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ic I - ic ' rnd (t
SYLLABUS FOR POLYMER CHEMISTRY MAIN
THEORY
Paper I - Thecr e', ic ' rnd I norgan ic Chemistry-
|
i'-"' Hours
24 Hours
Atomic Structure
I lntroduction - Development of atomic theor^y (t hour)
2 Dischar^ge tube experiments - Determinat ion of e/m., Dis:overy
of fundamental particles-electron, proton, neutron, positron
meson, nutrino, antinutrino, their^ charge and mass (S hrs. )
3. Rutherford model of atom-particles scattering-defects of the
model Quantum theory-E instein's modif icat ion-Hy'drogen
spectrum-Ba lmer^ series-Ba lmer formlt la-Rydberg formu la, R itz
pr inc ip le-Bohr' s
Postu lates-quant isat ion
of
comb inat ion
angu lan momentum-Ca lcu lat ion of radius of orb it !n the
Hydrogen atom-Calculation of energy of stationai',' states in
hydr^ogen atom-E lectronic transition Emission sp€ctra
Hydrogen
frequency-wave number, wavelength of
extensiorrBohrn
sommerfeld's
of
theor^y,
spectra-Limitation
mode l-Ouantum numbers
inadequac ies of
Sommerfe ld' s
principal, azimuthal and magnetic quanturn humbers,
Zeemann ef fect and spin quantum numbers-Par.r lirs exclussirlrr
(S hrs.)
principle.
4.
de-Brog I ier s
natur'e of
;
matter
e lectrons
.--'
wave concept-the part ic le and wave
Compton ef fect Photo e lectr^ ic ef fer:t .
li
-i-:!=l:'J:r--'i'r-::.-J:=_.r:it-'a!-'
ri:ii
il-lr::
i
curves-Hac ia i prooab il ity, Angu iar-orobab i I ity-shaoes of s
pr ano d orbitals lviin propei^ symmetry representation nc;cJal
plar^re-r'epr'eser-riaiiun <.ti <tr'bi'rais-fiiiing uL)-conIigttr.ri.ion ()r
atoms Aufbau princip le rule of max imum mu lt ip licif y ,
stability of completely filled and half filled orbitals.
(s hrs. )
5. Automic Nucleus-Nuclear forces-NlP ratio-Natural r^adio-activity
modes of decay-Theor^y of r^aclioact ive disintegrat ion-Rate of
Nutta
I ife-Ge iger
ha lf
decacy-Decay constant-The
series-Synthetirequilibrium-Radioactive
rule-Radioactive
elements-Aritiflcal radioactivity Transmutation using f)roton,
Deuteron, Par^t ic le and nutrons aS project iles Ntlc lear
eqLtations-:l;:dio-isotopes-Applications of radio isotopes-Carborr
I
dat ing-Nuc lear
dat ing-Rock
defect-b inding energy .
energy
stellar
enengy-Mass
Q hrs'
)
.,.).
6.
Detec t ion
of
.r(i'r-:3€S by
AstOn' s maSS
spectrograpn-.-=,
spectrrrm-separar c I of isotopes using electro magenet ic methods
gaseous and ther rnal duffusion methods.
(s
hrs.
I
)
I Periodic c lassif icat ion
l'
of periodic tabre As an introduction onry
(t hr.
2'Moseley's work on X-rays-Atomic Number-lts importance-The moder.
perioclic Law The rong form of pe riodic table- (tupac
convention)
classification into s, p, d, f brock erements Gener^ar strr..
lrrre.
Development
)
?
Periodicity of propent ies-Tnends in a per iod and group with
reference to the folowing pnopenties - Atomic.r^acj ii, ionic radii,
Atomic volume, ionisat ion energy-successive
ionisat ion energies,
electron affinity and electro negativity.
(: hr^s .
)
lll
Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure
(ztt Hrs.
)
lectronic theory of rra lency due to Kossel and Lewis. oc tet
rtrle ionic bond, covalent bond and co-ordinate bond ac-corrJirrg
to c lass ica I concepts-condit ions for the format ion c>f thc
bonds-character'istics of the three types of compounds *ariable
electrova lenchi nentpair
effect-Energet ics
of
!^1!r
,-l-1€.;..E
h^^a
u.^-:.
na, l=nicrr
ffi--,,
r
L--ir_,,_rr.,s.
i.a
ruulvl
-,\:1._.t
dtiu
r
nOn_pOlaf
llll
l(ra;ll(
iritl
<_rt_\r;t rr.;it
(5 tir:.)
Potent ia I energy diagrams for
the interact ion of two
rJnogen
atoms-bcnd length, co-va lent radii, bond order, boncl hy
strength
and bond ang les-inadequancy of octet ru le to exp la in nrolec-uIar
shape.
Va lence bond rnethod of over lap of ha lf filled
Atomic Orbirats
leacl ing to bond format ion-factors gover n ing the
extent
of over lap
S-S, s-p. p-p over lap representation of mo lecu les I ike
F3 ,
HF, 02, N2-sigma and p i bonds-limitat ions to exp la in theH2,
shape
of molecu les.
(tr hrs. ).
concept of hybridisat ion-ground state electronic conf igurat ion_
promot ion of e lectr^ons to exc ited state Sp
r sp2, sp3, -dl spz c)2
proper-ties of hybrid orbitals-s-character and
p characier_VSEpR
eometry of mo lecu les_CH4
r*.,2t xeF2, pC rJ\I
.
I
a
5. rir.i (i('(lrJa.c),' of valcnce bond theory,-M'rer-rreir Or't)itaI IIr..or
,2,
tronrlinct an<j ant i-boncl ing orbita Is_eIectro
rlerrsity
irr
ttr.,
internrrc le;rr
req ion-addit ion
ancj subr-ar . I
A.O.
rrsi,rll
Dcsignat inn of N4.O. , energy sequence_electron
C..nfiqrlarat iorr oI
,
rJiatonric
i-..-......--
---
--+-- -
rrlOlt-CrtleS S[](:l'i
as
]
a
9or,oi,l=.z,Lc',
NO,llcl
'r,'r, ^Fr,; "€r,n,
Erlt lana.i ion of boncJ orcle;- anc.j maEnei ic. prope,ri ies of tlre
.-rbctv,e irr
ilre liol:i of M.O approacl-r.
6.
l1i cir^oc;er^, bcncj - inter molecu iar ancj
', arnc)lr:ctrlar: with
o.lan'p le.
Hy cirogen br idge
bond
in
diborane-Metai,rr
ltorrc-eiectnon poo I theory and exp lanat.ion of conrlrrctivity,
nra licair iiity, ,
clirct ilit5r-ys lency
boncJ
theory
.rnrl
M.O.
t lreor^5,-Reson.tnce theory,-l I lustrat.J by
NO, NO
CC
CCiz'
\O
Gtn,t,i t ions of resonance
lV
5 llr s
Co-ordinat ion Chemistry
,r:Ji1rr(r::-CiteiateS-lriJmenClatl,no r.f ^..--^r^.,^^ n rr-i;':i.';:'-'rcs Gl'i,:eir^icar isomerisirr,c;-rr.ici.,. loniseitici-r, riy.i.ot..,,
Cr-'-or-rl !r-r ation,
Cc-cr-dii^,ation posiiion,poiyrner-isaiiorr ernrJ Linl<aqc:
isonrer-isr The:ories of '--onding e,rplained bi,; va lanr-r, l-rortr-!
thorrr^y,.
