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()F Z(OOLOGY LINIVIiRSITY DE,PARTIVIE,NT
LINIVIiRSITY OF CALTCUT
DE,PARTIVIE,NT ()F Z(OOLOGY
RESTRLICTURED CURRICULI.J M ANI)
SYLLABI FOR
APPLIED ZOOLO(;\'
(Choice based C'redit Semester Svstem(CCSS))
(w,.e.J'.
2010 ,4druission )
201 0
CONTENTS
Pages
l.
Regulations and Scheme of Examinations
2.
M.Sc. Applied Zoology Syllabus (CC'SS)
.
2 .2.
2.3.
2.4.
2.1
Semester
Semeste
r
I
II
Semester III
Semester IV
3-8
9 -22
23 -3e
40-58
59 -72
f
,al
UNIVERSITY OF CALICUT
DEPARTMENT OF ZOOLOGY
M.Sc Applied Zoology (CCSS)
REGULATIONS AND SCHEME OF EXAMINATIONS (w.e.f. 201 0 admissions)
l.
The syllabi and curriculurn of Applied Zoology have been revised and restructured with
eftect from 2010 admissions.
)
The nvo-vear Post Craduate Programme will be in the semester pattern. There will be fbur
semesters in the entire course. w'ith two semesters in each year. Each semester
will
have 90
instructional days with 6 hours of instructions each day under the five-day system. Endsemester examinations
rvill be held outside the 90 reguiar instructional days.
'The
papers in
the first three semesters will constitute the core papers and in the fourth semester only'
elective papers are included. Applied E,ntornology is the only special subject offered in this
Department for the time being.
3.
SCHEME OF EVALUATION
Evaluation of all semester theory/ practical papers
will
be done in two parts namely
by' Continuous Internal Evaluation and External Evaluation. Details
of the evaluation
are
provided in the bulletin to be published by the Academic Committee constituted for the
governance of the CCSS.
1
J
*
v
DEPARTMENT OF ZOOLOGY. UNIVERSTfi OF CALICUT
M. Sc. (Applied Zoology) Ptogramme (CCSS) w.e.f. August 2010
Courses offered
MARKS
I *Coutse
Semester
-tNo.
Ctedits
Title of course
'
Ext
Int
Semes
Total
Total
I
I
i zoo
1c01
',
1c02 Rior;hvsics
zoo
& Genetics
& Riostatistics
Cell Biolosy
I (Core) 7.t>C> rcOl
I
zoo 1c04 Pracucal J
zoo 1c05 Prr.t*f f f"t ZOO 2C06 M
, ZOO
ZOO
(Core
)
8t)
20
100
4
80
80
20
100
2t)
100
Iso
f_r B()
fi stt
2
2
4
Microbiology & Immun<tlogt'
100
100
10(l
2CO8
20
100
-zf-t<t zcng
20
100
20
10()
2CO7
t'Z.OO 2C10
i
zoo 2c11,
zoo 3ci2
8t)
4
Pracucal III
Pracucal IV
5r
Animal Physioloev &
80
s00
100
2l)
I
II
--'i---l
4
600
8(
______]
III
(Core)
7_.OO 3C13
'zoo 3cr4
zoo
3c1s
'z.oo 3c16
Brotechn<-llcr
& Evoluuon
F,ntomolLrqv
Svstematics
()erreral
tt^.,r.rtv
i
4
,
Z
zoo
'zoo
4L23
i,zoo
4tr24
'1.OO 4E2s
Total
credits:
8tt i
:tr
10()
tJ0
2(t
100
ij0
20
100
lti() l2tt
l()(
\'eterinan &
s
Practical VIII ft\'ith
collcctiorts/slide s)
\\ ith
Practical I\
,Jll
.-
4t126
'f
Core sub.iects; E
ft
i
Forensic En
Pracucal VI I AX'ith
collecu<,ns /slide
:
100
Insect Phvsiolog) &
N{edrcal,
IV(Electives)
C
20
I
4E2o
' 7,()O 4E21
| 7.O()
lUO
I0r)
Agricultural L:,nromt,loqv
i
20
:
Elective subjects
t,
- --------+---=--+
I 8(r
,;li )il
-
O'I'AL '-
i
20
---+_--j
82
Core subjects: Theory :44'. Practical:L2: Total = 56
-l'lreor,v :
12, Practical:6; 'fotal: 18
Electives:
Total : 08
Compulsory Proj ect/Dissertation :
Grand Total :82
l0()
I
700
SCHEME OF EXAMINATION
M. Sc. APPLIED ZOOLOGY (2010 admission onwards)
FIRST SEMESTER
Theory courses
Ext.
marks
Int. marks
Total
ZOO lC 01- Cell Biology
80
20
100
ZOO lC 02 - Biophysics and
80
ZOO lC 03 - Biochemistry
80
Code No.
