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UNITI / l) MAIN
UNIVERSITY OF CALICUT
B Sc PHYSICS
MAIN SYLLABUS
( 2000 ADNIISSTON ONWARDS)
PAPER 1. ELECTRONICS & COMPUTER SCIENCE
UNITI (12 hrs / 7 marks)
l) Semiconductor diodes and its rectification characteristics: Half wave, full u,ave,
bridge rectifier and their efficiency, nature of rectified output, ripple factor. Filter
circuits - capacitor ftlter, chock-input frlter and capacitor input filter. Voltage
stabilization - zerrer diode and its equivalent circuit - Voltage stabilizer circuit.Voltage Multipliers (Section 9.1 to 9.21 of V K Mehta)
2) Transistors: NPN & PNP type transistors-action of a transistor - transistor as an
ampliher - the three transistor configuration - their input and output characteristics,
current aniplihcation factor- their relationships - comparison of ttu'ee conhgurations
inJluence of .t'emperature - load line analysis - operating points biasing - need for
biasing selection of operating point bias - stabiiization r"qriru,rr.rt of. biising circuits,
fxed bias, collector to base bias - bias with emitter resistor, voltage divider bias ,
calculationof resistance foragiven operating point (section 10.1to 10.17 & 11.1
to 11.11 of V K Mehta)
UNIT II ( 17 hrJ 10 marks)
3) Transistor.Amplifters: Single stage ampliher circuits - working - equivalent
cireuits, load line analysis, voltage gain and power gain- Multi stage transistor amplifier
- Frequerry response, decibel !oir,, Uond width -'RC couplecl amplifrers -transistor
coupled amplifigr- direct coupled arnplifier. Power *pffr"i, (qualiiative study only)
classification of power amplihers
(Section L2.ltol2.9 & 13.1 to 13.5 & l4.ttol4.4 ofVKMehta)
4) Feed badk circuits & Oscillators: Basic principle - negative and'positive feed back
- basic type negative feed back circuits - negative current feed back transistor circuits.
Effect of positive feed back, requirement of oscillation different types of oscillator
circuits ' tuned oscillator, Harley, colpitts, crystal, phase shift osiillators and
expressionforfrequency (section 15.1 to 15.7 & 16.1 ro 16.12 &16.14 to 16..16 of
V K Mehta)
5) Hybrid parameters: Input impedance, current garn, and voltage gain of linear
circuits in terms of
H-parameters - Transistor constants in,terms of h-parameters. Determination of
transistor h-parameters
(Section 26.1to 26.9 of Y K Metha)
UNIT
III
( 15 hrV
9 marks)
6) Modulation and demodulation:
Transmission and reception of radio
waves - types of modulation- AM- limitations of AM, AM circuits - FM and
advantages of it over AM - demodulation - linear diode demodulator for AM
signals ' circuit diagram of straight receiver - block diagram of superhetrodine
receiver. Pulse code modulation (PCM) and its application in digital
communication
(Section 18.1 to 18.18 of V K Mehta &27.9.4 of Guptha and Kumar)
euF/lz{D
,7) Special
{evices: LED, SCR, Diac, Triac, UJT, FET, MOSFET, LCD, IC (basic
ideas of fabrication and action only) tunnel diode (section 2l.l to 21.12 & 22.1 to 22|7
&23.1to 23.9,23.11,23.12 of Y K Mehta & section 4.32 of Gupta and Kumar)
8)Basic Operational Amplifier: OPAMP -Basi0 Symbol-OPAMP Applications Inverting Amplilrer, Non inverting Ampliher-Summing' ampliher-Analog Integration
and Differentintion. (Millman)
UNIT IV ( 20 hrV 14 marks)
9) Number systems: Binary numbers - decimal to binary and binary to decimal
conversion - binary addition and subtraction - multiplication and division
compliment addition and subtraction - BCD, ASCII, Octal and Hexa decimal numbers
(section 2.1to 2.1,2 of Thomas C Bartee)
10) Bootian algebra and Logic Gates: NOT, OR, NOR, AND, NAND,XOR gates Basic laws of Boolean algebra - De Morgan's theorem and du{ity - Gate network
design (section 3.1 to 3.77 and3.2l to 3.23 of Thomas C Bartee)
11) Logic circuit design: flip-flops, Clocks - Gated flip-flops, Master slave flip-flops
shift iegisters binary counters - BCD counters (secti<in 4.1, 4.3 to 4.9 of Thomas
-
-
C Bartee)
UNIT V ( 16 hrs/ 10 marks)
12) Arithmetic and Logic Units (ALU): Half adder, Full adder
adder - I's compliment
-
parallel binary
And 2's compliment addition - addition and subtraction in a parallel arithmetic element
- Multiplexers. Floating-point number systems (basic idea only)(section 5'3 to 5'9,
5.20 & 5.23 of Thomas C Banee)
1.3) Memory Element: RAM : basic memory cell- linear select memory organization.
