...

OF CALICUT UNIVERSITY ZOOLOGY

by user

on
Category: Documents
8

views

Report

Comments

Transcript

OF CALICUT UNIVERSITY ZOOLOGY
..:"
:
r' iilf.
,*=
I
t,l
.''ll
f'r
UNIVERSITY
OF CALICUT
(UNDER GRADUATE PROGRAMME
OF
STUDY)
B. Sc. DEGREE COURSE
ZOOLOGY [MAINI
SYLLABUS
2OO5 ADMISSToNI
IEFFECTTVE FRoM
I
I
\"- --- ---::-:
INTRODUCTION
i.-
The Board of Studies in Zoolory tU. G.] of the University of Calicut, after disc
-,,.i
the details of the syllabus of zoologr Main as part of the curriculum of the Under
Gra{uatg
Programrne of Study [8. Sc.], took the following decisions.
The Board recommends that the existing syllabus may be revised. ald updated
forthwith' The new syllabus may be implemented with effect from the acad.emic year
2006' That is, the revised syllabus will have to take effect from 2005 admission.
20oS
-
In addition to the year-end examinations to be conducted. by the university, a
system
of continuous evaLuation throu gh Internal Assessm ent by the faculty members
of the
Deparlment of Zoologr of the respective institutions must be adopted for Zoolory
main
papers' The distribution of marks is 80% for External Evaluation and, 2ooh for Internal
Assessment.
AccordinglY, the syllabus, the scheme of instruction and the scheme of evaluation
of
B' Sc' Zoolog;r are framed. The syllabus for the three-year B. Sc. Degree course
[U. G.] with
zoologt as main subject of study contains provision for both theory and praclical
components in all tlee three years.
Enuironmental Educafion forms a part of the curriculum, under part IV,
as per the
directions of the Honourable Supreme Court of India
[see instructions issued by the
University of Calicut in this regardl. Biosfatrstia is introduced. as a fresh component
of
study during the third year with a view to providing the basic knowledge of Statistics
essential for a better understanding and interpretation of data related to the project work
and practical. Biotechnologg, Immunology, End.ocinologg.and. Repioductiue Biologg, which
are fast developing biological frelds of knowledge that aty Zoologr student should acquire,
are also incorporated as separate sections of study during the third year. Having taken note
of the alarming treud in the deterioration of the natural environment and grave toxicological
problems, we recommend th:-t the fundamentals of Conseruation Biologg artd. Toxicologg rna_v
be added to the main syllabus.
Further, some pertinent topics are suggested for Seminar / Assignment ,/ Group,
disanssion / Self studg with a view to enriching the Under Graduate programme cf
Education' In addition to the items for practical , a project zuork forms an integra-l part of the
curriculum during the third year. Fietd tips / studg tour to places of biological interest are
also compulsory elements of the curriculum. Students are required to visit differeni
ecological sites for studying animals in their natural habitats. They shall visit institutes /
museums
f
z,oos etc.
for collecting additional biological information
The practical courses offered are designed in such a way that they suppdrt the theory
topics and also impart the basic skills and techniques required of them.
Attempts have been made to update tJle syllabus as far as possible, considering the
dire needs of the time and conforming to the work-load prescribed by the University.
)-"q
-+ t-ul,AtekAni)
t rN
IvEI{St't'\' oti
(.,,\
l.t('
to
oS- fifu-r(Y1*/
t ;.t-
uith sericullure
GENETTAL AND ACADINIIC BRANCII
No
Yrfr
'c&o;r'
as Special subject
- I 'J' SECI,ION
-llJ2/7561)199
pated. Calicut Unirersitr p.o.01.07 2(x)-s
------------:--Read. l' llent No (5) o[the minutes o[the nreeting of rhe Boarcl oIstudies in
Zoologr (UC)
GA
held on 21.02.2005.
2' ltem No' ( l) of the minutes of meeting of
Science held on l8 t)-r ztttt5
3 Minutes.of the meeting of the B6ardtheol-Facult-r,of
Sruaies in Zoolog.(UG) hetd o'
,
4'
{)ll o6
2tr0_s_
ltenr No' 3l of lhe minutes of the rneeling ol the Acadernic
Council held
llt.06 2(x)5.
on
)
ORDEIT
t
I
The doard ol'studies inZoologl'(UC) at its nreeting held
on zl.0z.21l(\5.r ide irenr No 5
:
has reuised lhe s)'llabus in respect of B.Sc Zoologr nrain
and subsidian.ancl has also rerised the
s\llabus oI B'Sc Zoologr'(main rvith sericullure special sub.jecr)
lor inr;llementalion rrith ellect
flrom 2(X)5 adnrission onrr-ards.
l'he Faculll oIscience al ils nreelirrg held orr llJ 0-5 20tt5 has considerecl
tlre rninutes
thet:re(irrgol'theBoardo[studiesinZoologr'(LlC)heldon2l0]10(]-!andresolredloc.)rr\ene
ol-
an urgen2reeling of lhe Board of Studies. to modift lhe svllal)us
of B Sc Zoologr (nrain) belbre
('otrrlcil
rtte nca<t.iruc
nteeling ard alsg r".o,'r,rl.r,|.a ,o ptr." rt belbre the Acadenric
a;r;tr.ral
.
' '-'
Council [or
-l'he
l]oard of Sttrdics in Zoologr (LtC) at its ltreeting held orr 0l{ ()6 20()5
corrsidered
rect'lt.t.ttttetltlatiorl ol'tlte Flcttltr ol'science and nrade
sorrre relerarrt changes in the srllabus
tlre
related
lo thcon Puper lV
urrdr.r l)art
lll
Zoologr (rrrairr) arrd Zoologr (ntairt uilh sericultur.e s;recial
subicct) artcl llrtalizecl lbr rlttpiertterrintiorr uirh eil'ect l).r'rnr 2(x).r
adrrrissiorr onrrards, The abr.rre
nlrnules trl'tlre lJoard ol'studies irr Zoologr (LtG) held on ()11 ()6
2(X)-5 nas placed
belbre lhe
,Acaclernic ('ourrcil
*ith
the recon.rnrendation o[.the l;acul(r ol.science
The Academic al ils nteeting i.rO
o,
llJ 06.2005 r ide itenr No 3 I has considered rhe
ol' the nreeting ol' the Board of sludies in Zoologl. (UG) held or.t 2l tt2.20r)-5 and
ott'o6'2(x)-s and resolled lo approve lhe abore minules as reconrnended
and approyed bri the
trrrntrtes
Facullv ol'Scielrce
't
r?
Sanction has therelore been accorded
Zoologtr" (nrain and subsidiary) and
for implementing the rer.ised sl,llabus ol B S .
the svllabus of B.Sc Zoologr, (main rvith sericulture speciar
subjecl) ryith elfect fronr 2005 admission onrrards (cop1'ol'the sr.llabus approred).
Orders are issued accoidingll..
Stl/-
DEPUTY REGISTRAR (G & A I)
For REGISTRAR
'l-o
'l'he
-l-hc
('ol)\
t()
t.
I
l)rincipals of Colleges oll-ering B.Sc Zoologl.(mairr and subsidiarr
)
Prirrcipals
l-il"
.EXI Controller o.f Exanrinatioli.
2.
3. .DR (BSc)
4. Enquin'(Exam)
5. Special Ollicer. Computer Cell
(t'
'7.
8,
University Library
All In[ornration Centres
AVRC
9. SF/DF/FC.
f
7
Forrvarded/ By Ordel
[email protected]_
SECTION OFFICER
I-1.2,, tr('
2rroin (in t-J2-75(iu()9
J(rc
a
++
.
a
'
PRoJEcr woRK:
During the third year, the students a-re required to undertake project'..\o
problems pertaining to Biological Science. 25 hours are allotted for Project work. Scientific
study on the topic selected is required to be carried out under the supervision and g-,ridance
of faculty members. A group, consisting of not more than 12 students, cari undertake a
particular project. Each student has to actively participate in tJle project w'ork. Narnes of
the students who contributed to the study shall be mentioned in the project report.
The problem/ topic, chosen by an earlier batch of students for their project work shall nct be
repeated by a later batch. A certifrcate to this effect has to be attached by the Head of the
a1-'
l-:
department.
A well documented project report, duly attested by the supervising teacher, must be
submitted by each group of candidates for evaluation on tl:e day of practical examination
paper III. However, if a candidate does not appear for the regular practical examination but
intends to appear for
it at a later chance, he /
she must then submit the project report
individually.
The project report may contain the following sections:
Introduction (with aim, objectives and relevance of the study)
2. Materials and methods
1.
3. Results
4. Discussion
5. Conclusion and
6. References
FIELD STI'DY
/ STT'DY TOTIR:
25 hours are set apart for the field study
/ study tour during the third
yea-:.
Nevertheless, such studies may also be conducted any 'irne during the span of the uourse. A
total of five days should be set apart for visiting places of general biological interest and two
days for work and studies concerned with the elective subject. Internal arrzrngements maJ
be made,
if
necessar5r,
to carry out the project work or field study / study tour on
a
continuous basis. A detailed report of tl:e field study, specifying tJ:e places and institutions
visited, date and time of visit, details of observations made etc., must be submitted by each
student for evaluation on tlle day of practical examination paper III. The scheme of
instmction is depicted in Table -1. Detailed syilabus in respect of B. Sc. Zootpgr [main] is
also
attached.
:
The course content comprises four parts:
Part I English, part
II second Lalg.rage, part
subject and two subsidiary subjects] a-nd part
IV
Environmental Education. zooLoGY forms tfte
Main subjectof study under part III. It is
to be taught during all the three years. Both
theory and practical components are included
III optional subjects [one main
for study during
tJ,.e
three years.
THEORY PART:
The total number of theory papers recommended
is seven; one paper each during -the
first year and second year, and live during
the third year. The Theory paper I
[code: zr - or]
prescribed for the first year is of 60'hours
d.uratio n [2 hours / weel<) a:ed the Theory
paper II
[ccde: zl - o2l for t]re secondyear is of gGhours duration
[3 hours / utee\.500 hours [J5
hours / week) are prescribed for theory
during the thkd year. Thus the Theory papers
III, IV,
V' vI and vII [codes: zr - 03, zr - 04, zr
Tr
- es, - 06 & z:r - 07] assigned for the third year
are of 100 hours each
hours
uteelf.
[3
/
Towards achieving the aim of vocationalization,eight
topics are prescribed under the
Theory Paper vII as Electiue subjecb. An
institution can choose any one of the following:
1. Agricultural Entomolory and pest
control
2. Patholory and Clinical Laboratory Techniques
3. Aquaculture and Fishery Biologr
4. Humaa Genetics and Genetic Counselling
< l::rrr.,y Science, Animal Husbaldry
and Dairy Science
6. Apiculture and Sericulture
7. lVildlife: Biolory, Conservation and Management
8. Biotechnolory
PRACTICA.L PART:
The total number of practicar papers recommended
is
three. 6o hours each [2 hours /
weekl during the first year and second. year
are prescribed for practical paper r (cod.e: Zp
01)' 255 hours [8 hours / weelQ are prescribed for practical
during the third yeirr, of which,
130 hours [4 hours / weelQ are allocated for practical
paper II [code: zp - o2jan6 12s hours
14 lwurs / weelQ for practical Paper III
[code: zP - o3l. project work and field stfrdy / stuciy
tour are compulsory components of the practical
part [paper III].
Any candidate, who turns up for a practical examination,
must submlt authentic
record / report(s) of work done by him her
at
the time of practical examiniation. The
/
records related to practical paPers I, II and III
must be submitted. on t-he respective days of
practical examination. The reports related
to project work and field study/ study tour must
be submitted on the day of practical €xaminafisn
paper III.
1
SCHEME OF EVALUATTON
f:
The evaluation process consists of two phases:
l.
Contlnuous Eualuation through Internal Assessment.'
The internal evaluation will be a continuous process. It will be done by the faculty
members of the department of Zoologr of the institution where the candidate is pursuing the
stuCy. I'r rviil be based on the student's attendance; performance in class tests and term
examinations; performance in seminars
of assignments, records and
reports.
/
group discussions and practical; and submission
The distribution of marks shall be as follorvs:
A. For Theorv: 10 marks per paper
a]
Attendance
:3marks
i 3 ,,
b] Performance in class tests & term tests
c] Performance in seminars/ group discussions:2 ,,
1 2 ,,
d] Submission of assignments
Criteria for Internal Assessment ltheorv paperl:
907o and above
a] Attendance:8O%o to 89Yo
75o/o to 79o/o
Below
75%
-
3 marks
2
,,
-
1
mark
-
0
b] Performance in tests and exams: 75o/o and above - 3 marks
5Oo/o to 74o/o
- 2 ,,
Below5OTo
c] Performance
-1mark
in seminars/ group discussions:-
Good
Satisfactory
-
2 marks
- I mark
dl Submission of assignments:-
time Contents
Submission in
1
mark
1
mark
B. For Practical: 12 marks per paper
a]Attendance
: 3 marks
bl Performance in practical classes
c] Performance in practical tests
i6
,,
13 ,,
Criteria for Internal Assessment hractical paperl:
al
Attendance:-
and above
to 89Yo
75o/o to 79o/o
90%o
SOoh
Below 75Yo
b] Performance in practical classes:-
Excellent
Good
Satisfactory
cl Performance in practical tests:
75%o
and
to
3 marks
-
2 ,,
1 mark
-
0
-
6 marks
4
,,
-2,,
above -
74%o
Below6OYo
6OYo
-
3 marks
2 marks
-l
mark
C. For Record: O3 marks per paper
Citeria for internal evaluation of practical records [per r:aoerl:
al Punctualit5r in submission of record
- 1 mark
b]
Contents
cl Scientific accuracy and
neatness
D. For Proiect report: 02 marks
Criteria for internal evaluation of proiect reports:
al Punctualit-v in submission of report
bl Scientific approach/ aptitude
E. For Field studv
/
-lmark
- 1 mark
- 1 mark
- 1 mark
studv tour report: 01 mark
Submission of a detailed report in
time
- 1 mark
F. For viva-voce: 02 marks
At the end of the third ye€u, each student shall appear for a viva-voce before a
team of two Internal Examiners appointed by the principal / Chief Superintendent.
will be based on basic biological concepts and on t-he reports of projecr
work, freld study / study tour presented by the candidate[s] for evaluation. It sha-Il
The viva-voce
not normally exceed ten minutes per candidate.
The process of Internal Assessment must be transparent. There should not be anrr
room for favouritism, victimization, discrimination or whatsoever. To avoid unpleasant
i.
situations being created, the following precautions may be taken:
Assignments and answer scripts of class tests are to be returned after evaluation.
Gnevances,
if any, may be redressed forthwith. Then the papers may be collected and
kept in the Department for future reference.
2. Tabulated siatement of internal evaluation must be put up cin the department
notjce
board prior to its dispatch to the University.
3.
A grievance redressal comrnittee may be constituted at ttre department level to supen'ise
re-iests, seminars, evalrration of assignments etc.
'
Every student has the right to appeal against any injustice in the internai assessment
/
1.
evaluation. This can be raised at three levels.
He,/ she may appeal against the injustice to the concerned teacher.
2. lf nol satisfied, he/
3
-
.
she may plead to the Head of the Department, who will then discuss
the case with the faculty members of the Department and come to a conclusibn.
If the candidate again feels that justice has not been served at this level too, he / she ma1'
bring the matter before the Principal for a final hearing. The Principal wilt constitute a
cor:rmittee consisting cf r.,vo members of the college council [nominated by t]ie principal];
Head of the Department oi Zoolog| and the Principal himself / herself. The decision
taken by the committee shafl be frnal and binding.
t
The Attendalce and Progress Certificate in respect of all cardidates, who appear for
the closing date
the university examination, shall be sent to the University not later than
of the tabulated
of the corresponding year. The Department may send an advance copy
the
statement of internal assessment [theory and practical] direct to the University a1d
College shall send. the originals in due course. Model tabulation sheets pertaining to
Internal Assessment marks [theory and practical papers] are appended herewith'
ll. Year-end Examlnations [conducted by the University]
Al Theonr: The question papers for the conduct of theory exarninations shall be set by
paper setters from outside the University. The answer scripts shall be va-lued by External
3 hours per paper.
Exarniners from within the University. The duration of examination is
The maxim111' .r2::1.-; f<rr each theory paPer is 40'
Practical: The question papers for the conduct of practical examinations shall be
The Practical
prepared by the Board of External Examiners constituted by the University.
duration of
Examination is to be corrciucied by a team of two external examiners' The
practical paper is 60'
examination is 4 hours per paper. The maximum marks for each
proiect work and Field studv / Studv tour: The reports related to the project work,
Bl
Cl
and field study / study tour submitted by the candidates shall be evaluated by the
a maximum of
Exarniners on tl:e day fixed for viva-voce. The report of project work carries
08 marks. The report of field study
/ study tour carries
a maximum of 04 marks'
two
virra-vgeg: l),ie,1 candidate shall .apilear for a viva-voce before a team of
of the
Dxarnmers. The viva-voce will.be conducted on a separate day for all candidates
the reports of project
centre concerned. It will be based on basic biotogical concepts and on
It shall not
work, field study / study tour presented by tl.e candidate[s] for evaluation'
is 08'
normally exceed ten minutes per candidate. The maximum marks for viva-voce
The Scheme of Evaluation is summaized in Table -2'
appeared for
A detailed mark list shall be issued to each candidate for his/ her having
in the mark lists' A
the examination[s] every year. The title of each PaPei must be specified
paper under Part III,may be
consolidated mark list, speci-ffing tl:e marks secured for each
i;-ued to the candidate on his/ her successfully completing the course'
D]
DISTRIBUTION OF MARKS
The break up of marks for the various examinations is given in Table 2'
Abstract:
= 5O x 7
Total marks for theory Part
part
= 75 x 3
practical
Total marks for
project
rePort
Marks for
Marks for freld study / study tour report
Marks for viva-voce
Grand total for Part IIi main
Total marks for External Evaluation
Total marks for Internal Assessment
= 350
= 225
=10
=05
=10
= 600 marks
= 480 marks [80 %]
= l2O marks l2O %1
Minimum marks required for a pass [External examination only]:
= 2Ooh
Paper-wise minimum for theory
= 2O9/c
Paper-wise minimum for Practical
+
:
Minimum marks required for a pass in the examination [external internal]
Minimum required for a pass in theory part only = 3r9"!'
Minimum required for a pass in practical part only = 19"!'
= 35oh
Minimum required for a pass in Part III main
GENERAL PATTERN OI. QUESTION PAPERS
s
THEORY PAPERS [I to VrIl
Extetaal examination:
Time: 3 hours
I.
Maximum marks: 40
Essay:
[Answer any one out of t_hree questions)
II. Notes:
___ _- lAnswer any two out of four questions)
III. Short answer-t54pe:
1x8
=O8marks
2x4
=08marks
3x3
=09marks
5x2
= 10 marks
5x1
[Answer any five out of eight qtestions)
Total
Interaal assessmeat:
Maximum marks:
=O5marks
= 40 marks
1O
Total = 50 marks
PRACTICAI. PAPERS: I.
Elrte
rual ep,mination
:
Tirne: 4 hcurs
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
.
Interaal assessment:
i.
2.
Maximum marks: 60
Mqjor question
Minor question [i]
Minor question [ii]
Spot items-S Nos. [5 x 3]
Record
Praetical
Record
II & III
20 marks
08 marks
05 marks
15 marks
12 marks
Maximum marks: 15
12 marks
O3
marks
Total = 75 marks
REPORTS AND VWA-VOCE
kteraal:
1.
2.
3.
Internal:
l.
2.
3.
Maximum marks: 20
Project report
08 marks
Field study / study tour report
04 marks
Viva-voce
08 marks
Maximum marks: 05
Project report
O2 marks
Field study / study tour report
O 1 mark
Viva-voce
02 marks
Total = 25 marks
-t.;
<i!
9;
5\
-A
ic
ol ol
(o
N
co
f
(fJ
co
Cr)
a
<i
ot
d-
1-
t
ao
2
J^
<Y
zl-
^()
=
5o
!.1
tr)
o
(o
o
o\
\o
o:
ef0
CE
1-,;
\o
c, ii
ii!
mc
-cl
e,
u)
t-&
a>
zo
o
q
dt
ollr)
;r
,o
EM
^'o
vs!
,ii
O
o
.-o
o I'j ,ii:: o
c'! E
roF
i'
q\
fi EJ .- o
q;
.-.-o
roo::duc
-c
o
z,
o
g
o
cO
fi*3
t
o
a
A
H
H
U
-An
t-v
-\JA
r) r-
d
O
XUO
.1 )*
;\oz
il vro
r;-ii
uJ (1
>
a
q u)
E
o
o
t
o
o
6
(E
-O
o
o
6
(6
(!
d
*
o
S
o
o
s =x;
p;z
6
6
o.
x
rd>>.
o
!
o
E
r(JJ
-rA
rc
s,
o
C,
a
C
0.
tri
!
,i.r
o
&
:.6
o
c
ca
*,
=o
7-a
tqE
NS
Iq
;6
o
z
aa
M
Id
:6
I
-9
m
o
u
Er:
EC
id
o
j'
o
o
o
(,)
i
=-\u,
),
d
l-
o
6
L
o
I
I
F
N
a
i.r
e
o
o.
L
,-=
o
q
h.e
oO
6
o
ld
6
\o
r-
,\l
L
+
C)
n
o
L
0)
0)
F
t-
o
o
o
0)
h5
h5 LO
o.O
N
zls
o-
o
rl
la
N
o
'a
El
\q
>(d
!
r
6
o
o
6
L
r
o6
,r{
cO
E
hd
c.o
N
a.=t-
i
I
I
-t
s
-z;-
O:
a
.=
-D--
a =o-
6 z='di:
-c
'E >I ?.>
an a i+
=;"i
F
(.1
z,4":
!c:
E
q)
E-.
olP^J
'4 >.=
:==':
E
-
N
t,
o
o-:
i:-.eG6
hEOq=
u'- t Fr
9i
i
E
I
=
Ho io
=O
>.1
o
L
(d
h
g5 e=e
lE
Jl
-a
F:]
:;iJa i;i
c!.9:
le
l-
o
o
5i
t:
lc
o
9:E==
:-'=.;\
lc
(o
i
h
E.!-=U9=-?.4
vb-!-a
t:
a
o
o
Qs
(!
o
=
h
c
.E
o
o
N 6 ?J
>.
*z=
-n
! -Y \.
- ! -u
E
u<tr
(!
I
a
t.
)
a
>\ EI'
'<OoiS=
Li>
>P
a;.,i'
^^
aca=,ca=t)
c)
7AU
Gla
^6
o
nEi
7
!H
>J
!o
o
I
o
bo
E2
c+
o
?=
-
E
l. lc
.ta-v-=el
-_!4
ET
frc
ci
Q=-,.
t!?.d
h
c\
t/)
9.e
od
C !X
-
cl'Ga
E EX
6 klY
60
-o'J
oa
uDo
d
i.J
ol
.ol o.
q! rc
60
oO
o
(!
N
.zl 3
bol
ol
:'B
r'B
ix
N
o
u
p
€B
'a=
t
F
-O
h
F
o
cl
OI
Hd
d
1
c.
e:.ol -g
iJo
N
o
o
(!
L]
9l
ol
c'l
Co
h
E)
N ol
o
O
EI
o=
EO
o
o
EI
(E
6
N
=
<6
o
o
=H8o
o
c'o
a.z
o
O
z
lo!.-d
a
o
r:
o
U
6
o
3h
b6
a
t
E-
4F-
lo
,li2l
bol9
s-'
lE
6th
o.N
es
:sl
>r l= l,t
l.o 3l
!1.98E Ecl^
3 h l= Al 'L Yn
:o
F.9ls;,E
g i FF
EF
oN
OJN
6 o i,,
,
h
i
a-
\\.--,
V
'-
l
z
cl
$
o
N
o
oij
=!'
aA
M
F
e,
.9
N
d
z
C
N
N
o
6
=
-o;6
tn
a
ot at
r.-
o
tn
l/)
LD
-a
-.Y*
>=:_zk
>H
z
c
=c,:>
-r
xU
F z
cF
E'6
3a
U:
i^[email protected]
u
;
*
irl
'la,
I
zl
o
-l
=l
il:,
=
Ao
-l
,:l
z zI
3
o
o o
t9
1
U
o
rD'
o ,o
D)
.,1
=l
:-
(?
rD
x
l3
o
(l
n
ft
Iu
,
I
zI
3
@
5
.)