App i'r- ilr
V
ir':r of
conrp
ieres in
Oxidation Sle-;e-Oxirjat
qL:a
ritat ive 6,,u quant it.-rt ive
Ar-ra ry,s
i5.'
ion Nlmha!.1 ^, r.-r-., r-..
j'.,.jaii<,,, drrrj r'cruucirerr--Erecrrc,ni.
lbn."pi-u"'.;i'.""';,;;l;lr:t.;r,i,lr,
r",=ai1r1
- B'flancing Redor reaction by combination of harf
ion-e loc-tron method-React
ions invo lv inq
_2
_2+
KM.'^
No7-., Fe' , Fe'-) F"35 s.,2-h, S.4 \
,
rr*cinrJ
t I;
OorH2 OZ lonic equations for t,,rical
*,
quaI itat ive enai.,sis.
reactir:>rrs
rear-tiorrs frorrr
ic Nan:ing of simp le compounds the fol l..rw irr<.1 tvJrr,lr irr.-rr-,,
conrpounds of. variours types-oxy-acids, acid harides, o;.yztr_i<)
sa rts,
s'-rlts containing two or rnore cationic species-Acid
l-ryclr;rtes.
Sr"stenrat
=.lt=,
(S hrs.
)
"i
t.r t
-:4: I
Mari,.s:
Otrest
Sec t
Cb
ion PaPer
ic)n
Mocje
I
A
1O rtuesi
i()n (oti'. of i.Sj to be answered each
:ai'rY i^rg
2 marks
30 Marks
SO. I t(ri-t d
4
cirrcst
5e'c t
rr'n
ions (crrt of 6) to be answered eactr carry ing 5 -manks.20
Marl<s
L
rnark's" !o M"vLs
2 rt,r(,st ic,rs (otit of 4) to be answened 'ach carry ing 1OTotal
70 Mar^[<s
Text Bocks
l.
2.
Cornpanion A.L. Chernical bonding Tata Mc' Grar rv Hill'
BCil c.F. a;nc.l Latt Modern approach to lnorg;anic
C l-renr
is t r5'
Brtiicrr.oo'i11n L'riclt->n.
l-ooJ.0.
Co'''isc IncirganicChernist'rv E'L'f 'S'
3.
(liircirtir
Ftrncamental concepts <,,f lnorganir. Ci'r^nristr'",
i.S.
L.
K;roa[<rtsl'ra Co Ltcl ., TokYa.
5. M'rrrcll i N Ketlr S.F.A. ancj Tedder^. J.l'r. V.-'enr-y Ti-rer>r;' !Yiley'
6,. Br-orr i-, G I . A ne\! gr-r iCie r.O Modern va lerrcy Theory Longnrinns'-cict-rrn
i. Cotror-i A.F. ar-rcl Wilkinson G Basic lnorgatric l;'ienristry ln'.er
S. C.rrri l<i Ev,an S I noi--can ic i^eaci, ,cns and sti^ucttli c Acacienr ic Pre.-'s.
iu.
ll.
u(lorr! oi ,rrwr"iJbi-riC v.leii-'i5ii-'y
Vi5 Uoi'nDay'
L Loliesle Li,e;-risti^y
il .rr ,,rrg1 itr,'r-icXi
i-'ai-i-Fiing
i-J:J.
,,2, Pi.|^i anci Shanm.a Tr,xi ?,ook of lnorgani.: Chemistry Na5;irr anrl
CcrnPany.
i3. l$ar,kU G S Theo;^itical Pr^,nciples of lnorgarrir- Clrr:nri:-'l|y I;tl;r
ir4egr:" Hiil.
iL- Ra.c C N i] uinive;^sit5r General Chemistry Vikas
y Su'ta.rn Ch;r: rl rrrrl Sr'' '
5. Soni P L Text Bcol< of lnorganic Chemistr
y''rr;lisis
EL33 a''16,.;tL'.'i
Tc... l.,-)k -'Q+u-'"iiar'''"'
'1
Reference
i
BccL<:
Cotion FB
Sc
e.
.a
\t'i lk
inson G Advariced I n Organ ic Chemistry I nter
ience.
E lsovic'w
2- ilesiop R B anc.l Robinson P.L. ln Organic Clrerrr istry
e'
Vo' i
:mistrY
ln
Organic.
R'J
.P.
Williarrs
3. Philips C.S.G and
I I C larendor,.
t-. Me iier^ T I n Ongan,'- Chernistry
5.Sencer*son -H.T in oi ganic Chemistry Fl-'einholci
5. - llesriie R J iVrolecir iar^ Geometry Van Abstnand
F'
I
.?
I
f
, a
_.tr,.._
C
.:.F':R
II-
ORGANIC CHEMISTRY-I
Itbte
tr o x6r*o
1' stucierris are to be traineci in
working out pr-obrems invorving
foi^mur_" on- tiL basic o; oata
provided
;I.",,Ifl ?::.:i.;;ructunat
?'
3.
4'
l;"::;::;ir';_='.]rj"T.= are expecrec' ro be derived onry in cases
reect ions ane expected
;::?,:.::=.i= "t
:l:t';?:':
interpre:at ion
on
ry in cases specif ica I ty
of the reactivity of
funct ionar sroups is
groups-iiomo Iogy .
iI
slZ
i'''ln
iq.rene:.
anC c-
canbon-Hybriciisat ioi-,
:i.
h,",.ri^i.d;s=i
io--_r..'.-
of o.b ita is in
/ t
car-bo:_, <n?
uv I I u_:
' ', u, v\ir.,
iLreu..-o;-,
l^^-^-cisplacei.*rer,ts
ii-r
_^r-on.rar,,.^
consccrijences-incJuci ive,
"'",-._::s
efrec-:-Hype:ccn, ugat ive effect-ore;^
"i..i.J;;;;.
ic effects- i i r usirei ions.
' r I
! ^
\-() na.Fr) t
uioi-rCi
a..r""";::i:
(7
Hours)
Q
hours)
-^
.:
t
$.a
-:6: -
t
Mechani.-cm of addition to alkenes-Electrohilic
and
tvpe-s imrr le examp les-Markown ikoff ,
s ru le-perox ide ef fect.
free rarJical
Concept of aromat icity Benzenoid and
non_benzenoicl arornat
s ru re aromat ic iiy in cat ion ic and anion
ic state ferrocene.
Hrrcke I'
ir_s_
ene.
compounds_il lustnated
by
(
'''i.
JllU.-z-
.-
l)rer);'rt'-1 t i.,n
rnrl
^^^^-- r
lerl i.t; r- h= lr,r,a^1 .^l^.^,,,_.^.-
<._-,-i::.,
:;
n"* o.,o "r:.5'.nl;I.:J":'.'"= "t
Nuc leoph i lic subst itut ion
react ions-Effect
of
reac t iv i t y-Stereochem istry
I n vers ion
tr
muscone
3n ,-^,,--
\
rolur u-\,gllgra I lnelhnrlc r,l
rrrroi y ,I
Pr
i.ji.iinai^y
ser.Or1 6.np,,
se'.()n(
ai-r,!
..y,
aikanes-Vinvl
chloricie - alyt <-htori,,rc,
,,,,
_:.,
-i\,...r,.-.
,,.=
in a lky I ha I ides-mechan ism
structure
of
a lky
of nucleophi I ic subsiitut
I
Srr t anrl 3rr2
gr^oup on
ion
- Wafden
of
Mechanism of elimination
in alkyl halides (gt ancl E2)
saytzeff's rute - eliminationneactions
e"a..ple.
Ary I lra I ides - ch roro, bromo
and iodcbenzens, ch roroto ruenes r>enzy
chloride, benzar chroride
,
ano benzotricr,lorioe pneparatir>n_Gen.,
r
ar
ii.iJ,,:t.io:t.ll,oJ:canbons with hatosen
l" 1r,.
ism of nuc leoph ilic subst itut
involving benzyne intermediail.
in aryl halides_substitution
Mechan
ion
nucreus
.n.r
(tz
ha !os.-r.r
hours)
t
rlf r.