Decoders -tree decoders - balanced decoders - ROM - ROM layout, diode ROM.
(section 6.1 to 6.3 &.6.9 of Thomas C Bartee) .
,
14) Analog Signal Input Output devices: Digilal to analog converters - Analog to
digital converters -Flash converter (2 bit) (section 7 .14 to 7.18 of ThomaQ C Bartee)
Text Books for studv
l) Principles of Electronics by V K Metha
2) Hand Book of Elbctronics by Guptha & Kumar
3) Digital Computer Fundamentals by Thomas C Bartee
Books for Reference
t) U".t o"i"s Devices and Circuits by Allen Motershed
2) Digital Principles and Appiications by Malvino and Leech
3) Electronics Principles by Malvino
4) Basic Electronics & Solid State by B L Theraja
5) Integrated Electronics by Millman and Halkies
'2
e.u?/zey'o/ze1
. B sc PHYSICS
UNIVERSITY OF CAI-,ICUT
MAIN SYLTABUS ( 2000 ADMISSTON oNwARDs)
PAPER II -ELECTROPYNAMICS
UNIT
I
(22 hrs/12 marks)
1 Electrostatics
!
Electrostatic field-Coulomb's law, eleitric held, continuos charge distributions,
Electric field due to a line of charge -Divergence & Curl of electrosiatic
field - Field
lines & Gauss law, The divergence of E, Applications of gauss law
Curl of E - Electric
potential - Comments on potential, Poissonls equatiori and Laplace 'equation,
The
potential of a localized charge distribution - Electrostatic boundary conditions
- Work
& energy in electrostatics - The work done in moving a charge, ih"
of poiirt
"n"rgy
charge distributions , The energy of continuor .h*g" distribution-Comments
on,
Electrbstatic energy - Conductors - Basic properties of conductors - Induced
charges ,
The surface charge on a conductor - The force on surface charge Capacitors
(Section 2.7 to 2.5 of Griffith)
2) Special Techniques for calculating potentials
dimensions, Laplace equation in two
s-Boundary conditions and uniqueness
s theoiern-The method of images-the
charge, force and energy, other image
problems
(Section 3.1 & 3.2 of
Gffith)
-
.
a
UNIT ll (22 hrsll2 marks)
3) Electrostatic field in matter
Polarization - Dielectrics , Induced d.ipoles , Alignment of polar
molecules ,
Polarization - The field of a polarized object - Bound
, physical interpretation
"h*g",Airpla"ement of bound charge , The field inside a dielectric - 'Ihr ei*ctrical
G^auss law
in presence of dielectrics - Linear dielectrics susceptibility permittivity
,
, dielectric
constant , special problems involving linear dielpctrics
,."r".gy in dielectric systems ,
Forces on dielectrics -polarisability and susceptibility
(Section 4.'l to 4.4 of Griffith)
4) Magnetostatics
The Lorenz force law - magnetic fields, cyclotron motion; cycloid motion
-Currents *
I,inear, surface & volume current density Biot and Savart law
The
magnetic
field of
steady current - Divergence & curl of B - Straight line currents -Applications
of
Magnetic field of a Toroidal coil - Comparison of Magnetostatics &
electrostatics - Magnetic vector potential-Vector potential - Magnetostatic boundary
conditions (Section 5.1 to 5:4.2 of Gritrith)
amperes law
-
IJNIT lll (24 hrs/14 mars)
5) Electrodynamics
Faraday's law - Electro magnetic induction, inductance, energy in magnetic fields'
law
Electrodynamics before Maxwel - Maxwell's modification of Amperes
Maxwell's equation and magnetic charges - Maxwell's equations inside the matter,
- Potential forrnulations of electrodynaniics - scalar & vector
boundary
"oodition,
potentials (Section 7 .2 to 7.4.1 of Griffith)
t
6) Electromagnetic waves
The wave equation - the waVe equation in one dimension, sinusoidal wave's,
rn
polarization, boundarY
m
nonconducting media of EM waves, Pointing's vector -Prop
wave
transmission at normal incidence -EM waves in conductors-the modified
&
8'3
to
8,2'4
(Section
8.1
equation-monochroinatic plane wave in conducting media
to 8.3.2 of Griffith)
UNIT lY (22 hrs/12 marls)
7) Transient curents
by
Growth and decay of current in LR &CR circuits-measurement of high resistance
leakage -growth of
Ct*g" anO discharge of a capacitor through LCf,' circuit- theory of BG-experiment to
determine I of BG using
A standard condenser and HMSD'N
(Electricity and Magnetism by R Murugeshan & Electricity and Magnetism by
Vasudeva)
8) AC circuits
AC through L, C, R, LC, CR, LR & LCR -resonance and resonant circuits-repulsion
AC bridges
between coil and conductor- j operators, application to AC circuits Anderson and RaYleigh bridge
R
(Sections 22.2, 22.3, 22.6, 22 -7, 23, 24.12, 24'17 of Electricity and MagnetismbY
Murugeshan)
9) Network Theorems
Kirchoffs law - Solution of simultaneous equations using determinants - Maxwell's
conversion'
loop current method - Nodal analysis with current sources - Sources
ideal equivalent circuits Max-power transfer theorem
4
(Sections
Theraja.)
