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'Q,r \. " '
'Q,r
\.
"'
UNIVERSITY OF CALICUT
(Absrreict)
I
Sc Botany (Main and Subsidiary) Revised Scheme and Syllabus
oiders issuec!.
GENERAL AND AGADEMIC BRANCH No. GA. llJ2l6O61l99
-
implemented
-
I
Dated, Calicut University P.O.
,24 06.2005
Read : 1. ltem No 2 of the minutes of the rneeting of the Board of Studies in
Botany (UG) held on 30.09.2004
2. ltem No l arrd 3 of the minutes of the meeting of the Board of Studies in
Botanyr (UG) hetd on 02.02.20e5.
3. ltem No I (3) of the nrinutes of tl're meeting of the F/Science held on
18 05.2005
'
4 ltem No. ll (A) of the minutes of the meeting of the Academic Council
held on 18 06 2005
ORDER
'l
he Board of Studies in Botany (UG) held on 30.09 2004 vide item No. (2)
has decided to revise the syllabus of B Sc Botany (Main and Sub) on the basis of
the UGC rnodel curriculum and to irnplement it from 2}Osadmission onwards.
The Board of Studies held
on
02.02 ZOOSvide item no.
detail the draft syllabus of B.Sc Botany (Main;
ancJ
t
has discussed in
finalized the syllabus after some
rnodifications an? vide item No. 3 lras discussed and finalized the syllabus of B.Sc
Botany (subsidiary) and requested the Univdrsity to implement the syllabus from
2005 admission onwards.
The F/ Science held on 18.05.2005 vide ltem No l(3) has considered the
minutes of the meeting of the Board of Studies in Botany (UG) held on 30.09.2005
and,02.02.2005 presented by the Chairman and resolvecl to approve the minutes
without any modifications.
The Academic Council at its meeting held on 18.06.2005 vide itern No. ll -A
has considered the minutes of ihe various Boards of Studies as endorsed by the
F/Science and resolved to approve the minutes
.
Sanction has therefore been accorded for implementing the revised syllabus
of B.Sc Botany (Main and Subsidiary) on the basis of UGC model curriculum with
effect from 2005 admission onwards. Copy of the Syllabus is appended.
Orders are issued accordingly.
sd/DEPUTY REGTSTRAR (G&A
For REGISTRAR
r)
To
The Board of Studies of Colleges
offering B.Sc Botany (Main)
and Subsidiary.
Copy to:
1) Controller of Examinations.
2) EXt
3) Deputy Registrar
4) Enquiry (Exam)
5) Universitltibrary
6) GA I 'F'Section
(B.Sc)
7) All lnformation Centres
B) Special Officer, Comp.Section (with a request to contact general Section for
scheme)
Order
OFFICER
ltgn24.6.05
C:\l\,11,
l)octrrnurlsil'(iN\()Rl)lrlt\(;n l-J2-6061-99D'l'.24 6 05 drr
UNIVERSI TY OF CALICUT
B Sc BOTANY (MAIN)
t.
t
('
IJNIVERSITY OF CALICI.JT
. -Sc.
Botany t'.{ain
"r,,rb"l}
{ichem* of Erantination
Model Question Pape-rs
(t:tfective front 2005 e dntisslrrn onwards)
l'he
CLrrrri.utr.rrri [)eveloJ;rnenl Cornrnjttee constttuted
by tne University Grants
of rencu,,ing an.J updattng o{ the Curriculurn, providing
therein inputs to take care of fast paced development in the knowledge of the subject
C<lrngrissrorr ernphasued'lhe neetl
concernerl and piovide an updated e<lqcation.to the students at large.
The Syllabus treing presented here is in tune'r,rith the above pdnciple and the B, Sc.
.
Botany (Main) Syllabus has been revised in consultation with the Model Curriculum provided
by the University Graqts Commission.
as a
The rerrised Curriculum of B. Sc. Botany Main also includes EnvironmentalEducation
compulsory subject and is treated as separate paper undel Part lV as per the
guidelines given by the University of Calicut.
The Syllabus also'includes Bioinformatics which is a fast emerging and advanced
Biological Science and Horticulture which is an applied branch of Botany.
MOHANA KURUP. K.
CHAIRMAN
BOAqD OF STU[}!ES !N E ^.-'
''"
Ul.llVEFr$i'l'Y OF Uar,,wu
{UGI
f
3
B. Sc. Botany (Main)
Course structure, Mark distributlon arld Scherneof Examlnatlons.
l-itle ot
ilrrstruction.rl i Dura- i -.:l
,: ,;^.--;---:-'
H+q-s&ear- ii Uon i
paper
Marks
,wl
EirsJJser
----.-l
I
+-
I
ESgry.IgIgl_l:Phycology. ', ^n
o' i;l 'o
Mvcology. Mrcrobiology and I
Plant Pathology
I --1,-;
--l'. --lse"qru:es
10
i
r
| -- I
Theory Paper ll- Bryology,
I , gO i,.
l'otaO
-Pteridology, Paleobotany,
I
_c y rnfrg:pgtln s_elq_Ug rti cg1[ gI9.
I (T.P.t& T
Third Year
70
90
Theorv Paper ll,L Plant Taxonomy,
Morphology, Economic Botany
105
Theorv paoer lV- Plant Physiology,
Biochemistry, Plant Ecology,
Phytogeography
I
.
10
_l__
:
Theorv,Paoer V- Plant Anatomy,
hlicrotech niqu e, E m bryology,
'Palynology
Theory Paper Vl- Cellbiology,
Biotechnology, Computer
Applications. Bioinformatics, Plant
Breeding
Theory'Paoer VllPractical oaper
ll
Evolution
(T.P. lll& lV)
Total
Part IV- Environmental Education
90
90
90
60
15
40
'10
3 hrs
40
10
3 hrs
40
10
50
.gnrs
40
10
50
3 hrs
40
10
50
50
25
45
280
80
70
20
60
60
z0
200
15
15
5
50
75
75
25
600
100
I
(EE= External Evaluation; CIE= Continuous lnternal Evaluation)
4
4
General Sctreme of the Syllabus
-ihere wrli be
a tottrl of eiqht theory papers irir:!uding Environrnental Educatlon, lhree'
praclir;al pr.ap':er6,-:rrrd a prr)le()t wr:rk ditrrng ttte enitre coutse Theory Paper lexamination will
be r:onriur:teq at lhe uncl of tlre firsl year bnri Theory Paper
ll
examination along 'wrth
Irractical Paper I vihich includes topics of theclry paper I and iheory papil ll at the end of the
second year.
,
finat' yeai wilt have frve thAory pip",t and two practical papers and also a
eompulSory lheory paper 'Environmental Education' under Part- lV. Practical Paper ll
includes topics of theory papers lll and lV. Practical Paper lll includes topics of theory
papers V, Vl and Vll.:
'
Pass requlrements
The separate minimum marks required for a pass shall be
?Ooh
lor each theory and
practical paper, wnild the aggregate pass minimum shall be 35oh. The minimum marks for
,t
{heory and practical groups separately shall be 30%.
Marks awarded to submission of records, other submissions and Wa voce will not
have separate minimum of 2006. They form part of practical group. For dissertation/project
,
report, the pass minimum alone will be made applicable.
'There wi,l be no separate minimum for internal marks.
'
Scheme of Evaluation
Evaluaijon of Theory papers, Practical Papers, ProjecUDissertation and Herbarium
will be done in two parts, namely Continuous lnternal Evaluation and External Evaluation.
2O')/o ffi?rk€ will be set'apart for the first component and B0% marks for the second
component.
Theory
:
.
Pa pet s : (exclu din g E nvirtln m ental E ducation)
Total
External
lnternal
: 50 marks
:40
rnarks
10 rrtarks
Distribution of rrtarks for lrtternal Evalttalion
Alte.nd;lncr)
I'o-st papers i2)
2 nrarKs (90'% artd above. 2 marks; 75-Bgo/o'. 1 mark)
.
4 marks
St:ntinar (rninimun-1) . 2 ntarks
Assignrnent (min.-2) : 2 marks
(8Oozir anC
above: 2 marks; 50-79o/o.1 mark)
5
Practical Papers:
Total
.:
External
: 50 marks
lnternal
: 15 marks
75 marks
Distribution of marks for External Evaluation.
Practtcals
: 55 rnarks
l?ecord
: 5 marks
Total
: 60 marks
Dislribution of marks for lnternal Evaluation:
t"
Attendance
'
Practicaltest
2 marks (90% and above:2 marks; 80-89%: 1 mark)
: 3 marks (90% and above: 3 marks; 75-8g016.2 marks;
:
6O-74o/o rnarks: 1 mark)
*Viva-voce (lnternal)
: 5 marks (based on allsubjecE coming under each
Practicalpaper)
Record
(lnternal) :5 marks
Total
,
: 15 marks
* Viva-voce shall be conducted
separatety for the topics coming under each pracilcal
paper including those subjects, which are having no practicat. The valuation of records and
';
conduct of Viva-voce form part of Cgntinuous lnternal Evaluation and for this purpose a
Board of Examiners is to be constituted in the department with the Head of the Department
as the Chairper'son'and not less than two teachers as members.
lnternal Assessment marks of theory and practical papers submitted by teachers at
the end of every academic year should be evaluated by a committee of three membbrs from
the department of whom one must be the Head of the Department. The committee has
discretionary powers to take appropriate changes in necessary cases. The Head of the
Department shall send the marks to the Controller of Examinations, University of Calicut
before 3 f
i
March eveyyear through the Principal of the College. The marks will be
awarded to the candidates in the concerned papers every year.
6
Herlrariunr and
Proiect:
v
Each student shali prepure and subrnit for evaluatron on the day of Practical Paper ll,
:10
(l hirty) properly rdentrfied l-ierbarrum sf.reomens with field notes of plants belonging to
the larnilies irtr:luded in the Syllah,us.
l'/larks lor' Her bariurn
Exterrnal
: B marks
lnterrral
: 2 marks
Total
: 10 marks
't
A dissertation shall be submitted by the students at the end of the third year about
a
project work on any topic related to the tield of Biology. The project shall be given during the
final year. The students shall be dMded into at least,two batches and each batch shall be
given a single problem under the supeMsion of a member of staff of the department. The
lopic for the project work shall be given at the beginning of the linal year. The dissertatiorr
shall be certjfied by the supeMsing teacher and the Head of the
Department.
A Viva-voce shall be corrducted for each student based on the project work by the
External Eiaminers. The dissertaUon evaluation and Wa-voce shall be conducted after the
'iompletion of examination of all practical papers.
Mqrks for dlssertatlon and vlva-voce
Total
: 15 marks
External
: 12 marks (DissertaUon:
lnternal
:
I
marks; Viva-voce: 4 marks)
3 marks (based on the research aplitude of the student)
Prbctlcal Record
Students shah submit separate practicat records for each practical paper for which a
total of 10 marks (efternal: 5 marks; lnternal: 5 marks) will be awarded for each practical
record. They are expected to record all the practicat works they have done and also those,
which are given lor demonstration.
A student who fails to submit the Practical Record will not be permitted to attend the
practical examination- The exarnination taken by such candidates in theory papers will,
however, stand valid.
'
Fleld $tudy.
.
Studenls are expected to undertake a field study of not less than eigltt days for
lerarning the vegetati,:n under tire guidance and supervision of teacherfteachers of the
rlel:artrrrent rruiinrJ.tha ttiirrl year. 1'hey are afso expected to visit at least one tesearch
institutiorr 'l-hey shor-rlC prepare a tour repod evaluated by the teacher (s) accompanying the
tour arr,J certified by the Head of the Department and submit along vdth the Herbarium and
fieltJ notes duting the Practical ev.amination.
i,l
f.'\
A
SYLLABUS
IhCgry Igpgl l: Phvcolqov. Mvcoloov. Mlcrobloloov and Plant Patholoov
(Theory: 60 hours; Practical: 60 hours)
PHYCOLOGY
(Theory 20 hours; Practical25 hours)
i
1. lntroductiorr, generalaccount of Algae ancl classificatton (Fritsch,.F E, 1935, 1946)
2. General characters. of the following major groups with emphasis on sttuclure, reproduction
,
and lrfe cycles of the types (Developrnental staqes need not to be taught).
a
Cyanophyceae (Cyartrrbacteria) - Nosfo,-:
r-J
(lliiorr-rllh'iceae - t)lrt,'relia. Vcilvi>y, Oedogonittm, Coleochaete, Chara.
,;
,7
i.l|'ithr)ph'tceae
- Vauctrcria
I,flar;illariophyceae.- Ptt rnularia
e. [:'lraeoi;hyceae,- Sa/,Jassun)
t
R
hc',doi:hyceae' - Polystphonn
3. E:conotnic; iDtPortartce.
a liole trf al<lae irr soil fertil'lty, fertilizer, nitibgbn fixation, minerals and symbiosis
b Comnrercial products.- Agar, alginates, diatomaceous earth.
e [-ood and Fodder
:
,
Practlcals:
Students should do:
'
1
. Micro ;.rrepalations of Vegetative and reproductive structures of the types mentioned in
the syllabus.
.
i
2. ltlentify the algat specimens up to generic lOvel by noting the key characters.
i
References:
:
31.
Draw rdlevant labelled sketche; of the specimen with scienffic correctness.
Bha(a, K.N. 1975. A Treatise on Algae. R.Chand & Co. Publishers, Delhi.
Chapman, V.J. & D.J. Chapman. 1962. The Algae. The Macmillan Press hd. Ltd., London.
Frilseh,'F.E. 1935. The Structure and Reproduclion of Algae. Vol. I & ll. Cambridge Uni.
Ptess, Londorr.
:
Kumar. H.D. & H.N. Singh. 2000. The Algae.
Pandey, B.P. f 999. The lext BgoR of Bolany- Algae. S.Chand & Co., New Delhi.
i
Pandey, S.N. & P.S. l'rivedi. 1995. A texl Book of Algae.
Prescot, G.W. 1969. Ihe 'Algee- a review.
Sharma, O.P. 1999. 7he Text Bookof Algae-
smith, G.M. 1955: Cryptogamic Botany- vol. L Algae & Fungi. TMH, New Delhi.
Vashista. B.R, 19-e1, Atgae.. S.Cfrand
&-
Co. LtrJ., New Delhi.
8
MYCOLOGY
(Therrry 15 hours: Practical: 15 hours)
'l
A.n introrjtrc'irr:n to f rtngi.
2
Orrc-,in
il
|
=1:1Derill
cl'aracteristics. reproducfuon-tlsexual and sexual.
ol IrrrrrJi :rrrd clas:;i[ir;atron oi frrngi(Airrsv^rorttr & Bisby, 1983).
);::liricrri'jli,il,:) r f r;t' actt:rs of tJrifercrrt groups of fungi.with special reference lo reproductive
iirur:tur;)i: ;rnrl life lrrstoric,,; of ttie geneta mentloned in each group.
I
il{;tsit,,r(,;ri yi
l'r .
oiinlr
Pyil
r,L.nn
ir:1cl P1'',lOli,ja.- lrlUCOf
c Ascornycotirra:- Peniciliium r
d Easidiomycrrtina:- Puccinia, Agaricus
.
e. Deuteromycotina:- Cercospora
4
Fungi as rriutualistir symbionts:
a Mycr;rrhiza - Ecto and endo mycorrhizae (VAM).
b Lit:hen - GenerAl accor.rnt and economic importance
Type
of lichen.
- Usnr:a - Thallus structure, asexual reproduction
and sexual reproduction.
Practicals:
Students are expectec! to:
1. ldentify and str. dy making micro preparations of all types mentloned
2. Dravr the label!-.d sketches ol the micro preparailons.
in the syllabus.
Reforences.
Alexopaulos. C,J., C.V/. Mims,
S.
t/. Blackwell. 1996. lntrorluctory Mycology (4h ed.). John
Wiley & Sons, ihc.
Dubey, H.C. 1990. An lnlro,duction lo Fungi. Narosa Publishing House, Nary Delhi.
Geetha,
S 2004. The Fungi. Naiosha
Publishing House. Nary
Delhi.
l
Mehrotra, R,{i. & K.R Anela. 1990. Fundamentals of Mycology. NewAge tnternational, New
l_.relhi
Websler,
J
Deltri
1980
lntr
fiuction
lc: Fungi. Carnbridge Uni. Press, FoundaUon Books, New
o
r,nicRoBtoLocY
('lheory
1.
11.'
hours: Practrcal. 15 hours)
lrrtrcduct,urr Scupe; briet tristory; growth of Microbioiogy in the 2Ot' century.
?. The microl.rial wnrld: out lines of Berge/s classmcatio; characterisUcs; structure and
brology of Bauteria and chemical nature of bacterial cellwall. Magnetosomes and gas
vesicles. Chemotaxis
and
magnetotaxis.
'Brief account of
Archaebacteria,
Actino mycete; and Mycoplasma.
'
3. Virology: land marks in virology. Architecture of TMV and bacteriophages/ Mulliplication
and transmission. of Viruses.
4. Soil Microbiologry: Microbes of soil and their activities.
I
.
:
Brief account
of
Microbial
transformaiiorr of Nitrogen, Carbon and Sulphur in nature.
5. Ail
'
Microbiology: introduction; microbes
in air; role; significance;
enumeration of
microorganisnrs in air.
6. Food Microbiology: microbes in tood; food spoilage and food preservaUon techniques;
.food infections and food poisoning- botulism, Staphylococci, Streptococci,
,
'
Salmonella tygrc of poisoning.
7. Cultivation of microbes. pure culture techniques- streak plate and pure plate methods.
B. Applied Microbiology: The applicaUon of microbes in the manufacture of alcoholic
beverages, antibiotics and amino acids.
