
3000
→ Office equipment (Desks, cabinets, computers, etc.).
8300
720
→ Installation of secure door to office.
Total
51840
Electrical requirements
Description
Cost (R)
→ Installation of 4 regular 1-phase plugs
600
→ Installation of 2 dedicated 1-phase plugs
340
→ Installation of 1 3-phase plug
600
→ Installation of adequate office lighting
3400
→ Installation of double tray electrical conduit around room
2200
→ Routing of power to all areas that require it
1100
Total
Pneumatic requirements (none)
Water requirements (none)
61
8240
5.4.15. Workshop supervisor’s office
Description
The workshop supervisor’s office will overlook all procedures that occur within the workshop.
The building will be built on top of the testing room with stairs leading up to it. Many administrative and planning procedures of the workshop will take place in this office. This office needs to be built since no such office exists in the current facility.
General requirements
Description
Cost (R)
31000
→ Building material.
2110
→ Installation of roof structure with 7° fall.
560
→ Painting of interior and exterior walls.
→ Air conditioning unit.
3000
→ Office equipment (Desks, cabinets, computers, etc.).
9800
430
→ Installation of secure door to office.
Total
46900
Electrical requirements
Description
Cost (R)
→ Installation of 4 regular 1-phase plugs
600
→ Installation of 2 dedicated 1-phase plugs
340
3400
→ Installation of adequate office lighting
860
→ Installation of double tray electrical conduit around room
1100
→ Routing of power to all areas that require it
Total
Pneumatic requirements (none)
Water requirements (none)
62
6300
5.4.16. Stripping areas
63
Description
This area is used to strip all components and wire off the old frames. There are two (2)
stripping areas both opposite each other. Workers will place components to be refurbished in
containers and discard the waste in waste containers that are placed on pallets. The containers are placed on pallets to facilitate the ease of transportation when a forklift collects them.
General requirements
Description
Cost (R)
→ 3 workbenches to work from.
4500
→ 8 toolboxes
7400
→ 4 Waste containers
3200
→ 10 chairs for workers (to overcome bodily strain).
2000
11300
→ Stripping power tools
Total
28400
Electrical requirements
Description
Cost (R)
→ Installation of 8 regular 1-phase plugs
1200
→ Installation of adequate lighting
5600
→ Routing of all power to where it is needed
2600
Total
9400
Pneumatic requirements
Description
Cost (R)
→ Installation pneumatic air fittings at each station
1290
→ Installation of mini compressors where necessary
4320
→ Routing pneumatic pipes to where it is needed
2300
Total
Water requirements (none)
64
7910
5.4.17. Workshop kitchen/Letsema
Description
The Letsema area will be both a meeting place and area were the workshop workers can enjoy their previsions when they have a break. This Letsema will be larger than the store Letsema since a greater number of workers will use it. This room will need to be built since no
such room currently exists in the facility. This area will be used to host meetings held by the
workshop supervisor to inform his workers on any changes, updates or important factors that
have to be taken into account. The area will have a kitchen, tables and the necessary accessories.
General requirements
Description
Cost (R)
13000
→ Installation of kitchen cabinets fitted with double sink.
→ 2 Refrigerators
9000
→ 3 Microwaves
4200
500
→ Cutlery
9800
→ Tables and chairs.
Total
36500
Electrical requirements
Description
Cost (R)
800
→ Installation of 6 regular 1-phase plugs
→ Installation of adequate lighting
4110
→ Installation of the geyser
5000
→ Installation of the E-Boiler
2400
→ Routing of all power to where it is needed
1100
Total
13410
Water requirements
Description
Cost (R)
→ Installation of water pipes to the kitchen
1440
→ Relaying of drainage pipes to sink
2460
→ Connection of geyser
750
→ Connection of E-Boiler
320
Total
Pneumatic requirements (none)
65
4970
5.4.18. Modification area
Description
After frames are stripped they require modification. This area will be used to cut and grind
all frames . All bending of metal will be done in this area. After the necessary modification
has been completed, the frames will travel to the various welding departments. This room is
currently part of the facility and doesn’t require any extensive building. The room has a rollup door that will remain closed throughout the day and therefore a separate single door will
be fitted next to it. The space of the room has to be taken into account since heavy fumes
can and will develop. This area needs to be well lit and ventilated with emergency exits and
procedures in place in case of an emergency. Each frame has its own welding station separated with a welding shield
General requirements
Description
Cost (R)
→ 4 workbenches to work from.