=
(a
G
l
c
o
o
G
tr
E>r
'{
(, l-{
lo
NZ
Qo
l^mC
Y mtz
?-ti<lm
-11
3 0l=
q, !i=
3El<
llc:
t
aSil
y'
< 3tDi=
ln
I
ft
!:tnDr-r
'{a
t.' m
-a
:th
9?
=
:m
,=Z
I
ILC
lt1
l-.
lf
lJ
l=
6
!
l)
c
l'
N
a
o
o
ila
=
rr1
l:
lPo
l,c
l-<
I
I
I
I
I
-
c
z
o>-L2
E?X
Bo*
o
L
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
C,
C,
f
O
rO
H
o
o
o
Cl)
o)
E
L
o
!
L
-c
.c
o
o
o
o
I-
go
R-AL
!s
o
L
6?E ot
(u
-^rl d
==
c! U=
LO
crj
cf)
c/)
c.l
al
N
cn
cO
o
LO
F
o
a
a
i
i;oc
tn
ln tr) r.-
CO
.\
^L(uU
f
o
-
L
t
c')
J
F.
o
N
o
t.-
|n
C
o
o
o
o
N
c
u
z
o
Iq
D
x
$
2
f
c X
..2
I
'6
=u
u6
o
ct
o
iCE
o
s + @
+
o
o
o
c
ol
ol
v
$
o
$
co
@
@
ol
tr
;Z c{
bOo
rr :- C
N
5
t0
*?-:
=ER
sd
5,',r:.
x6
frl
o
=N
L
b
\)
>-
Srao
iFA
+*V
a f \
Hv)aC
c
o
o
N
a
=it _o
Eo
dr
o.
ot
H
\J
d
L
'6
dg
N
\)
z
O
., bo
b
L
q)
d
o
u
,J
1)
=
a)
6
E
-in
h
:3>
oo
c.r
ip
o
E
I'
Gt>
0.
:t
iY
tr
a'
-0
CtN
<(U
;h
o=
cc
ol.
0.
ofi
.=F
t,
o
HN
o.E
h
d
!:
Co
)-Y
c!
th
tre
H({
-:
ilg
Scc
o-
6
o
o
oc
-d
.M
oll
2
OJ
-o
>-
oii
,
+
6F
1
o -E
N h(!
o
o
FoE
M
o
o
c.o
c!o
in
i-6',h
Ic
.9.9
!m
€rtr
6
$
.9n
CU
m5
Eo
OC
>
t'o
x
o
t)
o
t-
F.
F
L
o
F
s.E a
(E
>.E
E0F >
9,6b
a.=b
E>C
Irl frl O
tdn
c.X
ol N
o
I
F
I
(d
N N
CO
o
I
F
N
t
ln
I
N
I
l-
N
o
f
r-
\o
r..
,N
F
o
I
N
5>
.eE
do
!a
4 -,s
ot=
sg'
-lOa
O-
d
i)
L
<=
co
2C
rd
t--
9i'
otr
d
P
ec
U
1)
o
q)
(!!
OL
'Eo
ts,
tri
a.)
o
O
I
a.)
!q)
L
E
q
F
N
g
4)
h
o
o
o
o
N
o.
u u
EN
o
6*
q)
0.tr6 'a
q a
F
0.)
[email protected]
<x
0{v
ol
@
v
sl'
,?
tL=
s -o
9ra>
'*t 2
t
c'
J
N
co
L
0-
N
o
N
EdE,
va
f,D--
:Yo=?
:d(J-\e= i
;;
e;
-c'
rd
qh
?b
z
!
zz
l<
lo
D
3
t:
f
c2.
AJ
o
=
tr
ra
CJ
l,D
o
-+t
o
a
x
tul
:lrl
,1
rD
o
-r
f
P
q.,
J
o
rD
lD-
(o
I
D
3
zo
I
ol
6
=l
o
^l
=l
ol
-l
(ol
D
o.
el
d
@
C
))
F
IA
{
H
o
n 1Z
N th
,J\
))
ArXf
x=,
-n=
-r
o
o
to
C}
-
e
D
I
o-
:6u
;6
o
-.{
.?.|
o
=
D
*E
IC
m lz
rn
t-
l<
lm
l=
lLtt
J 7' l-r
IJ
P. H
3 { l.
L
!
F m
p
l--r
n 1- t-l o
o r' C
!t -t
i- v,
tr
I
,)
U)
!q,, nl
o
U
l)
rD
c
I
U)
a
?
m
rD
z
:J
!
f
N
gJ
c
o
ul
,*r
aO
o
V,
o
o
n
rn
l,lJ
:
o
U
o
C-
o
--C
F
-c-
ru :-
o
a--
C)
Ed
o9
(Il^"
tu-
a
Al
=4
q-)
Fi <3
Ui
N
=
-
c
.9
\J)
<I-
z
=tz
<i
oz c<
L
ctz.=
ul
r.r-l
trJ
1-
-lrr r!
-tc
pl P >
>Fo
-rO
=Hd
6N
t-
c.)
6i
r{
VI
CC
=
I0
o
E
N
i
4
.=
o
o
Q,
E
6
E
c'l
o)
E
L
(u
q
(t
c-
o
qJ
0.,
E E
rd
a,
I
*!
o
:l
ol
cl
rg
(u
€
c
6 o
z z
rti
x
q.J
qJ
z
:l
o,i
';i
=i
C]
6l
E
6
z
;i
o
q
SYLLABUS
FIRST YEAR B. Sc. DEGREE, ZOOLOGY
[Main]
ANIMAL DTVERJI;"3TiTI, TO*""ORDATA
IDIVERSIry, ADAPTATIONS AND
'S,P&B;'^I;-%A'^fl,1?}TITOZOANS O*' *O*"ORDATES)
LS
(O3
hours)
msl
ellular orgalisms
d Branch [2) Metazoa
and placozoanl
Cellular _, tis
f arimals
Animals with
[Without anus and with
,S'
I
Fundar''sntal germ layers:
re of body wall
Grades of Eumetazoa: oiplobtasti
Symmetry: radial_, biradial_ and bilateral symmetries
Grades: Radiata ald Bilateria
Mention phyla with radial-/ birad.ial_/ bilateral
symmetry
Coelom: nature and origin
series: Acoeromata, pseud.ocoe-lomata and Eucoelomata
Divisions of Eucoelomata: schizo"o.r" ,,,J o.rterocoera
Coelomate phyla of animals
without *.t"-".i"m and tb) with metamerism
other divisions such as protostomii[a)
oeuterostomra
"-a
or segm
lophoph
section B:
compound micioscopl.;
sl
o classes
tozoans'given below] [03 hrs]
Subphylum Mastigophora
Class phytomastigophorea
Class
Zoomastigophorea
.
Subphylum Opalinata
Subphylum Sarcodina
Super class Rhizopoda
Super
class Actinopoda
_
Phylum Apicomplexa [= Sf orozoa)
Phylum Microspora
Phylum Myxozoa
Phylum Ciliophora
Class Spirotrichea
example: Euglena
examples: Tichomonas, Leishmania,
Tichong mpha, No ctiluca
example: Opalina
example: Entamoebamention onlv
example: Actinophrys
examples: Plasmodium- mention orrlv
example: Pleistophora- mention onl!
example: Mgidium giardi
examples: Stentor
Class Nassophorea
examples: Balantid.ium
Class p-tiSgnfmenophorea .*.-p1.", Vorticella
Class Phyllopharyngea [=Suctoria] exarnpl e: Ephelota
[Rei 1] Rupert
2l Encgclopedia Britannica - Delux Edn, 2oo1 or later
editions, Britannica.com India ltdl
lrl
)
Sectiou C: KINGDOM ANIMALIA
(S1 hours)
'''Salient features of the Major Phyla of anima-ls and their diversity
lHabits, habitat, morphologg, functional anatomg and life history of
representatiue types (uthereuer specifi.ed) and classifi.cotion of each phglumd.own to
classes, except otherutise mentioned, and examples thereof:
Studg of animal diuersitg utith tgpical examples from each class, with emphasis
on ecologicat and adaptiue features, economic importance and such other pointi of
biotogical interest expeded. Onlg uery bief account of each example to be stud.ieeMESOZOA
(O1 hr)
A brief account only [mention peculiarities and examples: Rhopalura, Dicgemaj
METAZOA
Phylum PORIFERA
(O3 hrs)
classilication down to classes: calcispongiae, Hyalospongiae ald Demospongiae
Mention examples: Leucosolenia, Scgpha, Spongittaatd Euplecteila
Canal system in asconoid-, syconoid- and leuconoid types of sponges;
Significance of canal systems
Reproduction in sponges: structure and significance of amphiblastula, parenchyrnula and
gemmule
PhylUm CNIDARH I=COELENTERATAI
(OS hrs)
Obelicr morpholory and structuta) orgatization as revealed by compound microscopy ald life
cycle with metagenesis [03 hrs]
Classffication down to classes: AntJrozoa, Cubozoa, Hydrozoa and Scyphozoa [02 hrs]
Examples: Adamsia, Edtuardsia, Zoanthus, Fung.a, Tubipora, Gorgonia, charybdea,
Tubularia, Halistemma, Physalia, Aureliaand Rhiz,ostoma
Phylum CTENOPHORA
[=trQ1g1pARIAI
(O1 hr]
Unique features as exemplffiedby Pleurobrachiaand cidippid larva;
Mention otfrer examples: Beroe and Coeloplana
ACOELOMATA
Phylum PLAIYIIELMINTHES
(O2 hrsl
Classification down to classes: Turbellaria, Cestoda and Trematoda
Examples: Dugesia, Taenia species, Echinococcus, Fas ctolaand Schisto s oma
Phylum Nemertea [=Nemertinea= RhJrnchocoela) [brief account]
mention example: Cerebratulus
PSEI'DOCOELOMATA
Super phylum ASCHELMEIITHES
Highlight tJ:e heterogeneous nature of animals of
(O4 hrs)
this group
Classifrcation down to phyla
Phylum Nemato da [=Nemata] characteri stic features
Examples : Asc ans, Ancg lo stoma, Draatnanlus, Trichinella, Enterobiu
Wuchereia
s,
Pseudocoeloaate Miaor Phyla:
[Salient features of t]re following Minor Phylal
PhylumGastrotricha mentionexample: Chaetonotus
' Phylum Rotifera
Example : Brachionu s [mention mastax and p artheno gene si s ]
Phylum Kinorh;zucha [=p"traodera) mention example: Echinoderes
Phylum Nematomorpha [=Gotdiacea) mention example: Gordius
1l
COELOMATA
Phylum ANNELIDA
(O7 hrs)
Type: Neanthes or .l\Ierefs [add a note on Heteronereis and Trochophore larva]
Classification down to classes: Polychaeta, Oligochaeta and Hirudinea
Examples : Aphro dita, Arenicola, Chaetopterus, Me g as colex, Drawida,
Branchellion, Hintdinaia, Haemadispa
example: Polggordius [mention only]
Class Archiannelida
(OB hrs)
Coelomate Miuor Phyla:
Salient features of the following Minor Phyla; mention examples arrd lanal forms, if
aly,
specified [structure and life history not required)
example : Phoronis, Actinotrocha lanza
Phylum Phoronida
Phylt-m Ectoprocta l=Bryozoa or Polyzoa) example: Bugula
example: Bonellia
Phylum Echiurida
example: Sagitta
Phylum Chaetognatha
Phylum Onychophora
[O2 hrs]
peculiarities,
affinities and systematic position]
Peipatus: [distribution, structural
Phylum ARTHROPODA
[10 hrc]
Type: Penaeus [life history in detail also expected)
Classilication down to classes:
Subphylum Trilobita [trilobites ; extinct]
Subphylum Chelicerata
Class Merostomata [mention order Xiphosura: horse-shoe crabs]
Class Arachnida [arachnids]
Class Scnogonida [sea-spiders]
Subphylum Crustacea
Classes Ceplalocarida, Branchiopoda, Remipedia, Maxillopoda and
Malacostraca
Uniramia
Subphylum
Classes Chilopoda, Symphyla, Diplopoda, Pauropoda and Insecta
Examples: Limulus[mention trilobite larva), Palamnaeus, spiders, ticks and
mites, Strepioceplulus, Daplvtia, Cgclops, Sacanlina[mention peculiarities:
retrogressiie mJtamotphoiis; parasitic castration and sex reversal of the host);
Albuiea, Eupagurus [mention symbiosis with sea anemone - Adamsia/ EdutardsiQ,
EuphausialicriUl, Cgmathoa, Scolopendra, Spirostreptus, Lepisma,alt-lion I
Mgrmeteonl, dragonly, Mantis, stick-insecf, Phgllium and Belostoma
Phyluni MOLLUSCA
Type:
[o8 hrs]
Cla
a
snails,slugslandcephalopoda[=Siphonopoda;cuttlefishes,squids,octopuses'
nautilusl
Hnctada'
Examples: Neopilina, chiton, Dentalium, Haliotis, Turbinella, Aptgsia, Perna'
Teredo,Loligo, Sepia. Octopus and Nautilus
Phylum
ECHINODERUATA
[o4 hrs]
Structural peculiarities of starfrsh;
Haemal- and perihaemal systems and water vascular system in detail
of examples
Classilication do#r to classes jof extant forms onlyl very brief account
lilies]
class Crinoidea [sea
Subphylum Crinozoa
SubPhYlum Asterozoa
Class Asteroidea [sea stars or starfishes]
Class Ophiuroidea [brittle stars or serpent stars]
12
I
REFERENCES
Barrington, E. J. W.; Inuertebrate stntcture and function 2 e, 1979
Bhaskaran, K. K. & Biju Kumal, A.: Economic ialogg. Manjusha pubs, Ca-licut
Borradaile, E. & Potts, S.: Tlrc Inuertebrates. 4 e, Cambridge University Press, Loncion
Dha-rni, P. S. & Dhami, J. K.; Inuertebrate Zoologg.1979, R. Chand. & Co, Neu' Delhi
Ekambaranatha Ayyar, M. & Ananthakrishnan, T. N.: A Manual of Zootog.g Vol. I [Part I & II].
S. Viswanathal, Madras
Encarta:2004 E,dn or earlier versions [CDs], Microsoft
Encgclopedia. Britannica:2OO4 Edn or earlier versions [CDs] Britannica.com India
Grove, A. J. & Newell, G. E.: Animal Biologg. lg74,lJniversar Book stall, N D
Hyman, L. H.: The Inuertebrates. Vol, I - VI, l94O -,67, Mc Graw Hill Book Co
Jordan, E. L. & Verma, P. s.; Inuertebrate Zoologg.2oo4, s. chand & co, Nerv Delhi
Kapoor, V. c.: Theory and Practice of Animal roxonomg. 1994, oxford & IBH
Kotpal, R. L-:. Inuertebrate Phgtum Senes. Rastogi pubs, Meerut
Kotpal, R. L: Modern TB of Zoologg: Inuertebrates. 2OO2, Rastogi
Majpuria, T. C.: Inuertebrate Zoology. S. Nagin & Co
M"]o, E. & Ashlock, P. D: Pinciples o/Systematic ZoologA.2 e,1991, M G H
M"yr, E.: Pinciptes of Systematic Zoologg. L98O, Tata M G H
Meglitsch, P. A. & Schram, F.R.: Inuertebrate Zoologg.1991, OUp
Purves, W. K., et aL: Life, the Science of Biotogg. 5 e, l99T , Sinauer Associates
Ruppert, E. E. et al.: Inuertebrate Zoologg. T e,2OO4, Thomson Brooks Cole
Russel-Hunter, W. D.: A Biologg of Higher Inuertebrates. Macmillan Co
Shukla, G. S. & Upadhyay, V. B.: Economic Zoologg.4 e,2OO2, Rastogi
Simpson, G. G.: Principles of AnimalTaxonomy.1965/1990, Odord & IBH
Sleigh, M. A.: Protozoa and Aher Protists CBS Pubs
Soper, R. et al.: Biological Science. Latest Edn, CUP
Subphylum Echinozoa
Class Holothuroidea [sea cucumbers]
Class Echinoidea [sea urchins, heart urchins, cake urchins, sald cioli--s]
Examples : Ante dory Astropecten, Opltiothrix, Cucumaia, Holothuia,
Gorgonocephalus, Salmacis, Echinus, Ecltinocardium
Phylum HEMICHORDATA
[o1 hr]
Class Enteropneusta: Balanoslossus [morpholory), Tornaria larva [significance anC
alfinities)
Class Pterobranchia: mention exa.rrple Cephalodis cus
Topics for Assignmeat / Seminar / Group discussion / Self study:
1] Locomotion in protozoerns
2] Nutrition in protozoaas
3] Reproduction in protozoans
4] Parasitic protozoans of humans
5l Polymorphism in cnidarians with special reference to siphonophores
6l Reef building corals and coral reefs
7l Ecological importance of earthwonrr and vermiculture
8] Ase.xual reproduction in polychaetes
9] Larval forms in Crustacea and their signilicance
101 Mouthparts of insects [coci<roach, plant bug, mosquito, honey bee, housefly and
butterllyl
I 1] Econorric importance of mollusks
l2lLarral forms in Echinodermata and their significance
1 3) Metamerism and cepha'lization in' invertebrates
141 Metamorphosis in insects
15) Social organization in insects
*\
Practical Paper
I [Part I]"
ANIIIIAL D[VERSITY - Part I
NONCHORDATA
CODE: ZP - Ot [A]
[60 hours)
x
practical
erternal
examination
at the end. of fi.rst gear; erternal practical
[No
examination paper I utill be a composite one, compising ZP- 01 tAl and. ZP -01
tBl
and it utill be conducted at the end of second gear)
[Students are expected to make sketches / notes etc., uthilie theg Sud,g the specimens in
the laboratorg / field itself. The record must canry neat and. tabeiled. sketcies of all
specimens with notes and labelled sketches of mountings and. dissections.
Emphasis must on scientific accuraq and not on beautg of sketches.l
Section A: Studv of the followins speclmens
[Choose useful and harmful fonns from different habitats. Alt animats intend.ed. for tApe
studg are to be included. Slides / museum preparations are to be used.; chans / modeis
may be used in exceptional crrces.
Studenfs are expected to identifu the specimens bA tleir generic names and. assiq4 them. to
the respectiue phgla and classes)
1. Protozoals : Entamoeba, Euglena, Noctiluca, Ceratium, paramecium,
Ephelota, a colonial protozoan [Voluog
[any S)
2. Poriferans : Leucosolenia, scgpha, spongilla, gemmule, sponge spicules l^ny 2)
3. Cnidarians : Sedentary hydrozoans: Hydra, Obelia, Hgdractinia, Tubulaia[any 2)
Obelia medusa
Pelagic hydrozoans : Phg s alia, Velella, Porpin
lany 2l
Pelagic scyphozoans: Aurelia / Rhizostoma
Common anthozoans (include solitary and colonial forms):
Adam,sia, Edwardsia, Madrepora, Fungia, Tubipora,
Gorgonia, Cauemularia
[any 3)
4. Platyhelmintis: Free living flat worms: Bipalium / Dugesia
Parasitic flat worms: Fasciola, Schistosoma, Taenia solium
or other tape worms, cysticercus/ cercaria larva
lany 2l
5. Aschelminths Parasitic round wonns: Ascaris, Ancglostomq Wuclrcreria [any 2l
6. Minor Phyla
Sipunanlus / Bonelliaor any other specimen
7. Annelids
Polychaetes of different habitats: Aptwodite,
Chaetopterus, Arenicola, Tomopteis
lany 2j
Common earthworm s: Megascolex, Pheretima
lany 1l
Leeches : Hirudinaria, Heamadip s a, Ozobranchus /
Glossiphonia/ Branchellion
larry 2l
8. Arthropods
Items of evolutionar-1 / taxorromic importance Peripatus, Streptocephalus, Limulus
lAny 2l
Common fouling barnacle - Lepas / Balanus
Parasitic cru stace€rn - S acculina, Cg mathoa, Argulu s
lany 1l
Crustaceans of the sandy shore- Emerita / Atbunea
Symbiotic crustacean - Eupagurus
Economically importalt crustaceans- prawn,
Palinurusf crablNeptunus/ Scullal
tany2l
Vectors - Cgclops, mosquitoes, ratflea, housefly
lany 2l
Insect pests - Lepismo, termite queen, pest of paddy,
pest of coconut, pest of stored grains
[any 5]
Aquatic insects - Notonecta, Belostoma, Nepa, Ranata,
Gerris, Dgtiscus
lany 2l
Predatory insects - Mantis, dragonfly, ant-lion
larry 2l
Insects which ceTnouflage - stick insect / Phg\ium
Common myriapods - Scolopendra, Santigera, Julus/
Spiro streptu
s
/
J o ne sp elti s
l"ny 2l
l_i
,t
I
j.!<:u4'd
-reis'[email protected]
C. For Record: 03 marks per
Buthus,
bl
P at e lI
Contents Aptgsia
cl Scien ffran aauarHql gad troffiss CUpraea,
: Poisonous gastropod - Conus
a, Ha
ider
/
lany 2)
ncf4e,rf O n chi diu m,
- 1 mark
Mur*1lrrgfunella
S*-n{*ggnomic importance - Penta, Hnctada,
D. For Proiei
;reclo, ()straea
b;eao',
al [email protected]$iuonbrqbdnd / or evolr+ttoonary
I S c ie nti fic afl grpoetgrry [email protected] i a, L o li g o, O ct opr.t-s,1 l,[g41\llu s
10. Echinoderms: star fish, brittle star, sea urchin, cake urchin,
b
E.
Submission of a
-
Section B: Histologl/
lany 2l
lany 2l
[any 3]
''rlE?rlilv
11.
lany 2l
lany 2l
1 mark
@[email protected]&q/]&Ecl$&rse€estions of the following:
At
the
?9*3]+"..
cipal
Sectio
berore a
/ Chief Superintendent.
ts and on the reports of project
e[s] for evaluation. It shall
5. Cockroach
: Salivary apparatus [Major)
6^Honev bee
: Mouth oarts [minor)
TtlHirProcess ot lntErRakdffftffifre?,,&ltl"hzumeflnnnfryt rhere should not be anyroom for favouritism, victimization, discrimination or whatsoever. To avoid unpleasant
Section D: Dissectioas
srrlaEgmsamcreated
1. Assignments and a:nsw'er sdriffirQf ttrlairctqrsd qrgutbatiortEuning[ after evaluation.
mav
Ssltt?flf+,,fibrr
"4:"dEffi*ffiv,
kept iElthe Departm e- t MzrtrrlercaniflBf6ircr)
2. 'l'abulated statement d
bo
c.
ard prior to its dispate*r-tethe {haiversity,
the papers mav be couected and
st be put up dn the department notice
---
-
rr grrc";-^c: ::d::ss.-! ^ommittee may be constituted at the department level to supervise
re-tests, seminars, evaluation of assignments etc.
Every student has the right to appeal against any injustice in the internal assessment
/ evaluation.
L. Hel
This can be raised at three levels.
she may appeal against the injustice to the concerned teacher.
2. If not satisfi.ed, he/
she may plead to the Head of the Department, who will then discuss
the case with the faculty members of the Department and come to a conclusion.
3. If the candidate
again feels that justice has not been served at this level too, he/ she may
bring the matter before the Principal for a frnal hearing. The Principal will constitute a
committee consisting of two members of the college council [nominated by the principal];
Head of the Department of Zoologr and the Principa-l himself / herself. The decision
taken by the committee shall be final and binding.