'
-
2.2,2.3,.2.5 ,2.6,2:t0,2.11.2.13,2.14 &2.30 from Elecrrical technology by
Text book for study
1 Electrodynamics bv
2Electicity
David J grifith
and Magnetism by Murugeshan
3 Electrical Technology by Theraja
Booksfor Reference
I Electricity
and Magnetism by Kip
and Magnetism by D.N. Vasudeva
3 Physics vol. II by Resnic and Halliday
2Electicity
I.]NIVERSITY OF CALICUT
B Sc PHYSICS MAIN SYLLABUS ( 2000 ADMISSION ONWARDS)
-
r.
PAPER
III.
WAVES
Unit I (20 hrs / 12 marks)
1 Framm
'
of
references-
"
transformation-hypothesis of Galilean
Inertial frames of reference - Galilean
invariance.-Conservation of momentum-Non-inertial frames and fictitious forcesCentlifugal force-coriolis force. Rotating frames
of
references-Fqucault pendulum
(Basic idea only).
( Sections :2.1 to 2.71 of Mechanics by JC Upadhyaya)
2 Consenation of energy
Conservation laws-conservative forces-energy function- Potential energy'curve.-Nonconservative forces( Sections 5.1 to 5.5,i.7,5.10 & 5.1 of Mechanics by JC Upadhyaya
3 Lineai and angular momentum
.
'
Conservation cif linear momentum-Centre of mass and center of mass frame of
reference -Rockets-Angular momentum and torque-motion under central force-Areal
velocity-Examples of conservation gf angular momentum
(:Sections 6,7,6.2,6.6,6.7 6.8 & 6.9 of Mechanics by JC Upadhyaya)
4
Potentials and Fields
Central forces- Inverse Square law forces-potential energy qf system of massesgravitatiohal fields and potentials
escape velocity - Keplers laws - Keplers laws from Newtons laws
(Sections 7.1to7.9,7.L3,7:18,7.79 of Mechanics by JC Upadhyaya)
Uni! II ( 14 hrs / 9 madrs)
5 Collision 6f ;ortrcles
Elastic and inelastic scattering - Lab and center of mass frame -relation between
different quantities in 1ab and CM systems - Kinematics of elastic scattering in the lab
system - In elastic scattering - Cross sections (in CM frame only )
(Sections 7 .7 to 7.5 Takwala & Furanic)
6 Generalised ,:oordinates and Langragian Formulation
Generalisdd coorctinates, D'Alembt'rts
principle,tugr*g", equation,general
expression
for kinetic energy syrpmetries
a.rd lawsof conservation ,cyclic coordinates ,the
Hamiltonian of a ,;ystern illustraiior s,motion of p'article under a force and atwood's
mechine
(sections 8.2 to.8.7 of Introductic n t,r Classical Mechanics by Takwala & Puranic)
6
t
,
7
I[
( lE hrs/10 marks)
special.theory of Relativity
Unit
The ether hypothesis and Michelson Morley experiment -Special theory of relativity Lorerfiz transformations -Its consequences - Relativity of simultaneity - t-ength
contraction - Time dilation - Addition of velocities - Relativistic Doppler effect Variation of mass with velocity - Mass Energy relation - Minkowski four dimensional
continuum - Four vectors
(Sections 14.1 to 14.10of Introduction to Classical Mechanics'Takwala & Puranic
and 3.7 of Mechanics by JC Upadhyaya)
8 Properties of
Matter
Elasticity - Torsion - Twistiqg couple'on a cylinder - Torsion pendirlum - Bending of
beams - Bending momert - Depression of a cantilever loaded at the free end - Beam
supported at the ends - and loaded at the middle (Weight of beam neglected )
(Section 126,130,133,134, and 138 of elements of properties of matter by D. S
Mathur
Unit IV ( 18 hrs /9 marks)
'9
Simple harmonic free vibrations
SHM (mathematical'representation)-Energy of SHM- examples of free vibratiohnscompositions of SHM-super position of simple harmonic vibrations of same
amplitude and frequency- The Lissajours figures - anarhmonib.oscillatiion.