7500
→ 4 toolboxes
3000
→ 4 Welding shield
6700
→ Cutting and bending equipment
21000
→ 2 Air ventilators
56000
Total
94200
Electrical requirements
Description
Cost (R)
→ Installation of 8 3-phase welding plugs
14500
→ Installation of a main electrical board
4380
→ Installation of 8 regular 1-phase plugs
1800
→ Installation of adequate lighting
3400
→ Routing of all power to where it is needed
1100
Total
25180
Pneumatic requirements
Description
Cost (R)
→ Installation pneumatic air fittings at each station
5320
→ Installation of mini compressors where necessary
6500
→ Routing pneumatic pipes to where it is needed
3200
Total
Water requirements (none)
66
15020
5.4.19. External frame store
Description
This structure needs to be built outside of the main facility. When designing the store, it was
restricted to a length of 25m since the railway tracks curve inside towards the facility. The
purpose of this structure is to house the old frames that will require refurbishment in a secure area that will prevent the theft of components. The whole area in the yard is to be
paved since heavy traffic of trucks are expected.
General requirements
Description
Cost (R)
→ Wendy-house (wooden and properly treated).
6000
→ Air conditioning unit.
3000
→ Office equipment (Desks, cabinets, computers, etc.).
3900
260
→ Installation of secure door to Wendy.
→ Sheet metal or palisade fencing to surround the frames.
40600
→ 3 sliding gates to the store.
→
→ An overhead crane
19000
320000
110000
→ Paving (30 MPA, 200mm, 630m²).
→
Total
Electrical requirements (none)
Pneumatic requirements (none)
Water requirements (none)
67
502760
6. Chapter Six: Conclusion
Literature
Review
Current Facility
Analysis
Conceptual
Designs
Final Design
Conclusion
6.1. Overview
Through thorough research and analysis of the current facility operations, two (2) alternative
layouts could be design for the available facility. Both these alternatives contain similar ata
tributes but are still unique in their design and nature. Alternative 2 proved to be the most
capable of producing electronic frames in an efficient and effective manner. The total cost of
relocation was calculated to be roughly R1,444,445.00 but this figure is susceptible to change
in the immediate future.
There are key benefits for relocating the current facility. These benefits include: ImI
proved material handling, decreases in the
theft
ft as a result of increases in security, better space
utilization, decreases in travelling distances between departments, greater production
throughput capabilities and improved aesthetic attributes.
The final design with all its features and attribute
attributess should be carefully studied in order to
fully comprehend the proposed design. The final layout is an effective representation of the
goals and objectives that were set forth at the inception of this project.
6.2. Implementation plan
The implementation of this
is design will commence in stages. Since budget constraints are ala
ways a factor, the most critical elements of the design will be implemented first and the
lesser important elements will follow thereafter. The implementation plan is as follows:
Repair the roof and all the windows.
Build required ramps and make the necessary upgrades.
Relay power, pneumatic air and water to the facility.
Build the wall that separated the store and the workshop.
Install and equip the modification area.
Build the exterior storee and exterior store receiving office.
Build the testing room and the workshop supervisor’s office.
Upgrade the receiving office and build the store supervisor’s office.
Install palisade fencing around the store.
Install the 2-level
level loose components store.
Install the store crane and the exterior store crane.
Paint all designated areas.
Install workbenches and tool cabinets.
Relay power, pneumatic air and water to the specific areas that require it.
Move existing equipment from current location to the new ffacility.
Transport old frames to the exterior store.
Start production
68
References
Tompkins, J.A., White, J.A., Bozer, Y.A. and Tanchoco, J.M.A. (2010). Facilities Planning.
John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 4th edition.
Tompkins, J.A., White, J.A., Bozer, Y.A. and Tanchoco, J.M.A. (2003). Facilities Planning.
John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 3rd edition.
Niebel, B.W. and Freivalds, A. (2003). Methods, Standards and Work Design. The McGrawHill Companies Inc., 11th edition.
D.R. Sule (1988), Manufacturing facilities Location, Planning and Design, PWS-KENT
Company, 1st edition.