& Title of the courses
-f
otal
t2
240
Practical courses
Code No. & Title
Int. marks
of the courses
Total
i
100
ZOO lC 04- Cell Biology.
Genetics and BioPhl sics
ZOO 1C 05 - Biochemistr.v and
Biostatistics
Total
160
Grand total for the First Semester (300 + 200)
a
:
500
,a
v
SECOND SEMESTER
Theory courses
& Title of the courses
Code No.
ZOO 2C 06 - Molecular BiologY
Credits
Ext.
marks
Int. marks
4
80
20
Total
100
|
I
I
ZOO 2C 07 - MicrobiologY
Immunology
and
20
80
4
100
I
i
,
ZOO 2C 08- BiosPhere EcologY
4
80i
20
ZOO 2C 09 - DeveloPmental BiologY
4
80
20
r00
I
r00
i
and EndocrinologY
Total
i6
400
80
320
Practical courses
Code No.
ZOO 2C
l0-
& Title of the courses
Molecular BiologY,
MicrobiologYand ImmunologY
ZOO 2C 11 - Developmental
Biologl',
i Credits
lr
\,
2
Ext. marks
80
[nt. marks
otal
20
r00
20
r00
40
200
Endocrinology and Ecology
Grand total for the Second Semester (400 + 200) =
-\
THIRD SEMESTER
Th eo
Code No.
& Title of the courses
7,OO 3C 12- Animal PhYsiologl
and Etholog)'
ZOO 3C
l3-
Biotechnologl
ZOO 3C 14- Systematics and
Evolution
zoo 3C l5- General FntomologY
cou rSES
C
redits
Ext. I lntr
marks i marks
i
Total
I
4
80
20
100
4
80
20
r00
4
80
20
loo
4
80
20
100
l6
320 I
80
400
& Title of the course
Int.
Total
Credits
l6-
Animal PhYsiologY,
BiotechnologY
Ethology and
ZOO 3C
l7- Systematics and
Ext.
marks
ma
rks
80
20
100
80
20
100
160
40
200
General Entomolog)
Total
4
Grand total for the Third Semester (400 + 200)
\
i
1
Practical Courses
ZOO 3C
I
I
Total
Code No.
i
:
600
#-'
\,,
FOURTH SEMESTER
Th
I lge
I
Code No.
& Title of the cou rse
Ext.
marks
I
Int.
marks
Tota
I
r00
ZOO 4C L8-Proj ectiDissertation
8
r00
*ZOO 4E 19- Agricultural Entomology and
Acarology
"ZOO 48 20- Insect Pest Control and
4
80
20
100
4
80
20
100
*ZOO 4E 2l - Insect Physiology and
Biochemistry
*ZOO 4E 22- Medical. Veterinary and
Forensic Entomology
4
8p
20
100
4
80
20
r00
*Three courses oul of
-fow to be opted Total
20
340
60
400
Ext.
marks
Int.
marks
Management
Practical courses
Code No.
& Title of the Course
*ZOO 4E 23- $.gricultural Entomology
& Acarology (with Collection/Slides)
*ZOO 4E 24- Insect Pest Control and
Management (with collectiodS lides)
*ZOO 48 25- Insect Physiology and
Biochemistry (with CollectiorVS lides)
*ZOO 4E 26- Medical, Veterinary and Forensic
Entomology (with Collection/Slides)
*Three courses out of
four to he opted Total
C
redits
t
80
20
100
2
80
20
100
20
I00
60
300
2
6
240
: Core subjects: E = Elective subjects
Total
credits:
rlo
2
Grand total for the Fourth Semester (400 + 300) = 700
Grand Total for Four Semesters (500 + 600 + 600 + 700) = 2400
C
Total
Theorl' : 44: Practical: l2; Total = 56
Core subjects:
'fheor;'' : 12: Practical:6: Total = l8
Electives:
Total : 08
Com pu lsory Proj ect/Dissertatio n :
Grand Total - 82
FIRST SEMESTER
ZOO ICOl CELL BIOLOGY AND GENETICS
l.
Mernbrane systems of cell
2.