(Sections 2.1to 2.6 of Vibrations and Waves by S P Puri)
10 Damped simple harmonic vibrations
The decay of vibrations due to damping-types of damping- method of finding
damping coefficients of a damped vibrating system, logarithmic decrement, relaration
time and quality factor - LCR circuit as an example of resistance damping.
(sections 3.1 to 3.4 of Vibrations and Waves by S P Puri)
11 Forced vibrations andresonance
forced oscillator- velocity versus driving force - power supplied to the forced
oscillator by the driving force-quality factor of a forced oscillator - examples of
resonance due to forced vibrations, the electrical resonator
(sections 4.1 to 4.5 of Vibrations and Waves by S P Puri)
Unit V ( 20 hrs / 10 marks)
L2 Coupled Oscillations
A
Stiftess coupled oscillators-normal co ordinates , degrees .of free!.om and normal
modes of vibration-normal-frequencies: method of determination -forced vibration and
resonance for coupled oscillators inductance coupling of electrical oscillators
(sections 5,1 to 5.5 of Vibiations and Waves by S P Puri)
13 Waves in physical media
.
.
Wave motion rU one dimension general solution of wave equation-classification'of
waves-progressive harmonic waves- energy in progressive waves-examples of one
dimensional travelling waves- in string., in a road - acoustic waves - characteristic
impedance in a string - waves in two dimensions, the stretched membrane - wave
equation in three dimension - spherical waves
(sections 6.1 to 6.6, 6.8 and 6.9 of Vibrations and Waves by S.P Puri)
14 Fourier analysis and application
Fourier theorem- Fourier coeffrcients (square and saw tooth waves) half interval
Fourier series-significance of Fourier theorem in physical problems - Fourier integralsFourier transform of a Gausbidn frinction.
(sections 10.1 to 10.5 of Vibrations and Waves by S P Puri)
J
Text book for study
1' Mechanic tj, l.C. Upadhyaya
2 Classical Mechanics by Takwala and Puranic
3 Vibrations and Waves by S P Puri
4. Elements of properties of matter by D.S mathur
Books for
Reference
_
1 Classical Mechanics by
H Goldstein
-
2 Mechanics by Mathur
3 Physic Voll Resnic and
Halliday
,
.
'
,
.t
8
UNIVERSITY OF CALICUT
B Sc PHYSICS MArN SYLLABUS ( 2000 ADMTSSTON ONWARDS)
PAPER IV .