€'
-i7i-
vl
organ<;me'ailic compounds: prcparation,
synthetir r1.--,6... ir i-r,j
rtlr f 11p6'
':'tnoFcJ Reagents-organozine (()(nQ()t_tnr1s-[?r:f.,r
"f
rnar._v../
r-car t ion-Or<.;ar-r iurm aornpoJn
ds_tt eir Llses_Leacl
5f
tetr-aethy l.
(0 hours)
Vll
Hydroxy compounds:
A lc ol.ro ls
-C la ss if ic a t ion_nomenc la t u re
ntat ion-Porvder a lc_ohol_Unsatr.,ratcrl
n d benzy I a lcoho l-rncn t ir,lrr orr ly
.
panation of monohyclric phenols_
and uses-pn€paration of r:lihyrlrir_
heno ls-uses
(propert ies
n.)l
s only.
Nittophenols-p icric acid-aminophenols-pheny I esters_pheny
I ethens
(a n iso le, phe n ito le)-prepar
at ion-Mechan ism of Fr ies Rearr.rng.rrc.nr
C la isen rearrangement.
,
Ment io.r <-rf name r^eact ions such as Kolbe-scl-rmidt,
--"" -'' Reimer-T
-"i.,iernanrr arrrl
Hcrosch reacti<>ns expected
2f.trttt7.)
vIII
rlf
ltr
Ethers and Epoxidies:
o?[-:Ol^S Prenar:linri
,rf
Nomenclature, isomeris..,, and pr-eparAti.rr
\i-.-:,r.
rri-,,t
^r!-^^
xI
carbony I
l<etones-Genena I
compunds:
Nomencrature of
;-r rrrerrrzrroc
Meflrods of preparat ion ancJ genera r p..rpe.t i.,-_i.l ..r
,I
a lcJehy des and ketones w ith spec ia I
reference to the forma lclehy rlr,,
acetaldehvcle, crotonaldehyde, banzaldehyde, cinnamic
arrJehyrrr:,
acetone,
butanoue_2. acetonhennnc
F.a^=a^r__.^^.^ _
-,:;:.i',o.,=
- ( r i-;ct-i,-,,de -,-,d tuuiria... M.;;i;; .i;;;.
"I,l'Jil"".ll
R<'sonn Lrnd
recllrct ion,
Etard, s
react ion,
Son:melet, s
nrethorJ.
G'rtter-rnann-Koch synthesis.
cannizzaro reaction, clasisen sc.hnrirjt
reaction, Penkin's reaction, Claisen condensation,
Knoer.,en.rqel
react ion expected.
llechanism of pinacor-pinacolone rear^ransrement anrr [3r-r
[7v1.-,,,,,
rearrangement expected-Tests to dist ingu ish between a lrl-,lr; <les
;rrrrl
k
etones
.
( 12 lr.r'rr-s
)
X
Carbohydrates: C lassif icat ion-manuf actuse, r€ctr_t ions anrl uses rtf
f ruc tose ,
,
suc.ose
ma ltose
nd
lac tr.-se- I? irrr;
str-trctr'lres-configr-rration of monosaechar-ides viz. a threoser
eryiSr()se,
arab inose, mannose, g lucose and fruetose-Ascent anrJ rJescent
in
a ldoses-lnter-conversion
of
aldoses
;rrr,l
ketoses-enimrisation-mutanotation-Elementary
of starcrr ;rrrrl
cellulose (including industriar uses; stnucturestucly
not expecter:1.)
g ltrcose
( l.
ho,rns
t
\l
-:8: PAPER
III -
INORGAIJIC CHEMISTRY
,t
a
II
(95 hrs)
Not e
such
Group discussion means discussion based on physical pr-operties
lonic
and
atomic
valency,
electronic conf iguration,
as
ancl
radit-ionisation potentiil, eleciron affinity, electronagativi:y,
physical
ancl
of
comparison
oriclation states, of the elements;
of
oxv-acids
and
helides
chemical properties of hydrides. oxides, gr^adat ion in proper^ties so
the elements: Similarly in properties and
as to just if y the pcsit ion of the elements as a group in the per iodictable and diagonal relationship wherever applicable'
manufacture ancl Lrses,
l. Hydrogen: Position in the periodic table,
preparat ion, propert ies and uses of a llotropes and isotopes of
hydrogen-Hydrdes:-ClassificationrPreParation;propertiesandUses.
(: hns. )
ll.
Chemistry of 's' b lock elements:
-The alkali metals: Group discussion, comparison of properties
Afrnorrnal
bicarbcnates'
and
carbonates
of c-,xides, hydroxides,
as
Behaviour of Lithium Alkali metals in liquid ammonia
(S
hour s)
reduc ing agents; photoclectric cell'
of bery ll ium
b) Alka line earth rre^ra ls: Gr^oup discussion, comparison
properties
and
ion,
Preparat
rvith other eleme nts an.i aluminium.
a)
I
r
ii
a)
Chenris'rr-y of 'p'
Litx-k eierrtertts:
n ith
The bor^on f arnily : Group discussion, relat ionsh ip of borr'
"v
rlr",
lpi6v'.i
boron
of
silicon; preparation, properties and uses
arrrl
cliborane
nitride'
bor-ic acid, borax, boron tnifltrnride, boron
anrl
bcrazols, stnucture of diborane; Lithium aluminit.rmhydricie
i'tr'r'i
ir>t''rt it'r'
:rrJlitm
bOrOi,y(j-iCie-i-r,.:i)ara'Lioir:
Di-Oirr!-iiE5
ai-rCl
'''
test ancl uses of hhlides and Catalyst:
carbcn, their
b)The carbon family. Gr-oup discussion; allotropes of classification;
structure and propenties.- Carbides and their
icle,
Preparat ion, propert ies, Structure and USeS of Car^bon 169nq)<
Carbon disulpiride, silica, silica gelt, Carborundum, ancl silicones'
Glass-types anc rnanUfacture; silicates-classificatiorr, exanrples
(a hrs)
and structune
c)ThenitrogenFarnily:Groupdiscussion;allotropesrlfand strtlc-trJre ttl
phosphorous'; Preparat ion, propert ies, uses
(including anions) ammonia: hydrazine, hydrazoic acicJ'
hydroxylamine,nitrousoxide,nitricoxide,nitrogenclioxide'
.J
a,
-:9:r
pentoxide: nitrous acid and nitric acid, nitrites r)rJ nitrates.
Phosphorous tr iox ide :,rd pentox ide: phosphorous .-rr irr
phoqphoric acid, meti' cncJ pyrc,phesphoric acir-is, orlrr
phosphates, Phosphine, a.
and stibine, fixation of .,it.og".,,
nitrogen cycle and inorg i'ric fertilizers.
Liquid ammonia
solvent: Minror test for .rrsenic and ant imc,-ry pc,isons. ( lo hrs.as)
<1
,
oxygen f amily: Group discuss ion, a r rotropes of oxygen and
lphur:
Preparat ion, propert ies, uses and structrrre of
hvdrogen sulphide, sulphur dioxide, sulphurous acid, sulphur
trioxide, sulphur^ic acid, thionyr chroride, chlorosulphonic acicl
sulphuryl chloride, oleum, penmono and per <Jisulphuric acids,
sodium thiosulphate: hyposulphite and metabisulphire-oxicje:, and
their c lassif icat ion-uses of seleniun,.