6
16
('
sEcoND vEAR B. sc. DEGREE,
zool,ocy
[Main]
Theory Paper II
ANIMAL DTVERSITY - PART
CHORDATA
CODE: Tl-O2
[90 hours)
II
[TAXONOMY, DTVERSITY, STRUCTURE AND ADAPTATIONS OF CHORDATES]
This
part includes:
Section A: Detailed study of a feut representatiue tApes of chordates as specif.ed; physiologg not
needed. Classifi.cation of Phylum Chordata doun to orders, whereuer specified, uith diagnostic
features of each group with examples and
Section B; Comparatiue anatomg of uertebrates
A: Phylum CHORDATA [75 hours]
Introduction
Section
[O1 hr]
Chordate characters [fundamental, general and advanced); chordates versus nonchordates; diversity of chordates; classification up to subphyla; salient features of
each subphylum
Subphylum
I
UROCHORDATA
[Tunicata]
[O3 hrs]
Aflinities; add a note on neoteny [paedogenesis)
Classification down to classes: Ascidiacea, Lanracea [Appendicularia] and Thaliacea
Example s : As cidia [morpholory and retro gre ssive metamorpho si s]
Oikopleura, Doliolum, Salpa [brief account only]
CEPIIALOCHORDATA
[O3 hrs]
Example : B ranchio st oma l= Amphiont sl m orpholory, primiLive, de generate
and specialioed features [affinities and systematic position to be emphazised)
Subphylum 2
VERTEBRATA
[Ol hr]
Origin, diversity and classilication [enumerate the diagnostic features of the following
ta,xonomic groups and mention the examples cited)
Subphylum 3
Division I
AGNATHA
[O3 hrs]
Classifrcation down to classes
Class: Ostracodermii [=Osteostracii] [mention significance): eg. Cepholaspis
Class: Cyclostomata: eg. Petromyzon [morpholory, mention economic importance.
Arnrnocoete lanra and its significance) and Mgine
Division 2 GNATHOSTOMATA
Super class PISCES
[12 hrs]
Type: Scoliod,on
Classification of Pisces down to orders [except otherwise mentioned]*
Class Acanthodii:
eg. Climatius- mention
Class Placodermi:
eg. Dinichthges- mention
Class Chondrichthyes [cartilaginous fi she s]
Subclass Elasmobranchii
Order Selachii [sharks, rays, skates etc]
Order Holocephali : eg. Chimaera l= Hg drolaqtsl, Callorhg nchus
Class Osteichthyes [bony fishes]
Subclass Sarcopterygii [fleshy-finned fishes]
Order Crossopterygii [coelacanths]: eg. Latimeia[iving fossil - brief account)
and Malania - mention only
Order Dipnoi flung frshesl:eg. Neoceratodus; Protoptents, Lepidosiren
[Add a note on affinities and distribution of lung frshes)
lt
Subclass Actinopterygii [ray-frnned fishes]
Infra class chon&oiteii: eg. Aciperser atd Polgptents
Infra class Holosteii: eg' Amia, Lepidosteus
Infra class Teleostei: Order Icanthopterygii [spiny-rayed frshes] mention any
two examples
Super class TEIRAPODA
ATVIPHIBIA
Class
[Oa hrs]
Mention peculiarities [shared derived. characters] of extant amphibians: moist and
smooth skin; papilla amphibiorum and papilla basilaris; operculum-plectron
th; levator bulbi muscle etc'
pt"*; green rods;
[columella]
'
Ednl
"ott
Veftebrate
Pough's
Harve]
[Ret
examples [of exta,t forms only]*
down
oie*fnibia
Classificatiot
Uraeotgphlus
Order Apoda (=Gymnophiona): eg. Icht
Indian forms]
South
corlmon
on
note
a
[edd
Order Caudata: eg. Nectutus, Proteus, Tglotiton' Ambgstoma'
Axolotl larua define the terms paedomorph and neoteny
eg. Bufo, Hyla, Rhacophorus
Order Anura:
Vlention redi"corery of lVasikab atrachus sahgadrensis
[12 hrs]
circulatory system, nervous system
sy-s!!m,
respiratoy
features,
[external
and urinogenital system onlyl and skut of Varanus
classifrcation of Reptilia down to orders with examples specifred"
Subclass AnaPsida
Order Cotyiosauria [stem reptiles]: eg' Segmouia
Triongx, Geomydas
Order Chelonia cornmon turtles, tortoisJs etc.: eg. Chelone,
REPTILIA
---iyp.r
Caloteg,
Class
SubclassLepidosauria[=Superorderl'Lepid'osauriaunderSubclassDiapsida]
Order Eoiuchia [eosuchians]: eg'
" Youngina
Spheh.odon- peculiarities, Iiving fossil [explain]
Order Rhynchocephalia:
Order Squamata [scalY rePtil
Suborder AmPhisbaenia
Suborder SerPentes [=OPhidia: s
nonpoisonous snakes, Poi
Subclass Arcfosauria [= Super order 2' Ar
eg' Phgtosaurus
Ordertttt""Jo"ti"[=Phytosauria] crocodile-likereptiles eg.
Tgrannosaurus
reptilian-like dinosaurs
order sauriJia
of birds from theropods rs"rropoa" and theroiods; mention origin
dromeosaurs]
- -
eg' Iguanodon
- bird-like dinosaurs
Pterodactglus
eg'
- flyinireptiies [pterodactyls]
heart
four-cha'rrbered
petutarities:
- U;ef"note;
palate'
secondary
E;g. Crocodilus; mentio" iot-'.r'"t' of Paniza'
value
adaptive
and-ils
tail
of
peculiarity
Alligator
Gawalis,
Other exarnples:
Subclass EuryaPsida [=ParaPsida]
Order Araeoscelidia [=Protosauria] :
Order Sauropterygia [=Plesiosaurial :
Order
Order
Order
Ornithioschia
pterosauria
Crocodilia
l8
I
AVES
' Type:
Cotuntba[exclude skull, arteries,
?lass
[16 hrs]
veins and nerves; lymphatic
ald endocrine
systemsl
Classification of Aves down to the orders specified ** mention one example each
Subclass Archaeornithes
Order Archaeopterygiformes :
eg. Archaeopteryx- brief account
Subclass Neornithes
Super order Odontognathae
Order Hesperornithiformes :
eg. Hesperornis
Order Ichthyo rnithiform es :
eg. Ichthyornis
Super order Palaeognathae [=Ratitae]
_
Order
Order
Order
Order
s:
eg.
eg.
d]
[=Apterygifo
eg.
Order Struthiorniforme s :
eg. Struthio [ostrich)
Super order Neognathae [=Carinatae]
Order Galliformes
[pheasants, quail, turkeys, grouse]
Order Anseriformes
[screamers, water fowls]
Order Passeriformes
[perching birds]
Order Piciformes
[wood-peckers, barbets, honey guides]
Order Coraciiformes [kingfishers, & alties]
Order Trogoniformes [trogons]
Order Apodiformes
I swifts, hummin g-bird s]
Order Caprimulgiformes [nightjars, frogmout_hs, oilbird]
Order Strigiformes
Iowls]
Order Cuculiformes
[cuckoos, roadrunners, turacos]
Order Psittaciformes
[parrots, lories, cocktoos]
Order Gruiformes
bustards]
[cranes, rail5,
Order Charadriiformes [plovers, gulls,"oo,",
terns, auks, sand-pipers]
Order Columbiformes [pigeons, doves, dodoes, sand grouse]
Order Falconiformes
[diurnal birds of prey - falcons, hawks]
Order Ciconiiformes
[herons, storks, ibis, spoon-bills]
Order Pelecanilormes [pelicans, cormoralts]
Order Podicipediformes [grebes]
Order Sphenisciformes [Impennae]: eg. Aptenodgtes [penguin)
Order Phoenicopteriformes [fl amin gos]
Add a note on extinct birds: passenger pigeon lEctopistes migratoiu$, dodo lRaphus
an anllatusl, pink-headed du ck lRh.o do ne s s a cary ophg llace al; redis covery of Jerdon's
cour ser lCurs oiu s bito rqttatu $
[Students are e.xpected to watch birds of their locality and make ar account of the common birds]
Class IvIAIIIMALIA
[2O hrsl
Type: Orydolagus [exclude arteries, veins and nerves; muscular, lymphatic and
endocrine systems]
Ciassification of Mammalia down to the orders cited ** wit-h examples specified
Subclass Prototheria Infraclass Ornithodelphia [egg-laying mammals]
Order Monotremata:
eg. Ornithorhgnchus [= platypus/, Tachgglossus l= Echidna]
Infraclass Metatheria [marsupials]
Subclass Theria
Order Marsupialia:
eg. Didelphis [opossum), Macropus [kangaroo)
Infraclass Eutheria [true placental mammals]
Order Edentata:
eg. Bradgpus (sloth), Dasgpus (armadillo)
Myrmecoplwga (spiny ant eater)
Order Pholidota:
eg. Manis (pangolin / scaly ant eater)
Order Lagomorpha
[rabbits and hares (Lepus]
Order Rodentia:
eg. Funambulus, Raffug Pestauista, Hgstrix, Ratufq
Lammus (Mydoes), Cavia
chinus (he d geho g), Su ncu s (Cro cidura)
Insectivora:
eg.
Parae
Order
19
OrderDermoPtera:
Order ChiroPtera;
Order Primates:
order
i-flYrnglemur)
t
(
t
rellus
co' Go.illa' Pongo
l\2;:"fr:*fr:::,'
carnivora: '
Order Cetacea
Odontoceti
MYsticeti
Order
[civet], small cats of
F. marmorata)
'l=M7sticeti- sperm whalel
ArtiodactYla:
blue whale
!
\,O"oOo'
rof
buckl
Order
PerissodactYla:
Order
Order
Tubulidentata:
HYracoida:
Order
Proboscidea:
':::::7to'"t'
t eater of South Africa)
''
order si,",,i^'
I
i:;"**ft[;":ii:ffii:fft
elephantl and
*- macima[Indian
-iii"aoita
elephant)
eg' Elephn's
Vertebrate
[* Ref: Haruey Pough's
LiJe *
a\ricana [African
Rel Encyclopedia Britannical
SectionB:CoMPARATIIIEANAToMYoFVERTEBRATES[15hours]
1.
Integumentary sYstem:-the sin
ch"ordates), tJle multilaYered
derived from tlle integument
fvisceral arches
rochordates; gills i1
origin of air bladder and
2'
3'
.es; gradual reduction of sinu-'
4.
- -1 port
-^1
venosus and renal
(persistence of hepatic
5. Nervous system: brain in
6'
u
r-d".a""
t",i"r details not necessalv)
Caroticus
----- and
that of frogl
di"
i.
Branchiostoma;
ePros
Testes: abdominal art
Topics for Assignoeats
Self study:
/ Seminars / Group discussiol /
garrs in fishes
osition;antivenin;polyantivenins;prophylaxis
Era
l0
'
9l Flight adaptations in birds
t0] Aquatic marnmals and their adaptations
111 Dentition in mammals [adaptations related to food)
121 Endangered mammals of India
REFERENCES
Alexander, R. M.: The Chordates. 1982, CUP
Barbiur, T.: Reptiles and Amphibian"s Their hnbits and ad.aptationq Hongton Miffin Co.N Y
Bhaskaral, K. K. & Biju Kumar, A.: Text book of Zoologr (Chordata), Manjusha
Biswas, K. P.: A TB of Fish, Fisheies andrechnologg. 1996, Narendra pulg House, N D
Colbert, E. H.: Euolution of the Vertebrates.2 e, !97O, J W & S
Daniel, J. C.: The Book of Indian Reptiles and Amphibians 2OO2, BNHS/OUP
Day, F.: The Fishes of India. Vols I & II, 1971, Today & Tomorrow Book Agency
Deoras, P. J.: Snakes of India. 1981, National Book Trust of India
Dhami, P. S. & Dhami, J. K.: Chordate Zoologg. R. Chand & Co
Ekambaranatha Ayyar, M. & Ananthakrishnal, T. N.: A Manual of Zoologg. Vol. II Part I & II]
Encanta: (CDs), 2004 Edn or earlier versions, Microsoft
Encgclopedia Bitannica.(CDs;, 2OO4 Edn or earlier versions, Britannica, India
Gordon, M. S.: Animal Fp.nction: Principles and Adaptations.!97L, Amerind
Harvey Pough, F. et aL: Vertebrate Lfe. 6 e, 2OO2, Pearson Edn Inc, 1 Indian Edn, 2OO3
Hilderbrand, M.: Analysis of Vertebrate Structure 4 e, J W & S
Hyman, L. H.: Comparatiue Vertebrate Zoology.22 e, 1960, Uty of Chicago Press
Induchoodarr: Keralathile Palcsltiga| 7996, Kerala Sahitya Academy, Trichur
Jordan, E. L. & Verma, P. S.: Chnrdate Zoologg.2OO4, S. Chand & Co, Nerv Delhi
Kardong, K.Y.: Vertebrates: Comparative Anatomg,Function and Euolution 1995, W C B
Kingsley, J. S.: Ouflines of Comparatiue Anatomg of Verlebrafeg Central Book Depot, Allahabad
Kingsley, N. G.: The Biologg of the Amphibiarus. Dover Pubs, New York
Kotpal, R. L.: Modern Text Book of Zoologg: Vertebrates.2 e, 2OO2, Rastogi
Monielli, A. R.: The Clordates; CUP
Newman, H. H.: The Phglum Chordata 1995, Mc millan / Satheesh Book Ents
Parker, J. J. & Haswell, W. A.: TB of Zoologg.Yolll, Vertebrafes. ELBS & Mc millan
Prater, S. H.: The Bookof IndianAnimab. 1971, BNHS
Romer, A. S: Ihe Vertebrate Body, 1992 reprir:t, Va-kils, Feffer & Simons, Bombay
Salim Ali & Ripley, S. D.: HB of the Birds of India and Pakistan- 10 vols 1968 -'74
Salim Ali: Eirds of Kerala- 2 e, 1969, O U P
Shukla, G. S. & Upadhyay, V. B.: EconomicZoologg.2OO2, Rastogi Pubns
Smyth: Amphibia and their waAS Macmillan & Co, New York
Waters, H. E. & Sayles, L. D.: Biology of Vertebrates; Mc millan & Co
Whitaker, R.: Common Indian Snakes: A field Guide. Mc millan & Co, India
Young, J. Z.: Life of Mammals. OUP
Young, J. Z.: Life of Vertebrates. OUP
ll
Practical PaPer
I [Patt II]*
ANIMAL DTI/ERSITY - PART
CHORDATA
CODE: ZP-OI lBl
[60 hours)
II
at the end of second gear];
"[Extemal practical examination p.per I ruitl be conducted
and it comprisies ZP-01 [A] and ZP - 01 [B]
etc., uhile theg studg the specimens in
[stud.ents are expected to make sketchei / notes
neat and labelbd sketches of all
carry
must
Record
The
the taboratory / fietd itsetf.
and dis-sectrons'
mountings
of
slcctches
lobett.d
ani
specimens uiitniotes
related to ZP-01 [A] and ZP sheets
record
The
aspects.
scientific
on
be
Emphasis must
OliBl must be bound together to get a single Record'
Se
1. Cephalochordate
2. Urochordates
3. Agnathans
4. Fishes
ens by their generic n€unes and assign them
Branchiostoma
Asadia. ascidian tadpole, Salpa, Doliolum
Petromgzon, Ammocoete lanra, Mgine
Common elasmobranchs - Chilo s cgllium, Steg o stoma'
Sphgrna, .Hstis, Try g orr, Narane, Astrap e s, etc
Common food frshes ' Sardinella, Rastelliger,
Cgnoglossus, Parastromateus, Tichiurus, Cgbium'
final Btroplus, Mugil, Wallagoia, Tilapia, Catla,
Cithina, iabeo, C{prinus
Fishes with special adaptive features - Hippocampus'
5. Amphibians
6. Reptiles
lany 2l
lany 2l
lany 4l
tanY 5l
Belone,'Hemirhnmpus, Exocoetts, Tetradon, Pterois'
Ostracion, Heteropneustes, Claius, Arius, Anabas
Ophiocepiulus, Remora [=Echeneis], Antennarius'
[any 6]
inahas, Amphisile,eellAnguilla / Muraenal
Hgla'
Bufo,
Common a.urphibians- Euplectus [=Rana],
3l
Rhacophorus, Ambglstorna/Axolotl lanra, an apodan ["V
2)
Mabuoia
lany
Calotes,
Hemiiactglus,
Common lizardsLizards with special adaptations: Draco, Cltameleon'
2l
Phrynosima" uromqstk
,lanY
^
Typ_hlops
[any 2]
Non-poisonorr" ..rJ"" - Pt,,,t, Natrix, Eryx,-Lycodon,
2l
Echislaay
Poisonous snakes ' Nojo, iaboia [=Viperi], Bungants'
Sea snakes - HgdroPhis / EnhAdina
7. Birds
8. Mammals
Common insectivore - Suncus
Common rodents - Lt, u".Jicoot,
Comrnon bats of Kerala
A primate U,onsl
squirrel
lany Il
[anY
1]
Section B: Histolow
1. BrancnUsime T. S' through pharyngeal region
22
FINAL YEAR B. Sc. DEGREE, ZOOLOGY [Main]
e
Theory Paper III
.*#,-
BIOCHEMISTRY, ANIMAL PEYSIOLOGY, ENDOCRINOLOGy and
.
.
REPRODUCTTVE BIOLOGY
CODE: Zt-O3
(100 hours)
Sectioq A: BIOCHEMISTRY [3O hours]
1. Introductlon
[o1 hr]
Scope, biomolecules [micro and macromoleculesl alct elements of biological
importance [mention peculiar properties of carbonl
2. A.mluo aclds and proteins
[o3 hrs]
Amino acids: classilication and structure; primary, secondar5r and terLiary structures
of proteins; physical and chemical properties of proteins
3. Enzymes and coenzymes
[06 hrs]
catalysis and enerry of activation; catalysts; classification and nomenclature of
e',ry'oe [based on Enzyme commission's key], mention examples; proteinaceous
en4.mes: apoenzymes and holoenzymes; mention ribozymes; properties of enzymes;
mechanism of enz;rme acLion; theories of enz;rme action; enz).rne inhibition; major
coenzj.rnes and their role in enrymatic reactions; add a note on cofactors
4. Vitamlns
[o3 hrs]
Classification: fat soluble and water soluble vitamins; physiologica-l roles of vitamins
A, D, E, K, B complex and C
5. Nucleic acids and nucleotides
[O7 hrs]
various types of DNA and RNA; structure olpurines and pyrimidines; chemistry and
structure of nucleotides: ATp, GTp, crp, TTp, urp, NAd FAD, and cyclic AIvIp;
Molecular structure of DNA; biosynthesis of DNA; damage and repair of DNA
[mention
dillerent repair mechanismsl, molecular structure of tRNA
6. Metaboliso, of carbohydrates, Iiplds aad protelas
[1O hrsl
Laws of thermod5rnamics; thcir significance to organisms; oidation and reduction
levels of reactants; redox reactions, redox potentials and electrochemical grad.ients;
electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation; role of c5rtochromes;
Release and storage of enerry: high-enerry compounds; dehydrogenation
of fuel
molecules; proton gradient and principle of chemi-osmotic synthesis of ATp
Glycogenesis, glycogenolysis, glycolysis, mention marate aspartate shuttle and
glycerol phosphate shuttle; gluconeogenesis
[short notesl
Kreb's cycle and oxidation of fatty acids [B-oxidationl in detail;
General account of deamination, transamination and decarborylation of amino acids
Section C: Mountlngs
l. Shark
: Placoid scale [minor]
frshes : Cycloid and ctenoid scales [minorl
3. Frog
: Brain (minor), hyoid apparatus in situ
[minorl
4. Calotes / shark : Brain (minor)
2- Bony
Sectloa D: Dlssections
1. Mullet
2. Frog
3. Calotes
Shark
4. Shark
:
Alimentary canal [Major) [or of arly
ot_her
bony fish)
: V cranial nerve - branches, root and ganglion on one side (Major)
: Arterial system on one side (Major) or
: Heart and ventral aorta witl- branches on both sides (Major)
: IX and X cranial nerves on one side (Major)
Sectloa E: Osteolosv
(Skeletons may be kept as spot items for identilicaLion, comments/ sketching)
l. Shark
:
2. Frog
: Steletal system: Skull, vertebrae, girdles, humerus, radio-ulna,
Trunk vertebra and caudal vertebra
femur, tibio-Ebula, astragalus ald calcaneum
Vertebra [show zygosphene and rygarrdrumJ
: Cervical vertebra, pectoral girdle + sternum
SJrnsacrum + pelvic girdle [mention the component bones]
5. Rabbit or any otherlmammal: Skull [details of dentition]
At1as, axis and typical '.'ertebra
3. Snake
4. Bird
:
f-
$ection B: ANIMAL PIIYSIOLOGY [4O hours]
1. Introduction, scope and subdivisions [O1 hr]
2. Nutrition
[o3 hrs]
Absorption of nutrients, nutrition in pregnalcy, infant nutrition, breast feeding;
importance of fibres in food; neryous and hormonal control of digestion, ruminant
nutrition; anorexia, acidity, flatulence, ulcers, sta:rration, fasting and its significance
3. Homoeostasis and consenrative regulation [O3 hrs]
Control systems [open systems], input, output and modulators; nature ald control of
internal environment; regulation of gases and metabolites in blood;
Regulation of temperature and pH
4. Respiration
[O4 hrs]
Gaseous exchange; respiratory pigments, structure and properLies of haemoglobin,
gas transport; neurophysiologic control of respiration;
respiratory problems: CO poisoning, cyanide poisoning, asphlrxia, hypoxia,
respiratory problems at high altitudes, physiological problems in diving anima-ls,
respiratory problems of new born and aged individuals;
Aspirators, artifi cia-l ventilation, heart-lun g machine
5. Body fluids and circulatloa
[O6 hrs]
Blood constituents [normal ald abnormal], clinical analysis of blood; agglutination
and coagulation of blood [in detail], haemostasis, haemolysis and jaundice; haemoglobinopathies, ESR; blood transfusion [safety arrd security problems]; aphaeresis;
types of heart, structure and working of human heart [in detail]; electrical and
michanical properties of cardiac muscle; pacemaker, and conducting system of heart;
cardiac cycle, regulation of heart beat [nervous and non-nerrrous];
blood pressure, pulse, haemodynamics [short notes only]
aad excretion
Osmoregulation
6.
[O7 hrs]
Osmotic and ionic regulations in terrestrial, fresh water and marine animals:
osmoconformers, osmoregulators; water retention and conservation in desert forms;
Classification of animals based on the nitrogenous compounds excreted:
mention other nit:ogenous excretory products [short notesl Urea cycle in detail
Kidney: histolory of nephron, urine formation, counter-current system; micturition,
d.iureiis; trormonal control of renal function, renal regulation of acid-base balance;
ionic imbalances: sodium/ potassium imbalance, crzrmp; urine analysis, dialysis
7. Muscle physiology
[06 hrs]
EM structure of myofibrils and myofrlaments; contractile proteins [different types],
mechanism and chemistry of muscle function: electrical and chemical changes and
ionic fluxes; enerry sources: role of creatine phosphate, Cori cycle;
Contractile r""poi."" ald properties of muscles: muscle tw'itch, tetany, isometric and
of stimuli, all or none law, fatigue, rigor mortis
isotonic contractions,
"u--ation
physiology
8. Nenre
[O6 hrs]
Dilleient types of nerve cells, g1ial cells, giant nen/e frbre of crustaceans and
cephalopods, re generation of medullary frbres ; neuro trophins ;
Eicitation, imputse generation and transmission: electrochernical changes,
maintenan"" of r""tjirg potential, action potential, threshold of stimulus, all or none
response, saultatory transmission;
smitters ;
Synap ses a1d neurl -muscular junctions, synaptic transmission, neurotran
emotions
and
brief notes on intelligence, memory, sleep, hunger, thirst
[O3 hrs]
9. Receptors
oi
stimuii, source of stimuli ald location
Classification of receptors based on nature
perception
of receptors; principles of sensory
a. Exteroreceptors:-1] Mechanoreceptors (tangoreceptors; phonoreceptors;
algesirecePtors ; rheorecePtors)
2l chemoieceptors, 3] Thermoreceptors and 4] Photoreceptors
b'
Pro
10. Bioluminescence and
Bioelectricity
ftT:::""yffil1s
groupsl' and ear as a
[O1 hr]
25
2
Section C:
ENDOCRINOLOGY
i. Vertebrate
1.