UNIT
|
(2! hns/ 14 marks)
l.Thermodynamics
Thermodynamic systems - Exarnples -Tnrothlaw of thermodynamics Concept of
temperature - Thermodynamic equilibrium - Quasi static process Extensive and
intensive variables - PV diagram and work done - First law of thermodynamics,
differential form - Thermodynamic processes - Relations connecting P,V and T in
adiabatic processes - Work done in isothermal and adiabatic processes Application
of first law to specific heat and latent heat - Reversible and irreversible processes
2.Second law of thermodynamics
Their equivalents Heat engines
-
Kelvin -Planck statement and Clausius statement - Carnot engine - Its efficiency - Its reversibility Carnot's theorem - Therrnodynamic scale of temperature (Concept only ) Internal
combustion engines - The Otto engine and its efficiency
- The diesel engine Working and advantageous over Otto engine (Derivation of effrciency not needed )
The Clausius - Clapeyron equation - Its applications - Effect of pressure on boiling
point and melting point - Calculation of latent heat
UNIT II(22 hrs / 12 marks)
3.Entropy prelintinary ideas - Entropy and adiabatics - Definition of entropy Change
of entropy in Carnot cycle - Change of entropy in any reversible cycle - In irreversible
cycles
Clausius inequality in another way of stating the second law of
thermodynamics (Concept only ) - Some examples of irreversible processes
Expansion of a perfect gas into vacuum - Cooling byconduction
- Entropy and
available energy - Entropy, probability and disorder - Nerast heat theorem and the
third law of thermodynamics - Temperature entropy diagram - TS diagram for Carnot
cycle
4.Thermodynamic functions - Enthalpy, Helmholtz's function and Gibb's function
Maxwell's thermodynamic equations - T-dS equations - Their applications - Variation
of intrinsic energy and Joule- Kelvin coefficient - Change of phase, frst and second
order - Liquid helium
UNIT lll (22 hrs / 12 marks)
5. Statistics- Mean deviation -computation of mean deviation , short cut method of
computing mean deviation , merits and demerits of mean deviation , relative measures
of mean deviation , standard deviation , its computation , computation in the case of
frequency distribution , merits. and demerits of standard deviation variance and mean
square deviation relation between d and s2 , different formula for calculating variance
Chi - square test: introduction , chi-square distribution , probability curve of chisquare distribution, constants of chi square distribution with r,d,f , pearsons
coefflcients of skewness , application of chi - square distribution, chi square test of
good ness of fiJ , steps for computations of chi-square and drawing the conclusion.
(section 6.8,6.9 &8.1 of fundamentals pf statistics by SC Guptha Himalaya
Publishing House)
6) Statistical Mechanics
Statistical distributions - three types, Maxwell-Boltzman statistics, molecular energies
in an ideal gas, energy distribution and speed distribution-average energy, rms Speed
Quantum statistics -fermions and bosons, Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac distribution
function, black body radiation - Rayleigh-Jeans formulae (statement only) - ultraviolet
catastrophe, Plank radiation formulae from photon distribution functioir, Wein's
displacement and Stephan-Boltzman law, Specific heat of solids ,free electrons in a
metal, electron energy distribution, dy,rig stars, white dwarf, neutron star and black
holes
(Sections 9.1 to 9.10 of Concept of Modern Physics by Arthur Beiser)
16 hrs / marks
UNITI V(20 hrs / 12 marks)
T.Solid State Physics
Crystal Physics- Lattice Points and Space Lattice- Basis and Crystal Structure- Unit
Cells and Lattice parameters - Unit Cells verses Primitive cells - Crystal systems Crystal slmmetry - The twenty.three symmetry elements in a cubic crystal - Rotation
axis - Inversion a>ris - Translation syrnmetry elements - Bravice space lattices Metallic crystal structure - Directions, Planes and Miller Indices
(Sections 4.1to 4.8, 4.ll to 4.15 & 4.18 of Solid State Physics by S.O. Pillai)
8. X -Ray
Dffiaction
method
( Sections.5.7 to 5.1
I
-
Bragg's Law
-
Bragg's X- ray Spectrometer- rotating crystal
of Solid Sate Physics by S.O. Pillai)
- A survey of Superconductivity - Mechanism of
Effects of magnetic Field - Meissner Effect - Applications
g.Superconductivity
Superconductors Superconductivity.
( Sections 8.1 to 8.5 & 8.10 0f Solid State Physics by S.O. Pillai)
of
Text book for study
1 Heat and Thermodynamics by D.S Mathur Heat and Thermodynamics by Zemansky
and Dittman
2 Modern Physics by Arther Beiser .
3 Sotid State Physics by S O Pillai
4. fundamentals pf statlstics by SC Guptha Himalaya Publishing House
Books for Reference
1 Heat and Thermodynamics by Brijlal and Subramanian
2Heat and Thermodynamics by Zemansky and Dittman
3 Statistical mechanics by Mandal
10
4 Solid State Physics by C Kittel
UNIVERSITY OF CALICUT
B Sc PHYSICS MAIN SYLLABUS ( 2000 ADMISSION ONWARDS)
PAPER V .OPTICS AND SPECTROSCOPY
UNIT I (24 hrsil5 marks)
'
,
-
.