Fractlcals:
1. P,reparation
3
oi nutrient agar
medium.
i
Stainipg of Bactend- Grar).''s staining technique (Hucke/s modification)- roo! nodules,
curd
Relerences:
R
D'uLrey.
C
.
6, Lr.K U aheswari.
l00Lr A Tex! Book of fi4icrobiology. S. Chand & Co., New
Deilri.
.
Frazrer VV.'t-. t'--i3P-; /:oocj Microitiolc;ly. Prerrtice Hall of india Pvt. Ltcl.,
F.uir,.ar, I't
L'
i,.
.1
(uirar
.!998
S
& N.R Kreig. 1986.i Mlcrobiology. Mc Grew Hill, New York.
irloclern Concepls of Microbiology.Tala McGrew Hilt, Neur
D';iiti
Pelzar M
.l
Rangaswarqi,
E {l
F?.
& C.(.J. Panikar 1998. Text Book of Microbiotogy (4t'ed.). Orient
Longman.
Ross, F
-
(. han
i
C 1 98i, lntrpductory Microbiology. Charles
E.,MerillPublishing Company.
Sharma, P1D.2004. ltlicrobiology. Rastogi Publishers, Meerut-
-{,
'&Fn}
1.l4",
'.+,ia-F-s
'al
10
ti
PLAIIT PATHOLOGY (Theory 10 hours. Practicals: 5 hours)
1. lntroductiort- Conr:epts ol disease and pathogen, causal agenE rof plant diseases-Biotic
r
c?us€s (Fungi, 3acteria, Virus, Mycoplasma), abioUc causes (nutrient and mineral
dehciencies, temlrcrature, light, pollution etc.)
2. Symptoms of plant diseases- Symptoms caused by fungi, bacteria, virus, mycoplasma.
3. Classification of p ant disease€ on the basis ol causal agents, iymptoms and extent of
occurrence arrd geographic distribution.
4. Control of plant diseases: prophylacUc (Quarantine and seed certification), remedial
(natural arrd c reniical) and biological control.
5
Study of the following diseases with respect to its symptoms. etiology and control
measure€: a. Leaf rnosaic of Tapioca b. Citrus canker c. Blast of Paddy
Practicals:
Students are expecteJ to:
a ldentif
ihe 'Jiseas*s on th* b.::-:is ili ;'ymptorhs vrith respect to the causal organism.
b. L;law laoellt:':l siiet:. hes of characteristics symptoms of above diseases.
Relerencep:
l.! '1r9,; F'ilni f:'aihok;11y (4'' eci ) Academic Press.
Bilararnl. K i-l l tlC ,Dube. 197t; A lext Bookof Modern Plant Pathclogy.lnternational
A.grois.
C,:
Bcol< frtslritrtrl, ng Co., Lucknow.
Mehrotra
P.andey,
il S
1980 P/anl Pathology:rTMH,.NewDelhi.
B.P 1999. Ftanl Pahology- Palhogen and Planl Dtsease. S Chand & Co.,
Ne'w
Delhi.
Rangaswami, G, 199tr. Dseases of Crop Plants of lndia. Prentice Hall of lndia hrt. Ltd.
11
'l'hryvlla-pgl!!:-Etnlolobv. Pterldoloov. Gvmnosperms. Paleobotanv and Horticulture.
(Theory: 90 hours; practicals:60 hours)
BRYOLOGY
(Theory' 10 hours; Practicals: 10 hours)
,
't
1. lntroductiotr. morphological, physiological and cytological characteristics of bryophytes.
'
.Classification- criteria and recent trends.
2. [)iversity c'f Bryophvtes; habit, habitat, organization of gemetophyte and sporophyte,
.
reprcrduction end life history
of
,
l-lepaticopsida Riccia, M*uchantia.
Anthoc erot opi ida: Antho,:
e
ros.
Bryopsida. Po;ylrichum
3.
Evolutionar'/ ttencls arnong bryophytes: evolution
of the gametophyte+ theories
of
proglessivrr and relrogreestve evolution.
d. li'ttpcrrtance cf L,lyot,hyte5. prev=ntion of soil erosiorr, pclllutiorr nroniloring and control,
!teot'r,lt.;i-,ir';rl
J rosgrt:r-'linlr.
ier:,1lor animals horticultural importance, antibiotics.
raatir:,rls: rill;1.'rrtr shouli,l :;ttrly tlrc nrorphclogy of tlre thalltrs and prepare temporary
:;lairi<'n
.
1;1gp;r1121;L.11
sr
:-,(ictions
o{ vegetative thallus/sexual
reproductive
:.tti{L iit{. S,.,;-rotcphyles of the lylres fnentiOned.
It+f *t erir: e-s:
Ii
i L i-' i', l, umar l9er-l l: rctloqy of BryophVtes Wiley Eastern Ltd., New Delhi.
f,'itr,iii-,i lJ i:i l!rl 4' lntrctduclit'rt to Btyophl4a. Central Book Depot, Allhabad.
L l't(;t:r.i, Fl
,,
i
Srniilr (i.1.'i
',':)
)':': Cty ttc,gatnic 'Joleiny Vol. ll., Bryophyles and Pteridophytes. Mc
frt.rui.. Corripanv,
.
Loridon
Grenry Hill
I
Sporne, l'i.R. 1980. the Morphology of Bryophy(es. Hutchinson & Co. Publications, Ltd.,
London
Vashista, B R. 1988. E,ryophyla. S.Chand & Co. Ltd,, New Delhi,
L2
PTERIDOLOGY
(Theory: 25 hours; Practicals: 20 hours)
1. lntroduclion: Habit, habitat, morphological and reproductive features. Classification and
recent trerrds in classification.
2, ()rigin and evoluticn in pteridouhytes.
ii. Stelar evolution. hr,terospory and seed habit in pteridophytes.
4. Distnbr-rlion, exterr,llmorpholt,gy, internalanatomy, reproduction and affinities of the
Iolklwtttg
_qenr:rra.
Psilopsida: Psilolun.
Lycop:;iila. St laginella
.
SillicnoD:.;rda Equt;eiunt
i)1,:rirp,::.:C
l]r;lr;ticarl:i:
-!
i
F'ieris, Mars*!ia, Azo!la
:r:rilcriiU st;ained oietrarations of sections of stem, root, leaf and spore
Lrearins siirj,lt,.tres of the types included,in the Syllabus.
Relerelnces:
Eames, A J. 1:t79. Morphology of Vascular Plants; lower group. Wiley lnternational edition,
I'lew Delhi.
P.arrhar, l.J
S
1980
'
Ar
lntroducliotl to Embryophyta. Central Book Depot. Allahabad.
Rashid. A. t9;'G. An l,ilroduction to Pteridophyta. Vikas Publ. Co., New Delhi.
tlparne, K.R. 1966. Irle Morphdogy of Pteridophytes. Hutchinson & co., London.
Vashista, P.C. 1993. t'>teridophytes- Bolany for Degree Sludenls. S.Chand & Co. Ltd., New
Delhi
l
13
-
GYMNOPSERMS
(Theory 15 hours; Practicals; 1S hours)
.t.
lntrodttctirrn: geiteral charar;ters dnd classrfication of gymnosperms.
. . '2. Detailed study of distdbutibn, habit, habitat, morphology and anatomy of the vegetative
arrd reproductive parts and life history of the following types:
.
.t
, '
Cycadales: Cycas.
Coniferales; Pinus.
Gnetalm:
Gnetltm.
)
3. Evolutionary relationship of gymnosperms with pteridophytes and angiosperms.
Practlcals:
' 1.
,
'.
Cycas'. See<lling; T.S. of rachis, leaflet, coralloid root; identification of mate cone enfire
and V.S.; microsporophyll, megasporophyll; ovule entire and V.S.
2'T:",T,::,;':,Hil":::":;,,::T,:",:::ll]"i;,#"'i,"1;';1.:::li,l';;
young female cone.
.
,
3..
Gnetum: Habil.with cones, stem anatomy (T.S. only), leaf anatomy (T.S.); idenfficaUon of
male cone, female cone, ovule V,S. and seed.
Courtler, J.M. &
C.i
Chatnberiain. 1958. Morphology of Gymnosperms. Central Book Depot.
Allahabad.
Gupta, V.K.
& U.l).
Varshneya. 1967.
An lntroduction to Gymnosperms. Kedarnath
Ramnath, Meerut.
Sporne, K R. 1967. The i4orph,2togy of Gymnospernrs. Hutchinson & Co. Ltd., London.
Vashts,ta Fa.C
ii+ij0 Gyrnnospiii,Ii:;, S.Chand & Co. Ltd., New
Deihi.
14
PALEOBOTANY
(l'hnury. 10 hours; Practicals: 5 hours)
1..
lntroduotion: Hovr plants become fossib? Formation of fossils. Geological time scale and
evolutionary lrends. The sequence of plant world in geological time.
2. Fossil pteritlophytt*:. Rhynia, Lepidodendton, Lepidocarpon, Calamiles.
3. Fossil grymnosperns: Wlliarnsonia.
4. Applied ast:ects o'i Paleobotany in relation to exploration of fossilfuels.
Fract[cals: SturJenttt should be able to identify fossil slides and draw diagrams.
References:
Andrevrrs, H.N 1961 sludle s in Paleobotany.John wirey & sons lnc,, Nar york.
,
Arnold, c.A.. 1 947 lr trcduclion to Paleobotany. Tata McGrew Hill, New Delhi.
Delevoryas ,
1!6?
lvlorphrtlogy ;,itrd Evolutic;n of Fossr/ Plants. Hoft Rinehart & Winston, New
Y <:r l:
r- i: '::,, i'
Lttj [''+!l'i
['il'riri',,J,,'',
idisra 11]7ai Fl';serttials of Pateobolany. Vikas Publishing House hrt.
Stawarl W lV 19ttj pr1*nbotartv end lhe Evolulion of Ptants. Cambridge Uni. press,
Lon'lgi,Taylot, T.N 19t81. Pe.'leobotany- An lnlroduction
1
to Fossi/ Plant Biology.Mc Granv Hill, New
York.
t
()
15
HORTICUI TURE
(Theory: 30 hours; Practicals: 10
'
1
. Corrce;:rl arrrJ scopre
iiours)
,
ol Horticuilure.
2. Basic retlurternents:
'
\
soiltreatment.
Soil: soil types;
Fertilizers: cireni;cal fertilizers, organic fertilizers, bio{ertilizers,
:
-
vermi-composting; r !
.ir
lrrigation: sitrface irrigaiion spray irrigation, drip inigation.
Diseases and pests: plarrt Lrlolsction techniques, application of chemical and organic
I
'pesiicidm
o*
,
Phytohornrones: rooting hormone, growth regulators, florigens; application of
phl4ohc''rntorr.s.
Gatdetr to,:ls arid impletnent:i
.l
lvletirurt:-; oi
propalJatton'
,i
Propa.galon by s€eds; h;rrvesting and processing seeds; seed storage; seed quality
tes[:; :;eecl rJormancy; nLttsety management; transpiantationVegelattve Fropagati':n. Cutting- stem cutting, rooi u-utting, leaf cutting; Layerittgsimirle la'yerinr;, ffiouFrd l.ryering,.air layering; Grafting and budding.
.1, Ci rowi
nrl
i_-:i
J
Lr
t
I
I
r
rJr.rofS. B o ns;.t
i
Pr.;il:ii lriant=- typeS of pots- earthen pots, fibre pots, polythene
11
ri...-.--^--.--,. ut'illLirc'
prepriraticttt oI l'ot nrixtLtre-F)otliirg- wateling' fertilzet
i'"'tii'i ' ilit;rl:' sriii;i[:!e foi
J:c',li
r,,i, ..:,i;,, , 1 :rl1 :rl i.i;tnlt; '.i,,ilei-,nC dif bL;rltJing', p.funtng
1j. l-lrcrv.,,,i;-,,.t ul.:i'ris, Dril do{-rr:,
l'
r;
,. Ll:l!.i;t;i-ii i,1 tj.;,j;i)rs.
il-r,i
i'
'1
al,
i:rr'.h i;rsnrrne rost:..orchid and anthurtum, post harvest treatment
f,'
l,:iri.rJlrq of r;r.tt flc';rr:ts- elenienls of fiovver dect:iartton.
.11,,t,'ri,i- ,:air.jo'ri CLtlttvalor-r l'f V,lgr-)tabJeS With SpeCial refetence to ChillieS, bfinjal, Okra,
I
)iitr::;,
j riLr i
(J. c uctt n-rbet,
"irlalie gou
i
d,.
iomato, amai-anthus-
t.! i'r'lirstiruiti,Ti r:,r-iitivaticn: culUvatirln of paddVstraw mushrooms, oyster mushrooms.
I
Prirctlcals
1.
.
2.
:i.
,1.
,ii iil
Prep,aratiorr of potl.irrg nrixture; potting in earthen pots and poty bags; field plantilrg.
Pre;raration a rd marntenance of a vegetable garden in the campus.
Mushrr:onr cultivatiort (dernonstration .only).
proF,arJalion by cuttirrg (rcrse, crototr), buddilrg (T-budding only; rose), gratting
(s;apota), air layering (ca:rliew, lnango, jasmine)
5. Freparatioir i:nd use oI pesticides and fungicides: preparation of bio-pesticides
f(tobaccodecoction,neenlemulsion),Bordeattxmixture'
'
'6. Ope'a'rion anr.l use of gaiden implements
T.
Visit to a prop,el[y maintairred garden and a well-established nursety.
*
t..
jtlr
"'*'
"
t
ij';.,r1 i.lirr, iJf.'v./ r'olli
Erlqr<-rrrcJ,
J ts. e! al..1957. Fun,Janrchtals oi Horticullure.Wiley Eastern Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.
Golralasv.iimv lyengar, K.S., 1958 Complete Gardening in lndia- Hosali Press, Bangalore.
Krnrai. f'i.. 1t)94. lntoductionlct Horticulturc.REa Lqkshmi publications, l.Iagercoil.
Manibhushan Rao, l'{-, 1991 . Text Book of Horticufture. Mc Millan lndia Ltd., Nanr Delhi.
Nair, M.C.
& S. [Jalakrishnan,
1986. Beneficial fungi and their utilization. Scientific
Publishers, Jrrdhirur.
Nita Bahl, 1988. Hard Book of Mushrooms. Oxford & NBH Publ. Co., Nary Delhi.
.Randhawa, G.S,, 1980. Ornanrcnlal Horticulture in lndia. Today & Tomorrow Publishers,
lJev,r l-)elhi
.!l
.1,.'i
'!- r '
':it'l''
f,
'
,r,
L7
v
(Theory: 90 hours: Practcals: 70 hours)
'
PLANT MORPHOLOGY
(Theory: 15 hours, Practicals. o hours;)
1 lnflorescence: [acemose, cymose and mixed (special) uritn examples
2 Flower flovrer as a modrfred shclot - oetailed structure o! flowers - floral oarts ;
their
atr,'tn!:t?rterri, r,rlatrrrc lrlrsrtton. colttsioti bnd adheston - symmetry of flowers, typt65
r-rl
a=stivaliuri: plar.er,tatrr:tr types - flr-rtal tjiagrairts arrd flotalfotniulae.
3 Pollln;:trorr l,/pes -:;oittitvarice:1
l
lor pollrnatron-pollrnatrng agents; di.+ferent mechaniSnrs
Ol P'Olltn:rilCrl
4
FlLiits arrd seecis cirrssificatiorr
- albtrliltrrous and
5
,L'r
lturls y.rrih exarriiplcs, secd stlituture - dicot and motiocot
exalbumtttcrlts
.'
Dispersal of frurts and seeds typeqancl nrechanism vlith exarnples.
.Practicals:
ldenfify/distrnguish tlre lnflorescence, fruits arrd seeds; explain the morphological adaptations
r peculiarities and mechanisms, if any, in different types.
r'
'
' ,
Bold, H.C. 1973. Morphologyof Ptants.8.1. Publications, Bombay.
Dutta, A.C. 1963. Bolany for Degree Studenls. Oxford Uni. Press.
1es F
.l 1s)Gt
AnoiorDenns.Mc
Hill. New York.
Mc Grew Hill,
E.J.
1961. morononouit
Morpltologv of Angiotperms.
Eames,
:Gangulee, H.C, J.S. Das &
C Dutta. 1982. Coltege
Botany (5h ed.). New Central Book
Agency, Calcutta.
Si:orne, K.R 1976 Morphology of Angiospem?s. Hutchinson Uni. Library, London.
L.-
TAXONOMY
i'ilrrirry 6() huLrrs: practicals. 6tj hours)
1' lnlrocltrr:ttntl chlr:r.:ttves: and itnpr:rtance of plant systenlattcs,
units of classiflcauon.
2 Field rind irt'ttiarttrm tochniq-ies coller:tion, clrying, poisoning morrntrng and labelling.
lmport4rtl herhar,ia or lndia. O?tiOrral. rrrqionat anCI lor:al
lmportant
3'
'
;4'
botanicalqardens.
.
Documentation - floras and monograph$; Botanicalsurvey of lndia.
Nornenclature- Etinomial system i, non,rn.lature, basic rules of
nomenclature (validity,
effectiviV and priority) and international code of botanical nomenctature.
Systems of classification: comparative stucty of the following systems of
classification:
Linnaeus, Bentham and Hooker, Engler and pranU.