Endocrinology
'' "#"r:8":t"A;:"Tffin-es:
3. Hormones of pituitarSr,
4.
[15 hours]
[13 hours]
Introductioa: endocrine glaads
in vertebrates [Olhr]
derivatives of
adrenal gland, gonads,
concepis
"-il.";rptides
and proteins; steroids;
toid' th-Frnus' Partcreas,
[o3 hrs]
ryseaJ interactions;
:es/ tactors [o2 hrs,
I
ii1"oro"""r
Hypothalamus releasing
5. Horrrrone action:
Mechanism of hormone action : at
.th9 .lev1] ", "l?rt*t:brane [insurin] ;
at the level of enzJrnes located-in
cM tadr;nJ;e and many peptide hormones
role of cyclic AMp and the second _.""."g..
concept];
at the rever of organe[es [thyroxine - irra;;;;;g
enz,rnes of ETS of
mitochondrial;
a receptors Isteroids, ecdysone]
Fe
one release: positiv_e^ald n egative
[brief accoun ts]
6. Ho
hrs]
[O3
Gametogenesis in male and female
Pregnancy and lactation
in primates and non primates)
II.
In
hours]
in insects and crustaceans
es
Section D: REpRODUCTfVE BIOLOGY
[1S hours]
l. Introduction:
[O1
hr]
es- semelparity and
, examples
d composition; ejaculation
corpus haemorhagicum, colpu s
organs; secondaqr se,xual characters
oestrous and menstrual rycles
4. Reproductive techaotogiJs
[bri
Semen collection, presenration,
management
5.
6.
Z.
Different methods [invasive and non invasive]
[or hr]
on arrd infertility
[o1 hr]
and embryo transfer; test tube babies
ation [O1 hr]
[ol hr]
Female foeticide: ethical issues and law
[Mention Prenatal Diagnostic Techniques - prevention
of misuse Act -PNDT Act)
8. Fertility coutrol
Fertility control: natural metJrods, contracepti*T
ffL"n and legal termination of
pregnancy' vasectomy, tubectomy, postpartum
termination of preftrancy,
Vaccines and hormones in fertility control
[brief accounts only]
9. Partheuogenesis
Definiri-on, r11pes of parthenogenesis-, r.".,r,"ii1r?,11"r1*u,"o,
cyclic and comptete
parthenogenesis; arrhenotoly, thelytoky, artificial
partti"r,oj..r""i" *J
"igrificance
:6
.,[email protected]
6ETERENcF,S
Agarwal, P.: Chordate Embryology and Hislologg. I e, 2001, Krishna Prakashan
Austin, C. R. & Short, R. Y.: Reproduction ia Mammals 5 vols, 2 e, L982 -'86
Bejley, D. J. et ol.: Hunto,fl Reproduction and Deuelopmental Biologg. f 980, Mc millart
Bentley, P. J.: Comparatiue Vertebrate Bndocnnotogy.CUP
Berry, A. K.: A Tert Book of Animal phgsiologg.6 e, Emkay publicaLions, Delhi - 51
Champe, P. C. et aL: Biochemistry.3 e,2005, Lippincott's Illustrated Review, Indian e, LWW
Chatterjee, C. C.: Human phgsiologg. Medical Allied Agency
Chaudhuri: Practice of Fertilitg Control Churchill Livingstone.
Conn, E. E. et al.: Outlines of Biochemistry.5 e,2001, John Wiley & Sons
Das, D.: Biophysic-s and Biophgsical Chemistry.Academic Pubs, Calcutta
Ganong, W.F.: Lange Reuieu.t of MedicalPhysiologg.20 Indian Edn,2OO2, M G H
Gorbman, A. et al: Comparatiue Endocrinology J W & S
Goyal, K. A. & Sastry, K. Y.: Animal Phgsiologg.6 e,2OO2, Rastogi Pubs
Guyton, A. C. & Hall, J. E.: Ten book of Medical Phgsiologg. 10 e, Harcourt
Hadley, M. E.: Endocinologg. 5e,2OO4, Pearson Edn [Singaporel, N D
Harrison, L. M.: The Pocket Medical Dictionary. CBS Publishers & Distributors, Delhi
Highnam & Hill: Inuerlebrate Endocinologg
Hoar, W. S.: General and Comparatiue Animal Phgsiology.lg7s, PHI
Mader: Human Biology.S e, W. C. E}., M G H
Martin, C. R.: Endocrine Physiologg. OUP
Mathews, C. K. et aL: Biochemistry. 3 e,2003, Pearson Edn [Indian Edn]
Mc Kee & Mc Kee: Biochemistry. WCB, M G H
Murray, K. R. et al: Harper's lllustred. Biochemistry 26 e,2OO3,lvl G H, Int. edn
Nalbandov, A. V .: Reproductiue Phgsiology. l97O, D. B. Taroporevda Sons Co
Nelson, D. L. & Cox, M. M.: Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry. 4 e. Pa.lgrave Mc, W H F
NMS: Biochemistry.4 e, Asiatic Edition
NMS: Physiotogg. 4 e, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Oser, B.: Hauk's Phgsiological Chemistry.14 e, 1971, TMH
Rajan, R.: Post Graduate Endocrinologg; 4 e, L997, Jaypee Bros New Delhi
Randall, D. et o,l: Eckert Animal Physiologg. 5 e,2OO2, -W H Freeman & Co
Rastogi, S. C.: Assentials of Animal Phgsiologg.Wiley Eastern Ltd
Rastogi, S. C.: Experimental Phgsiologg. Wiley Eastern
Roy, R. N.: Mediq.l Biopltgsics. I e, 2001, Books & Allied, Calcutta
Saidapur, S. K.: Reproducliue cycles. Allied Publishers
Schmidt Nielson, K.: Animol Phgstologg. 1995, CUP
Talwar, G. P. & Srivastava, L. M.: TB of Bioch.emistry and Human Physiologg.3 e, 2003, PHI
Talwar, G.P.: Tert Bookof Clinical Bioclemistry L996,PHI
Thomas, K. E.: tn Millenniumhologg. vol. II,2001, Thrissur
Turner, C. D. & Bagnara, J.T.: General Endocrinology.6 e, L976
Turner, C- D.: General and Comparative Endoqinologg.
Vander, A. J. et al: Human Physiologg. 1998, M G H
Varley, H.; Prqctical Clinical Bioclrcmistry 1989, CBS Pubs
Voet, D. & Voet, J. G: Biochemistry. J \il & S
Williams, R. H.: Text bookof Endocrinologg. W. B. Saunders
Toplcs for Assignment / Seminar / Group dlscusslon / Self study:
l. Minerals of protoplasm and their functions with special reference to Ca. P, Na, K,
Mg, Zn, Cu, Fe, Cl, I,
2. Water: structure, properties and roles in living organisms
3, Proteins: classification and functions
4. Carbohydrates: structure, classilication and functions
5. Lipids: classification and functions
6. Digestion of proteins
7. Digestion of carbohydrates
8. Digestion of lipids
9. Substance abuse [dcohol, tobacco, resins, solvents, narcotics etcl
10. Hypovitaminoses and hypervitaminoses
I 1. Regulation of temperature in homoeothermic animals
12. Hibernation, aestivation and acclimation
13. Physiological adaptations of diving animals
14. Exchange and transport ofrespiratory gases
15. Blood: chemical composition, formed elements and functions
16. Pathological variations in the number of blood cells: a-naemia, polycythemia,
leucoclrtosis, leucopenia and leukemia
17. Common cardio-vascular problems: abnormal variaLions in BP: tachycardia,
bradycardia; ventricular fi brillation, auriculai septal defect, ventricular sep tal
defect, mitral stenosis, ischaemic heart disease, myocardial infarction and heart
failure, cerebral haemorrhage, stroke, cerebro -vascular antecedent
18. Common renal problems in man: renal hyper tension, nephritis, renal failure,
oedema, acidosis and uraemia, haematuria, ca.lculi
19. Endocrine disorders in humans [hypo and hyper activity of hormones / syndromes]
cushing,s disease, Addison's disease, diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus,
dwarfrsm, gigantism, cretinism, myxoedema, goitre
t.
3
Theory Paper fV
)
DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY, IMMUNOLOGY,
BIOTECHNOLOGY and BIOSTATISTICS
CODE: ZT-O4
(100 hours)
Sectioa A: DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY [4O Hours]
1.
Introduction
[O1 hrl
Theories of preformation and epigenesis, germplasm; determinate and indeterminate
types of development; germ layers and their derivatives
2. Types of eggs
[O2 hrs]
Structure of a typical ovum; classifrcation of eggs based on the amount and
distribution of yolk: microlecithal and macrolecitha-l; isolecithal, centrolecithal, and
telolecithal eggs with examples; egg membranes
3. Cleavage and cell lineage
[O2 hrs]
Types of cleavage with examples - radial (star fish), spiral (Planocerawitl-r a short
account of cell lineage studies), holoblastic equal lBranchiostoma) arrd unequal [frog)
and meroblastic [chick] cleavages
4. Eatly development of invertebrates:
[O2 hrs]
Early development of: a ctenophore and a sea star
5. Early embryology of Branchiostoma
[O4 hrs]
Structure of egg and early development up to neurula stage;
Brief account of fate map a-nd formation of mesoderm and coelom
6. Embryolory of frog
[O7 hrs]
Structure of egg; ferlilization, cleavage, blastulation and fate map
Gastrulation - morphogenetic movements and germ layers
Closure of blastpore, yolk-plug stage, neurulation, notochord formation,
Mesoderm formation and coelom formation; organogeny of brain, eye, ear, and heart
7. E,a,btyology of chick
[O7 hrs]
Male and female reproductive org€u1s of fowl; structure of egg;
Fertilization, cleavage, blastulation, gastmlation and formation of germ layers
Development up to 48 hours with salient features of chick embryo at primitive streak
stage, 24hour stage,33 hour stage,48 hour stage; flexion and torsion
E. Early embryology of tnatr
[O2 hrs]
Trophoryst, implantation, development up to the formation of germ layers
9. Drtra embryonic meabranes
[O2 hrs]
Development and functions of extra-embryonic membranes in chick
Development and functions of foetal membrales in man
10. Cell differeatiation aad geae action during development [O4 hrs]
Cell differentiation, totipotency, pleuripotency, dedifferentiation and redifferentiation;
controlled gene expression during development, homeotic genes, mention FIox genes in
vertebrates; stem cells, tJ:eir signilicance and applications
11. Regeneratioq [brief accounts of the following] [O2 hrs]
Regenerative capacity in various groups of animals
l)rpes: morphallaxis and epimorphosis; histological and cytological events in
regeneration in general; mention factors alfecting regeneration
12. E:rperimental embryologlr
[OS hrs]
Brief accounts of the following topics:
Vital staining, marking with carbon particles, radioactive tracing, fate of
blastomeres and construction of fate maps
Spemann's constriction experiments on amphibian embryos
Inductive interactions in development: primary organizers and induction witl: special
reference to amphibian development
Exogastrulation in frog
Transplantation experiments
29
Section B: IMMUNOLOGY
[25 hours]
, 1. Introductioa History and scope
[o1 hr]
[Brief account of t]re following topics expected]
2. Immunity
3.
4.
5.
6.
[O3 hrs]
Natural immunity [innate]: types of natural immunity; host factors; mechanism of
natural immunity; infl ammation, b o dy temp erature
Acquired immunity: active immunity [naturally acquired and artilicially acquired],
passive immunity [naturally acquired and artilicially acquired passive
immunitiesl
Immuae system
[O3 hrs]
Introduction, central lymphoid orgarls; peripheral lymphoid orgars; important cells of
the lymphoreticular system and their maturation; major histocompatibility complex
Antigens
[02 hrs]
Definition, types of antigens; properties of antigens; antigenic specificity
Immunoglobulins: [Antibodies]
[O2 hrs]
Definition, nature, chemical structure, classes
Antigen-aatibody reaction
[O2 hrs]
Brief account of Ag-Ab interactions; types of Ag-Ab reactions: add a note on
agglutination and precipitation; applications of Ag-Ab reactions
7. Complemeat
system
[O1
hrl
General account of complement system and complement pathways, immunological
and biological elfects
8. Immuue tesPonse [Immune elfector mechanisms] [O2 hrs]
Introduction; humoral immune response, mention clonal selection theory; factors
affecting antibody production; cell mediated irnmune resPonse [cytokines] eg''
interleukins and interferons; cytotoxic T cells; mention h54persensitivity reactions
9. Imauaodeficlency diseases
[05 hrs]
Introduction, primary and secondary immunod efi ciency di seas e s
Acquired lmmune Defrciency Syndrome:
Means of infection, wind.ow period, seroconversion, testing, asjrmptomatic phase,
persistent generalized lymphadenopathy, opportunistic infections, AIDS-related
complex, AlDS-dementia complex, full blown AIDS, stlalcture and types of HlVs,
multiplication of HIV, mutations in HiV, antiretroviral therapy, vaccines and
interferons, and socio-economic dimensions
1O.
AutolmmunitY
[O1
hr]
Introduction, classification: haemolytic, organ specilic, non-orgall specific
[O2 hrs]
11. Transplantation and tumour immunity
reaction, graft rejection' prevention
graft-host
Transplaltation irnrnunity: transplants;
of graft rej ection, immunosupression'
immunotherap]Tumour immunity: irnmune response in malignancy; tumor antigens'
of cancer
[01 hr]
12. Immuniziag agents
Vaccines ; immunization pro gramme s and Immunotherapy
of Immunoloryl
[Ref: Nagoba & Vedpat]rak's TB
_:0
t
,Section C: BIOTECHNOLOGY (2O hours)
1. Introductlon
[O2 hrsJ
Definition, history and development, scope of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnologr,
terminolory, mention branches of Biotechnolory
2. Fundamentals of animal cell culture aad hybridoma technology [O3 hrs]
add a note on monoclonal antibodies and their applications
3. Protoplast culture
[O3 hrs]
Brief accounts on preparation, isolation, purification, fusion and culturing of
protoplasts
cloaing
[O4 hrs]
Plasmids, phage vectors, cosmids, various met}.od.s of gene transfer: virus-mediated
and direct transfer, shot-gun method
5. Genomic and cDNA libraries
[O4 hrs]
Preparation of gene libraries, genomic and cDNA libraries; biosensors, biochips, DNA
chips and micro arrays; molecular probes: labelling and applications [brief accountsl
6. Poteatial and suspected hazards of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnolory [O1 hr]
7. Fundameatals of Bioiuformatics [very brief accounts only] [o3 hrs]
Information networks, Internet, databases, protein-sequence analysis, DNA sequence
analysis, multiple sequence alignment [Ref.:Attwood&parry-Sm.ith'sBookpp.xv-xix, l-16]
4. Introduction to getre
Section D: BIOSTATISTICS [15 hours]
1.
Introduction
[O1 hr]
Scope, terminolory and variables
2. Populatioa and sample
[OB hrs]
Sampling techniques, sarnpling errors and sample size;
Collection, classification and tabulation of data
3. Diagrammatic aud graphical represeatation of data [O4 hrs]
Frequency culr/e, frequency polygon, line diagram, bar diagram,
Pie diagram, histograrn
Normal and binomial distributions
4. Measures of central teudeacy
[O3 hrs]
Mean, median and mode
5. Measures of dispersion
[O4 hrs]
Range, m€aD deviation, standard deviation, standard error
Topics for Assignmeat / Seminar / Group discussion / Self study:
1. Gametes and gametogenesis
2. Structure of mammalian sperm and ovum; spermatogenesis and spermateleosis
3. Oogenesis; Comparison of spennatogenesis and oogenesis
4. FertilizaLion: Morphological changes in sperm and egg, capacitation, activation,
fertilization cone, penetration, cortical reaction, reaction of egg and fate of
spenn, monospenny and polyspenny, in vitro fertilization, significalrce of
fertilization
5. Vitellogenesis and influence of yolk on development
6. Oviparity, viviparity and ovo-viviparity
7. Dorsal lip of blastopore as ari organizer
8. Immunity and infections: infectious agents and mechanisms to avoid being infected
9. Natural and acquired immunity
10.Al1ergic reactions
3l
u
REFEREICES
|9
For Deyelgomental Bioloev. lmmunoloqv and Biotechnoloqv:
Aganval, P.: chordate Embryologg and Histologgr I e, 2obl, Krishna prakashan
Ananthanarayanan, R. & panikar, J.: TB of Microbiotogg.5 e, 1999, orient Longman
Attwood, T. K. & Parry-Srnith, D. J .: Introduction to Bioinfonnatics. Lggg pearson Ecln N D
,
Balinsky, B. l: Entbryology. Saunders & Topan
Barnum, s. R.: Bfotechnologg- An Introduction. 199g, Thomson Brooks / cole- vikas pub
Bejley, D. J. et al.: Human Reproduction and. Deuelopmental Biotogy. l9go, Mc millan
Berril, N. J. & Karp, G.: Deuelopment. TMH
Bourgaize et aI.: Biotechnologg.2O0O, Addison Wesley Longman
chakraborty, P. A.: A TB of Microbiol.ogg.2oo l, New central Book Agency, Kolkorta
Gamboorg, O. L. & Philips, G. C.: plant cell, tissue and organ adturi Narosa
Gilbert, S. C.: Deuelopmental Biotogg.5 e, Sinauer Associates
Goldsby et al.: Immunologg. 5 e, 2003, W H Freeman
Gupta, P. K. Essentials of Biotechttologg. I e,2OO2, Rastogi pubs, Meerut
Hyda, R. IlI.: NMS Immunologg.3 e, 1995, B. I. Waverly
Ignacimuthu, S. J.: Plant Biotechnologg 1997, Oxford & IBH
Jangir, O. P.: Deuelopmental Biologg. A manual. 2001, Agro Bot
Jayaprakash, Ivl.: A mqnual of Deuelopmental Biologg.2 e, Academica, Tvm
Jogdand, S. N.: Gene Biotechnologg. L e, L997 , Himalaya pub House
Joshi, K. R.: Imnunologg.5 e, 20O3, Agro
Krane, D. E. & Raumer, M. L-: Fundamental Concepts of Bioinfonnarics 2003, Indial Print,
Pearson Edn, N D
Krawetze, s. A. & womble, D. D.: Introductiort to Bioinformatics 2003, Humana press
Kuby, J.: Imnrunologg.2 e, 1994, trV. H. Freeman
Lydyard, P. M. et al.: Instant lVotes in Immunologg 2OOO, Viva Books
Marx,J. L. (Ed.): AReuolutioninBiotechnologlr 1989, CUp
Masters, J. R. W.: Ar'imal Cell CuILure IRL Press
Mc Ewen, R. S.: Vertebrate Embryologg. 1973, Oxford & IBH
Micldos, D. A. & Freyer, G. A.: D.lvA science. 1990, cold-spring Harbour Lab press, carolina
Moosad, M.: The Biological Manipulations of Ltfe.
Nagabhushanam, R. & Sarojini, R.: Inuertebrate Embryotogg. 1985, O.dord & IBH
Nagoba, B. S. & Vedpathak, D. V.: TB of Immunologg. I e, 2003, paras publg, Hyderabad
Nair, P. K. G. & Prabhakar Achar: A Tert Book of Animat Embryotogg.
Patten, B. M.: Earlg Embryology of the Chick 1973, TMH
Patten, B. M.: Foundations of Embryologg. 1958, Mc Graw-Hill
Pelczar, M. J., Reid, R. D. & Chan, E. C-S.t Microbiologg. L99T,TMH
Playfair, J. et al.: Medical Immurwlogg for students Chur Liv., UK
Purohit, S. S.: Biotechnologg.3 e, 2003, Agro
Rarrgasrvami, R. & Panikar, J.: Tert Book of Microbiology. 1998, Orient Longman
Roitt, I. M.: Essential Immunology 8 e, 1994, Blackwell Scientihc
Roitt, I. M. et al.: hnnunologt.2O02 e, Mosby London
Rugh, R.: A Laboratory Manualof Vertebrate Embryologg 196 l, Allied pacific
Rugh, R.: Frog Reproduction and Development,
Saccone, C. & Pesole, G.: Hand Bookof Comparatiue Cenomics 2003, J W Liss
Sastry & Shukat Deuelopmentat Biologg.2OO3, L e, Rastogi Pub
Sharma, A. K. & Sharma, A.: Chromosome Techniques. L99O, Butter Worth
Slretty & Nandini: Immunologg. Wiley Eastern
Sussman, lvl.: Aninal Groluth and Deuelopment 1998, Modern Biologr Series
Talwar, G. P,: A Handbook of Practical Immunology. 1983, Vikas, New Delhi
Turyman: Instant notes in Deuelopmentol Biologg 2OO l, Viva Books
Verma. P. S. & Agar.va.l, V. !i..: Ciord.ate Embryology
Vijayakumaran Nair, K. & George, P. V.: A Manual of Developnrental Biologg,3 e,2OO2,
Academica, Jawahar Nagar, Tvm- 4t
Weir, D. M. & Stervart, J.: Immunologg.T e, 7992, Chur Liv., Edinburgh
Wolpert, L.: Principles of Deuelopment 1994, OUP
For Biostatistics
Bailey, N.T.J.: Statistical MethodsinBiologg3e,9a/95, CUP /. LPE
Fisher, R. A.: The Design of Experimeruts. 1942, Oliver & Boyd
Green, R. H.: Samplhg aeZigiand statisticcil methods for enuironmental biologisS. J lV & S
Gupta, S. P.: Statrbtical Methods 3l e,2OO2, Sultan Chand & Co
sneclcor, G. w. & cochran, w. G.: stati:stica,l [email protected] Attied East-west Press, N D
Sokal, R. R. & Rohtf, F- 1.: Introductionto Biostatistics W H Freeman
Sokal, R. R. & Rohlf, F. J.: Biomet V.W H Freeman
Spigel, M. R.: Schaum's Outlines of Tleory and Practice o.f Statistics
SieIt, n. G. D. & Torrie, J. H.: Principles and Practice o/Statistics tuith special reference to
biological science
Verma, B. L. et aL: Biostatistic-s 1993' CBS, N D
=
Theory paperV
.
4
CELL BIoLocY, MOLECULAR BIoLocy AND GENETICS
CODE: ZT-OS [100 hours)
Sectiou A: CELL BIOLOGY
1. Introduction
Scope of cell
Biolog,.:
(4O hours)
[o2 hrs]
cell theory and its modern version; branches - cell physiolory,
IVlolecular Biolory,
_Genetic Engineering, Biotechnologr and Biochemical Genetics
^
2. Biophysical toors and techaiqueJ[basi" prir,ciptesLd
r""" only] [1o hrs]
Al Microscopy:
i. Light microscopy: simple arrd compound microscopes
Fluorescent, inte :ference, phase contrast, dark-ield
microscopes
Use of oil immersion objectives; microm.t y ;
Preparation of specimens for light
ing ard
mounting [brief notes on coulmon -i"ro""opy-i.
fixatives such
hanol,
Bouin,s soiution and Carnoy,s fluid; common hi
haematoxylin, eosin and Leishman,s stain
Vitar stains: neutral red and Janus gr..r; mounting
ii. Electron microscopy: transmission ani ."rr,.,irrg efrf", medium: DpX
Mention sc'nning - tunnelling arrd ato#c forte microscopes
also
Preparation of specimens for EM: fi*ltion, sectioning
and staining; shadow.ing
and negative staining [notes on different methods
or-r.r"ri.,g n
.u.h
freeze-dr5rin g, keeze-fiactuTrng-,
"tior,
"s
.freeze-etchingLa ".yop."#.irii* expectedl
Bl Principles and apprications of theToll:gnr,..ri;-r.*es
brief
account]:
[very
1l Cell fractionation
5] Splctrophotometry
2l Ultracentrifugation
6] NMR spectroscopy
3l Chromalography
Zjautorarfiograpny
4l Electrophoresis
S! X-ray aiffricUon and crystallography
3. The cell and its components
ultra structural organizarion and fu nctiorrrr [2O hrs]
folowing:
1] Ribosomes:
""i."t"-or,rr.