'
l)
Fermats principle and its applications
Law of reflection and refraction from fermats principle, refraction of rays at the
interface between isotropic and anisotropic medium(optic axis normal to the
surface),ray path in an inhomogeneous medium, the ray equation and its resolution
(section 3.1 to 3.4 of Optics by,A,joy Ghatak)
2) Huygens principle a'nd application
Huygens theory, rectilinear propagation, application of Huygens priuciple to the study
of refraction and reflection
(section lO.2,lO.3 & 10.4 of Optics by Ajoy Ghatak)
3) Superposition of Waves
Introduction, stationary light waves: Ives
&
Wiener's expt.
,
superposition
of two
sinusoidal waves, The complex representation
(section I 1. 1,1 1.4,17.5,11.7 of Optics by Ajoy Ghatak)
4) Two beam interference by division of wave front
Interferenge produced on the surface of water, coherence, interference of light waves,
the interference patterns, intensity distribution, Fresnels two mirror arrangement,
Fresnels biprisra, interference with white light, displacement of fringes, the Lloyd's
mirror arrangement, phase change on reflection
(section l2.l to 12.12 of Optics by Ajoy Ghatak)
UNIT II (20 hrslt2 marks)
5) Interference by division of amplitude
Interference by a plane parallel film illuminated by a plane wave, cosine law , non
rgflecting films(expression for reflected wave and reflectivity excluded) , high
reflectivity of thin film deposition, interference by a film with two nonparallel reflecting
surfaces, colours of thin films, Newton's rings,
(section 13.1 to 13.11 of Optics byAjoy Ghatak)
The Michelson interferometer - adjustment, form of fringes, white light fringes,
applications -wave length, standardization of meters, difference in l,
(section 11.6 A to 11.6 E of optics by Mathur)'
1l
6) Faraunhofer Diffraction
Preliminaries, single stt dffiaction pattern, diffraction by circJlar aperture, limit of
resolution,(directionality of laser excluded), two slit Fraunhofer diftaction pattern, Nslit diffraction pattern, diffraction grating
(section 16.1 to 76.7 of Optics by Ajoy Ghatak)
7) Fresnels Diffraction
Preliminaries, fresnels half period zones- explanation of rebtilinear propagation of light,
.
zone plate, diffraction at a straight
(section l7.l to 17.4 of Optics by Ajoy Ghatak)
Difaactionat a circular aperture, dififraction at an opaque circular disc
(section 9.8 to 9.1I of optics by Brijlal & Subramanyam)
edge
UNIT lll(24 hrJ13 marks)
8) Polarization
Preliminaries experiments showing the transverse natlre of light, plane polarized light,
polarization by reflection, Brewsters law, Brewsters' window, polarization by
refraction, pile of plates, Malu's law, double refraction, Huygens explanation of double
refraction, Nicol prisnro positive and negative uni-axial crystals, quarter and half'wave
plane ,circularly and elliptically polarized light;
plates, production and analysis
of
dichroism, polaroids
(Appropriate portions
9) Velocity of Light
from Optics by Brijlal
and Subrahamaniarl)
Introduction, Foucault's rotating mirror method , Michelson method (rotating mirror
null method),. Anderson' s method
(sectioftrs 5.1,5.6,5.8 & 5.11 of optics by Brijlal & Subramanyam)
10) Fiber optics
Optical fiber, numerical aperture, step index fiber, pulse dispersion ,graded index fiber,
single mode fibers, fiber optic communication systenr, fiber optic sensors
(section 24.7 to 24.7 &24.9 to 24. 11 of Optics by Ajoy Ghatak)
1l) Holography
Principle of holography
, theory (recovery and reconstitution ) ,
coherence
requirements, resolution
(section 18.1to 18.4
of Optics byAjoy
Ghatak)
UNIT lV (22hrsl72 marks)
12) Scattering of light
t2
Rayleigh scattering, scattering as dipole radiation, Raylergh scattering as a function
wave length
(Modern Physics by G.B Rajani)
of
13) Raman etTect
Quantum theory
of
,
Raman effect, experimental study
constant deviation
spectroscopy, application of Raman effect. (Modern Physics by G.B Rajam)
14) Microwave spectroscopy
' Characterization of E.M Rqdiation , Quantaation of energy, regions of spectra, The
rotation of molecules, rotational spectra, diatomic molecules, expression for the
rotational energy levels of rigid diatomic molecules (qualitative idea only),rotation
quantum number and selection rules ,sqhematic representation of rotational energy
levels and allowed transitions intensities of spectral lines, effect of isotopic substitution,
study of mibrowave absorption spectrum in the determination of abundance of
isotopes
Sections 1.1,1.2,7.3 &2.1,2.2,2. 3 of
B
anwell)
l5)Infrared spectroscopy
'
.