D.R. Sule (1994), Manufacturing facilities Location, Planning and Design, PWS Publishing
Company, 2nd edition.
69
Appendix A
Operation name
Operation no.
Operation ID
Quantity produced
Time required (hours)
Labour cost/hour (R)
Total labour cost (R)
Total cost (R)
Material details
Mat. Comp. Item
**
*
& !
;T x !
*
*&&(
& $
Weight class totals
N ?;
N ;
N N <
N ?<
Component
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@A
Qty
Weight
<
?;
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=
=
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(
$
Qty
>
Weight
>
Make/Buy
>
Cost (R)
>
Qty
>
Weight
>
Make/Buy
>
Cost (R)
>
Table 5: Stripping of LT frame
Operation name
Operation no.
Operation ID
Quantity produced
Time required (hours)
Labour cost/hour (R)
Total labour cost (R)
Total cost (R)
Material details
Mat. Comp. Item
>
>
!
<T *
*
x !
$
*&&(
(* &$
(* &$
Weight class totals
N ?;
N ;
N N <
N ?<
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>
Table 6: Stripping of HT1 frame
Operation name
Operation no.
Operation ID
Quantity produced
Time required (hours)
Labour cost/hour (R)
Total labour cost (R)
Total cost (R)
Material details
Mat. Comp. Item
>
>
!
<T* (
(
x !
*
*&&(
$*(
$*(
Weight class totals
N ?;
N ;
N N <
N ?<
Component
>
Table 7: Stripping of HT2 frame
70
Operation name
Operation no.
Operation ID
Quantity produced
Time required (hours)
Labour cost/hour (R)
Total labour cost (R)
Total cost (R)
Material details
Mat. Comp. Item
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Table 8: Modification of HT1, HT2, LT and the building of the Invertor frame
Operation name
Operation no.
Operation ID
Quantity produced
Time required (hours)
Labour cost/hour (R)
Total labour cost (R)
Total cost (R)
Material details
Mat. Comp. Item
($
$*(
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Table 9: Prepare an painting of the frames
71
Weight
;
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;
;
;
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=
=
=
=
=
Cost (R)
$
*
$*
( $
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Operation name
Operation no.
Operation ID
Quantity produced
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Labour cost/hour (R)
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Table 10: Build Invertor frame
Operation name
Operation no.
Operation ID
Quantity produced
Time required (hours)
Labour cost/hour (R)
Total labour cost (R)
Total cost (R)
Material details
Mat. Comp.
Item
$*$
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72
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73
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Table 11: Rebuild HT1 frame
Operation name
Operation no.
Operation ID
Quantity produced
Time required (hours)
Labour cost/hour (R)
Total labour cost (R)
Total cost (R)
Material details
Mat. Comp. Item
*
($
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Weight class totals
N ?;
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= <T* Table 12: Rebuild HT2 frame
74
Make/Buy
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Operation ID
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Material details
Mat. Comp.
Item
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x, , *$A
T W) @ " – "
#" #A
%x @)O, ;: *, W: (&, <: *(A
= ;T k
*
<
;
;
?;
?;
<
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
)%
"
*&$
&$**
*&
$
& &
*
Make/Buy
>
Cost (R)
>
Make/Buy
>
Cost (R)
>
Table 13: Rebuild the LT frame
Operation name
Operation no.
Operation ID
Quantity produced
Time required (hours)
Labour cost/hour (R)
Total labour cost (R)
Total cost (R)
Material details
Mat. Comp. Item
>
>
T> ;T ?
$$
*&&(
*&&(
*&&(
Weight class totals
N ?;
N ;
N N <
N ?<
Component
>
Qty
>
Weight
>
Table 14: Testing and calibrating the LT Voltmeter
Operation name
Operation no.
Operation ID
Quantity produced
Time required (hours)
Labour cost/hour (R)
Total labour cost (R)
Total cost (R)
Material details
Mat. Comp. Item
>
>
T <T, <T*, ;T *
*&&(
Weight class totals
N ?;
N ;
N N <
N ?<
Component
>
Qty
>
Weight
>
Table 15: Testing of HT1, HT2, LT and Invertor frames
76
Appendix B
Arrival of bare painted frames
Painting dept.