Tl're
cl)
su
(A horrrs)
The halogen family:
Gr'oup discussion; peculiarities of
fluorine,-Preparation, properties, uses and structure of hydrides
of halogens: oxides and oxy acios of chlorine, iodine
pentoxide, iodic acid and per iodic ac.id; hypoc-hlorites,
ct-rlorates, perchloratesr peFiodates and bleaching powcter -Basi<
nature of iodine, interhalogen compoundsl pseucJohaloqens anrJ
polvhalicJe ions.
(g h.rrtr.)
e)
T!,.. zero Group cf elements: Group discussion; impor-tance ctf
ic conf iqurat icn, occurrence,
ion ancl separat ion
(Cl-rarcoal adsor^ption method onIy) isolat
ancj Lrses-preparatiorr
propert ies and .;tructure of holides. ox ides ancj oxvl-ra iicjes of
f)
electron
lV Chemistry of ,d, block elements:
I Character-isiics: Gnoup discussion of (a) Copper_silver
(b)
Zinc, 6admium and mencury (c) iron, cobalt, nickel
9"1.
n^-;.l.t\
t-:j'.
-* ---r
Genera
r\J?
v--.i
r!-"t,
_!r t\r,Jilt
€rt!U
anr:J
anrt
-r_-r:_
ptCLtiiulli.
V Chemistry of 'f' block clements:
((
lnc.'^s)
lectrcnic conf igur^ation, oxidation States, ionic .adii,
lanthanide
contraction-. ts causes and consequences: Colorrr anrJ magnetir
propert ies c'f thein iogs and Chemica I react ivityof tl-re elerrrentsExtract ion of lanthanides from monazite sand (.ion exc-hanqe metho<le
only)-Mineral s.rnds of Kerala occunrence, composition ancl their
E
irr
port
a nc e .
Act inides-Occurrence
and preparat ion of transunanic elernerrts.
U hortrs)
I
I
I
I
c
-: l0: -
ta
a
I princ ip les and methocis of extrar-t ive meta llrrr<;y:
VI
Genera
a)
1.;t-urrenCe of
metals-ones
and
methorjs
uncentration-slags and fluxes-nefractories.
b)
Genera I methods of extract ion and ref in ing of meta :s irrr lrrrling
Van Arke lo"o.e== and Zone ref ining.
c)
Extractive metallungies and uses of chromirrnr, n lngancsr),
nickel, thorium, uranium and titanium-Manr.rfacttrre of iron an<J
r-,1
'eir
steel.
d) Principles of extraction and uses of the follortinr; rare
I Lithium from lep dolite (acid treatment orr ly
2 Bery lium f rom bery
3. Vandium from Su lphide ore
4 Ma lyodenum from su lphide or e and
5 Tungsten frcm wolframite
rrrelals:
)
I
Vll
(15 hrs.
)
Theoretical principles of qualitative and quatitative anatysis:
Applicaticn of solubility product and common ion effect: lnterfenring
acid radicals and their elimination.
Primary standards and
standard solutions. Theory of titrations involving acids and bases,
permanganate, dichromate, iodine and liberated iodine-lndicators:
Acicl base, intennal, external and adsorption indicators-Principles of
Cclourmetric estimations and complexometric titrations.
i errors in quant itat ive ana iys is ancJ treatment of cl.-tta
Accuracy and precision, classif ication of enrons: Minirnisat ion ol
er^ror-s, calibr^ation of weighis and nreasur'irtg vessels. Preserrtat iorr
( 1o hrs. )
of results and significant figures.
Experimenta
a!-
Vl
a
)
I
I Industrial chemistry
I industries in Kera le
/\ brief study of i'ac-tor ies in
Kerala whene the following products are manufactured.
(Locat ion, raw materials used, products, chemistry involved in
the product ion and uses cn ly ) Urea, ammon ium su lphate
ammonium phosphate super phosphate of lime. D.D.T., BHC;
acids, alkalies, chlorine, Titanium dioxide, gl.rss; Sugar,
alcohol rayon and synthetic detergents.
Chemica
b) Pollution of soil, air^ and water by chemical industries anrJ thoir
prev€ nt ion.
c)
Soil testing:
p
p
hosphorous
hoton:et ry .
determination of PH; estimation of nitrogen ancJ
by colourimentric methods and potassium by flame
(z hour')
,t
a,
-: I l:Test
Book5
l' Companion - A.L.chenicar bcnding-Tata Mc Grow Hiil.
2. Be.i c F. and Latt: Modern appnoach to rnonganic
Er.rtterrvor^th, Londor
cr-rerni:-;
.
3. Lee J .D.Concise lnorganic Chemistry, E.L.B.S.
4. Gilreatl-r E.s. Fundamental concepts of lnorganic chemistry
K agal< rrsha Co. Lt d. , Tokyo.
5. Cotton A F and Wilknson - G. Basic lnorgonic_ Chemistry
6' GoLrld Evan's lno ganic reactions and structure, lnterscience
Press.
7. Parkes G.B. Meilors Modern inorganic chemistry ELBS
8. Part ington - Text Book lnorganic Chemistry ELBS.
9. Prrri and Shar ma. Text Book of lnorganic Chemistr ,,-l'Jagin anrJ Crr
10' Manku G.S. Theretical Principles of lnorganic- Cl-rr:mistry T;rt;r Mr
Grcw Hill.
11. Sori P.L.Text Book of lnorganic Clremistry Sulton Chand and
Sons.
12. Vogel A.l.Tert Book guantitative Analysis. .ELBS
13. A.K. Dc. Environmental chemistry wiely Eastern Limited.
14. .L. Jackson, soil chemical Analysis
15. Beer - Chemisrry of soi l.
16. E.cle. Barnett and c.L. wilson: inorganic chemistry-Lonqmanns green Co.,
17. A.K.Barnard, Theoretical lnorganic che mistry Tatr>-M.- Graw llill.
18. Ir^slcp and Robinson-lnorganic Chemistry, E lsevier.
19.
F.A.Cctton
and
Wikkinson.G.Advancecl
I norga rr ir|\,1
Chemistry- I ntersc ience.
20. Sanderson R.T. lnorganic Chemist;-y - Reinhold.
oADrD
l\/
OUVCtaAT
/o(JV
\
aurlltcTD\/
l-.^e
I tt J. \
'
I Gaseous State:
I cJea I gas-9as equat ion-gas constant-K inet ic theor;,-g),.press ion f oi ttrc
pnessure-Derivation of gas laws Deviation from irJeal bel-raviorrr'.
Causes fcr^ devie',icn,
Vendcr \^.,;al: cql_i;ii;1.-, \,an:.lci^ Vjaii
constants-Lim itat ions of Vander Waa ls equat ion-thc. v tr ta i ecluat ion <;l
state-Critical phenomena Critical constants and their experimental
cleterminat ion. Relat ion between crit ica I constants and Vander Wa I ls,
constants.
COntinuity of
state principle
of
corresponrl inq
st a tes-reduced
equat ion
of
state
I im it ing
density
anrl
molarmass-Distribut ion of molecular velocit ies in gases-Maxwells
equation Graphicai representation of distriburitt,r of veloc ities-Rlv1S
mean and most probable velocities-Mean free paih collision nun,ber
collisicn frequency in a simp le gas-heterogeneous collision in a
rrr irtu-e of gases
'7
Pi
o
Ir
_:12:_
Liquefact
ion of
demagnet isat ion.
gases
I
.tl
Linde
an<J claucJers
irrocess
?
! 'r-op€rt ies of Liqu
ids
i'
Viipour
pressLre
and
its
measut-emenI
tension-viscosity_flu idity (No
experin:enta I determinat ion)
II
I
t
rcliab.at ic
lrrs.