Various types of ribosomes in prokaryotes,
eukar5rotes and mitochondria;
chemical composition of ribosomal units; iree and
attached ribosomes,
monosomes, polysomes; functions of ribosomes;
biogene"i"
ofilo"o*."
2l Lysosomes:
3]
Microbod.ies:
kinds of.lysosomes, pol5rmorphism, enz5rmes in
RL (Golgi body _ Endopiasmii Reticuluir _Llrsosome
osomes
Peroxisomes and
f microbodies
4] proteosomes: structu
5] Centrioles and basa-l b
and functions
6] Cytoskeleton:
Microtubules, microfi.laments and intermed.iate frlaments
and their
composition; formation of rnitotic apparatus; functions (brief
account only)
7l Mitochondria:
Structure, chemical composition and enzJ[nes in mitochondria,
oddative
phosphorylation, respiratory chain, chem'i-osmotic theory;
functions of
mitochondria, mitochondriogenesis
8] Interphase nucleus:,general struiture,
[mention germinal vesicle a,6 other
variations], fun ctions, and nu cleo_ cytoplasiric ind.ex
Nuclear enl9lor9 - nuclear pores and poie complex, nuclear lamina,
behaviour
during cell cycle, formation
3J
'
Chromatin: euchromatin, heterochromatin, chemical composition, organiz cn
of chromatin, folded fibre, solenoid frbre and unit frbre organizations,
nucleosomes
Nucleoplasm
Nucleolus: Structure, composition, nucleolar cycle, nucleolar organizer, functions
9l Chromosomes:
Number, classification, morphological variations, Barr body, Lyon's hypothesis,
structure of metaphase chromosome
Giant chromosomes:
Po\rtene chromosomes:- occurrence, structure, puffs and bands,
endomitosis, significance in cytological studies
Lamb brush chromosomes:- occurrence, structure, loops, signihcance
4. Cell division
[O4 hrs]
Cell cycle: Gl, S, G2 and M phases
Amitosis: brief account only
Mitosis: description of all stages, cytokinesis and significance
Meiosis: description of all stages, nature of chromosomes during different stages
and signifrcance; mention stage Do as all elevated part of cell cycle
Comparison of mitosis and meiosis
5. Cancer
[O2 hrs]
peculiarities
cancer cells, karyotypic changes,
of
tumors
malignant
Benign and
predisposition to cancer, causative factors, oncogenes, theories of cancer
6. Aging
[O2 hrs]
Cettular changes, apoptosis, causes of aging and theories of aging
Section B: MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
1. Introductioa
(2O hours)
[o3 hrs]
gene
of
concepts
scope;
perspective
alld
[classical and modern]
Historical
hlpothesis, one_gene - one
gene
enzJrme
one
one
gene
expression:
action
Gene
I
polypeptide trypottre"is; central dogma of molecular biolory and central dogma reverse;
tt. -oo".pts Li cistron, muton, recon, complicon, transcripton; split_genes, only]
overlapping genes, pseudo genes, jumping g.tt.", cryptic genes [brief accounts
[O2 hrs]
2. Naturl of lhe genetic material
Search for the lenetic material; discovery of transformation in Pneumococcus [Griffrt]r's
experiments]; elperiments by Hershey and Chase regarding transduction
3. Repetitive and unlque DNA sequences [Ol hr]
C-value paradox, selfish DNA
[O3 hrs]
4. DNA replicatioa
mett od [experiments by lvleselson
[In prokaryotes and eukaryotes]: semi-cons.*itir.
mechanisms;
repair
repair;
and
,,,a Strfrtl; DNA modification
RNA directed DNA sYnthesis
[o2 hrs]
5. Geuetic code
of genetic code; contributions of
cracking
deciphering
genetic
code,
Gene and
/
Nirenberg ald Ktrorana; properties-of genetic iodei, codon assignments, wobble
hypothesis
[o2 hrs]
6. Pr&ein synthesis
[O2 brs]
7. Regulatlon of gene action
accountl
In prokaryoteJ[operon concept, Lac operon in {_e!{1, in eukaryotes [brief
pl{e
hrs]
tecnnology
[03
8. Recombiaant
involved:
Brief account of the productiSn of recombin"rt ONe molecules; en2yrnes
of the
ount
reverse transcriPtas
DNA'
desired
the
techniques involved
[amplif,rcation] of
manipulation of tlee
rDNA; aPPlications
[o2 hrs]
9. Btottinjtechniques
,
blotting; dot blots and slot blots'
western
and.
blotting
northern
blottini,
Southern
DNA finger printing, merrtion DNA foot printing
l5
'-ection C: GENETICS
1. Intioduction
(4O hours)
[o1 hr]
Scope and importance of Genetics
2. Chromosome theory of heredity
Sutton
[o
t hr]
- Bovery hypothesis, modern interpretations
3. Interaction of genes and variations from Mendelian ratios [O5 hrs]
Allelic and non-allelic interactions, incomplete dominance and co-dominance, factor
hypothesis, epistasis, supplementary genes; duplicate genes, complementar,'genes:
polymeric genes, modifying genes, lethal genes, atavism, penetrance, expressivity,
pleiotropism, polygenic [quantitative) inheritance, skin colour in mal
4. Multiple alleles
[O3 hrs]
Definition, characteristics and examples: coat colour in rabbits, mention isoalleles,
blood group alleles, genetics of ABO system, mention other system of blood grouping:
N,lN, M, N, Levin, and Bombay; Rh factor and erythroblastosis foeta-lis; problems
related to blood group inheritance are to be worked out
5. Linkage, crossing over and recombination [O5 hrs]
Morgan's work on Drosophila. define chromosome theory of linkage; Iinkage types with
examples: complete and incomplete linkage, linkage groups, crossing over;
Recombination; linkage maP [principle and brief account]
6. Sex determination
[O4 hrs]
X and Y male
chromosomes;
sex
Sex determination and sex differentiation,
of sex
mechanism
chromosome
heterogametic
heterogametic and female
determlination [XX-XO, XX-XY, ZZ-SW types]; Genic balance (ratio) theory of Bridges,
short notes on inter sexes, Srnandromorphism, environmental and hormona-l
influence of sex determination: sex in Bonellia
7. Sex-linked, sex-influenced aad sex-limited characters [o5 hrs]
Discovery of sex linkage: Morgan's experiments on Drosophila, cris-cross inheritance,
X-linked and Y-linked inheritance, genes on X and Y chromosomes: homoiogous pafis
of X and y chromosomes in m€rn; sex linkage in man [colour blindness as an exampie]
traits
a1d, Drosophila; holandric genes [hypertrichosis as an exarnple]; sex-influenced
and sex-limited traits [dehnition and examples]
[06 hrs]
8. Mutation
Hugo de Vries' mutation theory; characteristics of mutations
fin-ds of mutations - somatic, germinal, chromosomal and gene mutations
Sex-linked ald autosomal mutations
Chromosome mutations - numerical and structural changes
Numerical changes: euploidy and aneuploidy with subdivisions
Structural changes: deletion, duplication, insertion, inversion, tralslocation
Molecular basis of gene mutation; induced and natural mutations; mutagens
Significance of mutation in speciation and breeding
9. Cytoplasmic or extra nuclear inheritance [O2 hrs]
Sheli coilingin Limnaea, DNA in chloroplast, mitochondria and
endo-symbionts like sigma, virus and kappa particles
[o8 hrs]
10. Human Genetics
classifrcation and grouping of
beings,
in
human
component
chromosome
Norma-l
human chromosomes (Patau's scheme)
Chromosomal anomalies and disorders: Down's, Patau's, Edw'ard's a-nd Cri-du-chat
syndromes, sex chromosomal anomalies like Turner's ald Klinefelter's
syndromes (short notes onlY)
-Gene mutations: autosomal mutations like albinism, PKU, alkaptonuria,
galactosemia, Tay-sach's syndrome, Gaucher's disease, sickle cell anaemia,
tha-lassemia, bralhydactyli, sex chromosomal mutations: haemophilia, Lesch
Nyhan s5rndrome, dermal hypoplasia (brief accounts)
Polygenic traits: cleft palate/ lip, clubfoot, hydrocephaly
Cenetic counseling; Eugenics, euthenics and euphenics
Human Genome Pioject components, significance, ethica-I, legal arrd social issues;
genome and human rights
3(i
,:r-- j-i^lr,';il-i-i:::.-'.-ij:.'..
)r:i;r;rl,!:.c".,,,',,1;:':-i:.;ir
Topics for assigaments/ seminar/ discussion:
membrane: chemistry of cell membranes, unit-membrane concept, fluid
mosaic model
2. Cell communication: signalling, molecules arrd receptors involved in tra-nsduction
3. Transmembrane transport: pinocytosis, phagocytosis, osmosis, diffu sion, active
transport, vesicular transpo
4. Endoplasmic reticulum: dillerent t5pes, functions and formation of ER
5. Golgi bodies: morpholory, chernical composition, secretory and endocytic
pathways [ER to GB, GB to ER, flow pattern in GB stack, synaptic vesicle and
SNARE hypothesis] other functions of GB; golgiogenesis
6. Mendel's experiments and Mendel's laws of inheritance
7. Mendelian inheritance in man
8. Lethal genes
9. Intersexes and gmandromorphs
10. Polyploidy and evolution
11.Twin studies in genetics
72. Cxcinogens, oncogenes and anti-onco genes
13.Cloning of higher mammals - problems and prospects
l4.Human cloning - pros and cons
15.Gene therapy
{ 1. Plasma
REFERENCES
Alberts, B. et al: Molecular Biologg of the CelL Garrland Pubg Inc., New york
Bhaskaran, K. K. & Biju Kumar, A.: CelI Biotogg, Genetics & futolecutar Biotogy iVf anjusha
Erooks, R. J.: Genetics: Analysis and Pinciples 1999, Addison WesleyBurns, G. W. & Bottino, P. J.: The science of Genetics.6l 7 e, lvla:iw-ell McMillan
Curt Stein: Principles of Human Genetics. 1960, Euresia Pubg House
Darnell, J. et aL: Moleanlar CeIl Biologg. Scientific American Book
De Roberties, E. D. P. et aL: CelI and Molecular Biologg.
Dobzhansky, Th.: ?he Genetix and Origin of Species. Columbia Uty Press
Fairbalks, D, J. & Anderson, W. R.: Genetics. Brooks/ Cole Pubg Co, 1999
Freifelder: Iu[olecular Biologg. Narosa Pubg House, N D
Gangane, S. D.: Human Genetics. 2 e,2OOO, B. I. Chur Liv., N D
Gardner, E. J. et al.: Principles of Genetics. 8 e, 2OO2 J W & S
Good Enough, U.: Genetics. Halt, Reinharts & Winston
Gupta, P. K.: Cell and Molecttlar Biologg. 2 e,2OO2, Rastogi pubs, Ivleerut
Kleinsmith, L. J. & Kish, V. r\I.: Pinciples of Cell and lulolecular Biologg.2 e, L995, Harper
Collins College Pubs
Lervin, B. Genes WII.2OO4, OUP
ivlange, E. J. & Mange, A. P.: Basic Human Genetics 1999,Indian edn, Rastogi
NIc Cusik, V. A.: Human Genetics. PHI
N1icklos, D. A. & Freyer, G. A.: DNA Science. 1990, Cold-Spring Harbour Lab Press
Primrose, S. B. et a1.: Principles of Gene Manipulatiort 6 e,2OO0, Blackwell Science
Ricki, L.: Human Genetics, concepts and applications. WCB M G H
Roy. R. N.: Medical Biophysics.l e. 2001, Books & Allied, Calcutta
Sharma, A. K. & Sharma, A.: Chromosome Techniqtes. 1990, Butter Worth
Sharma, A.: Chromo.somes. L992. Ofrord & IBH
Sharma, B. K.: Irstrumental Methnds of Chemical Analgsis Goel Pub House
Sinnott, E. M. et al: Principtes of Genetics. 1958, M G H
Snustad & Simons: Principies of Genetics. 3 e, 2003, J W & S
Snustad, D. P., et aL: Principles of Genetics. 1997, J W & S
Stine, C. J.: The Neut Human Genetics. W. C. Brown
Strachar, I. & Read, A-P.; Human Moles,tlar Genetics 1999, J W & S
Strickberger: Genetics. 4 e, W. C. Brown Pub, Maxwell Macmillan
Verma, P. S. & Agarwal, Y. K: Cgtologg.S.Chand & Co.
Vijayakumaran Nair, K. & Jayaprakash, M.: Cell Biologg, Genetics, Molecular Biologg
Academica, TVm.
Watson, J. D. et al: Molecular Biologg of the Gene. 4 e, Benjamin Cummings
Weaver, H.: Genetics. 1997, W. C. Brown
\Minchester, A. lvl.: Genetics. 3 e, 1966167, Oxford & IBH
Theory Paper VI
J
ETHOLOGY, EVOLUTION, ZOOGEOGRAPHY, EIiNNRONMENTAL BIOLO GY,
CONSERVATION BIOLOGY and TOXICOLOGY
CODE: ZT-06
(100 hours)
Section A:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
ETHOLOGY
[15 hours]
[Brief accounts of the following topics]
Introduction: history, scope and branches of Etholory [O1 hr]
Innate behaviour: orientation [ta-res and kineses], simple reflexes and insticts;
motivation
[O2 hrs]
Learned behaviour: habituation, conditioned reflex; trial and error learning;
latent learning, imprinting, insight learning; memory and learning [O3 hrs]
Patteras of beharriour: habitat selection, sexual selection, cooperation, territoria-lit:v,
protection, aggression; courtship behaviour and agonistic behaviour [03 hrs]
Biological clocks / rhythms etc: photoperiod, circadiar rhythm;
migration, navigation ald homing instinct;
diapause, hibernation and aestivation
[O2 hrs]
Communication in animals
[01hr]
Social organization in mammals
[o1 hr]
Proximate factors
[o2 hrs]
neurological basis of behaviour; hormonal, biochemical, environmental and genetic
factors that influence behaviour
Section B: EVOLUTION
1. Introduction
[3O hours]
[01 hr]
historical aspects, inorganic and organic evolution
2. Evidences of organic evolution
[O3 hrs]
Morphological, physiological and biochemical, embryological and palaentological
evidences
3. Theories on the mechaaism of evolutioa [O5 hrs]
Lamarck's tJreory and its criticism; Neo Lamarckism
Darwin's theory; natural selection, (mention contributions of A. R. Wallace)
Neo Darwinism; add a note on heritable variations and Weismann's germplasm theory4. Modern concepts of evolutionary forces [O4 hrs]
Genetic basis of variation, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, mutation and evolution,
geneti c drift, punctu ate d e quilibrium, pre- adaptation
5. Nature of evolution
[OS hrs]
Species concept, definition; subdivisions of species
Isolation and isolating mechanism
Speciation: syrnpatric and allopatric
Adaptive radiation and divergent evolution (example: Darwin's frnges)
Convergent evolution
6. The course of evolution
tOS hrsl
by
Urey and Miller, modern ideas;
Origin of life: Oparin's concept, experiments
Geo"logical time scale: simple ctrari wittr significant faunal characteristics
Fossils and fossilization; add a note on living fossils
[07 hrs]
7. Evolution in animal gtouPs
criticism
Simpson's
and
Evoiution of horse: orthogenesis
Evolution of man
Fossil hominids: Prosimians, Hominids; Pongidae, Hominidae, Pavopithacus,
RarnapitJ:ecus, Australopithecus, Pithacanthropus, Nealdarthal man, Cromagnon
man, Modern man
i9
g
Eectioa C: ZOOGEOGRAPHY
[1O hours]
-. 1. Introduction
[o t hr]
History and scope of Zoogeography
2. Zocgeographical realms
[05 hrs]
Divisions according to Wallace, Heilprin, Robinson, Darlinto:r
ivlention the geographical regions includeci in 'Jre followiag zoogeographica-l realms:
[cite examples for endemic and exclusive fauna of each realm; disiuss the
subdivisions and faunal characteristics of the Oriental and Australia:r rea-kns onl.,':
add a note on Wallace line, Weber line and Wallacea)
1. Palearctic region
2. Orienta-l region
3. Ethiopian region
4. Australian ,i
5. Nearctic ,,
6. Neotropica-l
3. Aaimal distribution
[03 hrs]
1] Types of animal distribution: cosmopolitan [universal], discontinuous [disjunctir,'e),
isolated and bipolar
2] Means of anirnal distribution
3l Barriers in animal distribution
4. Insular fauna [brief accounts only-]
[o1 hr]
1] Oceanic islands and theirtharacteristic fauna
2] Continental islands and their characteristic fauna
Section D: EIWIRONMENTAL BIOLOGY [25 hours]
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Introduction
[02 hrs]
Definition, scope, branches of ecolory, ievels of study, individual, population.
community, ecosystem, biosphere, autecolory and synecolory
The environment
[04 hrs]
Limiting factors; Leibig's law of minimum; Shelford's law of tolerance
Changes in the environment caused by mal: anthropogenic stress anci toxic rvastes as
limiting factors in industrial societies, effect on health, effect on comforts ald effect
on ecosystems
Ecosystem Ecology and Energetics
[OS hrs]
Enerry flou' and energetics of ecosystem, solar enerry and photosynthetic and
chemos5rnthetic production, enerry transformations ald enerry transfer, Ia.,r''s of
thermodynamiqs
Productivity of ecosystem: concept of productivity, standing crops, materia-l removed,
kinds of productivity, and rate of production
Biogeochemical cycles: carbon cycle and nitrogen cycle
Population EcologT
[o3 hrs]
growth
patterns, biotic potential, breeding
atkibutes:
natality,
mortality,
Population
indices, age distribution, densily, carrying capacity, charts ald curv'es
lvlinimum viable population, maximum viable area, habitat shrinkage, isoiation
of population, inbreeding depression etc. leading a species to enda-ngered status
Community Ecology
[o3 hrs]
Biotic community: ciefrnition, characteristics and classification. species diversitv,
fluctuations, stratification, succession, ecotone and edge effect
Frcological uiche
[02 hrs]
Definition, t-vpes, signfficance, Gause's principle of competitive exclusioa and
experimental evidences
Habitat Ecology
[06 hrs]
Marine Ecolory: major divisions of marine habitat, their features
Pelagic realm - planktonic and nektonic adaptations
Benthic real.m - littoral and abyssal adaptations
Adaptations of animals of roclgl, sandy and muddy seashores
Wetland Ecolory: major divisions: freshwater ecosystems and estuarine ecosystems;
lentic, lotic and estuarine habitats, their features, fauaal characteristics and
adaptations; RAIvISAR sites in Kerala
Terrestrial ecolory: major terrestrial habitats and their features, adaptations of animal
of forests, grasslands, deserts, caves arrd tundras
E: CONSERVATION BIOLOGY
- 1. Biodiversity
Section
[1O hours)
[O3 hrs]
Plant diversity, animal diversity, crop diversity etc
Indigenous knowledge and biodiversity, Hot spots of biodiversity
Treats to biodiversity: extinction of species. red data book
Conservation of biodiversity: in-situ and ex-situ conservation
Conservation of germplasm, global efforts to harness germplasm. gerie banks, theory
of gene banking preservation, institution of a gene bank, gene balks at global level
2. Global strategy for consenration
[04 hrs]
Brief notes on: Stockholm conference / declaration (1972), Nairobi conference /
declaration, Rio declaration [Earth Summit, 1992], CITES, Biodiversity Convention of
UNCED; Kyoto Agreement lL997l, Johannesburg Conference (2002), World Summit on
Sustainable Development), UNEP ald its major strategies; Patent law-s, protection of
plant varieties and farmer's rights Act [2001], Biodiversity Act2OO2, Seed Bilt 2OOS
3. Conser:yation and Education
[03 hrs]
Environmental information and edu cation
Need for pubiic awareness: formal arrd non-formal education
Environmental ethics
F: TOXICOLOGY
Introductlon
Section
1.
(1O hours)
[O2 hrs]
Types of toxjcants, classifrcation of toxicants, toxicity, letha-l dose and lethal
concentration, mention factors that alfect environmental concentration of toxicants,
Indian law on drugs and poisons [brief accounts only]
2. Toxicity testing
[O2 hrs]
Levels of toxicity; acute, sub acute, chronic; tests for the different levels of toxicity anC
special tests; LCso and LDso [brief accounts only]
3. Toxicants aad public health hazards
[02 hrs]
Toxic chemicals - pesticides, automobile emissions, heavy metals, fertilizers, foocl
additives, xenobiotics, radioactive wastes etc
4. Biotransformation and biological magnification of toxicants [O2 hrs]
5. Biological polsons
[O2 hrs]
Common bacterial poisoning [botulism], toxic mushrooms and aIlatoxin, corrunon
poisonous flowering plants, animal poisons
[Rei Sharma, P. D.: Enuironmental Biotogg and Toicologg Rastogi pubs]
Topics for assignmeat:
1. Limiting factors and Leibig's law of minirnum
2. Shelford's law of tolerance and combined concept of limiting factors
3. People's movements for environmental consenzation in India
+. Ecological factors of the environment: abiotic factors:- essential elements and limiting
factors; B?es of abiotic factors: temperature, light, pressure, soil, 'water,
humidity, air and other topographic factors
5. Bictic components: producers, consumers, decomposers, and tralsformers, role of
scavengers
6. Interspecific and intraspecilic biotic factors and their associations
[mutualism, commensali56.5, parasitism, predation, ald symbiosis]
7. Dating of fossils
B. Surv'ey of animal poisons
41
o
ir.jjif ii:!(-Liil U.tti
Fci Ethr-,log' & E;oiuiion
Aicock, ,J.: Animal Behauiour. G e, Sinauer Associates
r\ncire'*-s. i';i. I. & Jo-n K. ?.: Ecclogg, Euoiutior, & Zcogeog;'aph!. S NI Bool< Depot Clia-n3aaas::eAvise: fuIc|ec,tlar Markers, Natural rlisiory and. Euolutior. -ct
& FIa,l
"p*an
Boulenger, E. G. Anirnal Behauiouxlgg4, Atlaxtic pub & Disiributors
Darwin, i).: The Oigin of.Species.6 e, OUp
Desmond. Ivlorris,
g,ride), Crou,:r pub Co, Lond.on
Dobzha:rsl1v, Th.:
ecies. 1951, Columbia Ut}. press
Dobzha:is11v, Th.
Delhi
Dugatkin. L. A.: Prinapies of Animal Behauiour.2oo4, w w Nortan & co., N yi
London
Eldredge, N.: Time Frames. The Rethir"king of Danuinian Euolution and. th.e
Theory oJ'
Punctuated Equilibria 19 83
Frrtuyama, D. J . : Euolutionary Biologg. Sinauer ;\ssociates
Jain, P' C' & Ananthararnan' IvI. S.: Palaeontologg, Euolution qnd. Animai d.istribution rrisi:ai
Jones, S.. ivlartin' R. & Pilbeam, D: The cambnije Encgcloped.ia o,rHuman Euoiution
King, i\I.: $pecies Euolutiorc The role cf chromosr*a
cup
Lull, R-. s.: organic Euolution.l957 IvIc millan/ Light &"rrlurrge.
ure puts
fuIarrel, D. J.: Euoluiion and Genetics Holt Rinehart & wirr"to.
ivla;rning, A. & Dawkjns: Animal Behauiour. CUp LpE
/
Prakash, Nl. et al: Recent Aciuances in Animat behauiour. rgg4,7 vols,
Anmol
Reena lv{athur.:
stogi & Co, Ivleerut
Simpson, G. G.:
1967, C,xford & IBH
Smith, J. I\,{.: Eu
Up
Strickberger, M. I.: EuolutiorL 1995. CUp
Strickberger, M. W.: Euolutian.Jones & Bartett, Boston
Vijayakumaran Nair, K. et aL: EnuironmentatBiotogg, Ethologg, EuolutionAcadernica.