.1
Plasma membrane
1.L i
Structure and tunction of plasma metlbrane
l.l .2 Molecular models of plasma membrane structure
1 . I .3 The dynamic nature of plasma membrane
l.l .4 Movement of substances across cell membranes - diffusion, osmosis.
ion channels. active transport, ion pumps
I . I .5 Mechanism of sorling and regulation of intracellular transport
I .l .6 Electrical properties of membranes
Cell organelles '
2.1 Mitochondria,, Chloroplasts, [.eucoplasts. Endoplasrnic reticulum, Cjolqi
i
2.2
2.3
complex. Lysosome. Peroxisome etc.
Nucleus
2.2.1 Nuclear envelop. pore complex. matrix. nucleocytoplasmic transport.
2.2.2 Operon. interrupted genes. gene families
2.2.3 Structure of chromatin and chromosomes
2.2.4 Organization o1' chromosome (solenoid model. loops, domains.
scaffolds. radial loop model and coil and loop rnodel)
2.2.5 lJnique and repetitive DNA. heterochromatin, euohromatin
Ribosornes
2.3.1 Formation of r,'arious ribosomal components
2.3.2 Ultrastructure. active sites and biogenesis of ribosomes
2.3.3 Role of ribosomes in protein synthesis
2.3,4 Role of antibit-rtics in the study of protein synthesis
3.
Cellular communication
1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
Regulation of hematopoiesis
Geperal principles ol'cell communication
Extracellular matrix. integrins
Interaction of cells with non-cellular substances
Cell-cell interactions - cell adhesion and roles of different adhesion molecules
Tight junctions, gap junctions, plasmodesmata
Neurotransmission and its regulation
division
and cell cycle
Cell
4.1 Mitosis and meiosis, their regulation, Cell cycle and control of cell cycle
1.2 Genetic regulation olcell division in veast and eukar,votes
1.3 Molecular basis of cellular check points
4.4 Molecular basis of Neoplasia
Host parasite interaction
5.1 Recognition arrd entry processes of dif-ferent pathogens like bacteria. viruses
into animal host cells
3.
4.
5.
R
v
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
Alteration of host cell behavior by pathogens
Virus-inducedcelltransformation
Pathogen-induced diseases in animals
Cell-cell fusion in both normal and abnormal cells
Cell signaling
6.1 Hormones and their receptors
6.2 Cell surface receptors
6.3 Signaling through G-protein soupled receptors
6.4 Signal transduction pathway's - Second messengers. regulation of signaling
6.
-
-7.
6.5
6.6
pathways
Bacterial signaling sl,stems
Bacterial chemotaxis and quorum sensing
Mendelian principles
,
1.1
8.
,
9.
10.
I
l.
Dominance, segregation, independent assortment, deviation from Mendelian
inheritance
1.2 9o-d.oTinance, incomplete dominance. gene interactions, pleiotropy. genomic
imprinting, penetrance and expressivity, phenocopy
1 .3
Linkage and crossing over - Coupling and repulsion theory
7 .4
Crossing over and meiosis
7 .5
Cytological basis of crossing over - tetrad analysis
7.6 Sex linkdge, sex limited and sex intluenced characters
Gene mapping methods
8.1 Linkage maps - Crossing over and linkage maps
I
8.2 M3pping with molecular markers
8.3 Mapping by using somatic cell hvbrids
Sex chromosomes
9.I Sex determination and dosage compensation in Caenorhabditis elegans.
Drosophila and Humans
Quantitative genetics
10.1 Polygenic inheritance, heritabilitv and its measu.rements, QTL mapping
Mutation
12.
13.
14.
.1
Types, causes and detection. mutant types - lethal, conditional. biochemical.
loss of function, gain of function
ll.2 Germinal and somatic mutants, insertional mutagenesis
Structural and numerical alterations of chromosomes
l2.l Deletion, duplication, inversion, translocation. ploidy and their genetic
implications
12.2 Homologous and non-homologous recombination, transposition. site-specific
recombination
Human cytogenetics
13. 1 Techniques in human chromosome analvsis - molecular cytogenetic approaclr
13.2 Human karyotype - banding. nomenclature
13.3 Numerical and structural abnormalities o1'human chromosonres - sl,ndrorncs
13.1 Mendelian and chromosonre based heritable disease in humans
Transposable genetic elements
11
r0
i-+
i
i-1.1
'
i.+.-r
Cjenetic instabilitl and rlic discovery of- transposable elements
in ttac:teria - ls elements. Tn family, Mu phage as a transposable
element
T'ransposons in eukaryotes controlling elements in matze, P elements in
.fransposolts
Drosophila
15.