)
srrnf ace
Thermodynamics_l
COncept of tempenature_different
forms of energy_The rmo rjynamir_a
ilibrium c losed op€n and isolated
properties.
=y=r"rn=_uxten.-< ivc, ._lrrrl intens i,.u o
rsother rar-adiabatic-isoc;;";;_isobarir_r.ve,rsir>re
equ
I
rrreversible processes. F irst
._.,..,
law of therrnodynarnics_inter_na
en€rg),-entha lpy_Heat changes
at cons tant pressure and constant
r'ol'me r'eversibre pror"t"=-- and
;narimum
acliabatic expansion of ideal gas_worl<
-isothermar and
asso
relat ion in revers ib le aOiatit
with it. p_V_T
iJ prcces= i;;o
idea I sas. Heat
essure and constant vo
Re l.rt iln between
nam ie der ivat ion and
on
based on tlre
ansion for an idear gas_variation
of he.rt
ature for polyatomic gases-Eqripartiti.rr
en€nqy
ol
ef fecr-J,r.rtr,:-Ttrr;rns,r'r
coef tic ient-invers ;:T.t:;-"'.".:leLhomson
I
:;;:TiIJ-1r",n".[0, endotn":I'' reaction-s. rhe-ro
ii-:llliil;:"':;;;.J;;;,,",i.:,;tT::l;,.:,,..^i."ii:"
Frrr r:l
ili::l:1,"
chr.ry116-1
",,,r,.-,,n'',1
i.
Jiui,\rctr
(J entt-ta
lp)/
1V Thermoclvr.ramire-,)
rvJ
&
Th ird
rail of ther^modynam
Abso rute
Calcrrlation of entropy changesicsaccompanyinq
entropy-Mo rar entrop),
chemical reactions.
( t0 hrs. )
a
ai
,
V
'
-:13:-
Chemica
I
Equ i libr ium
Re'ersibre reactio.s-r
'r, of mass action-Eqt.riribriunr constants
Ki, anrJ
X:,.'lL.l_l:.,"":.o ll,i, :, ;";;. equitibrirrm constant unirs arrcr their
larv of mass act ic_.
tant-Derivat ion of the
Erperimenta I ve. 'Iicat ir
and tl-rermoclynamics
react ions isotirerm-Vani
of chernica I react ionsncJard f ree oner-qy of
I oac t iorrs,
pre
tenrpersrure-pressure-concenrratjon.
cJas
crranges alcJ _J,liJ[:
on the eqrrilibrirrm of the following
reactions.
"?(s)' l2--'
(g)
Nz+
HI
2
oz
(g)
25,02
r
Nz '
(s)
e):
-'-,
2
2so3
an,.,":l
Nil?
(g)<-
(g)
2No(n
)
(g)
oz-,
3H2
-:,
PC
l5-)
pc
ta + ,
,
,.
i
NZ Oa- -, ,NrZ.
I 1c
!.;
i
pr
tng
or
ills
..
.!u
! r.i,r |
\,,t
tf sl(-t-
rl.:r.rmna-
tl're
react
tl
a
n^ro_.^-
i,,;;'
|
-
i;;;,
;,i=l :"'l'.,.1,,1.,,,'
ll ()t.(l(,t. t..,;r.'li,rr'r
rea( lanls_[].-f ir,r;rl irrrr
trtt irtn of inter;ratr,rl
n rlI r-ir,^
( 15 hrs
-: 14:-
' ' "
photochemistry
vll
lnf lrrence ofra' 'at ion on
the rate of reacl iorrs plrr lrcrr,'i..;r
reactions-Grottr -^apen-Law Beer-Lambert Law, tr>r.
Eirrsteins
Larry-QuantL,m l'ield-chain
pnimary-Secondary
reaotions
Process-lnitiatic,, Propagation ahd termination explanation fon the
quantum y ielcl in H2-C 1 2; H2-Br2 react ions-F lrcrescence,
phosoorescence-Chemiluminescence and photo sensitisation-examplesE len:entarr- introduct ion to Radiat ion chemistry
and tlre ef fect of
Ll ltrason ic waves on chemica r react ions.
(5 hrs. )
I
vlll
Physical Properties and chemical constitution
Molar refraction-parachor-optical exallation-Application in structtrral
elLrc icl at ion-D ipolemoment-determin'at ion of cJipolemoment l:y
temper^atrJre
methocl structural elucidation.
Molecrrlar spectroscopy-originar and appli'cation of u v visible, lR,
M icrorvave-Raman and NMR spectroscop ies.
M icrowave spectra of
cl iatomic molectrles. Calculation of moment
of inertia, bondlength and
boncl stnength from microwave-lR data.
liz hr s. )
Srrf f ic
Book
ient number of
prob lems
usec.i
s fon deta i led study .
I Glasstone and Lewis
2 A J Mee
3 Daniels and Alberty
h
to b(, wonked out Sl units to be
Pr r,- i
''^-J
E
lements of Physical chemistry
Phys ica
Phys ica
HOuse.
I
I
Chem
istry
Chemistry
,
As
ian
pub I isherrs
Ct- -----
Firys rca I Lhem tstryE BD Khosia
Physicai Chemistry
9 Te'xt Eook crf Ph)rs ica Chemisti^'r; by Giassione
l0 Phys ica I Chem istry by R.P.Ver^ma
ll Physical Chemistry by Pr'attan and Maren
12 Phys ica I Chem istry by Kapoor and Kapoor
!
i-. -| !ur
ttro,
ut
I
!
PAPER
V
PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY
95 Hrs
_ II
I Solid State:
crystalline
substances-characteristics-lsotropy and an,rotropyi)l: rrents of symmetry-Laws of crystallography space
latt ic -,, latt ice
Plares-Miller indices Unit cells with unit cell diagram anrJ examples
(-rysta I
and ang les-seven crysta I systems-Brava is
lat t ir es,
simp le-Face centned and Body centred cubic systems. spac_ irrq tt[
lattice planes. Difraction of X-Rays by crystals. Bragg,s equat ion_
'4.
b
ar.
_: l5:_
i.'
! .:'^l.,sta I methorJ and pr-,w.Jer_nrr:,ttrocJ
of
,)f A _.i dro Numben_dens
i ty a nJ mo lar mass
cjala.
,.rcidation of
ctrrre of NaCl and
, rit
co_ord
".:I
"r=Jjl: tn
in c rose
crysta
n d Nonsto ich iomet
.''.,,
ri
c conduct i,, iri,
p
and
cr\stals-classification-eilt
o,"=.
I
;i;":.
t.-nr
nriconclu.ctors
mo16'rr1l6p
(
rectromot
13 trrs.
)
;F.-.:
tji:.i-iouir!)r; rretnoos. ,li-o"-r"..',
nu,',tonttil
fen .uou. i,, or eff i
;i[..=__":;J::..-Buf
'on equat ion-AFp licat ion of
inci icators.
E
:::l
a,,rJ Scl-rottky
I Electricat conductance:
lnnt(]
rv
n:"T:,";;:'.?J:,
:el
ive fonce:
ror-
liic:.:r'r<r'
.,;',
1
::::,,:,:,r
"i.,o;,",:];
lreory .f ac
irJ [rasn
( tr
hc
rrns
)
-:
16:
-
.-a
ancl electrolvte cencentnat ion cells. Equat icn for emf of conccntrat ion
cells
rvith
a rcl
junction
w ithout
tra nsference.
Liquid
potent ia l-eliminat
Redox e lectrodes redox
systenrs, rerJox
incl icalors.