Delivery worker
Store worker
Receiving officer
Store supervisor
)' %
C"k Y!
N
C
"?
NO
'
NO
N
)' ?
Y!
N
; % k T x
) k "
" # N
N
k x
U # "
) T " "
# @ % ;OC
'
A
YES
?
N
NO
N
" % @A '
U # N
77
?
Arrival of frame components and the assembly of frame kits
Delivery worker (Supplier)
Receiving officer
)' Store worker
C"k k
% " " "
# " % "
NO
N
T
% "
# "?
Y!
'
N
NO
)' ?
Y!
T N
# % N
N
k %
N
) #
O k
"
#
@ # *A
%" @ % ;OCA
?
Y!
NO
C"k "’ % %
k
# C"k " "
Y!
x k
%
"?
NO
N
Y!
!" "?
C " =O
% " '
k
" NO
N
!k " " " x U 78
Arrival of old frames to be refurbished
Storage officer (situated
in M.O.P factory)
3ard worker/ workshop
worker
Delivery worker
3ard supervisor (e4terior
store)
)' % %
"
C"k x
Y!
N
C
"?
NO
'
NO
N
)' ?
Y!
; k
" " T x
k
" x
#
% N
U k
" N
k %
%
#
k
) U N
79
Frame assembly
Workshop worker
LOCP5 quality controller
Store supervisor
)' k
C"k %
k
'
NO
N
F
%
' ?
Y!
N
T k
% @ k" A
U =O "k
" k
NO
F
?
N
Y!
+ # " +" +" , # + "
#" # % C " " NO
?
Y!
)' %
# "
"
# 80
Modification of frames
Workshop worker (Stripping)
Workshop worker (modification)
C"k %
!
%?
Store supervisor
)' NO
N
Y!
T #- "
# )
"
# k
C % " '
#" C #
" T # @ A
?
NO
k
" NO
k
" Y!
k " '
#
?
Y!
T " k
@ k" x
A
% " %
#
N
C"k '
NO
+ '
?
Y!
F " 81
Arrival of bare painted frames
Painting dept.
Delivery worker
Store worker
Receiving officer
Store supervisor
)' %
C"k Y!
N
C
"?
NO
'
NO
N
)' ?
Y!
N
; % k T x
) k "
" # N
N
k x
U # "
) T " "
# @ % ;OC
'
A
YES
?
N
NO
N
" % @A '
U # N
82
?
Pick-up of completed frames
Store supervisor
Store worker
Transportation worker
)' k '
NO
N
)' ?
Y!
N
T " k "
x
) k
" " "
N
# % N
N
k " x
#
) k-
N
; k "
@ x
"#" x
A
U 83
Preparation of high voltage cables
Workshop worker
(high voltage cable prep.)
"
" %
% " '
#" k " C %
?
Receiving officer
Store worker
Y!
C " " NO
)' C"k Y!
N
C
"?
NO
'
N
NO
)' ?
Y!
N
T N
# % N
) 84
T "
Production of low voltage components (RIOM6 MP7 or Sprague modules)
Workshop worker
(low voltage components)
Store worker
Receiving officer
"
" % %
)' " '
'
NO
N
)' ?
Y!
N
T k
@ k" A
C '
#" # +% "
)
" '
" C"k " =O
" " Y!
+ ?
T ?
NO
N
Y!
NO
C " " T N
k N
) U " 85
Stripping of old frames
Workshop worker (stripping)
Workshop worker
(modification)
3ard supervisor
T '
C"k ' % x
NO
N
%?
Y!
'
NO
N
)' ?
T " # , k
Y!
U x
@ "#" k" # *
!
" '
" '
C"k % '
NO
N
'
?
Y!
N
T # T @ "#" A
% %
%
" 86
T
# Workshop worker
(frame assembly)
Testing officer
)' %
# "
"
# C"k # ’
N
Y!
Store supervisor
T
# ?
NO
'
N
NO
)' ?
Y!
N
T #
k
"
# " % ) % "
" # C % "
# T N
Y!
?
C"k " " % " "
NO
C " " C
"?
x
#
x
" # " % *
) % * "
" k" Y!
NO
T " "
#
" @ "#" (A
N
k ) N
U 87
Fly UP