14-4 R.etroposon type transposition - Yeast Ty elements. Alu family
Cell death: Apoptosis
I 5 ' 1 Apoptosis in Caenr-trltabtlitis elegans, Drosophila.
mammals and bacteriai
population
15.2 Mechanism of cell death
l5^3 Genes involved in cell death
15.4 Apoptosis targeted therapies
REFERENCES
1.
Alberts. B., Bray, D..Lewis..l.. Raff,
M..
Roberts, K.,and Watson, J.D. (2000).
N{olecular Biology of the Cell. Garland, Ny
2. Becker. W.M., Rece. .1. B. ancl poenie. M. F. ,1996) The World
of the C.ell. The
Beniamin/Cummings Publishing Cornpany..
1
1
De Robertis. E.D.P. &. De Roberris E.M.F (!995) Cell and M6lecular biolog-v-. (l_ea &
Febiger. 1987) B.l. Waverly. New Delhi.
4. Ka.p. G. (2002) cell and Molecular Biology. John wiley, New,york.
5. Klinemith, L. J. and Kish. V. M. (1995) Principles of Cell and Molecular Biology . 2"d
Ed. Harper Collins College publishers.
6' Lehninger A.L.. Nelsorr D.L. anrJ Cor M.M. (1993). Principles of Biochemistr,v. g Ed.
Worth Publishers. N\'.
7. Lervin ,B., Genes VII (2000). Oxfbrcl Universitl,Press. New,york
8. Lodish.H.. Baltimore. D., Berk,A., Zipursky,, S.L.. Matsudaira. p.
and Darnell. J.
(2000). Molecular Cell Biologl' . III Ed. Scientific American
Books, New york.
9. Malcinski,_G..M. and Freif-elder. D. (199S) Essentials of Molecular Biology..3'o Ed.
Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
10. Purves. W.K., Orians, G.H. and Heller, H.C. (1995) The Cell and Heredity.,
Life, The
Science of Biolo gy, 4't' edn.. Sinauer Associates, Inc.. MA.
I l. Sheeler. Philip and Donald Ebianchi. (2002) III Ed. John wiley.
12"
Snustad. D.P. and Simmons. M.J. (2000) Principles of Genetics. ?''d
Sons Inc.
Ed. John Wilel' &
SYnder. L. and Champness.W. (1991) Molecular Genetics of Bacteria ASM press
Washingron. DC.
14. Tamarin. R.H. (2002) Principles of Genetics, 'fata McGraw-Hill. Ne\r, york, New
Delhi.
15. Tobin- A..1. and Morel. R.E. (1991) Asking about cells, Harcourt Braoe
& Co.
l6.Watson J.D., Gilman M.. Witkowski J. and Zo\ler, M. (1992). Recombinant DNA. ll
Edition. Scientific American Books. W.H.Freeman and Company.
13.
ll
\
v
16" Watson. J.
D., Hopkins, N. H. Roberts, J. W. Steits. J. A. and Weiner. A.M. (1987)
Molecular Biology of the Gene Vols. I & II. The Benjamin/Cumming Publishing
Company.
ZOO ICO} BIOPHYSICS & BIOSTATISTICS
BIOPHYSICS
l.
I
Principles of kinetics of molecules
Diffusion
" l.
I .1.1 . Fick's law and diffusion coef flcient
1.1.2. Stroke-Einstein's lau,.
1 . I .3 . Application of diftusion processes in biology i hemoly,sis,
cyclosis, plasmolysis
1.2.
Osmosis
1.2.1. Vant Hoffls laws
1.2.2. Osmotic concentration. osmotic pressure and osmotic gradient
I .2.3 " Electrosmosis
1 .2.4.
Electrolytic and ionic balance in biological fluid
H:"tflownian
movemenr
and turgor pressure
1.3.3. Stratifications of cellular components against gravit1,,
Cqlloidal phenomena
| .4.1. Classification of colloids
1.4.2. Properties of cttlloids
I .4.3. Gibb's Donnan Ecl uilibriLrnr
pH
1.3.2 Surface tension
I
.4.
1.5
2.
1.5.1. Bullbr
1.5.2. Electrometric determination of pH .
Radiation Biology
2.1 .
Radioactivity, ionizing radiations, interaction of radiation with
matter
Detection and measurement of radiations: G.M. counter
Biological effects of radiations.
Radiation protection and therapy^ Nuclear medicine.
Applications of tracer techniclues: Radiation dosimetry. Radioactive
isotopes, autoradiography, Cerenkov radiation. Liquid Scintillation
Spectrometry.
Photo biological system
3.1. Photodynamic sensitation
3..2. Photoelectriceffects
3-3 Electron displacement b,r-' light quantum theor1,,
3.4 Biophysical aspects of photosynthesis
2-2.