5' Modern ttends
in,
taxonomy
-
chemotaxonomy, numerical taxonomy, and cytotaxonorry
(brief account o4ly)
6. Taxonomy and economic imp<lrtancb of following families (Bentham and Hooke/s
,
sptem)
Annonaceae, Nyrnphaeaceae, MaMaceae, Meliaceae, Anacardiaceae, Fabaceae (with
, subfamilies), Myrlaceae, cucurbitaceae,Apiaceae, Rubiaceae, Asteraceae,
Sapotaceae, Apocynaceae, Asclepiladaceae, Solanaceae, Acanth aceae, Lamiaceae
Amaranthaceae,'Euphorbiaceae, Orchidaceae, Scitamineae, Liliaceae, Arecaceae,
'
.
Poaceae.
Students are expected to.
'1. ldentify the families mentioned in the syllabus by noting
their key florat and vegetative
characters.
i
2' Students should be able to describe a given plant technically and with ilustiations
and
assigning to ils respective farnily.
3.
Prepare herharia oi 30 plarrts with field rroles
4- Undertake
fieic.ivrotk
fot a ntinimurn crl S days ur'der the griidapce and supervisiorr
teachers ln lit:klwrl.k c'mol;asr', s,"rcrtltl be grven te lamrlrarz:e local/ reoional flora.
oF
,,
i
l't
Refetertt:os:
Davts t) I'i ii 'y'.F|. :{eyv'vood. 19S3.'Pnnc'iples
'
of
Angiosperm Taxonomy. Oliver & Boyd,
L.ondon
Dutta s.c. 1988 srrstentatic Bcttany (4r'ed.). wiley Eastern Ltd., l.lew Delhi.
c. 1968 An lnlrctducliott tcr Plant Taxonomy. J. & A. Churchill, London.
Lawrence. Cl l-l M 973 Taxopomy of Vascular Plants (3'd ed.). Oxford & IBH Publishing
Jeffrey,
:/
Company hd. Ltd., lriew Delhi.
Naik, V.N. 1984. Ta:ronomy of Angiosperms. Tata McGrew Hill Publ. Co. Ltd., New Delhi.
'
A.8., W.C. Dich-inson, J.[4. Massey & C.R. Bell. 1974. Vascular Ptant Systematics.
,Radford,
Raper & Row PuUishers, New York.
Singh,
G
1999. P/a,lf Sysfemaiics-Theoty and Praclice. Oxford & IBH Publishing Company
Pvt Ltd . [.lew De,hi.
Singh, V. & D.K. Jaitr. 1989. Iexonony of Angiosperns. Rastogi PuUications, Meerut.
Sivaraian, V. V. 1 982i. lntroduclion lo Principles
ot Planl Taxonomy. Oxford & IBH Publishing
i
'Company Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.
Sneath, P.H A. & f l.R. Sokal 1973. Nurnerical Taxonomy. W.H. Freeman &
Company,
i
Sanfranc,isco.
Svvain,
'f
1'r0:i. (.-/re;nical Plani laxononrj/. NEw York Academic Press,
t
ECCNOMIC BOTANY
,
(Theory: 15 hours: PracUcals: 4 hours)
1. Classrfri:atirin of ec lnonltcally rnrpr6;1,1;it pl.lnts based on thetr uses:
(,;ei"iirit; ;:,-ri::c';, suryar. ftiltls. veqetilble, ornarnental, masticatolies, beverages, fibre,
lrintrer iLrir-', rils laie:i. grlt:s, rBSrr-r:i and furrrrgators, dyes, gt'ices, medioinal and
lri Serr:tlr lr:1,::','rrrli"iII ir ; plan
2
:-'tt-ti1y
iI
li ?irc !cll)v/in{l i)lar1.; r'.iillj -<p(.;Clal reference to botaniCal name, family
C Useirtl parlS.
Ct't,:ai:.. ,i-r-' wliedt, rttaii+.
and
morLrl-t,:loCi'
ti-tgt
Pi!!Sr:', ,.,i.:':I, !Iarll, l',el ,qel (ltalrj
t'.lri'-i,it ','t..',,,iif rr i plar,t S.ur ji:ICfjnp Lre..:t f Oot
I'ri:rlS .tpi,le .rin:i:pple. i.lll-,ili/a b3tiana, rtlilngo, guave and jaCkfrUit.
Veg.:l.ihle; l,,tter tloLud. okra [iaclies fingerj, atnatanthus, cabbaget
'
(;r.rcurtrlls
-
bitter gorlrd, watermelon, cucumber, snake gourd.
Ornanrental: rlse, anthurium.
Mas!.icatories betel vine, betel nut.
Bevr'1pqq*.. cf ffee, tea, CrtCOa
F:l[:it f iqldlng coi1, cotloil, jLlte
J
imt'er yieidrn
,1.
teal: woq;.d, iose yrood, iack wood.
Pulp yieldirrg: .;ucalyptus barnboo, reeds
Oil yielding. cc'conut, gi/rgelly, mustard, sunflower
Latex yielding Para rubbi,'r
'
Gums, resins ;rnd furniga{cries: damnrar, gum Arabic, and asafoetida
Spices ginoer. cardamorn Frepper and cloves
.Me,Jiciital Ad!alodrt, Bot:thi,tawa, Ceilheranthtts, Eclipla alba, Phyllanthus amarus,
Rlu.yolfia.
lnsecticide yielCing. neem, tobacco
Practlcals:
Students are expected
to
study
the raw materials and finished products of the plarrts
nrentrcned in tte syllabus
Rl:ferencc.::
Bedirr, /., lL.,rr i.rrrr ;';r 19At) Ec(t:Jt;ti'-; Ec,tarrv Rastogi Pirblir-:ations, Meerut.
[:
''
{t:;ii:n} r'.-4r- t-lrew- lrill New York
Mirheswar f .' fl. Ll Sir,gh 1985 l.ttcltofiary c:-fconontrc Plan!s c-tf lndta ICAR.
Sen S i9,i.il [:,;r:.r:y]n lc E, ittny i'iervCentrai Eooi,iAgency, Caicutta
Hill A
1'j{]
Sl-r'frentali i t.l
t-r.r,116;roic
i''_,
ilt
1'L-,-)/rlnrrl ;-;..;,!:,1n'r, i"iiai_r Mahal. Aliahabad.
Nevr Delhi
2'L
gr
P.ap
'
-l-V---.P
!a
n[
P h vS
iUqgy.
B
i
oc
h e qr ts
trv. E co
(-l-heory. 105 hours; Practicals: 45 houls)
PI.ANT PHYSIOLOGY
(Thrlory: 60 hour$; practjcals: 15 hours)
'
'1.
, '
|
Water i:nd vrater relations of plants:
,1.
lmpor:ance of water to plant life; properties of waler.
Plastr otysis - sigrrifi cance and practical application
Mechonism of ebsorption of water: active and passive; ascenl of sap : mechanism - vital
'
,heOritys- root-i,1g55gre theory,
Transpiration ,rull theory and coheslon of water theory; transpiration types; mechanism of
,
stomataf m(r'vdment; theories: Stewards scheme, K+ion theory; significance of
,
transpiration; plant anti transpirants; factors affecting transflration.
2..Mineral nutition in plants: macro and micronutrients, availability of mineral elements;
general an.J specfic role of mineral elements, deficiency symptoms.
Mechanisrn of mineralsalt absorption: passive absorption - lon exchange and Donnan
'
equilibrium active absorptiorr-+vidences; cartier concept and Ludgargh's hypothesis.
3. Plants and tJitrogen: thb Nitrogeir cycle; absorption of Nitrogen by plants (inorganic &
fxation in leguminous plants); assimilation of nitrates; assimilation of Ammonia (GDH
ir
,
& GS/GOGAT pa',.hway); biosynthesis of amino acid - reductive amination and trans
i
amination'
.1. P ho los:.'n tl
r
esis. inirodu ction. srgnifican ce
Photophysiology (riature of rar.liation, properties of radiation)
P
hotosy'nth ettc pigrnenls (strr r rtu re and distribution)
Effects of EMR o,n matter - absorption, fluorescence, phosphorescence, resonance
';
transfer - chemica! reactions -inodified equation.
l'4echanisnr rtf r:lrc'.osynihesis . evidenc'.-s for the existence of light and dark reactions,
L-rghi
rr',;icticn I hll ieactri:ns - rt:d drop - Fmerson effect, absorption spectrum and action
Slier:itirti't
.
:'
lranspc,rl aitcl ater oxidising et)ryrne system.
''
,
trark reactions car)on lixation C3,C4 and CAM plants, Photorespiration, Law of limiting
lactors,
F
actors affccting photosynthesis,
I
I'
'1. Fj,+'irttiritrrr. r.lr*ftf riiicn an.J
.
geiii.rel eqlration; kinds of
respiratton
. j. , \,
Me,;lirrrilsiri of ae,,obic respiratior': glycotysis--iwo stages, overali O,ai.. -- .she.;, .1'
i":'
glycolysrs: Kreb's cycle : oxidation of pyrrrvate to acetyl.coo. p1s2r-tii,;:' rr 'rc/\ r,vclg amphibolic nalure of ttte cycle electron transport system ?ild their
coir,
r
I
:
1.'
'
i
rehtsi Fo F1 -
ATIrase coniprlex, chemiosnrttic theory; balance sheet of rmpiration
l:el r niirr'tati;tn - lrrdustr ial usgs
Res;piri-i'tory quotir:nl
-
signitir:.rnce; [-ar;tors affecting respilalion.
6. Translocation of otljanic solutes: pathway of conduction of organic s,rhttes; sr
translocated in pt-.loem
'
Carboltydrates: sttcrose, raffrnose, stachyose, verbascose,
mannit.
com[)ounds. Antino acids and Amides.
,Nitrogenous
Mechanisnr,of phloem trattsg:ort: pressureflow hypothesis, streaming
7
tnc..!s
,rositol, : orbitoletc
I
Planl grov4h and developmeni definition of groMh and development; p,
.
i
Drotr:,
t
I ;srn
,:s 01 r.tuwth
and'its :rtei:suremrint; plant grr.rwth substances or regulators, practical aprl tication
Photopericrdisn-r arrd vernalisation (bnef study onty)
Seed dormancy & Germination, Senescence, Circardian rhythm- a genr
s
account.
'
irrief study)
t
;
8Plantmoverljenb:ttopicandrlasticrnovements(abriefstudy)
9
Piant morJrhogenes,s
Phytoclrronte'* chemistry. m*-.;hanism of phytochrome action in flowerir'
Frat;ticals:
Studettln'-ihoLrlcl
1.
2
. 3
'i
.:i
Lre
able to :,t,'t rlp the following experirne rts bythemsei
L)trti;rnrinariron of stonr;rialfrequency
Iirrctiorr ior,:e due to lr:;.rspiratiorr
(.-;anonC.!'spotorrreter
|
)t:t.riltiirliJurr ui watei
rll-rs<.ryprli6y1
i...;i :; : i,:'; , 1 r;h'i,;ir.:;)lli;' rrii_:ilrlnts from leafy vegetablc-s using separating fttnnel.
!-r
:,ii ji.),.ri)l;()i) ,rf pi,:rrt pl{_ii,;anli, i.;,7
i
r
U
!i.
. 10
11
12
arrd irarispilatior ratio.
-:'1Jr;trij r;
i iqtit
papgr chronratography.
tir: ir_rel elpretiment
fl,iohls nalf leaf e^xperinrent.
l',4e'asureme nt
of photosynthgsis by Wilmot's bubbler.
i;r,oitrtion of COr durinr; respiration.
()anoirg's rrspironletei and rneasurement of R.e.
.
;'rnoerobir: respiration (,Jemonstration).
13. [:volr.rtion cl heat durring respiration.
14.
15,
Alr;oholic Fr.rmerrtation.
Geotropism using clino*.tat.
*
;r,
23
,r,{. Rotergnces:
s
1979. plant physiotogy. Macmillan pubtishing company, IJew york.
Data, s.c. 1!89 Plant physiotc:gy. central ElooK Depot. Ailahabad
Bidwell, R.-G
Delvin, R.M- 1975- Plant Physiology. Litton Educational Publishing lnc.
Nenv york.
Hopkins, w.G. introduction to ptanl physiology. John wiley & sons lnc.
Jain, v.Kr 1996. Fundamentals of plant physiotogy. s.chand & co., New
Delhi,
[9cnar, P.L. 1964. A Text Book of plant physiotogy.Atmaram & sons, Delhi.
Malik, c.P. 1980- Plant physiotogy. Katyanipubrishers, New Delhi.
Noogle, G.R. & G.J. Fritz. 1986. tntroduclory Ptant Physiology. Prentice Hallof
lndia Ltd.
Pandey' S.N. & B.K. Sinha. 19BG f'lant Physiotogy. Vikas Publishing House, New
Delhi.
Salisbury, F B. & C.W. Ross. 1985. Plant Physiology. Wordsworth Pub[shing Company.
Thg, l.P- 1982. Plant Physiotogy. Atjdison wesley publ. co., Massachusets.
.dl-
--
I
I
(
1
->
4
ilri::or /.1 5 hours; Practicals: 15
hours)
i
r
lntroduclon: moleculal iogic of living organsms; biologicalfitness ot organic compound
ol
Carbohydlates. definition and occurrence; Classification; Structure and function
Lmonosaccfrarides -'structure of glucose (open chain sttucture, closed ring structure,
form, D.for[], rr ancJ [t lc.rrn); Struclure and functions ol oligosaccharides (Sucrose,
cellulose)'
l:rcio-.,e ;rrtj rneritose),; slructure and fuliction of ;-,olysaccharides (starch and
Ainirir-i i\r'ir-.ls rJCr:urrence - s.truclure - functtons: classficaton: based on structure,
p:letti,,,. iurrction.;. ;lrrrphcteric properties; peptide fcrmaticn
--
peptide bond'
AtrrirJi:s - f:ricl a:cccttttl (As1-'argine & Glutanlirre)
prolerri.; t.l+firritirlrr - r:lassifir::aficn
strrr,;,ir.ri,.
i1'.;i
!.,
on frrni:liorls, physical and chemical properties:
oi rrrctcrns - role of v;+ak interar:lion in
.i1,,'i
,illr"l
lrarsr+cj
r)'.:l
{1
stabihz
11r,..i,ui:s, ,-.i.:.'.-,,i,
lng protein structrtre; hydrolysis
iit;url ,,ti{tlple lipids, conrprburrd iipids
iit:i'iS)
tjalty aclrls atcohols ol lipicls. lats. waxtis. jihospholioirjs arrd gl'lcolipicts.
L)erved lipids - terpenes and steroids
theit
Synthesis and breakrJown of lipirls (synthesis of glycerol, synthesis of fatty acids,
copdensatron, r&-and B-oxidation; gtyorylic acid cycle'
6. Errzfnres: general arcount and rlefinitiotrs: stlucture - classification with examples;
factors
enz!,nte nornenclatUre (lUB tvlB), co-enzymes; mechanism of enzymes Action;
elzynie action ( strbstrate corrcentralion, enzyme concentration, temperature,
affectin-<r
pH, hydiation, inhibitors; irrlribition of enzytnes (competitive and non-competitive);
isoenz-yt
n
es -rJi>finition (exam lrle
LDll)
P.ractlcals:
1.
'
Qulalitative lests for cari:oltyCtates
Llerierai test for cat botiydrates- Molisch's test
l-esi for re,irtcittg sl,g;its- Benedrct's test
Ttlstlor keio sugars- Selivranofs test'
Test for starch- lodine test.
Amylase activitY on starch.
2.
Qualitative test for Protiein
(]eneraltest foi protein'
E;iure't tesi'
-[*;t io iderrtiiy arnino ::cills. ['linhydrln test
rruirls
ainii rq atotrr.rtic rtLicit'tts- Xeirrthoploteic test
l-=st tr: iderilify
arr riirr-r
i,:st lr; identlfu
irrhrno ar::rrls l"lrllr hr'(ir(rxyflc'rrli ene tad.u:';l- tnillton's reuctton'
ic:r11
1
, ,: ,i,
-)I.
I
|'
i:-. ,
,r'.
),g1rr\,y;,,j
l\,_,;,ri,.,,,,
& i I I r'..1!-ll,.iL:l 1,:,,t,,, ie\:l
;.ll
:iir.r,if rt -l '1''i'i,i' $rr.tr-i!t':!:'ttit!;.'.'-
Li(:Oit, Of
Chenilstfy $,pcl r \l'shinli
'"t'
ritttlttt:s V1/rleyEasielil pvl Lld,NgwDgiri
l'.,-:c.ltr;v i 1-r.J .:1 r i'.t$fr fl,rp,;llt,rniSity Wfley FaSlerrt py1 L.ld
l.JeW fJelhi.
Lt:hrtincor A
.
iLrl.,L)titi ut,/1c:-)
L 1 9)8. Principtes of Bioche'niitry
CBS pubtishers, ilew Delhi.
Pit]rtrmer tr T. 1988. An lntroduclion to P'actical Biochemistry. Tata McGrew
Hill publishing
Conrpany t-td . New Delhi.
Povrer t-. B & G R Chatwal. 1998. Biothemistry. l{imalaya publishing
llouse, Meerut.
jr.
PL AHT ECOLOGY
(Tireory: 210 rours. Practicals: 10 hours)
t.
Delinilion,
lntroducton:
,
history, scope, fundamental principles; concept of
environment.
2.,Ecological faclors: Delinition;
Abiq,lic
laciots types;lerril:arature, light,uressure, soii, water, humidity
Biorjc factors; Mutualisnr, commensalisr\s, parasitism, pledation, symbiosis
3.
Soil: formatiolr, classificartrolt based oD \6;lq1e, properties; soil analysis, erosion,
conservation, teclantation of acidic and alk{'ne soils.
4.