App
rc)r-rS of potential measurements-Determination of
, 'ociuct of
so lub i I it y - ion ic
water,
transport numben PH
l'alr-le-hvdrogenr euinhydron ancJ glass electrodes potentiometr ic
iitrations-polarisation
over voltage and determination principle ancl
app licat ion of polargraphy-Fuel cells.
(tS hrs.
a
)
V Dilute Solutions
Concentrat ions of solut ions in molarity,
mola lity, rnolef rar-t irrrr [] ilrrtr)
solrrtions-colligative property-Rault's
Law.
Lowering r.rI vapor]r
pressr-rre measurement-Calculation of molar mass Elevation of boiling
polnt-relat ion of lower^ing of vapour pressure.
ThermocJy,namiccieri'.'ation calcurlationof molanmass. Backrgann's an<J LancJsberg's
.lrr('i f3nrl5l'reng's method. Depr^ession in Fheezing point-relal ir>r-r tr:i
lo11 5'r'itrq of V . P . Ther-modynam ic der ivat iorr ca lcu lat ion of nro lar^ mass.
N'leas'tr'('inent by Becl<mann's and Rast's methods. Osnrr>sis Osrnoticnr-essrrr-€' sem ipei^meab le membrane, its product ion.
Me.lsur-emonl of
r-.srrr,l i. nrcssrrre by Berl<e ly and Hart ley' s methor,ls Laws rtl ()qrrrr)t ir
Dressrrrf'Van't Hoff's equation calculation of molar nrass. Atrrr.rrrrr;r
nrolar ,ttasseS-VBn't Hoffs factor-Degree of dissociat ion anr.l As..,r. iat i.,rr
and lheir calculation from measurement of colligative properties.
I
( to [.lrs.
)
cir,(l suSI)ensi<>n-comparts(rn.
-..,.i,, ,,,,, qi.=:-...-ir.ue :clullc;-,-coi;ids
if fe;-cr'-,t tyl-Jes of coilicjs with examp les lyopi-rilic anci lyophobi<.
colloids and their distinc.tions. Prepar-aticn of sols dispersion anri
cond(.rnSat ion
met hods .
Purif icat ion
of
co I lo i r:Js-D ia ly s is
electro-cJialysis Ultrafiltnation.
Propert ies of colloicis-Tynda ll
effect-u itra
m icroscope-Bnown ian
movement
electrophonesis
D
f,
ler-t; rnqnr.rcic
.f:ClimetiAiiO;-,-siieairtrirtt:
nr-iienI iai<
(rFiCin
.rf
gi-L..--,;.
('rccir-ir I c;otible iayer Z'eta potential (qualitative) Coa6ulatior-r l-1 ar-clt,
Shulz rri,-.
Protective col loids-Gold number-EMulsions-Oi I in war€'r
and
i'ater
tr.
oil
types.
Emulsify,inn
agent s-Ge ls- in,' ib i t ion-s!/neres is.
lOn ic
m isce I les-App I icat ion
of
colloids. Absop'. ion-gases on solicls-solutes on solids. Absor-pt ion
isotherms-Der ivat ion
of
Langumu ir
absorpt ion
iso t herrr,
its
Llmi ation-Gibbs
a cJsonp t ion
i sot herm
statement
arrrl
exf ri.nation-Chromatog.aphy-Adsorption and partition Chr-matoqraphy
gas
and
liquid
chromatography-thin
paper
layer
anrl
chromatograp hy-Rf Va lues..
Vll Phase Rule:
( r5 t-la*rr)
involved. Thermoo', namic derivat ion of
water system-Sulphr^ s)/stem, Soliclliquid equilibria
involving simple eutectic syst(ns-Ag-Pb system
desilirzerisation of lead, salt water system-Fret'zing ntixtrrres-
Statement-Exp lanat ion of term
phase ru le. APp licat ion to
t.
t
?)r
lz17:th.ernial analysis solid liquid equil
itfrcongruent and incogruent me
rr
Absorpt ion coef f i^ ien t_Henry ' s
ly miscible icle:al and non ideal
cat ion-Vapour p ressure_c.ompo,q it ion
.r_t
curves-f ract iona I
cl
i I lat ion_
ropic mixtures-partial ly misc il--lle
licirrirls crit ica I solut ion temperature-conjugate
layers immissib le
liqrricJs-stearn distillation-Mol.wt from ste.:m disttiliation-lnflr-rence
of
imprrrill' on critical solution tempenature-Grapl-ric.al
represenrati.n
of
three comp()nent system- Nernst distribut ion Law-Derivat
ion
frr)rrr
pl'rse rr-rle and thermodynamics-Lrmitations of
the raw. Apprir,nli.rr..
of ttre la*' to studyassociation and crissociation_solr,zent
extnar tirrrr
h)'clrolvsis of salts-the quilibirum Kt+14 = K-i 6. (,; hcrus)
Note
:-sLrf f icient number
be
u
serl
o(rr.
Sl Units
ro
for detailed study:
Books
Glasstone & Lewis -
1.
of probrems to be workec
.
Mee-Phys ica
I
E
lements
of physical
Chemistry
istry
Deniels and Alberty-Physical chemistry (Asian F,,rblishinq H.rSe)
Moor-e-Ph;,5 1.u I Chem istry
AJ
2
3
It
Barrow-Phys ica
5
r
Pn.i
- .-.-
.
ilr
I
Chem
,F, Qt-rEF-.1a O1,.,-i^-t
OU AflC)Sla-Hn\,,qta^
:,
Chem
Ph..'<i,-:I
!,,.i=irqi
istr y
aL.^-:-.-
I ('!-.c,Ercir.,,
ti^^1.
)i-,r.,^-
^:
Lil
i-L rl),
r-
> :L - :
L :l'3;.Jti^i
Ci.r.-.i.
v;ic.;;irSti^;;
by R P Ver^ma
Chem istry bV Pnutten ancJ Mar.an
..tl Plrys ica I
12 Ptrysical Chenristry by Kapoor €, Kapoor
PAPER
VI
ORGANIC CHEMISTRY II
i lir irr.,
I
.
: f r.ients
are to u" tra ined in work ing out pnob lems inv.lr., irrc,
i; ling out of structural formulae on the basis, of clata prov iclcr!on u, it react ions.
f
2'
Structure---. of compcunds are expected
cases spec-iiically ment ioned.
3'
Mechanisms of reactions are expected only ir, c.ases specili..allv
ment ioned.
4.
E
to bre rjer iverJ 6n ly
ir-r
lectron ic interpretat ion of the react iv ityof ft-rnct i.na I qr.), rr)s is
erpected.
C
;(q
-:18:Carboxy lic acid and their Derivat ives:
t'
cr) M<'nocarboxy'ric acids:
romencrature-gener^ar meilrocrs of
Prepa.at ion and propert es w ithspecia
r reference to forrr ic,
'-rceticr DnoPionic and benzoic acids-asct-r,i an.l .lesr..ent I,
alipl-ratic acicJ ser^ies-structure of the carboxylate
anion-eflect of
srr[r.l ittrents orr t[-:e acidic stnength of CarborS,
lic acirls.
lr) UnsaiLrratecr. acicrs: p.eparation and pnoperties
of at_ryric acicl ,
Cr-crtonic ac,icl and Cinnamic .rcid.
c)
Deri"'ati'e*c of acidsr p.eparation anci properties
of acirj
acicJ anr-rvdrides, acid uri.J"= o.,i esre-rs-Dimr,15y;
::i:;j,::'
rl)
c)
fla loSTenated a.cicJs: pneparat ion
and pr-opert ies of nrone, di and
t r ic h loro acet ic ac icjs_uses
.