Tvm.
For' Zoogeoqraphv
Andr
Darli
Jain'
Intro
The
. S.:
uolution and. Zoogeographg.st. Ma:-_v,,s pi_ess
Distibution oyahiiati. l"SZ 1,AZ
ogg, Euolution and. Animal d.istibutionVishaJ
Rastogi & Jayaraj: Animal Ecotogg and Distribuiiin oyeniials
K Nath & R Nath
it-d, s. K.: Zoogeographg of India and south EastAsia.cBS pubs, Nerv
Wadia, D, N.: Geologg of India.197g, TMH
Derhi
A garrval, K. c. : Enuiro nment ar Eio [email protected]',
er
Agrawal, K. C.: Biodiuersity.1999, Agro
.{nanthal<rishnan, T. N. & virvanathan: Generar Animar Ecorogg
Anonyznous: Conseruation of Biological Diuersitg in Ind.ia an epprou
cn. 1994, ilIinistr-v of
Enlt & Forests, Govt. of Ind.ia
Ashutosh Gautam: coseruation and. Management of AEtaticResourses
Day-a pubg
Balacha-ndran Thampi, K. et aL Tle NatuiatResorrsrs oyx.riti.
t;;,-!\dl/F-for Nature
B
B
C
pubg pvt Ltd. Allahabad
nt, Daya pubg House, N D
Science. 1993, DeL:aar Publrs. Inc
Chapman & Reiss: Ecologg.l9g3, CUp
Chatterjee, B.: Enuironmertial Laug Implementation Froblems. Deep & Deep F.rbns
cloud, P. E.: Resourses and fuIan. 1969, w. H. Freeman & co, San Fra,iigco
Cunnin
ronmental Science. 2002, TMH
Cunnin
Jaico Pubg House, Nlumbaj,
Cutter:
De, A. K.: Enuironmental Chemistry4 e, Wiley
Deepender Basu: Enuironment and. Ecologg, the
":3"*
Globat challerge.lggs, prinfwell
-
Dev, S. C.: Enuironmental ilIanaEement 20a3, iajco Fub, i{ew Delhi
G. S. & Singh, B.: Pesticides andEnuironment.2ooo, Comrnonrveaith Pubs.
-hali'wa.1,
Enger, E. D. & Smith, B. E.: Enuironmental Sctence 20A4,lvl G H
Gopal, B.: Hand Book of Wetland ManagemenL 1995, wWF h:dia, Ner.r Delhi
Hanvkins, R. E.: Encgclopedia of Indian liatural History 2OO)., BNHS/ OUP
He1"wood, V. H. & Watson, R. T.: Global Biodiuersiig Assessment 1995, CUP
Jadhav, H. & Bhosale, V. M.: Enuironmental Protection and Lans. 1995, Hima-la-va
li
-,
Kato, M.: The Biologg of Biodiuersity. Springer-Veriag
Kendigh: Ecology utith special reference to Animals and Mq.n
Kumar, A.: Tert Book of Enuironmental Science 2OO4, APH Publng Co. N D
Kumar, R.: Enuirortmental Pollution and Health Hazards in india. Agro
Kumar, u.: Biodiuersitg Pinciples and Conseroqtion 1999, Agro
Kuriar J. & Nagendran, R.: Essentials of Enuironmentat Studies 1 e, 2OO3, Pearscn Edn
Lohithakshan, M. K.: Paistltithi Nigamangat I e, 2OO2, State Institute of Languages, Kerala
IvIcKinny, lvl.L.&Schoch,R. lvl.: Enuironmentalscienc*systemsandsoltrtions. 1=Q97.webEEdn
lvliller, T. G. Jr.: Enaronmental Science Wordsworth Publishing Co
IVlukherjee, B.: Enuironmenta"l Biologg. 1996, TIVIH
Odum E. P.: Fundamentals of Ecologg.1971, W B Saunders Co
Perry, A. S. et al: Insecticides inAgianlture and Enuironment.lgg8, Narosa
Purohit, S. S.: Ecclogg, Enuironment and Pollution 2003, Agro
STEC
Pushpangadan, P. & Nair, K. S. S.: Biodiuersitg and.TropicalForesis-The Kerala Scinario'1997'
Bikanir
Bios,
Agro
Rao, V. fl A Reaay, R. S.: Enuironmental Education
Sanira, S. C-: Environmental Science 2001, New Central Book Agencies
Sharma, B. K.: Dnuironmental chemistry 2007, Goel F..ibg House, Meerut
Sharma, P. D.: Ecologg and. Enuironment. T e,2OO2''03, Rastogi
Co
Singh, fi. g. A Misral-S.: EnuironmentalLatu inlndia 1996, Concept hrb
existence on
human
of
secret
the
and
life
of
library
the
Globat'Biodiuersitg,
Sinf,a, R. K.:
earth. 1996,INA Shree Pub, JaiPur
sa
sodhi, G. s. : Fund"amental concepts o7 Enuironmental chemistry. 2OO2, Naro
PriI
Stiling, P.: Ecologg - theory and practice 4 e,2OO2, (EEE'),
The Hindu: SurueE of the Enuironment. [All yearly issues]
The Witdttfe Protection Act- 1972 Na1tral Pub, Dehra Dun.
Tikadar, g. r., Tlreatened Animals of India ZSI Publication, calcutta
To,,vnsend, C. et al: -Bssentials of Ecologg' Black WelI Science
Trivedi, P. R. : GIob al biodiuersitg- 2OOO, Authors Press
and Standards 2
Trivedy, R. K.: HB of Enuironmental Laws, Acts, Guidelineg Compliances
vols, 1996, Enviro Media, Karad
ologt Hazards and the Thirc
var:dana shiva: Monoanltures of the Mind, Biodiversity, Biotechn
World. 1993, Third World Network, Penang, Malaysia
Saunders & Co
Wagner, K. D.: Enuironmetal
Wilson, E. O. & Peter, F. M.:
llege Edn' W W Nlorthern & Co
Wilson, L O.: Biodiuersitg, th
f,a
I'hearr-y P=per
VII
ELECTiVE SU=JECTS
CODE: ZT-tJ7
(10C hours)
A:a
Institution can choose any one of the f,oilowing ite-rs:
i.
Agricultural Entomolog,'and pest Control
iI. Pathologr and Clinicai Laboratory Techniqr,res
Iil Aquaculture and Fishery Biolory
I1,I. Hurnan Genetics and Gener.ic Counselling
V. Poultry Science, Animal Husbandrv ancl Dairy Scienc,:
VI. Apiculture anci Sericulture
VII. Wildlife: Biolory, Conserv'aiion and IVlanagement
ViiI. BiotechnologyI. AGRICULTURAL EN?oMoLocY AND pEs?
coritrRol
[1oo hol.-st
1. lntroduction to Entomclogy
[1O hrs]
Ciassification of ciass Insecta Co*rr to orders: general organization oiinsects
2. Insect pests
[SO hrs]
Definition of pests, kinds of pests, causes of pest outbreali
Biolory, nature of damage caused by' and control measures of the follow-irrg pes'.s:
A. Pests ofpaddy:
iil Spodoptera mauiiia (rice swarming caterpiliar)
!21 Tryporyza incertulcs (paddy stem borer)
l3l Leptocoiza acuta(rice bug)
i+l Ngmphula depunctalis (paddy case 'ryorm)
1al Nilaparuatha lugens (brown hooper)
l.o) Dicledispa armigera(nce hispa) [very brief account only]
B. Pests ofcocoaui:
ii) Oryctes rhinoceros (rhinoceros, beetle)
. [2] Rhgnchophorus ferntgineus (red palm weevil)
13) o pisina are no silla (= N ephantis s einop a) (black- heacied c at erp ill a-r)
lll Leucopholis coneophora [root grub]
i5j Aceia gueirornis [coconut mire]
C. Pests of sugar calte:
lL) Chilo infuscatellus (sugar cane shoot borer)
t21 Scirpoghaga niue,,la (sugar caile top shoot borer)
[3] Saccfuanococcus sacchai [cane meallr bug] [very brief account only]
D. Pests of plantation crops:
al Pest of coffee: [very brief account oniy]
lll Xglotrechus quadipes (coffee r.hite stem borer)
[2) Coccus uiuids (coffee green scale or bug)
b) Pests oftea:
lll Helopeltis antonii(tea mosquito bug)
[2) Toxoptera aurantii(tea aphid)
c) Pests of rubber: [very brief account oniy]
ll) Aspidiotus destrucfer (scale insect)
l2l Cosmocitis pieia(bark carerpiilar)
d) Pest ofpepper:
lil Longitarsus'nigipennis (pollu beetle of pepper)
l2l Lapsgresia hemidoxc, (shoot borer)
e) Pests of cardamom:: [very brief accor:nt only]
ll) Sciothrips cd.rdamomi (cardarnom thrips)
12) Eupteroie cQrdamoml (cardamc:n hairy caterpilla-r)
t..llests of fru.ii plaets:
a)
Banana: [1) Cosmopolites
12\
b)
P entc.lonia
ilIango: tI)
.
sordidir-"(b
nigroneruo
s
sparsus (mango hcpper)
[fruit fly]
12)
border)
[S) Batocere rufomaanlata (mango stem
i+1 Sternochaetus rnangifera (mango
c)
rveevii)
d
cashew: i{ etocaeaents ferntginaus
nut weevil)
(casherv- stem border)
t2) Helopeltis anionii(tea mosquito bug)
F. Pests of vegetables: [very brief account only]
a] Lady's frnger:
tU Platgedra gossgpiella[pink ball w-orm]
rvorm]
12) Eaias uitella[spotted ball
bl Brinjal:
t1l Leucinodes orbonalis [fruit borer]
l2j Epila chn a u i g i ntio ct o punct at alsp o tte d b e e tl e l
c]- .Dumkin:
t1l Raphidopalpa foueicollis [reci beetle]
l2i knnaspis te-mporaiti[scale insect]
dl Chi1ly:
lll Bemisia tabacr[white flY] thrips]
12) Scirothips dorsalis [chilly
e] Pulses:
Ctauigrella horrens lgram pod bug]
l2l Etietla zinckenella[pod borer]
fl Snake gourd:
looper]
tll Plusia peponis [leaf semi
fly]
aliatus
[fruit
l2l Dacus
tll
[OS hrs]
following Pests
zaQ (nce weevii)
e
etle)
n border)
beetle)
eetle)
(b) Goat
(c)
/ sheep: (Ll Bouicola c
Cattle:
(d) Cats
5. Insect
Basic
e of attack and controll [OS hrs]
r amineus (chicken lou se)
(shaft louse)
eat louse)
/ dogs:
(2) Oestnts o
lt) Hippobosca
maa'
(3) Tabanus striatus (horse flY)
Ctenocephalides species
Chem
insecticides, insecticides of plant c
of insecticide resistance; resurgen
'
ouse fly)
(2) Hgpoderma lineata(ox warble fly)
nt
Biolo
mention anY three imPortant biol
against insect P€sts of major croP
,
(L
-li
/7
brief accotrnt of autocida,j cc;li-1c1. pLrerol-lonai
contrci a:rti micl.rl::i-i c-,ri-rci
(e:nplayrl1 bacteria, vii-uses arrci iiir.,gi)
-ft:.tegratei
pest Di ana.gement (ipfuI)
6. Useful islsects
apicul
s sc
ciescription of the ijiiierent species oi iipi.s
api
cial
ion _ rrr-_orkers, dro;rer; a:rd clue .:,r; iheir
morphologi Lurerences; stmctural adaptations cf hcrner
Honey bee:
used in
beel - mouth paris.
pollen basket, sting, wa_x-gianci;
Bee products: honev. beer
icai compos;.Ion of hoi:r-,,_
,jilk_worms: different
mo.iz {rnulberi--',
siik worm), phl
-.,^u:::?r*
ntiie|aee
papl'ia [tassar siil-<r.voiia); chemjcal co
sericulture [brief.account] and e;<traction
of siik: econcrnic importir.ncc of sijl-..
lvlurberry prantations - moricurnrre
[bnef ,""""",,|
e and moricuituie as coti;;; #dustries
in Kerara
Lac rn
scope of lac-culture; lac ;"iil;", culti..,ation
of hcst pla-nts
, propagation of lac and uses of lac
Tcpics for semiaars/ assignmeats/ d,iscussions:
1. Bioiogr of majcr insect vectors
of human diseases:
edes, Glossina, Xenopsglla, Cimex, pediculus, ptiterus
insect vectors:
llow fever, dengue, African sleeping sickness,
plague,
er
REFERDNCES
Ma_irjusha pubns, Calicu;
pub.,
SBS
,
Bangalore
ureVols- I, II & III, CBS
1 e, 2OO3,
uronment 2000, Commoewealth pubs, N D
ine of Entomology. 2 e, 2COO, Blacl<_*-ell Sciei:c
tiddes, 1990. VCH Weinhein
er press, porfland
ve! Itloaes of Action 1999, Narcsa
Revolution i 997. Elsevier
sects. USDAi TtnH l9T3
gyTMti
KeralaandtheirconircL 3 e, i9g9, pubn
Drr:,
Enuironment. 199 g, N.aro sa
gg.1969, rCAR
ic EntomologA
-for Souilt Ind.ia.l963 lvlaclras
cfices 2001, Agro
. HimaJa.va
agement 2O03, Agro
p
rr
,i. r
.$:f!,"UEi;
'
[-LOO
:ic'urrl
[05 hrs]
clinica-l, conlparative and
patholcry:
celluiar,
to
a brief introduction
Bra:rches of
surgical patholory
Histopa'rholoryi" url"rtescription of various steps in the preparation- of slides fcr
rcutinJhistopathologi6al examinal on- fixation, dehydratior:, clearin g,
decalcificatiorr, i-prJgnation, embedding, section cutting, n:icrotonle, adhesio.,
staining,
- mounting etc' mention cryostat'I35 hrsl
2.lltae
ory
[01hr]
al
[04 hrsl
bl
ncapillaryarrdvenousbloodsampies:anticoagulants,EDTA
[05 hrs]
c] Differentia-l white cell count
preparation and examination of thin, thitk and wet blood films; Leishma:r's
fielcisandSimeon'sstains;countingmethods'normalvalues
[03 hrsl
dl Total
1.
liath.olory
, methods a:rd cal'culations
el
[04 hrs]
Absol
sol blue, Erythrocytes Sedimentation Rate:
factors affecting ESR, normal va]ues,
[Westgran's arrd Wintrobes methods];
variations, importance and limitations
macro method's; normal values [01 hrl
fl Packed cell volume: liaematocrit; micro and' hrs]
[02
gl Haemoglobin estimation
Sahli's haemoglobinometer (acid-haematin method)'
Colorimetri".',"thod"(cyanmethmethod),clinicalimportance
Haemoglobin- disord"r" - anaemia, leukaemia [06 hrs]
Abnormal
h]
il Blood
s; Rh blood,
and donor
jl
screerring
Haeroostasis and coagulation
[04 hrs]
--
Coagulationfactors,cascadetheory,uleedingtime,clottingtimeand
Prothrombin time, p artiaf thromboplastin time
[25 hrs]
3. Cllnical Biochemistry
emistrY
al Aim
bl Bloo
D/POD), fasting random
glucose
ald postPrandial blood su
ase method [02 hrs]
cl Blood urea estimutlo"t diacetyl monozi
d] Liver functi
cresol
Seru
EnzYmes: SGOT, SGPT Serum creatinine: Ja-ffe re
e]Cholesterol:normalvalues,.nnlmatlcmethod-CHOD/PAPmethod[o2hrs]
f] EnzYmes
AmYlase, SGOT, SGPT Acid phosplatase, aikali
gl PrinciPles and basic methods o
4. Diagnostic serology
^ -*1^;r;
f"sts for the serodiagnosis of syphili
Rheumatoid factor, alti- streptolysin
tic kits [02 hrs]
(Vida1),
t*hoid
.ur"*;",ic
"i
'itr
4
lz/'i 2 'l:r-ei
}ilcr';,i,iclci1;r
al Liiltoq; and scope cf iviicrcbiolcg,[02 irrsJ
b] SrieLy ar:rd perscni.-1. car-e
[Lt2 iirs]
r:1 ti t,-, riiizati or: a:r C cl.i.. inir:ction - aoi air ovc'n. au-i:-,rlavc, inspirar::,;:. ,f:llers .:i:c
Principles of riisinfection
[04 ]rrs]
cii Washing, cleaning a:rcl steriiizatiorr cigiar,-:st;are [:iew and useill [() j. i-rrj
e] Culture raeciia
I0.I Lrrs]
Basic constituents and uses. preparatiorr and pFI ad.justrDen:s'cf r:on.inon.i..'
usect me,lia - peptone, nutriel:i br-o*Jr. nuiri: r',. agar, biood a.gar
(iO ltrre)
o. U:-'"ne ar:alySis
a.l Cr:inposition of urine
[t-t L hr]
b.i Ccileciion and presera,'ati.on of un'ae sarrpies [C1 hr]
c] maiy-eis of ui-ine for proteins, bile salts, biie pigmr:nts, ketor:e t,crties a,r,til r,-',iuc:l-rg
substa;rce-c
[C.1 hrs]
dl Microscopic exa-rnina-tion for pus cells, epitheiial ceiis, RBCs, c,-:.sts, bacicri:'. cr'.-:it:r1s.
organised amd unorga:riseC sedirirenis [C4 hrsl
(OE hrs)
7. Ge.ier'.,-,l te,:}:niqurs
a] Sputu;'n e:<amination: AFB, Graro's stajn
b] Morion rnicrosccpic examination fcr parasites, ova ancL occuh blooci
l ;
d.
r,r }.-li
c] Pregna:rcy'Lests
Topics f+r sesninars/ assignmeats/ discussions:
1. Composidon cf blood; normal and abnormal blood cel1s
2. lvlorpnciogr, fi-..nction and reactions of erythrocytes, laukocyLes, plateiets, precu-ioors
ald maturation; normal and abnormal haemoglobin
3. /r.naemia [drlferent t543es including sickie cell -] and leuiiaemia [different t;y-pes]
4. Thalassemier., haemophilia and other clot'.ing disorCers
5. Biood safety, llaticnal blood policy, blood banks
5. Elernenta-ry knowledge of analyticat chemistry instrurnentatioa; centrifuge,
ba1.ances, water-bath, coloimeters, spectrophotcmeter
7. Solution preparaticn: indicators, molar solutions, bufter sol,rtions, single, ciouble
and triple distilled lvater
REFERENCES
Blshop, L. M. et.al: Clinica! Chemistry Lippincott, New York
Biswas, S.: Essentials of Pathologl1. Central Puhl.ishers
Carna:r, R.. H.: Flandbook of tuledical I'aboratory Technologg. C.MAI Pub[caticn
Chatterjee, ltl. N. & Shinde, R.: TB of liedico-lBio'chem"isfry. Jaypee, Nev-,' Delhi
Cotrarr, et aL: Robins Pathologicai Basis o/Disenses 6 e, Saunders / Harcor:rt India
Delvia, T. IiI.: TB of Biochem-i-stry utith ctinicai correlqtion 2oo2,5 e, .I W Liss
GoCkar, P. B.: TB of Lledicat Laboratory Techn-ologg. 2 e, Bhala'li Pubs
Rorvley: Fathological Basis ot'Diseases 6 e, Jones & Barkett
:.
ii.
4!l uid$r..ag$;:I-41{.Lsl
rff EBY-I'41{}{x1 [
I
cG
h
aurs, i
Inlrc,C:-,.-Eion
[C2 i:rs]
Aquaculturc a,rci its scope in inclia- arrC Keteila: e:<ilort pctr:ntiai
2. Jg^.;rriculture of rn:,i!iil.., r;igaals:ms
[25 hrs]
pra'"vns [L0 hri']
va-rieties
of
culture
Lriportant
a] Fra'wn culture:
Paddy cum pra\,l,-n culture, [pokali tarms], breeding metiro,ls a-r:d spal'"ring of
prarvns, ccnti'.;lled breeCing, induced maturation, eye stail< ablation, corrlmon
species, and rnethods oi culture; freezing, cu:-ing, cariui':rg and export
Perna indica'and Perna uiidis [0r. hrs]
b] Mussel
' Seedculture:
collec"Jorr, artific"al production of seecl, inciuced spar'.'ning aad rearirrg, rafr
clrlture, harves ;ing and mar-ke iing
cl Pearl cuLture: pearl producing oysters: Pinctao.aand Tidachrzo. [04 hrs]
P:eparaticn of nuclei, host implantation anri rearing, cage culture, types ol
pearls, induced breeding in pearl oyster
t02 hrsl
d.l SacreC chank:
Turbinella pArum - biolory, hsheries and uses
[03 hrs]
el Cephalopod frshery:
octopus; fishing methods, metlods of
and
Lotigo
Ed.ible species: sepia,
preservation - freezing, canning anri export
f] Ed.ible seaweeds: biolory, utility and sea weed culttrre [02 hrs]
(4O hrs)
3. Pisciculture
a] Egg collection, induced sparrring, nursery ponds, manuing, feeding and hral-\ristillg
cryopresen,ation of frsh germplasm, senien bar:l< and itreservation media [6hrs]
bl' Biologr and culture of indian majcr ca-rps [07 hrs]
Cotto catla, Labeo rohita, L. calbasu, L. fimbiattts, Cirrhina migala, C' cirrlrcsc'
c]' Biolory and culture of exotic carp [C5 hrs]
ngpophthatmichthgs molitrix, ctenophargngodonidelia", cgprinis carpicl
dl Erackish water fish farming
[05 hrs]
Etroplus, Chctnos clanos, Laiis calcalifer, Mugil cephalus, M. oararrd other sPo
[02 hrs]
e] Cold rvater fishes and fisheries
Hill stream fauna, effects of dams, fish sanctuary
fl' Inland fishes
[C5 hrs]
opttiocephalus [=chnnna], Heterop '.eustes, claius, Anabag forage fishes in
rnurrel culture
gl Inland frsheries
[04 hrsl
of
servage [after treatrrrent] in Iish culture
padd.1,
utilization
fields,
Rivers,
fisher-ies
ivlarine
hl'Bioloryanclfisheryasp'jctsofsar'ne,mackerel,sole'ribbonfishes'Bombal'
[06 hrs]
1.
duck, pomfrets, Tuno., Cgbiurr', sharks
(O2 hrs)
4. Plankton and fisherT production
(iO hrs)
5. Crafls and gears
I:rta-;:earan, dugout calloes, other traclitional fishing crafts of Inciia, mechalicaL
fishing, trawlin[, gillnets, clrift gillnet, traos, seining, purse seines' harpccn'
sona-rs'
traditiona-l devifes-like Chinese dip nets, modern methods like echo sounclers'
remote sensing etc.
[O8 hrs)
6. Fish spoilage and Presewatioa
dehydraiior:'
of
Biochemical changes, spoilage bacteria, use ice, freezing, canning,
salting, smoi<ing etc.