5.
Global biogeochemical cycles of Carbon, Nibgen, Phosphorus and Sulphur.
Ecological adaptations: morphological and t ratomical adaptatlons of Hydrophytes,
Xerr:lthytes H.rloph:ytes,
il
I
oiphl4es and Parasg5.
[,;uilrgir;tli 511,;6s55!gti: I-,cfillitiorl, ciruses; rii;i13ni5115, HytJtosere and Xerosere.
I
7.
{:
mpr: {al ni t:' rlf sllr)t.,:srio{i
Plalr'. cor:tntur itre's: ,.),:finr',rot;. t';pe, riassificatioli'fllsthocjs oI studying conrmunitres-
Qrr.lrart
ar:c1
l'ratlsect
Practicals:
1
Str,rrJy
oi niorphology and anatomy
of locaily t/ar\,ble hydrophytes, xerophytes,
hoiJpl;'/t')e :lrtphyies ancl parasiies.
"
1rs;l:cfi:illiillc'n
qLr{11-ll
3
oi rrietiifid', ui !elel.atlcn
stllC.v
orlhinination
of frequency
by
iJI r rri::tf rod
[Jelr]r.irialrorr of tle ,Fl of clifllrent ttoilsamples ustrt! [l,y1ster/pH paper.
R'oferelrces:
I
Ambasht, R.S. 1988. A Teil BooR of Plant Ecology. StudentsFriehs Co, Varanasi.
Clarke G:L 1954 Ete.'menis of Ecology. John Wiley Publ., Nevr p,;;1
Dastr, lv1.C 'igt73 l:qpdamentals of Ecology. Tata McGrevr Hill Atr;n1ing Company Ltd.,
New
Dei:ii.
;
Concepts of Ecology. Prenfrce Hall Biologice66ience Press.
K,umar, H.D. 1977. Modern Conc.epls of Ecology. Vikas PublicationiN&w Delhi.
Micfraet, P. 1990. Ecological Methods for Field and Laboratory lnves,rtions. Tala McGrew
Kornrondy, L.J.
19515.
HillPublishing Cornpany Ltd.. New Delhi.
R. 1968. Ecolctgy rlyorli gttok Oxford & IBH Publishing Compaltyrl. Ltd., New Delhi.
Odtrrn, E P lSrT l f:undanterilal:; of F-cology W B. Saunders. Philadelph,
Shukla, R..S & P S. ()hanrJet Piant Ecology and SoilSciences. S. Chanq Co. Ltd., New
:Mlsra,
Dellti
2t
PIIYTOGEOGRAPHY
('l'lir:rorv:
i0
hours: practrcals: 5 hours)
t"
1
i
lntroductron. Definition a,rd objectives.
2. Tyqes of clinrate and vegetation in lndra.
3.
Theorim of pilant distribution: theory of land bddges, continentraldrift, glaciations.
Practicals:
Sttrdenls shculd be able to tdentify the various floristic regions
of lndia in maps.
References:
'Barucha, F-R. A Text
Book of Plant Geography. oxford University press, oxford.
cqin, s.A- 1944. Foundation of ptant Geography. Harper, Newyork.
Good, R. 1974- Trie Geography of Frowering ptanrs. Longman,s pubr.
\&atter
1g'J7
.
v'ege.tdtion
of ihe Eafth. springer Verrag, Berrin.
s
_)
('llit,,:ry 9ti hours. Practcals.
liO hours)
PLANI'ANATOMY
('l-heory.45 hours; Prac'ticols: 30 hours)
1
. lntrOdlr:i; li1,;11 lrrstc ry- gr;ope ;;itid Signifioaitce of Anatorny
12.
Olani c,ri,
A.
I'Jori lit'irtgt irrci'.tsions untlrspccial ernllhasis on economic importance, if any-
i. Reserve iood materials- a) carbohydrates b) proteins c) fats & oils.
a. (larboltydrates -
,
sugars & starch
b.
Proteins- aleurone grains.
c.
fais & :rik.
ri
'
.
-
starch grains, structure, different kinds.
- Fifrttents, gnzvntes, nectar.
lr{6r5{s. trra erials
-
Sr-:ij,e'a!'y ritalerials
a
b
]nou!
I'Jrlroo
-- alkalords
I'Jon- nitrogenous glucosides, gums, resins, tannins.
c. lvlinerr I crystais- c alcittnr oxalirte
ca
Li
-
prismatic. druses, raphides, calcitrm
rbor,ale- cysrtoirtit
(-lr:lr ryall
:
r..;u.,:::::;i ,'trCtr.:'ts-t (:rf i: i11.:,:, :;61
itii.r!,ri(.) it..-i't
i.li,; ll
!
,er;::irriaf
i,t;ifiiS
Sini;--rlg
and bOfdet ed
pftS,
;.it ,:,ii,r,. lLi,r .ji:d fr_lttr_iiOn
'li:.i:ir DPlc.:n"'l ',: rDiiri, i(-,:'i.i.iiiLl 5tn-icttire -iiricelle micro{ibrilsantiiheir
1-.,,:,r,ri, .,i 1,,., .., ,11 ,:!i. _,i .:r)t;
.l i i'
r
.
,:, ,rt4i,
i_r'! ir.,(. lir,tr(.ii
.
-
. r,-i lI:!ll:,I.i-l.latapLlt_):t,j
,t,.,t-, :i. -1,,,,,1, ri|,,.,. t,il1 \,ti -r.l!r,
Oi,.tii,tr-r1,;! rf rr
riI Si],:r ,t i![_r,_,x
.111g ditt;_.t,_,ntiatjOn
Ol tiSSr_teS
_
l,-ii;iDili,.)iir) p, ocariibiuni and (irolln( "inelrisiei-;r io he n-,errlione,J
l: V=i]et;rtivc: sitoot irpi:x --shoct aper r:i angiosperms (usual angiospern1 types
i.);'ittitiu 'tl'ue to br: rnenr,;n?rli Rcqiolrs of activity in
*
-
the apical meristem
i-_1.irrr : r)l rd . t, lpl otir tr;liv,.' elprex
"
[],i;rt i](rr)]
-
(orpi-r [(a1'pe lheory
tyF rr u,'tlh thte' :
sets
.ol ini(ials
B. Petrni-r/rettl tissuis: Delinititrr
-
-
-
organizallon of root apex in dicots
In mcncccts
classification
-
-
-
comrnon
Matze gpe with foul sets of initials
simple, complex, and secretary.
i-
29
a. Simple tissues
- parenchyma,
different kinds of sclereids
b. Complex Ussues
-
collenchynra, sclerenchyma
-
fibers and sclereids
-
siructurd, occurrence and functions.
- definition - kinds - xylem and phloem, structure,
ofigin,
constituents and funcUon.
c. Secretary Ussues - glands, glandular hairs, nectaries, hydathodes, schizogenous
and lysigenous ducts, resin ducts, mucilage ducts and cavitres; kinoveins, laticifers
articulated and non articulated
-
-
structure and function- examples.
4. Vascular Bundles: Origin and types- conjoint, collateral, bicollateral, open, closed, radial,
concentric, amphicribal and amphivasal.
.5. Primary Growth of the plant body: dicot root, rnonocot root -root stem transition- diiot
stem- normal and bicollateral- monocot stem- grass and Asparagus type- nodal
'
anatomy- unilacunar, tritacunar and mutti lacunar types- leaf trace' gaps- branch
trem and gaps- dicot leaf - lxora and Hibiscus- monocot leaf- grass and Crinum.
6.
A. Normal secondary growth in dicot stem and dicot root- stelar thickening
cambial ring-
ib structure
activity of the cambium
-
- formation of
fusif-qrm and ray initials- storied and non storied cambium-
formation and structure of secondary wood, secondary phloem
and vascular raya; groMh ring- ring porous diffuse porous wood- sap wood and heart
wood- tyloses.
B. Periderm formation,in stem and root- initiatron
- formation-
phellogen; structure and tunction of periderm. - bark
-
structure and acUvity of the
lenticel.
7. Anomalous secondary growth: a general account- secondary growth in Boerhaavia,
,
Bignonii,
and Draiaena.
Practicals:
StuOents are expected to:
1
Z
Study primary plant structllres. - stem, root & leaf (dicots & monocots).
StLrrJy socondary plant structures (dicot stem & root after secondary thickening)
3.
Study anomalous secontJary thickening (Boerhaavia, fSignonia, Dracaenal
Learn rnaceration of wood elements to study the shape, size & nature of vlall
4.
I
thickening
of
xylem elements vi4, lracheids, vessels. xylem fibres,
xylem
pai'enchyma.
5.
6.
ldentify and make labelled diagrams of the specimens supplied.
ldenlify at sight different celltypes, tissues & non- living inclusions mounted under
th6 inicroscoPe,
I
References:
.
Cuttler, E.G. 1969. Plant Anatomy - Pad t Cells and lissues. Edrruard Arnold Ltd., London.
Cutfler, E. G. 1 971 . Plant Anatomy - Paft lll Organs. Edrrard Arnold Ltd.. London.
Edmes, A-J. & L.H. Mac Daniels. 1987. An lntroduction
lo
Plant Anatomy.TalaMcGrew Hitl
Publishing Cornpany Ltd., Nerp Delhi.
Esau, 'K. 1985. Plant Anatomy (zN ed.) wiley Eastern Ltd., New Dethi.
Fahn, A. 2000. Pla,nt Anatomy. permagon press.
Pandey, B.P. Planl Anatomy. S.Chand & Co., New Delhi.
Sen, D.N. 1974. Anatomy of Angiosperms. S.Nagin & Co.
Tayal, M.S. P/anl Anatomy. Rastogi publishers, Meerut.
Vasishta, P.c. 1974. Plant Anatomy. pradeep publications, Jalanrjhar.
I
I
31
,l
i _
i,, i
,i
)
"
EMBRYOLOGY
flheory: 20 hours; Practicals: 5 hours)
1. lntroduction and general account of embryology- the flowers,
floral par6 and
morphorogical nature; ilfe history of a typicar angiosperm
2' Anther- structure and development of microsporangiuim, microsporogenesis,
types of
pollen grdins and male gametogenesis.
3' ovule:- Structure and development
I
,.
'
I
of megasporangium, megasporogenesis, structure
of embryosac- normaltype; types of megagametogenesis- monosporic,
bisporic
& tetrasporic emtrryosacs _types of ovules.
4. FertilEatlon- Types of entry ol pollen tube in embryosac- double
fertilization and triple
fusion.
5' Endosperm: - Endosperm formation, development of the endospenn (only
nuclear type
needs to be taught); types of haustoria (Crotalaria, Grevillia, & Lornalia)
l
6' Embryo - Strttctute ot dicot embryo (Capsella), monocor embryo (Sagillaria)
i
i
,
(Developnrent not needed)
7' Apomixis and Lrolyembryony - Types of apornixes:- causes and types polyembryony
of
B *ceed.- 'Strttr.lttre crf ,Jicot & mcrnocot seeds, [ese!'ve fr-rocl nraterials.
9. Role of conrparative embryology in taxonomy
10. Experimental embryology. Aims. aqd objectiues.
i
-
Practlcats:
.:
1' To idenJify, make labelled sketches
and wrile noles of interest on preparations
showing matilre anther, typical embryo sac, different types of ovules, dicot and
's
i
.monocotembryoqofangiospermsincludedinthesyllabus.
2.
Demonstratiotlr of embryo mounting. eg: - Tridax, Crolalaria.
References:
I
i
,,
I
l'
:
Bhojwani, S.s. & s.P.lBhatnagar. 1981 . The Embryology of Angiospe.rms. vikas
House hrt. Ltd., Nery Delhi.
'
pubtishing
Davis, C.L. 1965. Syslematic Embryology of Angiosperms. John Wiley, Neur york.
Eames,.M.s. 1960 . Morphology of Angiosperms. Mc Graw Hill, New york.
Johri, B.D. 198a (ed.). Embryotogy of Angiosperms. springer-verlag, Berlin.
Maheswari, P. 1985. lntroduclion to Embryology of Angiosperms. Mc Graw Hill, New york.
tnarma & Aswathi. Embryology of Angiosperms.
i'i
I
.t
(J'heoty:
'
1. Palynology:
10 hours)
Introduction- history & scope of Palynology.
2.
Pollen moiprology and dispersal.
3.
Pollep struclure: Development of pollen wall; ultra structure of pollen wall; pollen
viability.
4.
Role of pollen mcrplrology in Taxr:nomy.
5
A'irooalynol,lgy, pollati +llergy; pollen kit substances
Practicats:
1
.
Viability te:;t for pollen
a
ln yitro gerrnination using sugar solution (cavity slide method)
r-i
lelrazolir.tirit+'it
I-i
,
j
l: l.f i'irt i tl iix;i
,'\ir
ol)oi galrijrlli s.t::tning nietl'tcd
F.efct0ncu-'.:
l: rdlrriarr.
(,;
j l-,r1,., f ',ti,tc.ri
),1c,ritlii>ktgt atxj l>lahl l';a:<ottottl:l Pafl l. Alnriqulst & Wiksell'
tlln,'L-hr,irr.
U'l,t-r\r,\,,;,r'
Er<ltrnarr,
l.'larr
'
ti
[)K l.i
l9ij9. Hano
1g64 (ecl
L\octk c,f Falynology'. Haufer publicatiorrs Co., New York.
). Recen!.4dvanc'es in'Pa'lyrtology. National BotanicalGardens
Pubiic;rtions, l.ucknov't.
Nair, P.K
K
1970. Pollen Morplxllogy of Angiosperns. Vikas Publishing House, New Delhi'
Shivanna, K.R. & N.-s. Rangaswamy. 1993. Polten Biology. Narosa Publishing House, Nanr
Delhi.
Shivanna & Johri. The ahgiosperm pollen.
G!
x
?'t
t,
MIcRoTECIINIOUE
t
(1-heory. 15 hours; Practicals: 5 hours)
l.Basic Microtechniq+ lntroductlott
- Apparatus -
a brief account of:
a. Microscope -si,nple & compound microscope, phase contrast microscopy, dark
fleld illumination, electron nticroscopy
b. Sterilizeri: chernical agents, physical methods
- heating in open flame,
incineration, exi)osure to hot air, boiling, sterilizaUon by flowing steam - autoclave.
, c. Centrifuges:
- di:'ferent tYPes.
d. Microtome: - sledge lnicrotome & rotary microtome.
2. Killing and Fixation: a,;ents & fluitJs- Carnola formula, Farmers formula3. Dehydration and clearing - reagenE (mention onty)
FM'
4. Stains & Staining- types of stains- Saffranin, Haematoxylin, Carmine. Methods of
staining- progressive , retrogressive & counter staining'
5. Whole mounts- cytological method
- maceration'
(Brief description oniy)
6. .SecUons- Freq harrd:;ections- Serialsections & Paratfin method.
Practlcals:
,
&
Theory classes shoulcl be supportgd by de4tonstration (microtome sectioning, staining
mounting, maceraticn).
,,
^"lerences:
Drulvedi, J.N.
li. R
B Singh
1gg0. i';"^senila/s of Piant I'echniques (2"0 ed.). scientific
Ptrblishers, iodhPur
Gray,
p
ig64 ttand
Bc,ok
oi
Easic Mtcrolechnique Edtuard Arnold Ltd.. London.
Johansan, D A. 194O. l-'lanl flicrotechnrgue. Mc Graur Hill, Neur York.
Publishers, Trichi'
Krishrramurttry, K V. igil8. Mettntls in Ptanl HtstochemLsl4r. Viswanath
prasad& prasad Ouilires of Bolanical Microlechnique. Emkay Publications'
,;,
''
U.K.
Sanderson, .i B. 1994. t3rologicatMicrotechnique. Scientifc Pulrlishers,
Ltd', London'
Suss, J.E. 1958. {ed.) BotanicalMicrcte1hniquii. ionstable & Co'
F
l)
34
I heqv.E
e^u_er
Yl :
I
e!!_B rglqgy". E
lgtec h Urloqv*P_lantBje:qglllg,..C*cr-qlplrlgtAppllcations.
aJld--ElaJoloruralltss
gu
,( !'he:t.r;y:
hortr:i; Practicals: 25 lrours)
CELL BIOLOGY
(-l'l'ri)t:r.y di, herrrs; Praclir,'alS 1O hr:ttrS)
, f ilsioryi:i
'l
r
1-)lrOqV.l,cll fiiolCI,l'itn2t)" centrrty iicopeof Cell Brology.
,'11
ir': '.. fii
.l..r[ttiitir-ttt, t;,Ue
[!,.,1iiili.ti.i1s i.r!
Of r:ells, StZe. Slrape, vClUme, ttUmbel and
StrUCtUre
rotatyr-rLtc and eucaryotic celis- iherr cc,mparison and ditferences.
i
Linr,r siruclure ancl funciion of the following cell organelles-sirurctures- cell
m e m bran
e,
e
rdoplasmic reticrilum, ribosomes, golgi bodies, tysosomes,
mitocliondria, chloroplast and peroxisomes
Cytoplasrn: h'raloplasm, rnicrotubules and microfilaments.
Cytcsl'.eleton. vacuole aird cell sap.
I'Juclens- nur:lear membrane, perinuclear space, nuclear pore annulus, central
granule, funclion.'
Nucleolus. structure and function.
C h romatin
reliculu
m : ch ro
mosome morphology, fine structu re, chemical or ganzalion,
organization of DIJA in combination lvith proteins in chromosomes, nucleoproteins,
)
.
.
hislones, and non-hislon,e proteins
Specialtype of chrcmosornes; salivary glanct chromosome and lamp brush chromosomes.