The vibrating diatomic molecules, the simple harmonic oscillator, vibrational quantum
number, the allowed vibrational levels, the anharmonic oscillator, its vibrational energy
level diagram, the vibration rotation spectrum of carbonmonoxide
(3.1,3.2&3.3of Fundamentals of Classical and Molecular Spectroscopy by C N
Banwell &Modern Physics by J.B Rajam )
Text book for study
I Optics by Ajoy Ghatak
2 Optics by Mathur
3 Optics by Brijlal and Subramanian
4 Lasers by L Tarasov
'5 Classical and Molecular Spectroscopy by C N Banwell
Books for Reference
1 Optics by Jenkins and White
2 Spectroscopy by Born and Wolf
3 Modern Physics by J.B. Rajam
.
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t3
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UNTVERSITY OF CALICUT
-B Sc PHYSICS MAIN SYLLABUS ( 2000 ADMISSION ONWARDS)
PAPER
OUANTUM MECHANICS. NUCLEAR PHYSICS AND
.VI PARTICLE PHYSICS
Unit I (20 hrVlf marks)
1)Particle properties of waves
Black bcdy radiation, Ultra violet catastrophe, photo electric effect, nature of light
,wave particle duality ,Compton effect and its demonstration, paii production, photon
and gravity .gravitational red shift, quasars, black holes, shwarzchild radius
(sections 2.2,2,3,2.4,2.7,2.8and 2.9 of
Concepts of Modern Physics by Arthur
Beiser)
2)Wave properties of particles
DeBroglie waves , waves of probability, phase and group velocities, particle
diffraction, Davison Germer experiment, electron microscope, , uncertainty principle,
applying the uncertainty principle ,energy time uncertainty
(sections 3.1;3.2,3.4,3.5,3.7 ,3.8 and 3.9 of Concepts of Modern Physics by Arthur
Beiser)
3)Atomic structure
The Bohr atom , energy levels and spectra, correspondence principle, nuclear motion,,
atomic excitation , Frank and Hertz experiment
(sections 4.4 to 4.8 of Concepts of Modern Physics by Arthur Beiser)
Unit II (26 hrs /14 maarks)
4)Wave Mechanics
classical mechanics as an approximation, Schrodinger's equation, time dependent form,
expectation values , schodinger equation time independent form ,.quantization, eigen
values and eigen function, particle in a box, potential barrier and tunnel -effeqt,
scanning tunneling microscope , harmonic oscillator-wave functions - energy levelszero point energy, operators, eigen functions and eigen values
(sections 5.1,5.3 to 5.9 appendix chapter 5 of Concepts of Modern Physics by
Arthur Beiser)
S)Hydrogen Atom
Schodinger equation for hydrogen atom- separation of variables equation for @, O antl
R quantum.numbers ,electron probability density,'radioactive transition ,selection ru1es,
7*emaneffect magnetic moment, Bohr magrieton, stark effect
(sections 6.1 to 6.10 of Concepts of Modern Physics by Arthur Beiser)
6) Lasers
T4
Introduction - Einstein coefficients = Population inversion Threshold condition
The line shape function - optical resonators (basic ideas only) coherence _
Directionality - Ruby laser - Helium Neon laser carbon dioxide laser Semi
conductor laser
( Lasers- Theory and applicarions by Thyagarajan and Ghatak, optics
by Ghatak)
Unit III (24hrc114 marks)
7) Atomic Nucleus
Nuclear composition, properties of nucleus, stable nuclei binding energy
drop model - shell model - meson theory yf nuclear forces
(sections 11.1 to 11.7 of Concepts of Modern physics by Arthur Beiser)
-
-
-
tiqurd.
8) Nuclear Transformations
Radio active decay - Radiation hazards - Half .life Radio active'series Alpha decay
- Beta decay - Gamrna decay - Cross sections - Nucleat reactions - Fiision - Nuclear
reactors - A nuclear world - Nuclear fusion in stars
-' Fusion reactors
(sections l2.l to 12.12 of Modern physics by Arthur Beiser)
Unit IV(20 hrs /11 marks) .