(O8 hrs)
7. Fish utilization
frsh meal, fish flour, isinglass, giue'
oil,
body
oil,
Nutritive value, byepr'oducts, iiver
skin, fin-soup, Iime, chitin, chitosan etc'
(04 hrs)
B. Diseases and parasites of fishes
(oJ. hr)
coasts
Kerala
9. Mud banks of
lt
,
l;=i:ai:t.t;'s/ :?*:,:*n!ile.ilt::.j n:i:l:;,:::silr::s;
a,rt.", ;-;ic;!a'{,cei fLcicr,; ii-. i:rc.u::.,-j.; ,'j.i1 r:'Lririiii,.1i.r a,-::- !:ir::
ir:_-r_1.: :rcis on E-i,ju acuiiurc
-,1 Piri'sic:d factors: rcmperatriie, iigtrt, saliriq,., i:"li-"n;s, 1i.ra.re:; :rrd- iidcs
J. Chc.rnicai factcrs: o:{""gen, r:albon Cio;<rc1e eu.rr-i
Sace elerneris (i'.,In, Zn, Cr-i, Cc, e''c.) ancl ot.-iel F,cllilt.?.ilt'
4. Bioic;=.ical faciors: ph."-topianktoit, zt:opiamktoil, ,r:;irasi.ics,, precatt-.is ':r-,::.
5 Construction a:ri maintenaj:lce of poncls ibr riquacultrrrc
'i,..;.r,:+s ::i,).f
'-
I i:'oi; r;f pii-,-s;caL, ,;,:reitticej.
I,1EF3E;.liiCES
Alikunhi. K. lt,I.: FisLt Culture in India KAU/i ICAii
Cuttrng, C. L,: Fish Processing and Preseruation.2DO2, Agro
Day, F.: 'fhe Fishes of lttdi.tt. Vois I & il, i971, Toda5r & Tomorro'v Book Agenc-v*
-Ihingran, V. C.: Fish and Fisheies cf Inclia Hiiicius+"a:r P"rb Corpn
i{uria.r,, a. V. & Sebasrian, C. Y.: Pratun and Prawn Fistrcies oi inCia Fiindustan Pubn
Corpo;ation of india
lvlenon, a. Ivl.: Malsgakishi State Inst. cf Languages, T'rm
Pillaj, T. P.: Aq.|aculture Pinciples an"d Practices of Fishing Neq' Books
Rajendra Kumar NatJ:, R.: Preshruater Aquaa;lture Scientiilc Pubs, Jodapur
Sa:aue!., C.'1.; Maine Fisheies in india Cochin Universily
Sha-rnmi, Q.: Applied Fisheies.2OO2, Ag:o Bios
Sinu, V. lL. F. &', Ramachandran, V.: Freshraater Fish atlture ICAR
Srivastava, C. B. L.: Fishery Science and Indian- Fisheies 2 e, 2OO2,Idtab Nlahal, Allal:abacl
Winton, ;\. L.: Fish and Fish products.2C0O, Agro
t,)
w. HUMAN GENETICS
AND GENETIC COUNSELLING (1oO hours)
1. Introduction: scope and significance
[Ol hr]
2. History and nomenclature of human chromosomes: [03 hrs]
Various international. conferences and their contributions: Denver Conference (1940),
Chicago Conference (1960), Paris Conference (t971), Stockholm Conference (tg77),
Give emphasis on Stockholm Conference
3. Identification of human chromosomes (lO hrs)
a) characteristics of human chromosomes by non-banding techniques:
A to G groups, various banding techniques such as G- banding,
Q -banding, R -banding, C- banding, y -barrding and NOR, FIS-CH
b) Designating structural chromosomal abnormalities by breakage points, band
compositions, deletions, tralslocation, inversion, ring chromosomes,
isochromosomes, chromosome fragments, chromosomal polymorphism a-nd
satellites
c) Use of sister chromatids
4. Human
pedigrees
[1S hrs)
a) Pedigree construction: data collectign, analysis and pedigree charts of autosomal
dominant, autosomal recessive, X-linked dominant and .ecessive genes
b) Autosomal abnormalities:
Down's s5mdrome, Edward's S5mdrome, patau's S5mdrome, cri-du-chat
syndrome
c) Sex chromosomal abnormalities
Tfirner's s5mdrome, Klinefelter's s;mdrome, multiple
Add a note on Barr bodies and Lyon,s h54pothesis
x
(47
xxy), Xyy males,
d) Autosomal dominant inheritance
Familial h5lpercholesterolemia; metabolic and genetic control of cholesterol,
brachydactyly (short fingers), myotonic dystrophy, d.imples, free an{ attached
ear lobes, interlocking of filgers
e) Austomal recessive inheritance
Cystic fibrosis; CF gene and protein, detention of CF homozygotes and carriers
(brief), hereditary microcephaly, sickle cell anaemia, phenylkEtonuria,
alkaptonuria,
albinism, thalassemia, galactosemia
_
f) X-linked recessive inheritance
Duchene's muscular dystrophy; identilication of the DMD gene, carriers a1d.
hemizygotes (brief), multiple sclerosis, colour blindness, haemophilia
g) Other methods of inheritance
X- linked dominant inheritance - hypophosphatemia, Y- linked genes (brief),
Mitochondrial genes
h) Multifactorial inheritance
Congenital heart diseases, diabetes, club foot, cleft lip, Alzheimer's disease,
schizophrenia, intelligence, stature, blood pressure, refractive index of the eye,
dermatoglyphic ridge count
5. Reproduction aad development
(Og hrs)
a) Prenatal development: genes and hormones
b) Errors in sexual development
Defects of androgen target cells - deficiency of 5 alpha reductase, congenital
adrenal hyperplasia, arrd sex reversal
c) Genetics of embryonic development
Maternal effect ge es, consarlguineous marriages, and effects of inbreeding in
isolates, segmentation and pattern formation genes, adhesion of molecules and
genes; programmed cell death (apoptosis) and suicide genes
d) Genetic imprinting (brief account); irnprinting and human disorders
6. I\rtns in the study of Genetics
' Biolory of twinning analysis of twin,s data (OZ frtsl
-
51
,- r-
-'. - ,J:--r'-.i-;,- :: .-:i ,, : , --i-
r:..-_.-i
. l+-.:...,,J
(
7. Behavioural traits
'
;:.i,::...,.", ...;,. ir,.\...i-,:,..:-*..i,. i:- ._.,_.r .;.-
r-.,
.,,_
i.l:
::
[O3 hrs]
a) Genetic component to human behaviour: Intelligence
b) Personality (brief)
c) Alcoholism (brief)
- lQ and its heritabilitr,-
dl Mental disorders [brief]
8. Gene mapping and gene sequencing
(O4 hrs)
The concept of recombination, crossing over, signihcarlce of gene mapping, human
genome proJect: components, scope and ethical issues
9. Chromosomal nou-disjuuction
(0S hrs)
a) Mistakes in cell division (mitosis and meiosis)
b) Non- disjunction of autosomes
c) Non- disjunction of sex chromosomes
d) Mosaics
10. Chromosomal abuora,alities
(1O hrs)
Deletion, duplication, translocation, inversion, ring chromosomes, fragile Xchromosome, other une,xpected variations in gene structure and function
Myotonic muscular dystrophy, Huntington disease, abortion, stillbirths, neonata-l
deaths
Aneuploidy in man: XO, XXY, XXXY, XYY, Down's sSmdrome, Trisomy 13, Trisomy 18
11. Inborn errors of metabolism
(OS hrs)
a) The concept of inherited metabolic diseases, detection of metabolic diseases in
newborn
b) Tay Sach's disease
in phenyl a-lanine metabolism
d) Lesch-Nyhan syndrome
e) Pharmacogenetics and ecogenetics
c) Disorders
12.
Immunogenetics
(O4 hrs)
Structure and diversity of antibodies, red cell antigens and tralsfusion, tissue and
organ transplantation, imrnune system and diseases - HLA antigenic typing, Major
Histocompatibility Complex (MHC), monoclonal antibodies, autoimmune diseases
13. EVolutioaary geaetics
(O4 hrs)
Human genetic diversity, average mutation rate in human genes, human races,
human variability message from mitochondrial DNA
14. Genetic couaselling
(O7 hrs)
Procedure and ethical concerns, history of genetic counselling, methods of genetic
counselling, marriage counseling, directive and non-directive counselling, reasons for
seeking counselling, psychodynamics of genetic counselling
15. Gene therapy
(O7 hrs)
History of gene therapy, Orpes of gene tJ:erapy, germ lile, zygote, somatic cell gene
therapy, genetic diseases that are treatable, future of gene therapy, screening, early
detection of genetic disorders, screening for heterozygotes, various problems and
issues associated with gene therapy and ethical aspects
16. Genetics and the society
(O2 hrs)
Eugenics, Euthenics and Euphenics
17. Genetic senrices
(O5 hrs)
Prenatal diagnoses: [various met]rodsl amniocentesis, chorionic villi sampling,
foetoscopy, ultra sound sonography, succal test
Prenatal sexing, Iegislation, test tube babies, karyotyping, use of computersKaryosoft software, DNA finger printing and its applications
18. DNA ia the laboratory
(O5 hrs)
Polymerase chain reaction; cloning human DNA; electrophoresis, DNA hnger printing,
their applications, road maps of the human genome, disputed parentage and DNA
f
kprpnsncps
t7 Maxwell Mcmillan
Burns, G. W. & Bottino, P. J.: The science of Genetics'.6
-e'
Ho1ts9
Publg
principtes
Euresia
olhr^on Genetics.1960,
Curt Stein:
Delhi
New
Liv''
Chur
I'
B'
2
e,2OOO,
Gangane, S. D.: nu.^ai GeneticsS
W
&
8
e,
J
Genetics.
of
Gardner et aL Principles
Foundation March
IBRAD Nomenclatul., Biin Defects. Original Article Series - The National
of Dines
Publishers
Mange, E. J & Mange A. P.: Basic Human Genetics lggg, Rastogi
Mc Kusick, V. A.: Human Genetics. PHI
Morton, N. E.: o.tttnes of GeneticEpidemiolo
Muller, R. F. & Young,
Ricki, L.: HumanGene
Schaumann, B. & Milt
Snustad, D. P., Simons, M. J. & Jenkins, J'
Stine, C. J.; The Neut Human Genetics W C Brown
Strickberger: Genetics.4 e, W. C. Brown Pub, Maxwell Macmillan
Cummings
Watson, J. D. et at: Moleanlar Biologg of tlte Gene' 4 e' Benjamin
Weaver, H.: Genetics- L997, W C Brown
Winchester, M. M.: Genetics. Oxford & IBH, New Delhi
.
53
. V. POULTRY SCIENCE. AI{IMAL HUSBANDRY and DAIRY SCIENCE
3'
Section A: POULTRY SCIENCE
1. Introduction
[1OO
hours]
(4O hours)
[o2 hrs)
Importance of egg production, table bird production, nutritive value of eggs, difference
between yellow and pale yellow yolk, manure as a bye product
2. Breeds of fowl
[O7 hrs)
a) Exotic breeds
[05 hrs]
Rhode Island red, Plymouth Rock, New Hampshire, Wyandotte, Shanghai fowl,
Lang Shan, Sussex, Orpington, Australop, Cornish, Leghorn, Minorca, Ancona
b) Indigenous breeds: Aseel, Chittagong, Galtgus, Brahma [02 hrs]
3. Poultry housing
[05 hrs)
Design a1d construction - housing requirements, poultrlr house equipments and their
design, Indian standards; effect of light, temperature and hurnidity on performancereducing thermal stress in poultry houses
4. Breeding of poultry
[1O hrs)
Economic traits, their relationship in breeding, breeding systems for improving
production, meat production, artificial insemination, chick sexing
Breeding for egg production: pedigree, appearance, moulting, pigmentation, egg
cycles, breedingness and other characteristics of good layers
Breeding for meat production: growth rate/ food conversion rate, body proportions,
flishing on breasts and thighs and other characteristics of broiler chicks
systems
Mating
5.
[O2 hrs)
Inbreed.ing, outcross and cross breeding, mating methods, advaltages of cross
breeding
6. Rearing
[O7 hrs)
Seleclon of eggs: hatching and incubation, natural and artifrcial incubation, brooding
and factors involved in care of new born; sexing of ctricks, vaccination
poultry house - free-range system, semi intensive system (deep litter system and
individual cage sYstem)
Equipment for feeding - nutrients for starting, growing and laying hens
Co-mmon poultry feeds, food rations and feed formulation
7. Coomon diseases of fowls
[OS hrs)
pu1lorum, fowl pox], toxicosis,
disease,
protozoan
viral
and
Bacterial,
[ranikhet
and arthropods [two each) *
helm.inth
parasites
fowls:
of
food,
coh-ort
allatoxin in
Vaccination, inoculation and chemotherapy
[O1 hr)
8. Duck rearing- [in briefl
9. Japanese quail rearing [in briefl
[O1 hr)
(-Note: stidents should visit hatcheries and poultry farms and study tl:e different
breeds, houses and feeding equipments)
Section B: AI{IMAL HUSBANDRY
1.
Introductioa
(4O hours)
[O2 hrs)
Live stock husbandry: history, origrn and domestication of catfle
[O8 hrs)
2. Live stock productioa
and the world, corunon terms used
India
in
Status and trends of ]jve stock production
ald' maintenance of health in
heatth
of
signs
in animal production, breeds of-livestock,
washing,
farm animals, identi-fication methods, transportation of alimals, grooming,
operations
routine
other
a,d
exlrcising
vaccination,
weighing,
d.ipping, spraying,
[o8 hrs)
3. Brieds of cattte
etc'
Tharparkar
Sindhi,
Red
Sahiwal,
Milk type: Gir,
Malvi, Hallikar, Krishna
Amrithamatral,
Kangayam,
Racchaur,
Nagori,
Draft breeds:
valli etc.
Dual purpose breeds: Hariana, Ongole, Denoi, Rattl Nimari' etc'
Exotic breeds: Jerse5r, Holstein-Friesian, Ayrshire, Brown swiss, etc.
54
t:
- 4. Conseryation of native breeds
[O2 hrs)
I*portance
programmes
and
Vechur
stress
cows
on
' 5. Herd
lmprovement
[Ol hr)
Systems of breeding: cross breeding programmes
6. Reproduction ia cattle
[02 hrs)
Anatomy of the male ald female reproductive organs; physiological aspects, hormonal
control of reproduction - oestrous cycle, pregnancy and parturition, artifrcial
insemination - castration - storage of semen - frozen semen and embryo transfer
technolory
7. Principles of animal feeding*
[O2 hrs)
Anatomy of digestive system, physiolory of digestion, common cattle feeds and fodder
8. Buffalo husbandry
[O5 hrs)
Common breeds - JaJfarbadi, Mehsana, Murrah, Nagapuri, Nilli- Ravi, Switi, Bhadwari
- management and economic importance
6. Goat husbandry
[O5 hrs)
Management and economic importance of goats
Common breeds: Jamnapari, Barbari, Beetal, Surt-hi, Osrnanabadi, Marwani, Gaddi,
Mehsana, Kathiawari, Bikaleri, Kashmiri, Chamba, Sirohi, Bengal, Malabari
Exotic breeds: Alpine, Saanen, Tagenbarg, Anglonubian
10. Common diseases of cattle
[O2 hrs)
Bacterial, viral and protozoan [anthrax, foot and mouth disease, rinderpest, keyosisj
11. Common parasites of cattle
[Ol hr)
Helminthes, arthropods (2 each)
12. Meat hygiene
[O2 hrs)
Slaughter and clean meat production - frozen meat and other methods of
preservations - economics - zoonotic diseases
Section C: DNRY SCIENCE
(2O hours)
1. Importance of dairy farmiag
[O2 hrs)
Role of dairy development in rural economy - employment opportunities - white
revolution, establishment of dairy farms, t54pes dairy business.
2. Lactation atrd quality of milk
[O8 hrs)
Stnrcture of udder, process of milk secretion and milk removal, physiolory of
lactation, factors effecting quality and quantity of milk production, milking disorders,
clean milk production; colostrums, milk composition - physical and chemical
properties, variation in chemicat composition - factors modifying quality of milk adulteration of milk and its detection - milk spoilage
3. Ilygiene"
[O1 hr)
Cleaning and sterilization of dairy utensils and equipments
4. Common dairy processes
[O6 hrs)
Staining, f,ltration, cooling, chilling, clari-fication, pasteurization, freezing, recombineC
milk, soft curd milk, skimmed milk, toned milk, nutritional value of milk, marketing of
milk, milk marketing societies
5. Dairy products {brief accouuts only)*
[O3 hrs)
Cream, butter, chea, cheese, evapoiated milk, ic. cream, fermented milk, methods of
manufacture, AG mark standards, deterioration of milk
* Topics for seminars/ assignments/ discussions
ll
8EFERENCES
Banerjee G.C.: A TB of Animal Husbandry. 8 e, 1998, Oxford & IBH
Barrerjee G.C.: Poultry. Oxford & IBH
Campbell, J. R. & Lasley, J. F: The Science of Animals that serue Mankind.TMH
Eckles, C. R. Combs, W. B. & Mary, H.: Milk & Milk Products. Tata M G H
Ensminger , M.: Poultry Science. 3 e, 1992,International Book Distrg Co
Gracey, J. E. & Collins, D. S.: Meat Hggiene. Bailliers Tindall, 1992 ELBS
ICAR: Handbook of Animal Husbandry. 1990 f '97,ICAR, Pusa, N. D
Jull, M. A.: Poultry Husbandry. 3 e, T M H
Lasley, J. F.: Genetics of Liuestock ImprouemenL 1987 , Prentice Hall Eaglewood
Linter & Sunk: Poultry Science. Lippincot & Co. N.Y
Sastr5r, N. S. R. Thomas, C.K. & Singh R. A.: Poultry Production
SastrJr, N. S. R.: Farm Animal Management & Poultry Production Vikas
Singh H & Moosa: Livestock & Poultry Production PHI
Thomas, c.K. & Sastr5r, N. S. R.: Dairy Bouine ProductiorL 1991, Ka-lya]]i
Thornton, O. & Gracy,F.: Text Book of Meat Hggiene. Bailliers Tinddl, London
56
VI. APICULTURE AND SERICULTURE
)
[1OO
hours]
Section A: APICULTURE
(4O hours)
1. Introductloa: brief history of apiculture
Different species of honeybees: Apis cerana indica, A. dorsata, A. Jlorea, A, melliferq
Morpholory and important structural features of honeybee [os hrs)
2. Social orgaaization of honeybee colony, different castes, polymorphism, adaptations,
behaviour and communication, development and caste distinction during
development, life history
[OS hrs)
3. Methods of bee keeping
a] Different types of bee hives - wall type or fixed t1rye, movable type, press hive
Modern method: Langstroth, Newton and double walled
Comb foundation, wire embedder, queen excluder, feeders, refining, catching a sw.arm,
hiving a swarn, transfer of colony
[1O hrs)
bl Equipments required for bee keeping
tO3 hrs)
Beeveli, queen excluder, gloves, smoker, honey extractors, bee brush, scrapper
c] Methods of bee culture
[O3 hrs)
Acquiring of bees - inspection and colony location, uniting two colonies, feeding
metl:ods
dl Seasonal management
[O5 hrs)
Spring management, swarm prevention, handling swanns, m€rnagement during honey
flow; honey extraction, sum.mer routine, causes of absconding - monsoon probl.ms, auturnn needs, preparing for winter, packing a hive - winter ways
4. Bee products *
[O4 hrs)
Honey - chemical composition - honey as food, as medicine, honey at religious
ceremony, odd uses, storage suggestions, purity standards, refining process
and marketing
Bee wax - varied uses - rendering process
Honeybee as a pollinating agent
5. Bee pasturage*
lO2 hrs)
Nectar yielding and pollen yielding plants; relationship between honeybees and plants
nectar potentialities of a locality
6. Eaemies aad dlseases
[O3 hrs)
Bacterial, fungal, protozoan and vi aI diseases of bees; prevention and control.
curative measures
Enemies and pests - prevention and control
Sectiou B: SERICULTURE
1.
Iatroduction:
(6O hours)
Definition and scope of sericulture
2.
[O1
hrI
Moricultrire
lO7 hrsl
a] Propagation of mulberry
hrs]
[02
Collection of seeds and raising of seedlings, selection of materials for cutting,
raising of nursery
bl Mulberry garden and mulberry farms [02 hrs]
Site preparation, soil testilg, planting systems, manuring, irrigation, organic,
chemical and bio-fertilizers
c] Maintenance of gardens
[03 hrs]
Weeds and their control, pruning and harvesting
Diseases of mulberry: fungal, bacterial and their control measures
3. Biology of silkrporm
[15 hrs]
al Systematic position, features of order Lepidoptera and families Bombycidae and
Saturniidae
[01 hr]
b] Life history of Bombyx morq morphoiory of egg,lar'ra, pupa and adult [02 hrs]
cl Silkworm: digestive; respiratory, circulatory, muscular, nervotls, excretory and
reproductive systems [03 hrs]
d] Siik glands: structure, spinneret, silk proteins and their synthesis [01 hr]
51
r?
C^:
al.
el Moulting: structure of integument arrd cuticle; formations and shedding of cuticle;
hormonal control
[02 hrs]
fl Hormones and metamorphosis [01 hr]
gl Egg: hatching and developmental stages [01 hr]
hl Sillovorm diseases: prevention, control and disinfection practices of protozoan,
bacterial, viral and fungal diseases [02 hrs]
i] Enemies of silkworm: tachind fly, dermistid beetle, ants, rodents and lizards damage
caused, prevention and control. [02 hrs]
4. Rearing techaology
[10 hrs]
a] Rearing houses - requirements, site selection [01 hr]
b] Rearing appliances, importance of disinfection [01 hr]
cl Selection of silkworm races/breeds
Estimation of leaf quantity, arr€rngement of appliances [01 hr]
d] Incubation: environmental conditions, methods of incubation, incubator [0thr]
e] Brushing - different methods, selection of leaves for brushing [01 hr]
fl Harvesting of leaf - method, time, transportation, and storage [Ol hr]
g] Rearing - chawki rearing, moulting, late age rearing, rearing methods, preparation
for moulting, hawesting of cocoon and cocoon assessment [04 hrs]
5. Non mulberry Sericulture
[O2 hrs]
Brief account of tasar culture, muga culture and eri culture
6. Silk worm seed technology
[12 hrs]
a] Silkworm seed, morpholory of egg, seed organisation, disinfection and hygiene,
physical factors ofcocoon preservation and oviposition [03 hrs]
b] Seed production centers, procurement and transportation, processing and
preservation of seed cocoons, equipments for cold storage, sex separation in
seed production, and synchronization of emergence [03 hrs]
c] Collecting motJ:s, pairing of motJrs, oviposition, handling of eggs (multivoltine,
bivoltine)
[03 hrs]
d] Management of staff and econo",ics of seed production [O3 hrs]
7. Silk Techaolory
[fO hrs]
al Physical and chemical properties of silk, uses of silk [01 hr]
b] Siik realing - raw materials, processing of cocoon, reeling, rereeling, machinery and
equipment
[0a hrs]
c] Man power, quality control, cocoon testing and grading, raw silk testing, silk
thawing and weaving, chemical processing, various types of fabrics and uses [05 hrs]
8. Sericulture erteasion*
[O3 hrs]
Extension- education, meaning of education, extension organizaLions, service network,
marketing, co-operative and credit agencles
* Topics for seminar/ assignment/ discussion ***
REFERTNCES
Afrfa, S., Kamili & Ameen Masoodi, M: Principles of Temperate Sericulture
Boraialr, G.: l,ectures on Sericttlture 2 e, L994, SBS Pub., Bangalore
Cherian & Remachandrart: Bee keeping in South India. Govt. Press, Madras.
Dileep de Sarkar: The Sillcutorm Biology, Genetics and breeding
FAO: A monual of silkutorm reaing, A manual of mulberry anltiuation, A mqnual of silk reeling
Gupta K.C: Romanie of Scientif.c Bee lceeping - Khadi PratistJ:an, Calicut
Krishna Swanry, S-: Technology of sillalorm.