I
3. Cell cycle. mitosis rtnd meiosis- cytok-inesis- significance of mitosis and meiosis.
4. Nucleic acids: nucleotides in DNA.and R|lA. Structure of AMP, ADP and ATP.
'
DltlA: structur+ types (8, A & Z)- Watson & Crick model of DNA
Replication
of
DNA-semiconservaWe model
of replication-direction of
replication-
addrtion of nrtcleotide monomers-synthesis of short pieces-linking oI short piecesinitiation of replication by" RNA primer-unwinding the double helix-enzymes involved
in Dl'l/r replicertiori.
RI.JA: propertres slructurt: and ltrnction of nrRNA,
Evrcienc:es
5
fol
t t+NA and
rh'f.JA.
DIJA, as gerrelic materra!- rndirec: and direct eviCences
Centraldogma of rnolecular Biology- gene action-one gene one enzyme hypothmis, one
Crsl,(.)r) one Jrr,fy-negrtr,'le liypolhrl'-{rs- tl;lnelir-^ t:orJO-fealutils - prOtein SyntheSiS,
-l-;r'iflini::m
L-lcnetirr Irf(_rIi!;iltL)r\ rrr pfck,)fyOtes- [-erc O;:t:rOn trOpefOn- gene
(iX!)l
?-{iI:.
iUl^l
rI' I'
Ii.'.i! l V(}r('.1,
35
.:
r
;?
'
6. Chromosomal aberrations- vatiation in chromosome number- aneuploidy- haploidypotyploidy. Behavioui in
'
melosis-
'
Structural aberrations: deletions, duplicaUons, inversions and translocation+
their
i
I
I
rhbiotic consequences and signifi cance.
,
7. Radiation Cytology: ioqrizing and non-ionizing radiations- isotope and their application+
chromosomateffect.
Cancer- definition- properties of Cancer cell+ sites of infection- onco-genes,
biological, phyrsiological, mutaUonal and
,
i
i
retroviruses. HIV- replication cycle- cytology of cancer- ageing.
i
;tl
Practlcals:
L
Mitosis: Onion root
tip acetocarmine sgash preparations-study of stages.
' ;:x :: HH :i::ri.!:::i:,,_,;"Tl.il:,::::::il:ff ;:;il::
l, anaphase I (demonstration only).
3.
CalculaUon of milotic index (Reiger et a|.,1976).
References:
.
Arumugam, N. Cel/ Biology. Saras Publications, Nagercoil.
Choudhary, S.S. Laboratory techniques in Cell Biology Kalyani publishers, New Delhi.
N.S.
1964 Elemenls of Cylology. Freeman Book Conrpany, New Delhi.
Derobertis, E.D P. & E l'"1 F Derc;L,ertis. 1991 Cellantl lvlolecular Biology. Lea & Febiger,
Cohn,
Hopkins, C
'
R
Structu'e and Function cf Ce//s. W B. Saunders Co , Philadelphia.
Natayan, L M.. A. I'rlani, &
fl
Arumugarn. lloleculer hiolog'1 and Genelic Engineering.
Saras Publications, l'Jagercoil.
Povrar, Cj B' 1988 Sssenfals of Cytology. Himalaya Prrblishing House, Bombay.
Rastogi S
Sharma,
lt
C
Cett httilogy Tata l-4r; Graw
l{li t:irbhshrng Company,
New Delhi.
(1990) Th,t Chrornosomes, Oxford & lBH, Delhi.
t
F
36
BIOTECHNOLOGY
(Theory: 15 hours; practicals: 10 hours)
i
't' lntroduction- defirriton. history, scope
and significance; general account of tissue culture
2'
.
laboratory facilities; medium tor in vitro cutture, composition.
callus cutture- exolant selection, initialion, types of callus- role of plant growth
regulators
in c:allogenesrs; brief account of organ culture.
3' Pollen and
arrther cutture frrt the devetopment of haploids and their significance;
brief
account of protoplast culture- mechanical and enzymatic isolation, its culture,
somatic
hybridisation, its importance.
,,
4' Gene manipulalioh in plants-direct DNA uptake, Agrobacteriummediated genetransfer-
'
electroporation, short gun method of gene transfer
5' rDNA technology'general account of cloning vehicles plasmids, bacteriophages;
isolation
. and purificaticin of DNA from plant cells;
resfuiction endonucleases and ligases.
6.
Applicailon
,
of
,transgenic
gr:ne transfer technology-brief account
of transfer of
novet genes,
plants.
7. Application'of tissue culture and biotechnology in medicine, agriculture, human wetfare
etg.
Practlcals:
l.Preparation of buffers and measurement of pH using pl-l nretre/pH paper.
2 Visit to any Tisstte Cutturb Laboratory and preparation of Tour report
l1,n
Reforencos:
Biir:1wani, S S, g M.K Razdarr. 1983. Flant Tissur cuilure- theory and practice. Elsevier,
'
Amriercani
Bilgrami.
ti $ ii A K l'ar,dr:Y 1992. tnlroduction to
Diotechnotoogy. CBS publ, &
flrstr ibutor:;. [Jclhi.
Bttlock'
J
8, B. Kristiansen. 1987.
Beslc Biotechnology. Academic press, London.
Dubey, R:C, A Text.B,ok of Biolechnopgy .S.. Chand and Co.
Gamboorg' Q.L-, G.C. Philics leo.) Ptani Cell, Tissue and Organ Cutture. Narosa publishing
House, New Delhi.
Gr"rpta,
P.K.,
iliolechnotogy. Rastogi publications,
lgnasimuthu, s. Biotechnorogy. Hilr pubr. company, New Delhi.
Kumar, H.D., Biotechrlology,
Kumaresan,
'
i''il,' '
I
Marx, J.L.
,
v.
Biotechno,togy.saras publications, Nagercoir.
(ed.). 1989. A Revotutfon in Biotechnology.Cambridge Uni. press, New york.
i'
F
I
Narayanan, L'M.'A- Mani, A-M. Selvaraj & A Arumugam
.
Genetic engineering. saras publ.
Nagercoil.
Narayanaswamv'
.
s. 1994 Planl rissue cuilure. Tata }/cltrevr
Hill publ. company Ltd_, New
Delhr
Purohit'
s
s
& s'K. Mathun. Fundamentals of tsiotechnotogy.Agrobotanicalpublishers.
Razdan., M K 1993 An lntroduction ,to plant lrssue Culture
Oxford publi. Company Ltd.,
New Dethi.
Smith,,
J.E.
I gBB. Biotechnology. Edward Arnold, London.
Trehan, K- 1992- Biotechnorogy. wirey Eastern LtrJ., New
Derhi.
38
PLANT BREEDING
.
t
(Theory: 10 hours)
1. Objectives in plant breeding_
Plant introduction- procedure of introductionacclimatization- achievements.
Selection- mass selection- pure line selecuon
and clonalselection.
Hybridtzation- procedur+ inter-varietal and distant
hybridization with example,
2' Heterosis breeding- hybrid vlgour and inbreeding depressiongeneuc explanationsynthetic varietes.
Mutation breeding- polyploidy breeding- breeding for
diseme resistance and insec,t
resistance,
3' Seed production- improved seed production
-
multiplication and maintenance
testing-
-
.
seed
References:
Allard, R.w. 1960. principres of prant tsteeding.
John wirey & sons, lnc., New york.
Briggs & Knoyrles. lntroduclion lo plant Breeding.
Chaudhari, H R. Elemenlary Principies o,f Planl Eireeding.
oxl<ucl & iijH publ.
Chopta, V L 1989 (ecJ ), trtant fueeding - Theory
ancl practice.Ortordp, IBH publishing
Company Ltd , I.Jew Delhi.
Frey. K J. Plant &eedtng,. Satrsh Ejook enterpnses.
Richarra Plant Breeding and Gen'elics in lndta.
Roy, D. 2AO0 Plar,i fueerling.lrlarosa pubhshinii House,
l.Jew Delhi.
sekharan c-- 6i t-rarthasarathy. clrctgenetic.and prant Breecring
sharrna' 'r R 1994. Princtptes encl Practrces ol ptant tsreecling.Tata
McGrau Hill publishing
Comp0ny Ltd., New Delhi,
Sinha, U' & s, sinha. cytogenetics, Ptant Breeding and
Evolution.Vikaspublishing pvt,
Ltd.
simmonds, i.l.w. 1g7g. principles of crop tmprovemEnf.
Longman, London.
singh' B'D' 1983' Plenf Brceding - Pinciples and Methods. Kalyani publishers,
New Delhi.
singh, P. 1996. Essen/rals of ptant Brceding.Karyani pubrishers,
Swaminathan, Guptq & Sinha. Cylogenetic of crop ptants.
I
39
COMPUTER APRLICATIONS
(Theory: 10 hours: Practicals: 5 hours)
1. lntroduction- definitlon *history- classification based on technology, size, and data used.
2..Hard ware: input devic+ ceniial processing unit, out put device.
3. Types of soft wares: syslem sr;ft ware. utility soft ware.
4. Types of m'emory- main memory- RAM, ROM- secondary memory.
5. Languages- machine language, assombly language, high levellanguages,
6. Application soft ware word processing, excel, power point, paint.
7. lnternet and services orr the inlernet- e.mail. www, networking.
Ptacticals:
1 Theory classes stroulif tre conducted with the aid of cornputer.
B6srr; practces; on ol.ieration of soft ware packages such as word processing,
excel, pov/er point, paint
3
Brovr..inq ihe v'zeb anci using e-mati.
litlf r;ri)nr..+,t';'
i ,-.. t'-tLi't utqital coni;ula Fundamenfals. McGraw Hill,
J P 1998. Comptler Atchitecture ar.,d Qrganizalion. McGraw
Bartere,
tlayes,
l-loneycutt, J. 1996, Using the lrfiernef. Que Education &
Hill.
-l'raing.
Leon, A. & Leor. M. 1997. lnternel for Everyone. Leon Tech World.
Leon, A. & Leon, M. 1998. Emailin a Nutshe//. Leon tech World.
[-eon, A. & Leon,
M
1998. Fundamenlals of Comput.er Science and Comtnunication
Engilrt-'tlring. Leon tech \ny'orld.
Luce, T. 19Bg Compuler lTardware. System Soflware and Architecturc. McGraw Hill.
1
illl-'*3d1-s,r"+i'
BIOINF
I
'1 l.i;'f lli;lt
.
ii
;
;i';,:;i-f
itls
'il-
Ih:)(,rY 10 liottts)
ilp€ .iaiiit.; of :,r,ri{ \,/ate in [SiOinfof
maiiCS'
2
data bases- Sequence data
Inrioriur ilorr li: tJ;;ta bases ':;iruL:lrire anri functicn- Biological
ba:;e- proteirr ancl nuclei,,' a.cirJ data Sases- imp<lrtant database soutce6.
3
Tools of LrioinfornratiL-s-sequence anatysis- sequence analysis tools- salient features of
BLAST, FASTA, PSI-BI3ST
4 lntrodur,tion to genomics and proteiomies.
5 AIplicafior of Bioinfornlatic-<
Refelences:
Attwood,
T.K & D.J. parry-srnith.
1g99. lntroduction
to
Bioinformatics. Addison wesley
Longntan, Harlow, Essex-
' Baxevanis, A.D. & E|.F.F eueliette, 19g8. Bioinformalr'cs - A Practicat Guide of lhe Analysis
of Genes and Proleins. John Wiley & Sons, tnc., Publication, Nen' York.
Khan,
l.A
2..
A
l-.:.hayum 2t-.:O2. Fundementals
of
Bioinforma{rcs. Ukkaz Publications,
Hvder abad.
kt Bioinformatics' Oxford Unt Press' Oxford'
House, New
Sundararajao,rS. & Balaji. 2002. lnlroduction lo Bioinforntatics. Himalaya Publ'
Less. A.M 2002 lniloduction
Delhi
Westhead,
D'R 'i lJ
i''lrw Delili
Perri:h
R
M
Traryrnan
2003 Bioinformalrcs. Viva Books Pvt' Ltd
'
41
ul
i',ir;re! rril rienetir:s, Biontc'try attrJ Evolution
iJli,
,l
orV. 90 horirs:
,
Piar:tiuais..ib houls)
GENETICS
(Theory: 60 houts; Practicals: 30 hoqrs)
i. lntrr:dlrr:l!oti anrl brief histclry {rf genelics
:
u
2. lr4encJel s expertlnents, syntbu'is, terminr-rlt:gy.
.
principiel r:t segregation anri indeperndent assoltment: iest cross and back cross.
3. Motlification in Mendelian rati+s and'gene
interaction:
I
i
lncomplete dominance'.- Mirab ilis
.
'
Co-dominance:-Coat colour in cattle
I
L-ethal genes,-Coat colour in ntice
hhibitory g{rries.
Lr=:af
colortr ir' paddy 13:3
i:pistasis' Dominarrl epistasis Frrtil colour in s;ummer squash '12'3.1
.
'
Recessire epistasis 'Coat colottr in mice 9:3:4.
Non- Epistasis:- Comb pattern in fowls 9:3:3:1
Complernentary genes: Flower colour in Lathyrus 9'.7
Supplemenlary genes : Glume colour in millets, coat colour in mice 9:3:4
t-luplicate genes ;- lieed capsures of sheplrerd's purse, inheritance of awn in rice 15:1
.
Lrupiicate
lciies'rvilh cLlrrrrrlati,,.effect:- Fruit shape in summer squash 9:6:1
Fieri_rtti_rpt:irri
,
L Multiple liilries - liloor]
sterrlity
5
i
rt l)rctsouhtla
ctsat coloUr tn
rabbi6. sail
["tic'>lrarr:t
LrLrantitativ,-, rni-rerttanrlr--. r.ei 'lel
'-'clL1r,,li
itr v',|-tt:;lt,
L-Lat
siJe rn maize
''i'.pi -il:.''iltJi' il:ltonlirsr-rl!:e theoi-y of iini';age' tinkage types with
,:):,lttrl-.,:!, ;,- )s;ni1 i,yir:i, , r;'i:,:tri15[i] oi rniiotlc ctossing over; genetic rgcombination
'r.,--(|i ri I"r.r :,t,ii-):,. ..o l:iritrl tltg fttr:e [rctttt lest cro5s; intgrference ancj
l-tnita;.i'-
'1r'r'''1
; ')rlr,"r, j..i
I
n
r.llu,rrn in 11an eya coloui-
trr-1!5ir"--;
r -
r.,, -:l():',.'Sl(iirr. ;(:i-'.'il SySi(,il', gt,-i'llr lJalanCe in [J,-OSOphila,SeX
detrrmrnJlir.rn in plulis eo - ittltian&iutn and Coccinta, sex anonaltes in man -
i ljer (j?irnirrrr,;trrri,-
F'letrrfelter's syndrome'
l iimel
s syrldrome
B Se,,ritrr[:f,di,rherile,nce:-X-linled \']link+cf.'Z-tint.,l; sexlirnitedan<Jsexinfluenced
lr;i-,i)rit;nr:e lvlorgans exirerrnterrts t.ye coiour in Drosopltilia, haemophilia in man;
..
10. Mutations
-
gene mutation; inducecl mtrtations'
' '
Frar:!it..,rit-,
Si:ur.1.,,'l,i slr,..,ri
lwr:rk Jut grlr)etic
clrrontosotrre niapping
-2
i
irroblenrs in dihybnd inheritance, modified ratios and in
point anri 3 point crosses.
References:
Dobzharrsky 1961. Gdnelrcs andthe Origin of Species. Columbia Univ. Press, NewYork.
Gardner E.J. & tr.P Sirustacl. 198,.1 Principle; of Genetics. John wiley, New York.
Grpta, lt.K 2ilC[r 'lLtx( Book o/ Gerrelas. Rastogi Publications, Meerut.
lvJarys, L
L lir8i
Gene:ics
-A
Moltr'.ular Approrrch. Macrnillan Publ.Co. Ltd., NewYork.
Rastogi. V B. 1998. l'ex! BookolGc,netics. KedarnathRamnath Publications, NewDelhi.
Sarrna, A. 198!0 The Chromosornes Oxford & IBH Publishing House, Narv Delhi.
Sionot, W., L.C. Dunn & J. Dobzhonsky. 1996. Principles of Genetics. Tata McGrew Hill
Publtshing Company Ltd., Nevr l-lelhi
Verma, F'.$. & Agarwal 1999 Texf t:look of G(,nefrcs. S Chand & Co . Nevr Delht.
W,fin,-;hesier, A fvo 1987, Text Book r-'i Genetics.lBH Publishing Co., New Delhi.
E
.t'
BIOMETRICS
(Ttteory: t5 hoqrs; F,raoticals. 15 hours)
1 'slatisiics arid ils applicatiolr in Bioipgy.
2. Colier-.tion q,f ,.i;rta: sampling theor;,.and metho<Js.
3 ToL'ui':lion 'sI t.lala an'l its leple€entation: frequency distribution, bar diagram, pie
diagram,
histoqrarr.
4' Frequency 'Jistrlbutiorr culve and rrormal distribution curye; chi-square analysis,
5. Measures of centraltendency: mean, mode, median.
6. Measures of tlispersicn: Iange, mean deviatiorr, standard deviation and standard
error.
7.,Correlation arirl regrer;sion.
Plaoticals;
1
Anatysis of 'Jata foi nrran, mo(Je, standsrd d,.viation, standard error.
2. Chi-squale anal;ais.
Rr;ferenc-es:
Khan' I'A. & li. l(hayum. 1994. Funtlamenlals of Biostatislics. Ukaaz publ., Hederabad.