2.3.
2-42,5.
3.
i')
3.5.
4"
\
6.
Laser and its applications in Biology
Biophysics of vision
1,1 Light and its artenuation for vision
1.2" Eye as an optical instrument
4.3 . Formation of irnage
4.4 Changes in retina on exposure to light
Bioacoustics
5. I
Characteristics of'sound
5.2 Physical basis of hearing
5.3. Audible sound tiequency
5 "4
Physical aspects of sound transmission in the ear
5.5 Pitch reception and theories
5.6 Physical basis of voice
5.7 .
Infrasonic and ultrasonic sounds
5.8 Echoloeatioh
Biomagnetism
6I
Generation and nature of biornagnetic fields.
6-2
Magnetometer. Magnerographl,. Nlagnetoencephalo graphy (MEG). MRI
8.
Influence of gravity
7 .l
Human body posture in gravitational field
I .2 Importance in aviation and space travel
Bioelectricify
9.
Principles and applications of
7.
8.1
Bioluminesc:ence
9.1
9.2
9.3
9'4
Microscopy' (Phase cclntrast. Fluorescent, Interf-erence. Confbcal-scanning and
Electron microscopy. Different staining techniques for EM, Freeze etch and
freeze fracture methods for EM)
Micrometry
.Cytophotometry
.Chromatography (Adsorption, Partition. Column, Paper. Thinlayer, Gelfiltration, ion-exchange. Gas, Affinity. HPLC).
9-5. Eleqtrophoresis (Paper. Drsc, PAGE, Two-dimensional PAGE, High vo.ltage
and immuno electrophoresis. Isoelectric tbcusing).
9
Flow cytometrl,
Techniques to study biopolymer structure
.6.
I0.
I 0. I
. X-ray diffraction
10.2. Fluorescence.LrV. Visible. ORD/CD, NMR/ESR Spectroscopy
1 0.3. Atomic absorption and plasma ernission
spectroscopy
I 0.3. Hydrodynamic rnethods
l.
Introduction
l.l
1.2
1.3
BIOSTATISTICS
Sample and test biostatistics
Role of biostatistics in modern research
Descriptiveandlnferentialbiostatistics
l3
@
\-
2.
1.4
.5
1.6
Limitations of statistical methods
1
Applications of biostatistics
Attributes and variables
Collection of data
2.1 Organization of statistical investigation
2.2 Planning of statistical investigation
2.3 Statistical units
2.3.1 Units of estimation
2.3.2 Units of analysis
2.4 Types of statistical investigation
2.4.1 Census and Sampling investigation
2.4.2 Confidential and Open investigation
2.4.3 Direct and Indirect investigation
2.4.4 Original and Repetitive investigation
2.4.5 Regular and Ad Hoc investigation
2.5 Collection of statistical data
2.6 Editing and Presentation of data
2.1 Analysis and Interpretation of data
2.8 Primary and Secondary data collection
i;
'
T"Jif, :,|::1?"n o f data
2.9.2 Tabulation of data
3.
4.
5.
3.0
Sampling of data
Diagrammatic presentation of data
3. I
Line diagram
3.2 Bar diagram
3.3 Pie diagram
3.4 Pictogram
3.5 Cartogrami Map diagram
3.6
Pareto charts
Graphical presentation of data
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.1
4.8
4.9
Techniqueof'constructinggraphs
Line graphs and Histogram
Frequency polygon
Frequency curves
Ogive curves
Stem and Leaf displays or plots
Scatter or dot diagrarr.
Graphic location of mode
Graphic location of median
Measures of Central tendency
5. I
Characteristics
5.2 Arithmetic mean. Geometric mean and Harmonic mean
5.3 Correcting incorrect arithmetic mean
5.4 Combined arithnretrc mean
r4
$
d
5.5
5.6
5.1
5.8
n
Merits and demerits
Median
Mode
Standard score or Z-score
Measures of dispersion or varia
Variability or dispersion
Importance of dispersion
Range
Mean deviation
Standard deviation
6
Quartile deviation
Variance
Standard error
Co-ettoient of variatiorr
7
Lorenz curve - constructio
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
^6
6.i
6.t(
6.9
.0
ilify
Probability
7.1
.2
7.3
1 .4
I .5
7.6
I .l
7
Basic concepts and deflnition
Relative tiequency'
Rules of probability,
Addition rule and Multiplication rule
Rule of compound probabiliry
Permutations and Combinations
Probability distribution
l.l .I Normal distribution
7 .7 .I.l Skew,ness and Kurtosis
7 .7 .l.2Nature of Skewness
I .l "l.3Measures of Skewness
I .l .l.4Fitting of normal curves
7.7 .2 Binomial distribution
7.7.2. l Properties
distribution
\
;J,,1i,iill?S#,,H"''ar
Sampling
77
i
8.2
8.3
8.4
Methods of sampling
Principles of Inertia
Sample designs
Census and Sampling rnethods
Statistical inference
'fest of
9. i
significanoe
9.2 Test of hypothesis
9.3 Level of significance
9.4 Degree of freedom
9.5 Critical region
9.6 Parametri,c and Non-parametric test
9.7 Type I and Type II error
8.