9) Particle accelerators
The linear accelerator - Cyclotron and its limitations - Betatron Synchrotron (sections 18.4,18.5, 18.7 and 18.9 of Atomic and Nuclear Physics by Little Figld and
Thorley or any relevant text book)
10) Particle Detectors
Detectors-brief description of ionization charnber, proportional counter, GI-vI counter ,
bubble chamber , scintillation counter ,'cloud chamber ,spark chamber ,pirotographic
emulsion, semi conductor counteri
(no essay type questions shall be asked from this section)
(Sections 17 .l to 17 .7, l't..10 of Little Field and Thorley or any relevant text book)
11) Elementary Particles
Leptops, hadrons, elementary particles, quantufi numbers, isospin
conserv ation principles, quarks, fundamental interactions
(sections 13.2 to 13.6
of
,
symmetries and
Concepts of Modern Physics by Arthur Beiser)
Text book for study
I Modern Physics by Arthur Beiser
2 Atomic and Nuclear Physics by Little Field and Thorley
3 Lasers- Theory and applications by Thyagarajan and Ghatak
ilooks for Reference
I Quantum mechanics by Loganathan and Ghatk.
2 Quantum Mechanic by Mathews and Venketesan
3 Modern physics by Murugesan
4 Atomic Physics by J B Rajam
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(Main)
Piacticais II (2000 admission onwards)
B.Sc Phvsics
Out of 24 experiments listed, at least 20 experiments should be'done c\oosing a
minimum of l0 from each unit.
Unitl
1.
Newton's ring -deterrnination of wavelength.
2. Spectrometer -Cauchy's constant' "
3. Spectrometer -i-d curve.
4. Spectrometer grating -normal ihcidence.
5. Spectrometer grating -minimum deviation.
6. Air wedge -diameter of wire.
7. Ternperature coefficient of resistance using Carey Fosters bridge.
8. Conversion of galvanometer to ammeter & catbration using potentiometer.
g. Conversion of galvanometer to voltmeter and calibration using potentiometer.
10. B.G mutual inductance.
11. B.G high resistance by leakage.
12. B.G thermo e.m.f.
Unit
t.
II
Transistor characteristics.
2. FET characteristics.
3. MOSFET characteristics.
4. CE transistor amplifier -frequency response curve.
5. Construction of two stage RC coupled amplifier -frequency curve.
6. Construction' of negetive feedback amplifier.
7. Construction of Hartly oscillator -measurement of frequency using C.R'O.
8. Construction of Colpits oscillator -measurement of frequency using C.R.O.
9. Construction of phase shift oscillator -measurement of frequency using C.R.O.
10. Construction of astable multivibrator using transistor
- measurement of
frequency using C.R.O
Amplitude modulation using transistor.
12. Operational amplifier - inverting and non-inverting amplifier voltage follower.
11.
1
University of.Calicut
Outof 24 experiments listed, at least 20 experiments should be done choosing a
minimum of 10 from each unit.
Unit
I
1.
Logic gates - AND, oR & Nor - verification of rruth table.
Saw tooth Generator using.555 IC Measurement of Frequency using
C.R.O
3. Timer circuit using 555 IC - Measurement of frequency using c.R.o
4. Flip - Flop circuir using IC74N t74lO
5. Digital counter using IC 7490
6. Half Adder using basic gates..
7. Full Adder using basic gates.
8. De Morgan's Theorem - verification using basic gates.
9. Decimal to Binary Encoder using basic gates.
10. Binary to Decimal Decoder using basio gates.
I l. A /D converter
12.D lAconverter
2.
Unit II Use C Language to write and execute the following expts.(I-earning C
language to write and execute the programmes form pan oithe lab work.) A programme to calculate the roots of the quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c .
Allow the pos-sibility that one of the constants has avalue of zero and that
. the quantity bz - 4ac <=O
2. A programme that will generate a table of x, sin(x), and cos(x) for various
values of x using series expansion.
3. A programme to produce a table of values of the equation y -- )s(-xt) sin(rr1)
where 0<t<60. Allow the size of the 't' increment to be entered as an input
1.
parameter.
4. A programme !o arrange a set of numberl in ascending order and
descending order.
5. A prografirme to check whether two given matrices can be multiplied and if
possible, find the product of them.
6. A programme to find the dot product and cross product of two vectors.
7. A programme to find the GCD and LCM of a set of numbers.
8. A programme to find the mean and standard deviation of a set of numbers.
9. A programme to generate LISSAJOUS figures for the superposition of two
waves.
10. A programme to generate an Amplitude Modulated wave.
11. A Prcgxamme to generate a square wave from sine waves using Folrier
analysis.
12. A programme to simulate a bouncing ball from grourd for different
coeffrcients' of restitution.
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