PiiJai. S.K. 8. l-r.(i. sinha '1968. .Sla/ir tical netltods for Biological workers.Ramprasad
&
Ag:ra
Remakrishnan, l' gg5 Bloslafisllc',. sarss ptrblication, l.lagercoil.
Rangasvranty, F 1995. { Text tSoot' of Agricuh'ural S(a(i.s(rcs. Nevr Age lntern. h/t. Ltd.,
Sons.
:
1
New Delhi
I
I
A:
.T;
44
EVCLUTION
i
(Theory. 15 hours)
l.lntroduction:tmportarrceofevolutlon:'rtsrelationtootherbranches'
of origin of lite'
rrt lite' Defirlition of life' Theories
,origin
and
er:nlution
lvlolecular
2.
Sper:ialqJ+t6{ion,sp.lntarieottsg.lirneration(a.:iogenmis)'Moderntheoryoforiginof
: life (Protobioltenesis''
Neo-Darwinism and
['arvvin' Weisrnann and De Vies'
Larnark'
cvolritiott:
cf
3. ]-heorim
.
its
4.
objections'
anatomy, paleontology,
evide nces from morphology,
evolution:
organic
of
Evidence
biology'
embryology, genetics, and ntolet-'ular
5.lsolatjonancspeciajon.Typesofisolation,isolatingmechanismsandtheirro]einthe
,origirroflley./Speci;=.Typescispeciation.instantarreousandgradualspeciation-
.
synipairic at,rl allrlpl'tric spei;iati^rn'
Reterences:
Delhi
&.Evolutiott' $'Chand & Co" New
Gupta, P.K. 199S, Cytology, Ceneti.cl
Lull,R.S.1986.OrganicEt'olrttion'Light&LifePttblications'NewDelhi'
t::astlgi,V,B.1gt]gTexlB>okolE:voluliott.KedarnathRamnathPublishers,Meerut.
llavage.Flvl19i]i-Evt.:lu!.on,Amrindr:,ub,lishingCompanyPvt.Ltd.,NewDelhi
'volu![or''' C[!:'+ F'r'rL'licatrorrs' New Delhi'
,,,'tri.,L*rg,-'r, iv1 lJ..19iJ7 f:
'
-rl' __
li
45
l)alirirn of Questlon Paper (Theory]
'?
irtts i hrrt,r i
Maximum: 40 matks
ttari [..- B irrar ks
(
i
g,resti<ln shall be answered out of 3 questions)
Part E- 4 rnarks (.i qitestuons shall b.-'ahsweretj out of 5 questions)
Part C- 3 nrarks (fj questrons shall be answered out of
F'art
I
questions)
fr- 1 mark (S,questions shall be answered out of B questions)
ts. Sc. Botany (Main)
QuesUon Paper pattern
& Number of Questions
I
I
rart A- ntarks
of 3 to be attem
rart B --4 marlcs
of 5 to be attempted
fart C -.3 marl<s '
5ouioft
of I to be attempted
_,rrrt
]art D.- 1 matk
5outofE
of B to be attempted
Totalquesiione to be attempted = 14
to b'r
= 24
,
asked
I
Marks to be awarded
Total marks for
a{_q!9{!9!q_
1x8=Smarks
3x8=24marlcs
3x4=12marks
5x4=20marks
5x3=15marks
8x3=24marks
5x1=5marks
8x1=Smarks
Total= 40 marks
Total= 76 marks
$utrieet vdse distr
26
20 marks
MYcologY:
10 marks
PathologY:
marks
20
i'llicrobiologY:
'PhYcologY:
pa,i,-rr.
,'fr',T.=* n'[t:',,",=n'
-f pt
-t
Pt l:n'
l1
.":ot
i5
l
it
i
:- i
A-8rnalI
I
I
l,tt.;ri
i:il5i i:rgr
1- - i
1--
i'l tlt tU';tion PaPef
[l
I!r: ]'legtee Exetrninatioti
Pari,- lli L'otanY Maitr
Microbiology & Plant Pathology
i-,aper .. Phlicirlog-r, lvtycoloqiy'
'
Tirne: 3 hours
Maximum:40 marks
specified.
Diaur rtiagrams orlty wtren
Part A
,
I ^'fff:Tffrt:r""t"]r'Jl;i-*r"
or
rererence to aittirnation
ot-potvsiphonra with
diagrams'
generation' I rraw suitable
.2.DescribethelifehistoryolPucciniagrantinislrdiciwithsuitablediagrams.
_i.
i)is.;r,sg,re rariors
asr:),::cts of
microbes
ind,'Jrial application of
x g = g marks)
Part B
the fsliswi'rpi
ll. Answer any lhreeo
Chara'
of sexual reproductionin
mode
and
tlody
plant
a. OesiriOe the
5.Howarealgaeusefulinthefieldolagricuiture?Citesuitableexamples.'
reproduces sexually'
6' Brrefty explain how Pyttium
7[ii.s';ribethesynrpton.,.:'eliologyalldcontrolmeaguresofCitruscanker.
BacteriophageS
alrtJ niultiplication of
t1't;:':ltrJ'jtLlie
ol
ac(ouni
rn
I G:vc
(3x4=12marks)
i
47
Part C
lll. Answer any five cf the foilov'nng:
'
9. Describe ttre sexual re.production in Oedogonium.
'0
tr-ri,;rn*rar e the piok':rycrtir: fealures of Nosloc.
't
1 :. r'j:i)i'?rt lhe r: hlolol:lasls in Chiorella, Volvox
1
I,\i.r,-.:!r,titt ltovt ;'e;ticti:tut) teptcdrtces asexually?
1i. ;ive
and Zygnema.
the l'anor:s *co,rofiliL'importance of lichens.
14. Wnte the symptoms of Blast disease.of Paddy.
15. ,Give an a,)coqnt of genetJ recombination in bacteria.
16. Write a short note ort Biofertilizers.
(5x3='l5marks)
Part D
iv Arrswer at *; five cf the follovilng
17. iNrat are algal blt:onrs?
18. What are ascogenous hyphae?
19. Define mycorrhiza.
20. What is (r,raranUne?
21. Define ob,igate parasite.
22. U/hat is'damping otf'
.)
23. tA/hat is A.chaebrtcttrrla?
24. W)rat is B,>tulism?
(5x1=5marks)
1
I
Paleobot.
Marks
Gymnos.
Marks
4
B
.it:
1
rletii.
B'qrtestitrns
4
4
6
6
,2
2
20
12
I
Horticul.
Marks
I
9
2
1
14
18
ModelQuestion PaPer
SeconrJ Yeal B.Sc, Degree Examination
Papr,-=i
ll - Bryol,>gy, Pterid'ilogy. Paleobotany, Gymnosperms and Horticulture
Maximum: 40 marks.
Tirne: 3 hcrurs.
Drav; diagrams ontY when sPecilied
PartA
t, Answer anY one o[ the follovzing:
1.
'
.
tvith the h+ll' of labeller-' diagiarn' d'::scribe the structure of the sporophyte of
t'\nlirccercs
l.Sring out tt:' evohrtion'ary significance'
stem of
2. Wtth the hell-i of labellerj ,Jiagrams compare the internal structure of the
Selaginetla tnd Eguisett.tm a\ see in transverse section'
3. Give a lrrief irccoght of the life cycte oI Gnetumwith the help of schematic
(1 x8=Smarks)
diagram.
Ilart B
ll. An:;v,,er an,t il;tee oi the iollowir
''-l:
anrl ilesclibe its sllttctr.tre
gametes of Cycas,
5. Wiih the hellr of diagrarr: drs,:ribe tlte structute of ntale
4. tlrriw tl'te
Ti..:,;,
of
f}Ie;rr.s i'retrolc
6, Gire an acc(iuntrt Wilinmsttnh.
Bnefiy descrrbe the prei,'aration of vermicompost'
g. Gl,ie an accDunt of irriqtation systerits ttsed in Horticultttre. (3 x 4 =12 marks)
/.
49
Part C
lli
,rl r'1r:',,'-;,',
:r
'
;ir1;, fl,,;y Of th,_: f.;l!6 ;.r,p,i
i.,','i,:r,;;r!;,lt€ b<,:f*,reen il11r.:lruci{rfe of the sporoph}te in Riccia and Marchantia.
l
i, I .,1;tr';r vitll lebellyi,l di.tiiarn
1
i
t )e synangium
U';,sciitre the stlilctr:re of sporocalp
in
of Psilotum.
Marsilea.
ii.l. What )s Lepidocarpon? What are its salient features?
1].
CiFre a brief
account ot Rhynia.
i 4, ('iive an eccourft oi the co.mmonly used garden fertilizers and their application.
15
[:i.<plain briefty ttre
16
E;'<plain the
r:ethods adopted in mushroom cultivation.
diflereni type-6 of
layering.
(5 x 3 = 15 marks)
Part [t
lV. Answer any fMe of the following
tr7. Name the aqualic species
ol Riccia.
18. Name thb type of stpte present in Marselia.
19. What are elators?
,
2C Wlrat is meant [ry r"lrur slroot?
21 lJeniion the irirport+ntfeatures
of the pollen grains
of Pinus.
22. Name the cone ol Lepidodendron.
23. Name the strobilus of Calamiles.
24. Whal
is florigen?
(5x1=5marks)
liteol;
PaPur lll
T*;."rnt
Marks
9__
4__
6
)
Economic BotanY
Marks
16
12
4
I
I
J
40
3
16
ModelOuestion PaPer
Final Year B'Sc Degreie Examination
Economic Botany
Faf::r lll - Motl-'irolqlr;y, Trtxortomy and
Maximum: 40 marks
T'rne 3 ttirttr'";
Dravr diagt'arns only when specified
1)art A.
!
Ansr",'el aity Lti'ie :l ttrt:
1
1..:'itFj-''1h1t)i;.J
1i, ;;'.
,11'::
;-il
tr,ll1o ' rrrrq
System of Classification. Mention
oLrll!n.Jn' :lP*!{.)artt .]trtl [.{.lokers
C.l
i-li,
',
'
- r;'il'
].:'ir:.i]aii;jr1;1,...1.2i1i1i..]:;,,;;1.]t|C)i::'oDl.,:'lVe'jtnthedllierentfanriiiesofstrbClass
l" lll-r::i)' 'tiri le ,vo'l ir;?!'' stl tlj;ed
;*?.ruiui[iriirt,ll.lptif,3}arlIpiesdesctit,,..:the'tllfferent.typesofsinrplefruits.
(1 x8=Smarks)
'
l'art
il. Anrtn
FJ
*, en\' fhtee :f the ;6lls1-iin$
4.\rr/riteashortnoteonthevariousmechanismsadoPtedbyplantsforthedispersal
'
of lruits ad,seeds'
gfinO srlttlUte example's'
modern trencls in TaxottomV
Discttss
5.
.
ol lnternatronalcode of Botanical
6. [4ention llie most ess-tntia!featittt}s
t' joltter:i:la',ure.
51
:1i,,
I
7. Exclusively on'the basis'of gynoecium ad androecium how would you distinguish
I
the lollowing lamilies.
a.
A;rocynacea* tromAsclepiadaceae
b
Solanaceae from Acantlraceae
B. By sirnp-,le sketches orrly, show lhe morphology of the economically important
parE of the following.
a. Clove, b. Gum.arabic, c. Cardamom,
d. Okra.
Mention their binomials and uses.
.
(3x4=12marks)
tlart C
ill. Answer ani five of the followng:
9. Brielly describe the contrivances for pollination adopted by planE.
10. With lhe trelp of diagram, explain the structure of any dicot seed studied by you.
,
11. What is the c.oncept of species in Plant Taxonomy?
12. What are the unique features of flowers of Orchidaceae? Give necessary
a
illustratiorrs.
13 Write the salient feai tres of the following.
i.
lnflorescence i:f Etiphotbiaceae
b ' Frtlit and see-:ii-r
,
14
;
Auiaceae.
,'irve a briq:f descnpti,-tn qf tne charScteristics, properties and uses of wood.
l','lention ttre Lrinomiai and families of any two timber yielding plants.
15. Give the binomials of plants giving cotlon. How would you distlnguisli between
OlrJ Vv'orirj arrd lJeur
' 1,1
r..Vt:'ir..
r\oilr.l cotlotrs?
t'iJtirS On
it' Arli'ialoda, b. i;:aulvo lfia, i;. tAsaioetrda.
(5 x 3 = 15 marks)
Part t)
l'l. Answer
any five oi the following
, 17. Distingu'sh between
sorosis and syconus.
1il. I'Iame any four placentation studied by you,
19 I'lanre the truit of Poerceae.
20. iJaine the plant, vrhictr yieltls quinine
21. Name a plant having qccrescent calpi.
22. FtorJt which plant couoa is obtained?
23. GNe the binomial of snake gourd,
'
24. How latex is processed to get rubber?
(5x1=5marks)
52
Theory Paper lV
Subject wise distribution of marks
Physiology: 36 rnarks
Biochemistry:
16 marks
Ecology:
16 marks
Plant Geography. I marks
,
No- of Gue:l'riorrs &
Marks
A- e rnarks-:s
.
'
Pnvsiology
arks
6
Biochemistry
Marks
I
Ecology
Marks
Geography
Marks
B
4
6
3
2
16
I
B
rl
Q:-e-+erk::! ss?pllpns
6
2
16
:t
-'i.l
I
1
i
Model Question Paper
Final Year B.Sc. Degree Examination
'
Paper lV - Physiology, Biochemistry, Ecokrgy and Plant Geography
l:fIl€
1i
Maximum; 40 marks
horirs
Dtaw oiau; iut: ,-,rilv ,#lten s1,,ecifled
I
l. Answer anl,(,irlr: +f
1
?
l,
lre
r;lli
'A
ioiio'r;it',.;
lriscuss tlis'storn"'tal mechariism of transpiraticn in plants.
Wlrat are C {h,i ;rl.rnts? Drsci,;s llr€ sprgc;s1tre; of CAM plarrts
(,i.;: ,iti iti_i .,;, ,i : f tlt,;,tr,;{l.i ;i,iil},rir Of Fti,fyqne aCtiOt't
'art
(1
x8=Emarks)
iJ
ll Alr;x.ei i;,1:,'y ,i!cc cr ihe lol!orr'ir;1.,
4 lthat ar,e t[r. varior.ts mr,rthod:. of btgakitrg.seL.d
dormancy?
5. Wiral is the rirecharrisrn of synrbiotic nitrogen fixation in leguminous planb?
6. Give the nrorphological and anatomical adaptations of hydrophytes,
7
Discuss vilrious merhods of studying plant communities.
I
Give
r irrief accor..!n:of
vari,rue uegetation type; in lndia.
lrart
Ci
lll. Answer any five of ':he followilrg.
9.lDiscuss the role of Donnan equilibrium in ion absorption.
10. Discuss the role of GS/GOGi\T pathway in plants.
1
1. Discuss the structrrre of Fc-F
1.1.
i ATPase comple.r.
What flir-' 661'gT,tyrnes? Git/e lilly trvo exalnples.
(3x4=
12 marks)
lr
53
13. Drscu5$ tlr+ anrp,roteric nat'.,re of amino acids.
14'.
What are ltaloplrrtes? Enur,lerfite the adaptaUohs of halophytes.
15. Describe Nttrogen cycle in rrature.
16. Giye an account of continental Orift
lV Answer
any five r'f the follovring:
17. Expand
Rubisr;o
th;r
"
plant dbtribution.
(5x3=15marks)
j..
I B. Define Phosphor ascence
19 What rs ICA cycie?
ll0. l{ame one Sulphr.rr containir'g amino acid.
;11. Def ne co-enzym*. Give ont' example.
l12 Define ecotone
23
[)r.:t'lnr.: c.t1;i;;ht'.
factors
:'4.
t,,Vitajt 1l tr,,, 1)t:i
D, glar:ia1iort . :
(5x1=5marks)
H
54
Theory paper V
,
I'li: cl
g:rbject wise distribution
of marks
Anatomy:
36 nrarks
Embryology: 2O marks
Palynotogy: g marks
Microtechnique: 1 2 marks
I
OL;.:sibns
&.1-4,i,-- -
Palynology
Marks
Microtechnique
4
4
3
6
2
12
ot4
o-1- --- e
.)t2
_oj_qe-'f---e-ila'ffi;
-- -
Tatal
,
5a-_f_--
n
,Marks
1
B
,!lodei cluestion paper
f:tnat ieur B. Sc,. Degree Examination
[?ap,er
.l
T:me ::
'i
. L,lant,/in"?tr3,1,r. r:
m bryciocrv, Palynology and Microtechnique
hour,;
:
Maximum:40 marks
l.1i',:\'.'
ii,: ,. r i-il tr< irr lly r,^;yi311 f.peCitied
,'i'.rt
Air, ,i.,.:i :.:,,.: ,
1
..t i lt)
A.
Ictilu,r,rin,;
1 vvrih sLrrrar.rii' rliilg;-ams descirlre the rrllra
Qtructure of the ceil walr.
2- Wrrh thr: hi:rp
rLf
riibered drag;anrs, lescriue the anomarous
secondary groMh in
'
BiEnonl-a
ll'
Ex[rjain I'he rjevelc>ment cf a
si,.:m
;
rth+-'r
and the microsporogenesis with the help of
ciiaqrar,rr;.
(1
x8=Smarks)
Part B
ll. Ansrvcr any lhtee of ihe ioilowing
4- Give an irlustrated account of periderm
formation in dicot stem.
5' Describe the moncsporic (pol.rgonum) type of
embryo sac development with suitable
diagrams
'
G' Btie?ty explairr tl'r# s:eps irr lhe
'.r-:ru)aneni slide preparation from free hand sections.