9.
t5
p#
v
9.8
9.9
10.
11.
Type of t-tests
Chi-square test
9.10 Sign test and WSR-test
Analysis of Variance
10.1 Assumptions and techniques of ANOVA
10.2 One-way classification
10.3 Two-wayclassification
Correlation and Regression analysis
11.1.1 Types of correlation
ll.l.2 Graphic methods - Scatter diagram, Simple graph, Correlogram
1 1.1.3 Mathematical methods
- Karl Pearson's co-efficient of correlation.
1r i
4?iJ;tr1,:ffffi:il1['."ico-efncient
I I .l .5
11.2.1
11.2.2
I 1.2.3
I | .2.4
,
Co-efficient of concordance
Types of regression
Graphic method and Algebraic method
Regression lines
Regression equation
Vital Statistics
12.
12.l Vital rates
, 12.2 Vital index
1,2.3 Population growth and Growth curves
I
REFERENCES
BIOPHYSICS
1.
2.
Ackerman , E. (1962). Biophysical Science. Prentice Hall Inc.
Alonso, A. and Arrondo, J.L.R (2006). Advanced techniques in Biophysics. Springer
Verlag.
3. Baker, E. J. and Silverton. R.E. (1978) Introduction to Medical Laboratory Technolog).
ELBS.
Bengt Nolting (2004). Methods in Modem Biophysics, Ist edition, Springer.
5. Bengt Notting (2006) Methods in Modern Biophl,sics. 2nd edition. Springer.
6. Daniel, M. (2002). Basic Biophysics tbr tsiologists. Agro Botanics. Bikaner.
7
Das. D ( 1991) Biophysics and Biophysical Chemistry, Academic Publishers. Calcutta.
8. Ernster. L. (Ed.) (1985). Bioenergetics. E,lsevier. New' York.
9. Foyer, C.H. (1984). Photosynthesis. Wiley, New York.
10. Hoppe, W, Lohmann, 'W., Markl. H. and Ziegler. H. (1983). Biophysics. Springer
Verlag, New York.
11. Marshall, A.G. (1978). Biophysical Chemistry. Principles. Techniques and Applications.
John Wiley & Sons, New York.
12. Narayon, P. (2000). Essentials of Bioph,"-sios. New Age lnternational (P.) Ltd.
13. Nicholis. D. G" and Ferguson, S.J.(1992). Bioenergetics, Academic Press. Neu,York.
4.
.
t6
a\
lzl.Roy'. R.N. ( 1996).
A
textbook of' Biophysics. New Central Book Agency. Pvt" t-td.."
Calcr-rtta.
l5.Sandhu. G.S. (1990). Research fechniques in Biological Sciences. Anmol Publications.
New Delhi.
15.Slayter" E.M. (1970). Optical methods in biology. Wiley Interscience.
lT.Srivastava. P.K. (2006). Elernentary Biophysics, An introduction. Narosa Publishilg
House. Nevl, Delhi.
I 8. Sttbramanian. M.A. (2005 ) Biophy'sics: Principles and techniques.
19 tJpadhtat'. A. Upadhy'ay. K. and Nath. N. (1991). Biophysical Chemistry: Principles and
Techniques. Himalava Publishing House, Nagpur.
BIOSTATISTICS
L
i
Aganval. B. L. ( 1996) Basic Statistics. New Age lntemational(P) Ltd. Publishers. New
Delhi.
2. Bailey. N. T" J. ( 1981).Statistical Methods in Biology. Hodder and Stongtton, London.
3. Campell, R.C. (1978) Statistics tbr Biologists. Balcker and Sons Publishirs. Bombay.
4. Caswell, F. (1982) Success in Statistics. John Murray Publishers, Ltd., Mumbai.
5. Dixon and Massy. Statistical Analysis (3'd Edition), Mc Graw Hi.ll, New york.
6. Elhance, D.N. (1985) Fundamentals of Statistics. Kitab Mahal., Allahabad.
7. Finney, D.J. (1980) Statistics for Biologists. Chapman & Hall, London.
8. Gupta. C.B. and Gupta. V. (2002) Statistical Methods. Vikas publishing ,House,New,
Delhi.