Flr,
cli^.rV
ac
icrs:
Nomenc
rature-genena r methoc]s of preparat ion ar ,l
ies and uses ol lar_t ir_ r dtrtar- ir,
,
Lrre and synthesis of citrict.-rc_irJ
nd hydroxy acids_Salic.ylic acir),
methy I
sa I ic_y latr:
arnrl sa lrri
f)
Di.arltexl,lis
acicls:
D ic
arbory I ic
.:c i,:1-preparat ion.
propert ies
C .r J> ro I ac t r: nr-p r-ep a r
a t ion
and
,:lic.arboxy I ic ac icJs
t,tiZ^
mrrl.si-
s)
;
\i'
rr
t- \
)
oilsr
ac.
irl.
arrrj
propert ies
a.^.-
..-..-,
ttl)|,)
.t.lir,i,
lses
l,l . l,,rr
Of
t,.t , r-<atrrr-atr.rl
r
soaps anC dter-gents: Occr.rrnence of fals,
ancl
their
chemical
terisiic-s-Hyc.inotysis
oil..,
of
oits Saponifir_ar;::?;:ji.';;:',,,, .r.;l:;]
nr
ctLrre Saponification value and iodine
valrre an.l llrr.ir
significance, Synthetic detergents action
of soap.
C.:, ironir acid cldr: .rL,.es.
prepar-atton,
r-tirnation anci uses of unea-manufactuneproperlios str^rrrtur c
of [rrea_THi.rrre.
Seri ir-6pgazicje-U.ea
forma rdehl,de
resins
Guanici ir.re
;-rreli. -ation-basicity of gLjanici ine.
Esters cot 'a in irlg react ive m.thy lene gnollp.
Acetoacet ic ester,
malonic est(" and cyanoacetic ester-preparation
and synthetir
r-rses-Mecrran isrr of c ra isen
conc'-nsat ion as i r rustrateri in t[-re
-s'nthesis q{ acetoacetic ester-struc.rrre of aaatrru..ti.
ester.
Qo
hrrs.
)
L
',,.;
.
-:19:.. ,
II
Nitrogen Compounds Nitro derivat ives of a lkanes-nitr.o .-r lkanes
anci
all<ly
nitrites-prenaration
and
properties
Ilitr-ot>en,-ene-Dreparat ion
and pnopert ies-recJuct ion
of
nrocluc-ts
n itrnben,-ene
in
various
media
benzicr ine
rear-rangement
nre<'1r.1 nisrr'-irr-tlinitrobenzene-TNT-preparation
and-uses-Alkyl cyanicles,
isocvarr rr.ies ancl isocyonates-ment ion on ly.
Amino Cc.rnrDotrndS: Aliphat ic amines nomenc latur^e-isomerisrn 7o 2o
,
,
3' '-lnr ines-Genera I methocis of preparat ion and propert ies D inst inct
ion
betiveen l', 2n , 3" amines-their separation from a mixture of the
three-cornparat ive basicity of the three types lo, z" ancJ 3r_
Cauternary ammonium compounds.
Arrrmatic anrines aniline-preparation and properties synthesis ,tf
tr'l'rirJines. benz-vl amine, N-Methyl aniline-N, N-dimethyl anilirre anrJ
niri-rirthi'l anrines-their propert ies.
(tz [rrs. )
III
D iazo
compounds: D iazomethane-preparation and synthet ic
rr.eS-Dia.'r,aceiic aster-pi-eparation
and synthetic
uses_Benzone
r I i 3.'6161 i r.rrr: r tr lor i rle-prep
ara t ion-sy n t het ic uses-structure.
(A hrs.)
l'-/ Sulphonic acicls and SUlphus Compounds: lntroduction
to
term-c
saccharin-synthesis and uses-Sulp,ha
cJrlrgs
srrcl'-, ar: f"{'f-.anlen. srrlpt-roricle, Sulphonet and sulphonic,lirrl<
rvitl-r
p'.;1 v:rJrlp< Ber,,rene srr lgrhonic acicJ,
to lrrene sulphonic aci,:i . tolqenp
srrlnlro'r', I rhloricle-preparation,
properties, and uses s;ulphanilic
acirl.
(
rrren t
srrlllltanilanlina,
iorr on lr )
S
v
Amino acicJs, polypeptides and proteins
Arpha amino
.:cicls-cl.rssification-acicic, basis and neutr^al-synthesis 6f qlycine
<rlcrnine pheny .-rlanine tryptophan and cystine-Z witter ior-r property
of amino acicls isoelectric point Sorensen titnation Elementary stg(ly
of polrr'peptides ancl proteins .€lassification of proteins-qeneral
characteristics-clenatt,rratiorr hydrolysis-peptide synthesis-nrrr-le-prrrteirrs
RNA. DNA. their biological role-enzymes-an elementar y treatrnentclrar.rcter ist ics of enzyme act ion
( n hrs. )
Heteocvclir cornporrnrJs: Defihition and classification-nomer,clatrrr-e of
five an<J Si: rnemberen r ings containing one ann two clature of f ive
and s ix n)ernbt-.'aci r ings conta in ing one and two ident ica I
cJ if ferent
hetero atonrs-Pre.'aration /synthesis and properties of the followinq
comporrncls: Pyrrolt. furan thiophene, pyridine,
indole.
cluinoline
and isoquinoline (Derivation of structu.es not expected)-lvlontion ot
pyran and pyrimidine-compa.ison of br,sic strengths ol p5,;-role,
pyridine ancJ piperidine-Hoffmnn's exhausti',e methyiation its applierl
to piperidine
(n trrs.)
vll
rerpenes: occunrence, crassif ication, senenal methor1s of
isolarion' ancl gener'al characteristics-lsolation
of citral and
geerniol.-incltrcling elucidation of structure-isopl one rule-natrtr.rl
rubber (e lementary treatment )-synthet ic rubber-B, , 1as , Buna N,
neoprene, th ioko l-uses.
( Z hrs. )
7
a
I
i
I
i'
I
$
-:2O:-
Vlll
t
Alkaloids:
Occurrence, general methods of
ion of cont ine
synthesis-met ion of nicot ine.
uses- iso lat
lX
and
ion, genera propert ies and
ine inc lu d ing structure and
(a hours. )
iso lat
p
iper
I
Dyes:
C lass if icat ion based on structure and mode of appl ication- Synthesis
of the following dyes:
Azo dyes
TPM dyes
Phtha lein dyes
Vat
dye
Anthraquinon dye
Methyl brange, Congo red, para red
Malachite Green, rosaniline, Crystal Violet
Phenolphthalein, f luorescein, cosin
lndigo
Alizarin (elucidat ion of structure of alizt in
expected.
)
Relation betweencolour and chemical constitution.
X lsomerism:
isomerism-Keto-enol
functional gnoup and position
tautomerism-Stercoisomerism-geometnical isomer ism due to nestricted
rotation about a double bond-examples-lsomerism due to restricted
Confonmat ions of n-butane and
rotat ion about a sing le bond
cyclohexane4ptical isomenism Elements of symmetry-Chirallit;r
mod if iat ions-d iastercomens-opt ica I
Conf igurat ion-enant iomens-racem ic
lsomerism of lactic and tantaric acids-optical isomenism without
presence of asymmetnic carbon il lustnated by a I lenes and b iptreny lsR and S conf igunat ion w ith reference to compounds conta in ing one
conf i g urat ion-Met hods
of
carbon-abso lute
asymmetn ic
(ts hrs. )
reso lut ion-Asymmetn ic synthesis.
Chain,
Xl
Spectroscopy
lementary ideas of
he
ion
of
spectics-spectnoscopy to' simple organic systems.