MahadevappaD. et aL: Mulberry, Silk reeling Technologg
Mishra, R. C.: Perspectiues in Indian Apiatlfiire 2OO2, Agro Bios
Phillips, E.F.'. Bee Keeping.2OO3, Agro Bios
Rodinor & Shaharshow: The fascinating world of Bees. Mir Publishers
Sardar Singh: Bee keeping in India ICPTR
Sreerama Reddy G.: Silktorm Breeding
Sulochana Chetty & Ganga:, Seriqtlture
Tamaki, Y.: Sericologg. Central Siik Board, 95-B, Marine Drive, Bombay-2
Utlal, S. R. & Narasimhanna, M. N.: HB of Practical Seicttlture. Cer:t;.al Silk Board, Bombay.
-i8
f:'
MANAGEMENT [1OO hou'=l
WILD LIFE: BIOLOGY. CONSERVATION AND
vII.
[O1 hr]
Introductioa
Definition,briefhistoryofwildlifeprotectionandconservationinlndia
tO4 hrsl
2. ulild life management
ecological' educational'
1.
scientific'
c
ommercial
and
ethical' utilizational
^" "tt
genetic resourcel
a
as
[considerwildlife
[O3 hrs]
3. Extinction of species*
es [habitat shrinkage or
, over-exPloitation,
Values
4'
of wildlife managemeni:
",,a "igtrif.*ce
.tl",le cre ational,
sig
(seats and
racks' pug mark' feeding signs' anirnal droppings
observations
- recording of freld
pellets), homes atta
species [07 hrsl
"ttitt&
habltat
and
5. Biologicaf cUarafteristlcs
T[er, lion, bear, sPotted deer-' gaur'
6. Sometodern techniques in wild life
pug marks' study
in tlle fie
Study of
animal droPPings
of ^ri-i-"'iiences
collar, telemetry, remote Senslng
tagging of animals, bird barrding, radio
arrd
Marking
only)
ana wifJjie itrotograptry (brief notes
tO2 hrs]
7. Wild life diseases*
'derpest' rabies
TB, pasteurellosis, antJr
hrl
8. Wild life tourism and Ecot
rn
[25 hts]
9. Some eadaagered anlmals
slow ioris' hoolock gibbon
oris'
Primates: Lion-tailed m
ruded leopard' leopard cat'
Carnivora: Tiger, Asiati
bears and civet
Herbiv
Birds:
d
*:ffs-'l#:
Indian bustard'
t
n1f,-"r',".T::iite' estuarine
*"n*J"li3lffiiio""o
turtle, water mo:
Indian egg
reticulated pytJron'
'ytt:rot'
Xii=" o.. ,o"U
eatin
AmPhibians: HimalaY
10. Wtld life consenratiou
L!^-.- conseryation
proj ects euld Zoos in India
^^habitats,
wildlife
of
Introductiolri:--urr"g.*".t
N"tioti'f Parks and Biosphere Resewes
Sarrctuarie",
Managementmeasure"fo,*lam.hauitats:protection,bioticinterference,forestry
operations, use of fire etc' management
firnctions arrd
and manager
- -!---^' -+^\
etc)' functions
Modern zoos' concepts (safari' nocturnal *iiJ lif;"ottiaot" - defrnition' role in
Captive breeiing and its -"j";:;;":;;;,
conservation
11. Wetlaad maaagement-
^''
r -ri-_r":i'"'r*ia,:iTlffiffiujJ:Lt1:
management, water level management'
only)
management etc] (brief account
dia, RAMSAR sites'
TT,H[tandcover
[1o brs]
Proj ect, Proj ect Elephant'
fii- i"V"tt
Mu sk- deer Proj ect'
[O3 hrsl
on etc
59
1r
14. Wild life policy and legislation
[05 hrs]
Indian Board for Wild life, Wild life Protection Act of India llgT2l,Internationa_l
conventions, convention on Biodiversity, clrEs, IUCN, Red data book,
criteria for treating species as endalgered
conservation organizations: UNEp, IUCN, wwF, BNHS, movements in Kerala
15. wild life damage, control and management in rndia
[o4 hrs]
Nature of da'nagg, damage to natural resources, crops arrd human health
Control methods in India
Drying, trenching, fencing, repellents, lure crops, corrid.ors, mesh fencing etc.
Management strategies
16. Sustaiaable utilization of wildlife resources [OS hrsl
Marine and land animals, farming and ranching; forestry- non-consumptive uses
Major environmentarist movements in India [Bishnois, chipko, Apiko,
Silent Valley conservation, Narmada Bachao Andolan etcl
:'
* Topics for seminar/ assignment/
discussron
REFERENCES
Aaron, N.H.: Wdlife Ealogy. WH Freeman & Co
BNHS: The Wild Animals of India.1988, (Reprint), Daya pub House, ND
Brandtland Report: Our Common Future
Burton, M. & Burton, R.: The International Wldlife Encgclopedia.20 vols, Purneli-Marshall
Cavendish Corporation, New York
Daniel, J. C.: The Book of Indian Reptiles and Amphibians.2oo2, BNHS/OUP
Earth Summit: Agenda - 21
Giles, H. H.: Wildlik Management and TechniEtes The Wildlife Society, Washington
Hawkins, R. E.: EncEclopedia of Indian Nafital Hbtory.2OOL, O. U. P
Hosetti, B. B.: Concepts inWtldlife Management.Daya Pr.rbg Co
Induchoodan: Keralathile Palcshigal 1996, Kerala Sahitya Academy, Tcr
Israel, S. & Sinclair, T.: Insight Guide - Indian Wildlife" Explore Your World - Discovery
Channel, APA hrb
Jaison, E. A. & Esa, P. S.: A Field Guide to Animal Signs. KFRI
Kearton, C.: Wildlife across the World 1989, Printwell Pub, Jaipur
Krys Kazrnierczak & Raj Singh: Tle Bird-utatcher's guide to India.2OOl, O U P
Lauq Futehdly:. Our Enuironment NBT
Nair, S.: Endangered animals of India and their conservation NBT
Ornmer, N. P.: Checklist of Indian Ma,'''mals. 2000, Kera-la Forest Dept, Tvm. 14
Pearl, MC: The Illustrated Enqclopedia of Wdlife. 15 vols, 1991, Grey Castle Press
Prater, S. H.: Wild Animals of India-BNHS
Rajesh Gopal: Fundamentals of Wildlife Manageimenf. Justice Home
Rangarajan,M; The Oxford Anthologg of IndianWildlife.2OOl, Vols I & II OUP
Reader's Digest: Our Magnifi.cent Wlldlife. 1975,l,ondon
Reader's Digest: The Wdlife Year. 199L, London
Salim Ali: Birds of India. BNHS
Salim Ali: Eirds of Kerala. 1969,2 e, O. U. P/ BNHS
Seshadri: Twilight of India's Wld Life.
Sharma, B. D.: High altitude Wild life of India 1994, Oxford & IBH
Sir Erlmund Hillary, S.: Ecologg 2000. Multimedia, UK
Stoddart, A.L. et al.: Range Management M G H
The Wildlife Protectiom Act- 1972. Natraj Pub Dehra Dun
6t)
.u:.-r, *!r4-.lru,-t..et-s}J:r.,\i\frltririiall\,tus:_s:ili
.;VIII: BIOTECHNOLOGY
G
1.
Introductiou
.(rslgJ-IIiL.d
(1OO hours)
[O2 hrs]
Definition, historical perspective, development, scope of Genetic Engineering and
_ Biotechaolory, terminologr, mention br mches of Biotechnolory
2. Principles of aalmal cell culture, hybridoma technology anE ce[ cloning
hrs]
History of cell culture; simulating condi ions for cell growth; growth factors; II5
Primary culture, secondar5r culture and culture using estabtJhed cell lines; commonly
used cell lines; applications of animal cell culture; organ culture
CelI fusion: hybridoma technolory; transplantation oicultured cells; cell clones;
production of monoclonar antibodies andother proteins
3. P1ant tissue culture techniques
[OS hrsl
Definition of tissue culture, methodolory, asepiic techniques of separation of cell
[email protected], culture media, nutrients, callus initiation, variations in callus organogenesis,
role of plant growth regulators in morphogenesis, applications of plant ti""r. culture
4. Micropropagation
tOS
hisl
Techniques for micropropagation of elite plants; factors alfecting micropropagation
Anther culture and production of haploids; triploid culture and embryo culture
Applications of micropropagation
5. Protoplast culture
[10 hrs]
Preparation, isolation, purification and culturing of protoplasts; culture media
culture conditions, somatic hybridization, protoplast fusion: techniques, factors
allecting protoplast fusion; applications of protoplast culture
6. Recombinaat DNA technolory a:rd geae cloaing [2O hrs]
Reverse transcription : historical backgroun d;
Enzlrmes involved: pol3rmerases, reverse transcriptase, nucleases, restriction
endonuclease, ligases, capping enzJ[rres, ribo4rmes; methodologr involved: choice of
materials, isolation and purilication of the desired DNA, manipulation of the
purilied DNA, transfer to the host and production [amplilication] of rDNA;
Definition of gene cloning; need for cloning genes; methodolory of gerre cloning;
cloningvehicles- plasrnids, cosmids, phages etc., various methods of gene transfer:
agro bacterium mediated gene transfer; direct gene transfer, electroporation, direct
uptake of DNA by protoplasts, liposome-mediated gene delivery; injection of genes in
to target nuclei (shot-gun method]; identification of desired clones; applications
8. Analysis and errpressiou of cloned genes in host cells [O5 hrs]
Re striction enzJrme analysis, southern blottin g, n orthern blottin g,
in-situ hybridization, DNA sequencing, RFLP, RAPD, DNA finger printing, pcR, DNA
probes, expression of cloned genes, changing genes by site-directed mutagenesis
9. Genoaic and eDNA libraries
[OS hrs]
Construction and analysis of cDNA, mRNA, cloning 3116[ arnplification of gene libraries,
Genomic and cDNA libraries, biosensors, biochips, DNA chips and micro arrays;
molecular probes: labelling and applications
1O. Biotechnology in industry
[fO hrs]
Isolation, screening and strain irnprovement of industrially important microbes;
Bioreactors: design and types; bioprocesses and factors affecting bioprocessing
Applications of industry: microbial production of - food and beverages;
antibiotics and vaccines; amino acids, enzyrnes, vitamins and polysaccharides;
production of biopesticides and biofertilizers
11. Biotechnology ia agriculture
[o3 hrs]
Applications of Biotechnolory in Agriculture: production of improved strains of plants;
transgenic plants, improving dairy production etc
12. Biotechnolory a"d environmeatal safety [O3 hrs]
Applications of Biotechlolory in pollution control, waste treatment,
production of natural resources and wildlife management
6t
/?
13. Biotechuology in medicine and health
[05 hrs]
Gene therapy; applications of monoclonal antibodies in biomedical research, clinical
diagnosis and treatment; principles and stratery for developing vaccines,
biotechnologrcally produced clinical products
t4, Potential and suspected hazards of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnolog,' IO2 hrs]
15. Fundamentals of Bioinformatics
[10 hrs]
protein information resources,
biolory,
bases
in
data
Internet,
Information networks,
genome information resources, protein-sequence analysis, DNA sequence analysis,
multiple sequence alignment, secondary database searching, building a sequence
search protocol, molecular modeling, ana-lysis packages
REFERENCES
Attwood, T. K. & Parry-Smith, D. J.: Introductionto Bioinformafics. 1999, Pearson Edn N D
Barnum, S. R.: Bioteif*oUgg-An Introduction. 1998, Thomson Brooks / Cole - Vikas Pub
Bourgai,s et al.: Biotechnologg.2OOO, Addison Wesley Longman
Chaliaborty, P. A.: A TB of MTcrobiologg. 2OOL , New Central Book Agency, Kolkotta
D
Gamboorg, b. l. A Philips, G. C.: Plaii cetl, ti :s-ue and organ atlture Narosa N
on bg trssze anlture Exegitic ltd' England
002, Rastogi Pubs, Meerut
Oxford & IBH
Himalaya Pub House
oncepts of Bioinformatics 2003, Indian Print,
Pearson Edn, N D
Press
Kraweve, s. A. & womble, D. D.: Introductionto Bioinformatics 2oo3, Humana
Lewin, B: Genes W
Marx, J. L. (Ed.): AReuolutioninBioteclvtologg' 1989, CUP
Masters, J. R. W.: Animal Cell Culture IRL Press
iedtnology' VCH publishersMeyers, R. A. [Ed.]: Molean
990, cold-spring Harbour Lab Press, carolina
Micklos, D. A. & Freyer, G.
Moosad, M.: The Biological
2003, Agro
Purohit, S. S.: Bioteclvtologg.3
-iand.e,
of Comparatiue Genomics 2OO3, J W Liss
Book
Saccone, C. & Pesole , G,
6)
Practical Paper II
[Related to Zt
-
03, ZT
-
04 and
Zl -
O5l
BIO CHEMISTRY, ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY, ENDOCRINOLOGY, REPRODUCTTVE BIOLO GY,
DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY, IMMUNOLOGY, BIOTECHNOLOGY, BIOSTATISTICS,
CELL BIOLOGY, MOLECULAR BIOLOGY and GENETICS
CODE: ZP-O2
(130 hours)
Section A:
[Any 08 experiments + any 03 demonstrations out of the following list]
1. Enzyme activity in the midgut of cockroach- amylase, protease, invertase and
lipase [demonstration only]
2. Detection of rnonosaccharides and reducing disaccharide sugars: Molisch test,
Fehling's test, Benedict's test, Moor's test, cupric sulphate test, rapid furfural
test (any three)
3. Detection of non-reducing sugar: sucrose, hydrolysis test
4. Detection of protein: biuret test, nitric acid test, xanthoproteic test
5. Detection of abnormal constituents of urine - glucose, protein and bile pigments
7. Determination of blood clotting tirng (dgmenstration only)
8' Determination of AIIO and Rh blood groups and their compatibility among students
9. Determination of blood pressure using sphygmomanometer and stethoscope
[demonstration only]
1 1. Eftect of temperature on the rate of heartbeat of freshwater mussel
12. Preparation of blood smear and identification of formed elements
13. Recording of heart beat of frog using lqlmograph [demonstration only]
14. Recording of simple muscle twitch of frog using lgrmograph [demonstration only]
15. Study of stained preparations of leukemia, sickle- cell anaemia, and liver necrosis
16. Effect of thyroxine and vitamin C on regenerating tail of frog tadpoles
[demonstration only]
17. Testis-smear preparation to observe live sperm lfrog /Calotesl
18. Pregnancy test using standard kits [demonstration only]
Section B: Developmental Biolory
Study of the following:
1. Dilferent types of eggs (use specimens/ models/ charts)
2. Lanal forrrrs of invertebrates and vertebrates
a] Invertebrate larvae: ephyra, trochophore, auricularia, bipinnaria, pluteus,
lanrae of crustaceans (nauplius, zoea, megalopa, alima, phyllosoma) [any 5]
b] Vertebrate larvae: ascidian tadpole, ammocoete, leptocephalus/elver of
Arqtillq lairry 2l
3. Shark embryo with yolk sac placenta
4. Frog development: cleavage [use chart], blastula, gastrula, yolk plug stage / neumla
5. Chick embryo: 16 - 18, 24, 36 & 48 hours of incubation [any 3]
6.Any two ma:rrmalian embryos
7 . Dtlferent types of placenta (use veterinary specimens / photographs)
8. Window method for observing developing hen's egg (demonstration only)
9. Regeneration of tail in frog tadpoles/ gecko (demonstration only)
63
{o
a
Section C: Biostatistics
1. classification and tabulation of data using the given
sample[s]
2. Construction ot
a] Frequency curye
b] Bar diagram
cl Histogram and
dl T" diagram [use suitable classihed. d,ata/tables]
3' Calculation of mean, median, mod.e,
stanaard'der,"iation and standard error
[Use suitable classified datal tables]
[Convenient computer applications may be done for solving Biostatistical problems]
Sectiou D: Cell
and
chno
I. Study of a compound microscope: - use of stage and ocular micrometers and
camera lucida
2' Measurement of size of microscopic objects using ocular and stage micrometers
3. Staining of prokaryotic cells [demonstration only]: al Lacto bacillls from curd
b] Nitr-ogen luxing bacteria (Rhizobium) from rooinod.ule s of legumes
4. Staining of eu_karyotic cells: a] buccal epithelial cells (observe earf Uoayl
b] Insect flight muscle cells to show mitochondria
5. Mitosis: stage-s
in onion (Attium cepa) rootmeristem [squash preparation]
-of
6 ' Calculation
mitotic index and rrietaphase ind,ex in-root meristlm of AIIium epa
7. Meiosis: stages in testis of grass hopper/ in the flower bud of Ailium cepa (smears)
[demonstration only]
B. Giant chromosomes in Diptera: (Drosophila / Chironomus lanrae) salivarl- gland
cells [demonstration only]
9. Study- of models of DNA, DNA replication and tRNA (use photographs/ models)
Section E: Geuetics
1. Ivlicroscopic observation of stained preparations (or photographs) of
a) Translocation heterozygote in Rhoea b) banding in giant chromosomes
2. Study- of sex-linked inheritance (haemophilia/ sickle cell anaemia and colour
blindness)
3. Study of some human traits: (use Pedigree charts)
Blood groups, widow's peak, eye colour
4. Study of normal human karyot5rpe and abnormal human karyotypes [any tw-o]
5. Study of genetic syzrdromes: Down's, Klinefelter's and Turner's
6. Study of phenotypic characters in male ald female Drosophila
6-+
Practical paper III
_ [Related to Tt _ 06 and ZT _ OTI
ETHOLOGY,EVOLUTION,ZOOGEOGRAPHY,ENVIRONMENTALBIOLOGY,
CONSERVATIoN BIoLocy, Toxlcolocy a,,a
Bt ectlvE SUBJECT
CODE: Zp_Os
(75 hours)
+-
Section
A
(4S hours)
I. Ethology:
Any one of the follou,ing:
1.
2.
3.
4.
of
(OecoPhila smaragdina)
of
of
oPhila
of
II. Evolutiou:
ted to:
f fish, forelimbs of frog atd, Calotes, wing of
d brains ofvertebrates
inidsl
Peripatus)
examplesl
7. Adaptive rad.iation in the mouthpart"
l?Ht"H:"1Lr. ,rr""1
III. Zooseographv:
1' Preparation of rvorld' maps to show the present
distribution of the following
animals/groups:
ratite birds, monotremes, marsupials,
ace line, Weber line, Wallacea; Isthmus of
ter
six zoogeographical realms
of zoogeographical signifi cance
d, Tasmania, New Guinea, Azores,
the philippinesl
:
fV. En
Any 5 items from the
follo*irrg --
of carbonites in soit sample
I2. P::..-l"ation
Determinadon of pH usrngpH paper, ind.icator
3. Estimation of dissolved carbon'aio*ae in water
solutions/ pH meter
4.
5'
6.
T.
9
9tu$r of adaptations of animals for: arborial, cursorial,
9. Study of marine planktons
and funnel methods
ns ald food web
volant a:1d aquatic life
10. Study of endangered mammals of India
6\
(
vt
Section B
(3O hours)
APPLIED ZOOLOGY [Auy one of the following divisions]
I. Agricultural Entomology and pest Coutrol:
l. Identification and brief notes on the following pests
Phytophagous insects:
5 pests of paddy, 3 pests of coconut, 2 pests each of banana, mango, casherv,
2 pests each of coffee, tea, rubber, pepper and cardam om, 2 pests of vegetables
Pests of stored products: lany 3]
2. Study of da-urage caused by pests: (damaged parts of plants, fruits ald seeds, rvood,
paper etc. may be used)
3. Identification ald study of insect pests/ ectoparasites of man, d.omestic anima1s
and wild animals: mosquitoes [different stages of tife historyl, head louse, pubic
louse, bird louse, rat flea, Tabanus, Hippobosca. a tick and a mite on dog f cat
4. Identifrcarion and economic importance of the following:
a] Honey bees and bee products
b] Silkworm moth-life cycle stages, silk frbre
c] Lac insect and stick lac or shellac
5' Preparation of: a] tobacco decoction, bl kerosene soap emulsion, c] neem kernel
suspensron
6- Familiarising with plant protection equipments: al hald sprayer, b] rocker sprayer
c] Knapsack sprayer/ duster
II. Pathology aad Clinical Laboratory Techniques:
I ' Collection of blood samples and studying the effect of articoagulants
2. RBC count, WEIC count, Total Count, Differential Count, Reticulocyte Count,
Platelet Count
3. ESR and PVC
4. Estimation of haemoglobin using Sahli's Haemoglobinometer
5. ABO and Rtr grouping and cross matching among the students
6. Estimation of blood glucose
7. Estimation of blood urea
8. Tests for liver functions
9. Estimation of sertrm creatinine
10. Es^imation of serum cholesterol
11. VDRL, Vidal, ASO, rheumatoid facto
12. Sputum - AFB and Gram staining
I3. Motion microscopy
14. Pregnancy tests
15. Urinalyses
III. Aquaculture and Fishery BiologT:
1. Culture of fish food organisms: protozons, rotifers and crustaceans
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Maintenance of spawn and its transportation to hatching or rearing tanks
Identilication of major food fishes (fresh water, estuarine and marine)
Study of different crafts and gears
Study of aquariurn and aquarium f,rshes
Breeding techniques: preparation of hormone e.xtracts and injection of horrnones to
fishes; eyestalk ablation in prawns
7. Stud.v of grovrth in iishes by observing scales, operculum and otolith
8. Study of fish products and byeproducts
9. Identifrcation of laryal forms of prawn, pearl oyster, mussel, Iobster and crab
10. Identification of major edible crustaceans and mollusks
1 1. Identification of edible seaweeds
66
T
,';
t
fV. Huaan Genetics and Geuetic Counselling:
1. Problems on a) autosomal dominant and recessive b) polygenic
-c) Sex linkage (X- tinked genes a d Y- linked genesl
traits (skin co,.,ur)
2. Study of identical and fraternal twins
3. Dermatoglyphics:
Identilication of arch, loop and whorl patterns; total ridge count in ma-le and
female; Trindii - importance of atd angle, simian line
4. Ishehara chart - to detect colour blindness [red-green]
5. Seminars on genetics in cardiolory, oncolory and genetic counselling, prenatal
sexing, amniocentesis, importance of genetic screening
6. Examination of Barr bodies
7. Pedigree studies and identifrcation of the nature of inheritance from pedigree charts
[a::y one trait)
8. Identification of human karyotypes [Down's, Turner's, Klinefelter's) from idiogram
V. Poultry, Animal husbandry and Dairy Science:
1. Study of different breeds of fowl [photographs also may be usedl
2. Morphological studies of Japanese quail
3. Study of ectoparasites and endoparasites of fowl
4. Age determination of fowl
5. Sex determination and debeaking ofjust hatched chicken
6. Study of housing and feeding equipments of poultry
7. Preparation of poultr5r feeds by formulation
B. Breeds of poultry birds and characteristics
9. Preparation of poultry farm
10. Incubation of eggs and maintenzulce of conditions: temperature [use of candlers]
humidity; rotation of egg
1 1. Preparation of poultry pan for chicks - floor preparation, watering equipment,
electric lamps and ventilators
12. Study of characters of economically important breeds of catfle
13. Study of ectoparasites and endoparasites of cattle [may be collected from
slaughter houses)
14. Examination of seminal fluid of bull
15. Srudy of milk products
,
VI. Apiculture and Sericulture:
A. Apiculture
1. Taxonomy of honey bees: Indian species only
2. Dissections and mountings:
mounting and sketching
Honey bee: a) mouth parts
-dob) Sting apparatus
-doc) Hind leg
dissect, display and sketch
d) Digestive system
3. Pollination studies: study of various plants visited by honeybees for foraging
4. Study of some equipment and their uses in apiculture:
Swam catching basket, apiary boxes, honey extractor, queen-cell protector and
excluder, honey bee feeder
B. Sericulture
1. Study of life history
of. Bombyx mori
2. Identification of different species of silkrrorm in India
3. Identification of hogt plants of dillerent species of silk worrns
4. Study of different t5pes of silks: tassar, muga and eri
5. Study of insect pesti of mulberry: mildew, leaf eating cater pillar, jassids,
thrips,
beetles
6l
Fly UP