9. Gupta. S.P. ( 1996) Statistical Methods. Sultan Chand & Sons Publishers. New Delhi.
10. Hughes. G. Statistics Addition. Wesley Publishing Co.
I I . Heel Elementary Staristics 12"d F:dn.; John Wiley & Sons Inc., Neu, york.
12. Jazar and Jerrold ( 1999) Biostaristical Analysis. Pearson Education.
13. Lewis. A.E. (1971) Biostatistics. Afliliated East-West Press, Pvt.,Ltd.,New Delhi.
l4.Mendenhall and Reinmuth Statistics for Management. Wardsworth. pub., Co.
15.Parzen. E. Modern Probability Theory. John Wiley & Sons. Inc.. New york.
l6.Pillai, R.S.N. {ind Bagavathi ( 1987) Practical Statistics. S Chand and Co.,pvt.,Ltd. New
Delhi.
l7.Wayne, D. W. (1987) Biostatistics - A Foundation Analysis in the Health Sciences. John
Wilev & Sons. New York.
ZOO 1CO3 BIOCHEMISTRY
1
1.
Introduction
of atoms. molecllles and chemical bonds.
2. Water: its effect on dissolved biomolecules
2.1. Water as an ideal biological solvent: Ilydrogen bouds: Ionisation of
1.1 Structure
t7
rn,arer.
s-.lEF
v
2-2
Weak acids and weak bases: Equilibrium constant: pH and pH scale. probiems
involving the determination of pH and pKa
2-3- Buffers and buffer action. Henderson-Hasselbalch equation: phosphate and
bicarbonate buffer sy'stenr in biological svstenr.
3" Enrymes
3. I . Introduction, classif-rcation and nomenclature.
3.2. Specificity and regulation of enzymes
3.3 Enzyme kinetics and Michaelis-Menten equation. Lineweaver-Burk plot.
3.4 Factors influencing velocity of enzyme catalysed reactions.
3'5" Enzyme inhibition-reversible and irreversible (competitive and non-competitive)
with examples" Enzyme inhibition in the treatment of AIDS.
3.6. Regulatory enzymes -Allosteric enzvmes.
3.7 . Zymogens, Isozymes.
.
3.8. Ribozymes.
4"
Bioenergetics & Oxidative metabolisrn
4'1' Laws of thermodynamics and biological system. Entropy, Enthalpi-. Concept
of free
energy. Standard Free energy change and equilibrium constant. Coupled
reattions.
4'2'High-energy compounds. Role of'ATP as a fiee energy carrier in the biological
system.
5. Metabolism of carbohydrates
5' I . Structure
of Monosaccharides. Disaccharideds, Oligosaccharides and
pol)'saccharides (chitin. bacterial cell w,all and gly,cogen)
5.2 Ph,vsical and chemical properties of monosaccharides.
5'3' Glycolysis; Gluconeogenesis; HMP pathway; Glycogenolysis; Glycogenesis.
5.4. Regulation of glycogen synthesis and breakdown.
5-5 Citric acid-cycle; Electron transport chain; Oxidative phosphorylation;
redox potential, Chemiosmotic hypothesis; Uncouplers; tnniUitors
of electron
transport chain..
'
1
6. Metabolism of lipids
Classification of lipids. clrtssificarion of f atty acids.
6.2. Physical and chemical properties of Iipids.
6.2. Structural lipids in mernbranes, Sphingolipids in biological recognition.
6'3' Oxidation of fatty acids (saturated. unsaturated and odd carbon). Ketone
bodies.
6.4. Biosynthesis of fatty acids.
6.5. Biosynthesis and degradation of cholesterol.
6 .6 Prostaglandins.
7. Amino acids and proteins
7.1. Structure of differenr arnino acids in proteins.
Physical and chemical properties of amino acids. Peptide bonds;
Zwitter ions
7.2. Metabolism of amino acids. fransamination. decarboxylation
and deamination
reactions in the biological s1,stem.
7.3. classiflcation of proteins. Glycoprotein
ancl proteoglycans.
7.4. Structure of proteins. Ramachandran plot
7.5. Sequencing of proteins.
7.6. Separation and purification of proteins.
6" I .
8
7"7. Nitrogen excretion
&
urea cvcie.
8. Nucleic acids
i
Biosvnthesis ancl degradation of nucleic acids.
8.2" Structure of DNA and RNA: Secluencing of DNA
8.