,,,it,ir:r;;
7 Descritre thr
tyP,s of ,,:+scrrlar hrrn,Jles seen in dicot plant. Mention
examptes.
8
Dr:scribe iht, rrlti'a s:..ructure of ;.,r:llen
wall.
(3
X
4= 12 marks)
H
55
Part.C
ill lin-r,wer 'il,,; fivt:,';f the iollov
I
ir,g
Wh;rl i:. f )alyn{ logy-l Whr,i is iis role irr T'axonomy?
10. Defirie i.illing : ilention an,r two agent; for killing and fixatjon
1
1. Bring otrt the r-+truclure ar,d kinds of starch grains.
12 what are clearlng agenb
?
Give one ()xample and state ils property.
13. Explain varicu:, types of nrtdes seen irr dicot plants.
1,1 Exf;ltin i:isr,.rgi'n thr:ory.
lll
!tVh.:ir a,
1t;
v^vl'',.'i
i:
'
'r^,,r'ho
r:ropr,s:d it?
ll -,-'bjectrves i t ttt j.,+firrir,rr al Emtrryology?
.'r)l'; r;rribryL.iry'; ii,...lti r.,,r
tlrt.'-rfferenttylres
(5 x 3 = 15 marks)
Frart D
ly'
Air:;Wer dt-r;
llvr r,ithe
follov,,rtg
l,'l')iSrrrrgr:jrfri.g:,yeerr dilfrr.:.;p,-,,or.lSr,rdftftgpOrOLtSWOOd
:i,,Viiiti
I
!
r,'v
rs iiliii..;it,ttion'i
i'rl;t ts , rr)il.'?i'l {it')
.?(-i. vVlr--r! rs '
gticElessiva stailrng
I
?
2'i . Defirre tr.rrninai: endosperrn?
22. What is sapwo rd?
23 What is J:erispe.rm?
)-4
',.Nhai is r-luiescent center?
(5x1=5marks)
]
56
Tlrrrcry Paper Vl
Subjer:t wise dislribuUon of marks
32 marks
Cell Bitrlogy:
16 marks
Biotechnology:
Computer Applications: 8 marks
I marks
BioinformaUcs:
12 marks
Plant Bieeding:
iri ii. i,l,:
,I.
iJ
,;.rr
(Jr.ri*ilions &
Li,,:t!:',
n*rk,
-1
I
Bioinfor.
Marks
q
I
i1u,,str-or:s i
5 r"1rr Etorts t _
r.11 :sligtts
1..; j 11;q!:, I
i
:i 1 ',n::rk - [i '1t-t :stt_or',:;
i.1-
r.l_iliL),k,i-
4
3
111
16
1
i
t ii;r'iel i )r'estiqrr PaP+r
I
, :: !i
ir.
- r.r;rl
'ir'.,i
i-;::ic',,
[:]
fl:
)e.;ree L-xamination
[Jic'ir;:,:ftnc;logy, CotnLruter Appltcations,
L;[.;irtc,rriaticr,rnd Plant Breeding
'Iinre
.J
.'
r
hours
Draw d[agrams
<.rnly
Maximum: 40 marks
when specmed.
F'art A
'j
l:'rt',c.,yer
.J;tv rori ot thelttllowir
rg:
'i lA,rth t5a lr':=.lt- of rlbelled rliaurarn, dest:rrbe Meiosis. What is its signilicance?
i;:.,Wrth ttre [i,:lp of tabell4d rJiagrains, explain the ultra structure of Mitochondria..
'
Explain the variorrs methodr; of gene transfer techniques in genetic engineering.
(1
xB=Emarks)
I
t
t>art B
ll
/rps\vel Brty
4
l,i?re3
t',:the lollov.;irg
Explairr thi: sl"iecialtyl'es of ',hri)trrosoitl':5 you have studied.
[i. LVriie er) r4icour, of resttictirin rr:nzym(s in genetic manipulation.
€i. Explain the variorts objectiv,-s in Plant Breeding.
-i
7. Give an account cf the menrory un'rts used in Computers.
B. Explain the ditfeli)nt tools of Bioinformatics.
.
lli
l:iart
[
(3 x 4= 12 marks)
'
i\rri;vet ilrly' i;yer cl 'he icrlk:wir'l
L
Elrielly dr::;cribe ,.he sirttctu:i: cf a lJitr li,oltts.
10 \{lhat,rrr)
nLlL'le'rticles? Na,ile the dillerent types.
i
57
1
1. Give a brief account of the structure and function of ribosomes.
12. Define synthelic seeds.
13. Brlng out the importance of mutatjons in Plant Breeding.
14. Explain in detail pureline selection.
15. Explain the different types of software.
16. Explain the scope and application of Biotnfotmatics.
(5 x 3 = 15 marks)
Part D
lV Answer
any five of the following.
17. What is heterochromatiN?
18. What is the function of fysosornes? ''
19. Define aneuploidy.
20. Define callus.
21 . D efine acclimatization.
22. Name one autopotydoid and one allopolyploid crop plant-
.'I
23. Define
WWW.
'
'
24. Name the softrrnare used in Bioinformatics.
.. i.{l}
(5x1=5marks)
58
e?-ffi*E
D.
Theory Paper Vll
SubJect wise distribution of marks
Genetics:
Biometry:
Evolution:
'
Part, No. of Questions &
Marks
A-Smarks-3questions
B-4 mark+ 5 questions
C-3marks-Iquestions_
D- 1
48 marks
15 marks
13 marks
Genetics
Marks
24
12
Biometry
Marks
Evolution
Marks
4
9
6
9
mark-8
3
Total
4B
4
2
't5
3
13
ModelQuestion Paper
Final Year B.Sc. Degree Examination
Paper Vll- Genetics, Biometry and Evolution
Time: 3 hours
Maximum: 40 marks
Draw diagrams only when specified.
1.
Answer any oneof the following:
1.
'
lun
o
With suitable examples, explain multiple factor inheritance.
2. Give an account of XY - xo mechanism of sex.determination.
3. Give an account of molecular basis of mutation. How mutations are induced?
their roh&
ff.
.
arolution?
,l
What is
(1 x8=Emarks)
l
Part B
Answer any three of the foltovtring
4.
5.
What ls epistasb? ExFlain lt wlth examples,
Oufline dastid inherilance in Mirubilis jalapa.
9. Compare Test Cross and Back Cross with suitable examples.
7. Briefty explain the application of normal distribution curve.
8. What is the role played by thetheory of De Vries in evolution.
(3 x 4= 12 marks)
Part C
lll. Ansrer any five of the following
9.
Give a brief account of complementary genes.
10. What is cytoplasmic inheritance? Give one example.
I 1. Describe Klinefeltefs syndrome.
12. Bnetty explain various sarnpling methods in the colleu.tion of data in Statistics.
13. Describe briefly frequency distribution,
t
.15
ij;<ptairr ,Jiffererrt types of :.sokiting mei;hanisms.
16 Explain
Drie,ly the theories of oriEin of tife.
(5x3=15marks)
l:art D
lV. Atrsurer s;1,r
fJt'1,
r",[lhe [ollol-,';ng
li.
r
Merttion r)n+ cfference brtwrren codominance and incomplete dominance.
18. DefinP r;eoiril .lognra
19. State the law clf segregati')n.
20. Write the form lla for standarC devialirrn.
21. Deline
rnode.
;
22 lflhc praposell organic th.tot-'r of evr,:lrrtion?
.?i 'vVh+;iis iieo-L\arwinism?
I
(5x1=5marks)
"i4. Define sri€oatiDn.
I
I
t
6i
II
-l'.S' ,Ol i ,'AF,ilr. -. ;:iF<-,qgTlCAL EXAMINATION
3-i:
'r
irL.
'.
:'
'i Y[ \1.. [: l]r
(,-
\,
ll]t114'JY t'/All'J) DEGIT|:E EXAf'.4|NAT|ON
'"i,.,AC-i.)Al PAPER I
, Ph, r-l.,io: '... f i1,:rokr:,;l' Briclogy, Pteridology, Plant Pathology,
P;rier.rb, :at"r' tSyi)'tr )spetrns and Horticulture
lr
Maximum:55 marks
'i. Maite sr.ilai:ie rrticroprepar?tilns lo bring cut the structure of A, B and C. Draw cellular
chagram,i arrO iabe the parts. lderrtiff givir,g reasons. Leave the preparation for valuation.
(9x3=27marks)
(Prep. 3. dia 3; id*nt. 1, reasr.,ns 2)
fi4 i:ar teriai cultu.e ti
2. f,:rern stain
.j,!el)itlal'.)Fr ir.)i,;alr.lation- (nrl.rt: i:.
,
'li. iCentify
.
i
g'r,i3[1 inluortant
(ident.
identfy, and write down the procedure. Leave the
(6 marks)
lrtoc 2; ident. 1)
feai.irrei Draw a labelled diagram.
(5 marks)
l; dia. ,l; features.])
a. iUAnffy tlre ilisease F. Narne the pathogeti and give the irnportanl symptoms.
(4 marks)
(ident. 'i ; rramLo 'l; symptoms 2 )
f.,.
f)reiare it vi.getetive
r'Vrittr d(riorn :Ire
(,.
ltrnl 6i t:rgl.l I'l
propagtrr-+ by layerinir/grafting/budding method using materialG.
(7 marks)
irr,icedury {F,ap,i, ptoc 2l
i, ..i, K, I , ftl,
(1
x6=6marks)
Record:
5 marks
rolal
60 marks
i)i:nern; :f specimens
l:,,,-i il r-. ,:r,-.S ,,,--r,;,1ii pfe',,]t!,t:,-:mirl: iiai i:r rn aleae, fUngi, bfyOpyta, ptefidOphytaand
r.!.ei :;i'l jt:.i-:i,rr. (ffOttt rlifit .iiti: i-;iOLli"-i:.
Ir
.
Sitt.i:ibl:, si.rnl:!e Of ;titill,,.rgt r'q.rdtlh:
F''-.r:
E
, ti
.'i,i+
A ,.Jiler',,rii ,1,;ci5r,;n S[,,Wir,,J typtr it SyrnptOmS
ft.i; 'Ji;:; i.,;' i,(r;etai'vr. il ..i-,a.',iliion ,i atbriai for layering, glafting and budding may
F.
(,
,, ::, t.. i,.jr ri'urhr - i-r r-:('r, iS '.' 5p '-r.;1 ':Ctei3 by eaCh sttrdont).
,t '(., I * :,' :;5rrl rrial rrr':;iir',.: frt tr,aiu,rt: fungt, bryophyta, pteridophyta,
1
l-.
,
gymnosperms
:,rr,ij :-{r.;!lr,'i-rjtLr'e (gr:it-1ett ,lnp,,e;r\ent;; ireplesenting allgrouPs)
;
61
i:if'J7:r,l_
'
', J r.lr;:..
i'r ' ',.
ir ,,
/EAri B .: .; 1:-1r'rfA[.j',, MAIN) DEGREE E)(AMINATION
t'l'r,ACl l( At- PAPER ll
lviot'r,lrlli ,, ' : ,.Lrnr,[! y, Econoniic Botany, plant physiology,
i,,,,,.-l
r iii;;Ir,
pirv[ageogfalphy
MaXimum: 55 marks
,,;i,,11
,'iiru.i i-l
i,::ipf,r-;li,,,gfafniliesgivingimpOftanlfeasons
i'ldi," titir.ltli-rri 'l; Ieasons :)
(2x4=Bmarks)
i'..1, I.-:,.ii...,'
l'ak,.' a \,'
L.
S
.,1
llcr/,,)r C. Draw its iat,elled tliagram Construct the floral diagram and give
v :i. tor:valuaiien -(prep. 1; dia. ?', F.o.2: F.F. 1) (6 marks)
li \1i'ti.,trr,'i-g i , rr r;rpfiglogir_.al ,i1t€.i(;;t in D & E
(2x2 =4 marks)
tir+ ;l;)rai lor,,iirl;l l..aave the
ri
i'.tlirt)[,i,,6:r)i]itirrrr]DtF
lhr)(,tagr,trrrancjlabeltheparb.Writeitsaimandworkng
(rc.,r. l, ssltir:ry 3; aim 1. rlia 2, work 2)
(9 marlcs)
I
[.ttaur,
5, lrrialvsb (lutirriitatiy(*y and identify G
(5 marks)
(iive the i.,incrnial, i',tmity name anrl morphology of useful parts of the source plants of
H, I J anrl Kr(Bincirnial 1: family Z ; morphology %)
(2x4 = I marks)
6
f.lanre the er:,,:iorrical group to ,.vhi,:h L belongs and comment on their adaptations
,
1.
ati,rl,iations 2)
S lrr [f1i: gi\,,:r'l ,':itu I,I iocat,. ty?c.r.,h)lo{Jeogiaphicalareas.
lnania
9. (iive ihe binrrrliial aird farnitr/ fllrroe ol N,
1il. Sp,:t at *igiri
tR,
S
o, p & o (binomial
(3 marks)
(2 marks)
1l$ = 6 marks)
(4x1=4marks)
1; fam. %)(4 x
T & U.
Record
5 marks
Total
1-l:11[6rir1rn, Field Book &
60 marks
Tour Report
I
marks
S.ll,effie ol specimens
A & B - i-ire'slr piirnts tv.,igs fronr d:,.ot iarnilie;; C - Flower and flower bud.
D & E rnaterialiiom llorphology.
Dhysiolor:y e.r;r. (selecliori by let metlrtrd).
F
G ,fiocltenti:;try (c,lucose/Frt,t:toi;e, Starch and Protein solutions may be given out of
rvhic!' o,'': i: lc be selectr.i bi llrt rnell,od by each student).
Fr I -: 6 K
.ii.rjl;:tl,. ns ftotn [.' ,r)FLrr':tic Eorany.
, ii:':" , lt'-' -:,':lil:ir ff On a:l'V :'t'.Ji.:'-- tCal ql rUp
L
)[ri ' r r€ i ,.it" r) lndii]
M
.
lr ,t- i*'., .' r{...: ;:lr,:"; COlieii.::('l i',r),', ,lte ca,ilpUs
-!
P * t-.
--r, , )ti::,.,tir !,rl iheel;j r.'r_r[- i:tt,,l r'tOJ1i S'Udent'S SUtrmiSSiOn.
14cii'p:iicirr 1.,rr iirxoncrny'(fLrrre: ilarLs pri26sntation, inflorescence, friuts, seeds,
R
t-3sctlruil piaf,1 pres5 etc j
C.
T
U
,,,llI i., 1r,', ii-'r!Cr
a ppa f atUS
=r),
crllri,.;y ',Ji;!r.ir:,rl1 of pyrr)r';irJg: l:togec' hemical cyclc:s, etc
I
)
#
62
FiiJ/-\L IEAR
'
I
I
I
:'ler'i,Aiia!,rmy
:.'=
T,-tr;i: :-'i i i
S.;. (f IC)TAIJY MAIN) DEGREE EXAMTNATION
PI?,\CTICAL PAPER lll
',.,:qurr I mbyology, Palynology,
Cell Biology,
Gll i :rticg. ilrrd Biometrics
MaXimUm: 55 mAfkS
lv4i,--s,:,,.r.
IIi:',' ' it.'
t:iautaril ';f
1;:.
, []€[r A iir.,riil
rr: I rnrru,tt ln glycerine. Dlaw a ground plan and labelled
i.Itiiit;) enliltg30 i'nc iobel the parts- ldentify giving reasons.
f,;r ,raluation (prep 4; dia. 1r 3;'ident. 1; reasons 3)
'"1
f;rep,lratir-.;n
2
B
Leavd the
(12 marks)
ldentity and br-ing ot.,t the enrbii'olcgi?alfeatures of B. Draw labelled diagram.
idenl 'i;,Jiil 2l charar;ter.- 1)
3
(4 marks)
jtri .'ii: i;t ,:ittt'.t', mine, pref j!at:oir of i) and identi[v an-y two stages of mitotic divbion.
D,ri!,. a ie:!:,eli,, ,l ili:tttram r)f r:a(;:: sl.-rg;e arrd report for valuation.
F;'t-'p
:lrrei-,,.
2 rjia l" ident 1)
(4x2 = I marks)
4. Deierrnine thi viabilri,y o( the pt:'ien grains'D. Write down the procedure. Lebve the
(5 marks)
; pfeparction ft:t valuation (prirp: -1; proc. 2)
5: Sprtt at sight Lr, F, G
&
(4x1=4marks)
(6+9=15marks)
H
6. ,y1/ork oul rlle r:roHern I & J
7. 4'otk otrtlire,.'toi-'ierfl
(6 marks)
K
5
Record
,
r
''i;l----------;'-----
Total
marks
60 marks
,i
I
,
Scheme rtf specimens
aflr:r'llr:lol't
,ofiJrot.slern/root-primery
(dic$U,
/:rtdt(tin]structure; normalsec. growth;
t:iro;t :,lci: Iii:ic grov!,ih)
B
D
E
F
G
H
I
(..ritiorr io,: i lip.
[:',:llr:r.'' gti:rir]S'irt.:,1 ffy9i5..,u! i'o:i6tinensls, balsam, Datura,
I
Cucurbitaceae
f
A,;ratorny {'JBs, iissues, gla';ds irairs etr:.)
Itlicrolt:ch'rique ]Microtorn{.,ijco11i>onents; stains/ mounting media etc.)
C omtr;tdet Ap,rplit ations (an,' pe ri1:rhetal; floppy disk, CD: DVD etc.)