E
Text
Book-s Recommended
t
app I icat
for both I €, I
lR,
UV and MR
(a hrs. )
I
Organic Cr,:mistny, Vol I - l.L Finar-Longmans
Organic Cher,-.istry, - MOnnison and Boyd - Prentice Hall
Organic Chemisir^y -Hendickson, Crm & Hammond
3
4 Organic Chemistr^y S.M.'Mukhenji, S.P. Singh €, B.P. Kapoor
Wiley Eastenn
5. Onganic Chemistry - S.N. Mehrothra, K.S Tewani €, N.K.Vishnoi-Vikas
?. Principle of Reactioi'r Mechanisms in Organic Chernistry-Parmar t
Chawla - Sultan Chand & Sons.
8. Reaction mechanism in Organic Chemistny - S.M. Mukherji O S.P.
Singh - Mac Mi llan.
9. A guide book to Mechanism in onganic Cherristry Peter Sykes
Onient Longmans.
10. Physical Onganic Chemistry-J.Hine-Mc Graw H ill.
I
2
a- t.
-:21
t
:
-
PAPER V I I
POLYMER CHEMISTRY
-
I
(gs hrs.
l.
Basic concepts of polyer^ Science
lymer sc ience - H istor^ ica l Deve ropment pnesent
c lassif icat ion of porymens-Homo porymer
coporymer
Po
(
)
to hrs. )
status
- L inear
branched and cnoss rinked porymens - graft
and
brock
Rubbers - prastics - thermo prastics - thenmo:setting coporymers
prastics
f ibres - characteristic features of each.
Natura I and Synthetic polymers
Basic concept of monomers
functionality - Morecurar weight and
rrrorecurar weight
distnibut ion - Degr^ee of polymenisaf ion.
2. Moleculan forces and chemical bonding in polymens
(
cysta ll in ity gnd amorphous beha, ior" of po rymerslO hns. )
cha in
confonmat ion (bas ic idea on ry ) Tg €, Tm
po rymer so rut ion
criteria of solubilityof polymers fr'actionation swelling of cnoss
I
3.
inked polymers.
Po lymer isat ion
Adcjit iona
I
( lt*
hrs.
)
polymer isat ion
Free radical poymerisation _ initiation pnopagat ion
and
termination- lonic polymer isation _ cationic and anionic
polymerisation - types of monomers which porymerise
ionicairy;
initiation - pr-opagation and ter-mination
4.
Condensat
ion
po lymer isat ion
(14 hrs.
)
L inear' condensat ion Extend of react ion
Polymerisat ion - thnee dimensiona I polymerisat ion
_ degr-ee of
..o=, link ing
gel point - nearrangement and ring scission- polymerisatlon
co-o.dinat ion porymenisat ion -steneo - negu ran porymer isat
ziegler - Natta catalyst - tacticity in p-olymers cis ion
- bans
isomerst
'
5.
iques of po lymen isat ion
( t S hr^s. )
Bulk polymer.isation - solution polymenisation _ suspension
polymenisat ion - emursion porymeniiation. Advantages
and
disadvantages of these different techn iques.
6.
Characterisat ion of polymer^s.
Molecular weight distribution-Number avenage - weight average
v iscos ity avenage. M. wt app r icat ionj of co r r igatibe propert
ies
for molecular weight determination _ End group analysis
ultracentrifue - Solution viscosity and morecurar size
(E lementary study only)
Techn
Gg
I
permeat
ion chno
matogr-ap hy
.
r\
_.))._
7
.
I
Natura
Po
lymers.
Natura I nubber - Latex co I lect ion and treatment compos it ion and
structure, Drry natural rubbe, modified rubber-s. Cellulose
cellulose based polymer products - cotton - rayon - cellulose
n itnate - cel lu lose acetate etc.
8.
I
norgan
ic
po
(S hrs.
lymer-s
)
lementary study only) Phosphoros and Nitr ogen containing
Polymers, Boron Nitrogen Polymers Organometallic metallic
chelate polymers.
(E
Reference Books:
1. A text book of polymer science - F.W. Billmeyen, John Wiley
€,
Sons.
2. Polymer Science. V.R. Gawar^ikar, N.V.Viswanathan, J.Sreedhar,
Wiley Eastern Ltd., New Delhi.
3. Rubber Technology New York.
Manr^ice Mor-ton
- Van Nostrand - Reinhold
PAPER VIII
POLYMER CHEMISTRY II
Commer ica
1.
I
Po
lymers
Rubber s:
fo I low ing
Manufactune, Genenal Propert ies €, app licat ions of the
nubbers - Natuna I nubber, stynene-butadiene rubber,
Polybutadiene, poly isoprene, butyl rubber, ethylene propylene
rubber, neoprene (Polychlor^oprene rubber)
I ity
rubbers - Propert ies and app I icat ion - h),upa lon,
silicons, acnylics, polyunethanes, fluoro carbons, thermo plastic
Spec ia
e
2.
lastomers.
(ts hrs. )
ic - THermop last ics and thenmosets, manufacture, propert ies
and app!ciation of the following plastics - polyethylene
polypropy iere-polystynene-polyV iny I ch loride.
P
last
ies and uses of polymethy I methacny late and other acry lic
lastics. Polyariides - ny lon 6, ny lon 66, anomat ic amides viz.
Propert
p
aram i des .
ic polyesters - unsatunated polyestens.
Poly canbonates - aceta I resins Polypheny lene oxides - Polysulphones.
Thermop last
3.
(ZO hrs.
)
ies and uses of pheno I ic res ins - unea forma ldehy de
(S hrs. )
resins - Melamine -fonma ldehyde resins.
Propent
l_
f
t
-223:Polymer Technotogy
?.
\
I
'
Latex ' process ing - Presenved f ie ld latext
Latex concentnat ion
by processes
r ike centn if ug in9 and cream ing
- r ibbed smoked
sheets - techn ica I ly speclt ieO so I id b lock fonms
super ior
processing rubber^s.
Latext compounding - dipping
Latext foam rubber - Moulding
and casting - Latext spreading( 10 h;;.j
5.
Plastics processing - Processing aids plasticizens
- extenders
F i I lens - ant iox idants - Acce re.atons
- co lonants etc.
Process techniques.
lnjection moulding - compression moulding - brow mourding
transfer moulding
rotatio ral moulJing _
callendering - foaming and raminating process. extrusion
(No detaired
study)
(rS hrs.)
6.
Rubber Processing:-, Addit ives used in rubber
curing systems - ant idegradants - p last icizers compounding
and f iller s
colorants - browing agents. Mastication - mixing
- two roil
mill - intennar mixe.s - extrusion - calender^ing - vulcanisation
(tlo detailed study)
(tS hrs.)
Testing of Polymer^s and polymer products. lntroduction to
test ing of po lymers and po lymen products standard organ
ions
like ASTM, BlS, BS, DtN, ISO etc. (No detaileO stuCy) ( isathns.)
in
propent ies-Tens ile
stnength-E longat ion
at
break-modulus-lmpact test-Handness
cneep
stress
relaxat ion-Dynamic
Stness-stra
fatigue-Viscometers-rheometens-prastimeters-testing
erastic
pnoperties-scr^och-cure time-optimum cure time-meltfor
flow
index.
(On ty basic study)
(e hrs. )
References:
l.
2.
3.
4.
.
Polyrer Science - v.R.Gowariker, N.v.viswanathan, J.sreedhar
Wiley Eastern Ltd. , New Delhi.
A text boox of polymen science .F.w.Billmeyer. John wileye t,
Sons.
Plasric Mater^ials - J .A.Bryolson.
Rubber Technology - Maurice Morton. van. Nostrand. Reinhord
New
York.
5.
Rubber Technology & Manufacture. c.M.Blow. Butterworth.
..'\
-a
l.o
t
\
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