C.eil Biolotty (Diagrams of s,.,ecial chronrosomes, stages of meiosis, cell organelles
et,l. frotn [:]ooks]
Cj,rnelrc ;;r:.rblr:n' on f.,rcir:r ; ;t e: nr tioniincomplete dominance.
(; r:f;Cl .l lr ']f!li:ait' On rlihTi:t ' irr. ; r, r ita ri:e: 4inkage/chrornosome rpappin g.
f::;
}ii, :l:y
i,' il'ilr:i,,1,
'^
53
,r,
ira; lV ,: Jiyl;s,lltntlntal Education
I r,','tr , 'it1r:''!.,1 Edrrc;,'trr' ' rs lrrlated rnder Patt lV and the Syllabus of it iS provided by
h-1,.i'i(. 'i tr lr11l.':, a tctal cf iJO ir';ll.rs c'! uihich 80 nteikslortheory paper (external) and
l[' ii;,, ii . " I, :.jr'. .r ( (lnl+rr,+ii.'.,,l,
.':' r; ,rt: ; r,::],
:] 'i .'n'.r'ii'. te haiS li; : i'rl6i ;i ilot ;i)r':S lhan 35o/o Of matks aS minimum feqgifed fof a
iJ6.i$ ,-,i 'nlrcr': :, riririimunr rri !::l n'aiks sn(luld be in,the theory examination. However, the
t-
I
i'ritIi(s obtr;iac rl for tii:s subject n.irll nol be r;ounted for class or rank in the final examinatjon.
t)riRT IV- EH';IRONMENfAL eOUCnnON - Syllabus
t lt'it 1' '['irr
[-.e'r
1
i
i'7'lr1;;1'Ji:;-;.1flipgry
nd
nili r: r':, ;-.,,'f [,rri']
nitt,';
in i pr;', rtilr
l';
rrf i)nvif ,-]timental studies:
c*
(2 hours)
Net d fr;i p't,riit' :.r..aren,iss.
Llnit
2
Natui'ai itesorirces.
Renewabie
a
nd non-renewabi.;: r(sourc()s:
Natural rescrrrces iind associlted pioblems.
a)
c:-i,t-i;,
,:)
r
i,=i1,'.,r"*. Use rni.1 fiver-.)xDloitation, deforestation; case studies. Timber
F..:re::-1
licii:
Vii;rtl
,rininr:.
iia!'s
theri +ffects on forests and tribal people.
e:1,.!
:r]\.tt:irrc€si U$e :',;rd c','er-trijlization of surface and ground water. Floods,
rjiCtJr.j!r[, r-r.r' flicts ttyi:,r ,i;:itlr:[. Danrs-benefits and ploblems.
,;) Nlir,eriil rtlsc .rrces: LJse irnrl explortation, environmental effects of extracting and
u:;rng llrinei-iil
i
fesoulcci,
ciitSe studies.
,J) Foorl ie:ioLi,ces: Wodir {q;td prot)lems; changes caused by agricutture and
Ir,,,--t!1. ],2(i!:.
effefts of
;;lo,-.i,.,,rr ac.li,;ulture,
tertllaer-pesticide probtems;tvatef
.rg! .-i '., ,l,,iit!, ; a,:-:,:: i :,id ,::
ti l-irr,i :.' r::ir,"ltce:: (ifl'i":n I r:i)etiJV needs, renewableand non-rengwableenergy
i,:
,,
-qr, Ur
17
1i' :l
i.,j :".
L,.
t!.j
.
,
,:: t, i'l
:'fgy iOUfCeS- CaSg StUdieS.
1t.,.'rrirri io c{}n:iei,.::li( 3;:i natttral resources,
,.r-,. .1 r: lUfCt:.5 t(:t .., lSl;:,.tirL,l,: i.[eStyieS.
,;irr
r,
.- j.
e.. 5itrLir lod cesilli'i,.:a rriir.
.-.'-l-'.:ri'
f- ;\ l: t "1'ri 1 r': i' 1.
,Si1,-i1
I1.
i-.r,'d r'isu[rr.es: LElrd ir:.a r€'soutce, land degtadation, man induced landslides,
s{;t1
F.:.
,-5 ,:..9 O[ .iili';
1.1,,.;
r'1
';'1
15[gl11
i{l{g ,,D;i :r/rtr:l,tn
F r o d l r c ers.
cL., n
(8 hours)
su fr,
i
,
,
O1 At; gr;,.tSV:i'ti)fiI,
r:ts and de('
Dni,
posels.
Enr-"rqy flow itr the er;osystem.
t?
.trc t''atulrls slructure and lunct on of the followinq
'
,
li rt'Si
I
't'!;,t tefn.
i- i \(,.,r,r'i r ,lSySt'.tn;.
r.
i.;:9,..i1 ,..1,,:i\r :.tem
:
1,,,i,.
tt,
.,
i
tr(',!';,stems Ipcri;ls r;ii'ear{:t. lakes, rivers, oceans,
eStuaries.
(6 hours)
JUx liv,;,i :[,/. !,, td its cr:Lsr:; ve: ti,;CI
intrr-,du('[ior, Driil'ition. genr;i;c, .;pecies and ecosyrstem diversity.
I !t, :! :1
t
Bto qeo,:,ti a; rttical irassiflcatior! of hdia
v/,tliie ol birrliversliiy: consum;riivir rise, Irr{)ducWe use, social, ethical, aesthetic
:
'
Srlr-i t:1,r1;6'i' ralues
i.lirl;iv.;fL;iiy ,,:
,
'rri;a gg + l.
,;ft1{.,;LrCl$
ll, natitnati ;ilnril:rcal :?r,'elS.
,."r.i,il
:-:.1ril-r
j. i€tSit;, n.,itli.l,',
a,1 5;CJr'!it,
:fslty.
'flrr,:,ats !o tritrdiveri";ity: haLritai ios;, poac:tling of wildlife, man-wildlife conflicts.
Encianqeretl and r';ldenlic spr,ijies ol lnclirr.
Crln,iervr-tticn of lii. diversit'i l,:.siilt -rnd l?x-sffu conseryation of biodiversity.
j'l
i.t.,,:
i,l:.1,1
._f,
ti r:,
u.
ri-i,:..
I
i.
(8 hours)
I Pollr-t_!!i.',11
'i1j:.1t':
1:,)[i;ie:", i iti,;15
il.
[,.
il':rl coftirr]i ri.,,,4,.. I.lii.rs Ql.-
Air lrollidli;r.
VVat.ttr prii.,.ttion
-Boi! pollut:irn.
i;ta;rne 1;r;t.ution
i'jo.i,' I.,i;i! 'tion
it ' ;:,.:l ,: rllulirtlr
-r
i'.iU,.
'
'rA, iy Zald.,,
jl li:i i'..i'.t. !a';i).enlent C'-,:ls(:!, effects and control measures of urban and
industrial
/r'a$r,)s
l.;rrt,i
Oi:i'.',i') i,jl.j,r !in pffr.r4;:;,1fi r:; pOil,_tttOn.
i.r JLi
_'rl
'-.' '
,ri,
'','
..-.S
;.:,'
.,
!r )flt. ii.)1,,'ir; ,:iJii'r.l!rr'li =" Cyclone and
't.li.'.,?..dllte i;t.:;;q' r.: ii{rt
l.ir'l l-'--- ,.,'!.1, !-'
I r.-.r;: [.', -.. Ir,-)iriii-j: t to s.ttStai,iflh';,leveic;JITleOt.
I -; f i.ri:'t
1
r|
;-.
-,'j.:
Lrj,: rit
S,
landslir-les.
t;.tted'rO enr: i gy
E
t
W ate.r co ns, ;i vatio r. Rairr wat':rt hiltrregtit g; watersh ed management'
t
(B hours)
r
65
j.'',
r:.1"1
r, ,:,:
,i;
i
1:-'-i ghal'rltt'.lttr-., a:
oir'rrflr:1ri
-rril;
;'opi,)- rts ptoLrlems arid cotlcetns- case studies.
:s: lsstir:s :':rc u ,ssib'le solutions.
i)(in rale rher',Uo gl,:bal warmi:rg, ar:rd rain. ozone layer depletion, nuclear accidents and
Ho
.Ar
'
loc:, Jst- cflse stu dies
r
a'ritelan d
- rt rlititr!,
r
:
6i1;;
!jaut'r.riti';',,1)
,.\it
I
''
cla rrt ; .tioIl.
: i]l'lC' Wa$tr] F{Ot:;,lctS.
:
't (r'i[.::tion Act.
iPle'it nli :n ?n : Contrci o: i)c luuon) Act.
, 'Nai'x
:rg-t'r':r'rtron and
(f
Contrr'l o[ Pollution) Act.
Protection,\ct
Forest Const,rvation Act.
W'ikilife
,
r$!:us,s
I
I
inrolrt'cl in 'rte enfolce ,ter't r;f environmental legislation.
(Thours)
F:itLric itY;.'o! i . rt1lis.
! .t'_l!_7 .CUlt
i
Po p ttlatk;
PoprlJl6li
,11_i.
i''or'' Ui tlion
anii
;t .3 ronrth ; variatict rl
r,'l
e.,
plosit:n
llunian Rights.
'
.-. F
ti_:
{
a ; a or
U,:ron4ent
g nations.
r
amily Wt;lf are Program me-
,
../ltlt r.* rirrC?i rOrr
[i
l-;lV .' l',ii-::i.
iVontc;ri .in,
i'.trilt!
A/ellarre
l?tllr: of lnforu;aitoli Technoloi;r'iI: eilvlrcnpent and human heatth'
(6 hours)
(_.i,rs. Sturlic.:.
,rl it' lualtr;'-i le iLt',', ''outt;)
'.'j ,i' ,1. I 1.1, :',r ,:1... tO dctuir-l, ',,. ! :i riOF:!i lntal aSSgtS -
!'1it
i:r
B. ttelflv,'
1; ;r , '-
' .,i,- . '
'
d/ttill'n"'iLil: 'lit
' . ii,r1 :i ,-/( r.,:t. edsiii
::i.rt,'.1,,!ri ,.,i.! ,
r-'.:)i;'i"'lil:r,li
rclirstrralrHgrtcultLtral.
.rl(r:', latttS ir:fe,.',i, i;l:dS,
litiitl; rjl sin'r,ie tr.:-,sy5;le'ms-[;' nci. Irver. hi$slopes,
,
,
etc.
jtu(,--l?t.s sl'ir,ttld .s,-'bmit a r€pt.;11 ,:n lielo siudy ciuly ceftified by the supervising teacher
itr)d :1eed,et- Lul
tt,'t subjecls,' lre;ls mertlioned in the Syllabus.
t
l1
I
I
I
,,1
t
r:jtj,
ji :l ;-.: l...lj,r
-
h i-j
,i'gr1r,'..r1,
-rr-)(;: i:nvirorr!re(f.,rl tlir.logy,, tJicri t)ubl. Ltd. Bikaner.
I hitirt' hi: ]l-iatr, 'llrr'BiocJivetsi;,i oi h:Cia, Mafrirr Publilhing pvt. Ltd. Ahmedabad - lndia.
F rrrn,1,'r, R r.) 'i)B!! -lazardcrus. rrvast,) lnr:in+ration
McGraw Hill lnc.
( lr'il' ,i ll . Ve:,t1r1r i).rllUtiCn (l[;r;1(i.1i-:11"1 [.-ltSS OXfOrd (TB).
(.'u ti'ii jlr;i:l I r;r )oo1'e, -, il. ,:rLlrh,rri,
i: & Hepnvorth, M. T. 2001.
'{il;l i)1,1r ,-.:.!,.1 J6i6.1, f,,iL-. Hs.,L. ,e [.,lLiln[rit.
lle A.it., i-'.i:'ili, iirr;ir ilCh+t',.!sf;,,
Environmental
!'1i::)y Easterr, l_id.
f. ory, tu L;:lrth, ,r;e.itc.for $cieni,,_" a l(.,i Environnten( R
)
\,'.later
Cieick, H Fi. 11,-i'i
in c'isis l:raci.lic lnstitute for
Studies in Dev., Environment
&
S-'t.tttilrr, Sir.rckl :;llrr [. rv. lrrstilrrt:. Cd.;rd univ. press.
H rt..'l
l-l
ii
.r.
ir,',
r
ii
-'r1
J-qii,.31,
i:. l;.rrj,;,:J. pedi'r r,r r,,.iia
I 7"
it
latrr a: Ffi,;tor.y, Bombay f.Jatural History society.
R.T. li;:)t', . $i1-ri,4l B'o,Jiv,.:rsrly Assessment. Cambridge Univ. press.
Ii, i',r'.it;i?l:. V M 'l:i,:rS i:nvirorrmt.rttal protection and
Laws. Himalaya pub.
i>::.1:
I io'L!li:'', J r'::ii
M:[ip11"y, t'l
,:
i
L
,.1
r;
',,r;
roeb. F
M lg]lr: Er,viionmental Science systems & Solutions. Web
rllIar rc' )r : etiii: rfl.
k Ll ll{-, } : aZafrJO,rs. ,'er i1:c. *Q,:!(.nCr. F-Lf hliCatjOnS
M;.It, r i '; [],.-, .: , iefrliti l;:',-i,- ;.8 i;..,r1. ",r..r1f1, t-r,1j.,ii5[ilrg Cf,
Q ;. ;; . : ':l r .,r ,12;1,,tt'.ri ;j i- ti)r.,i: 'V,; Srat tndefs, CO IJSA
R'r(,r i''i ,r :' l''i :
' r, 1: .;: i, -r! :'.,;;i ' itr.irr;-rrt oxfcrti & IBH publishing ccrmpari.y
!..4.;.irj i.';^, I .,!:
si rr',t ,' i-r i' i . '1 ' 'rvi[oi'|n]:^, ', ('!1 rrrrsrr\ G:t+t irttbl. HoLlse, Meerut.
St.',t,-. l L;.,rlr ,t',',, The l:nc
f1 .,r-i. ::
i, r & 1,1 ,.1?:,::fi r :Sei-li ris ;:i tt:Oloqy Ellar:kWell SCienCe.
Tt' ,'i
I
' )Cli .,r : ...(( ,.):,:i..,r Li.,.i:t l,,UleS, GLildelineS, COmplianCeS an,J
M tf Sr' et A
li,;,,
r .,l,,,
;. : fl11i.:il,,i,
I
:-,i?-:
l'ti.e,t i. l. 't I ' ,-i.:.1 lnl:C,':lr';j,)fi l,,.Arr ri,ilt-i:,-,:rr leCnnO-SCtenCe pUbliCatlOnS.
W,q l.: :4,1- l:,'l:. i_r-rironrnt:rrt,,. M.ir zgernc,nl l^/.8 SaunderSCo. philadelphia, USA.
,'
H
67
!1ai.ern uf Qt,,.:5[i6,i pai](rr (Enuironmental Educailon)
Titrre:
Pari
l.)
F
Paii-t:
hoilrr,
Maximum: 80 rnarks
M.rrks (.7 qu, stir n'r shaill be ansv/ered out of 10 questions)
1' l,larkS (.1' qr ;.;li:.r;:i 5[:71: be alts',ryered OUt of 5 qUeStiOnS)
-5
-
"ii idel ruestion Paper
Fina, \'r'al :.;. ' i; (Batany lv,lari) Degree Examination
F .rrt
iy' - Er,vi,onrrrentalEducation
firne. 3 h,-',tts
Maximum: 80 marks
Parrt
-
A
Ansviet any s{:yen uf thefollov ing
1.',''ttil, aj)i,';cotI;ltofirrsri,cl',igoverningtlreconservationofforestinlndia.
)-. i. p-,.. ;lt';'-'.,;ifferelrt Vf'=s c i , .cological pyramids
3 i-lt'i, i:; '.:.-,d rair? [)r, "]tt'){ its r_a tsec and consequences.
.1. [;s;i 3;r 1-16rr,'.1[i9;1 arid .il.ld :r aote ol land pollution.
5. VVha': da i.lg k'now 2l'-ilul Eieen hoUSe gases?
5. [-iel,r:;'ibr, tiie caLtses, rffecl; ad cr,ntrol measures of sound pollution.
,; irivij tn )ouflt ct tl,i er.!,r,onn'rertal marragement in lndia.
:. i'llu'' :r,l tccoltni r' ll'' iisl)'tr'i ii I'ioir,'ed in enforcement of envitonrlrental
,.r(-,
!.'-r.'" ri -"
, .1, '1u,. ii rt,r ile lC,',..; ,;-:i:-.:;1.,.: i:i- i tt ttafi actlvitir:s?
i[r i:.x{-,r.i n i'' " flow .]ii,,i r ,'nri+f ,'aticn oI ertergy through diffetent
trophic levels.
(7 x5 = 35 rnarks)
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fl
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."; :, V i ;::: I the 'flt r,r..'!,J
;'
,l-,,.i,, etail ,h'" !r,1 c ":rir;r.i;'idtr.riirrihecoriservationof natural resour,ces.
,- !'t. uri,,uklr,lvr.ll. ;,.lli TrJiv'-'r';itv'i-[xlrlaintheterminrelationtolndia.
1;
'lli V,, .r gL:i',,rt2l ir!ei,
ai
.,;Ur S -,lid VrrFSttj-
i4 iirve ,ln e(:Count <:f tt'e'J/ilij
l'JatiOr-ral lr.;
'15.
fnanagement.
life conservation in Kerala with special refetence to
rks and N;,,iiol,ai Gar<Je:ns
t.iisct,ss tli'r cat,ses i i ?i: dDd wrter pollr"ttion ad its effect o flora. Melrtion lhe
(3 X 15 = 45 mafks)
!:-,r e'J1 illi.',: r':'lQ?Srlt{:li.
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