Clhenristr,v-:
9. Vitamins
9.
I Chemical nature and functions of vitamins
9"2 Role of B-complex vitamins as coenzymes.
REFERENCES
Alberts. B. Bray, D. Lewis. .1.. Ratf. M. Roberts, K. Watson. J.D. (.lgg4). Molecular
Biology of the Cell. Garland, NY.
2" Berg, .1.M., Tymoczko,"J. L. and Stryer, L. (2006) Biochemistry, W.H. Freeman and Co..
New York.
3. Cohn R.M. and Roth K.S (1996). Biochemistry and Disease, Williams And Wilkins, A
Waverh' Company.
.1. Delvtn. T.W. (2000). A l'ext Book of Biochemistry with Clinical
Correlations, WileyJ
l.
Liss. NY,
5. Gerhard Krauss.( 2003) Biochemistry of signal
6.
i
-
8. Nelson D.L. Cox M.M.
9
.
transduction and regulation. WILEY-
VC'H. GmbH and Co.
Mar1,K. Campbell (1995)Biochemistrl,. II Ed. Harcoun Bracce and Co. Florida.
Murra,n- Robert K, Granner, Dar1,l K. Harper's Illustrated Biochemistry.( 2006) Mc
Grar.r'-Hill, New York.
Lehninger
A.L (2007). Principles of Biochemistry. IV
Ed.
Freeman and co. NY.
Levinson S.A. and Mac Fate. R.P.
(
1
969). Clinical
Laboratory Diagnosis. Lea &
Fabiger. Philadelphia.
10. Mathews. Il.R., Freeland. R. and Miesfeld. R.L . (1991). Biochemistry: A Short C-rrurS€
Wiley - Liss. Inc. NY
I l. Zubay G.L., Parson W.W., Vance D.E. ( 1995). Principles of Biociremistry.
Wm.Bro'',vn Pubtishers, England,
ZOO 1CO4 CELL BIOLOGY, GENETICS AND BIOPHYSICS
PRACTICAL COURSE I
CELL BIOLOGY AND GENETICS
l. Studies on stages in nleiosis usins grasshopper testis squashes; Chiasma
frequencv,
studies using grasshopper testes squashes.
2. Gene mapping of Drosophila melanogaster, using text book problems
3. Preparation of chromosomes tiorn rat or mouse bone marrow or human or an1, other
lyrnphocyte cultures.
4. Analysis of metaph4se chromosolnes from rat or mouse bone marrow, or any other
suitable material by means of G and C banding.
l9
-
5.
Preparation of human karyotype from photographs (Xerox copies would be sufficient) ot'
chromosome spreads - Normal and abnormal
6" Identification of human blood cell types and demonstration of drumstick on neutrophils"
employing any suitable stain. Staining of human buccal epithelial smear to demonstrate
Barr body.
1
Preparation and analysis of salivary gland polytene chromosomes of Drosophila larvae.
8. Cell fractionation and isolation of nuclei tiom a suitable tissue e.9.,, rat liver.
9 ^ Preparation of tissues for histological sections
1 0. Histological staining using hematoxylin/eosin.
1 1. Histochemical staining of carbohydrates (PAS), Protein (Bromophenol blue), lipids
(Sudan Black), DNA (Feulgen stain) and RNA (Methyl Green -Pyronin)
.
REFERENCES
t
1. Winchester, A. M. (1964) Laborator.v Manual. Genetics Brown Co..
Publishers
Dubuque, Iowa.
2. Jayaraman, J. (1981) Laboratory Manual in Biochemistry. Wiley Eastern Ltd.
3. Neidharth" F.C. and R.F. Be1'd (1965) Cell Biology - A Laboratory Text.
4.
5.
Burgees
Publishing Co.
Copenhaver, M.W. (1964) Bailey's Textbook of Histology. Scientific Book Agency'.
Calcutta.
Humason, G.L. (1962) Animal tissue techniques .W.H.Freeman and Co.
BIOPHYSICS
l. Absorption spectrum of
potassium permanganate. Determination of absorption
coefficient and concentration of unknown solutions by calibration as well as b1,
absorption coeffi cient.
2. Separation of mixtures of sugars and amino acids by paper/thinlayer chromatography,
3. Measurement of size of microscopic obiects using stage and ocular micrometers.
4. Demonstration of working principle of Light,Phase contrast and Fluorescencc
5.
6.
7
.
microscope, Camera lucida and Photomicrographic equipment.
Determination of coefficient of viscosit,"- using Ostwald's Viscometer.
Determination of pH of biological fluids using pH meter.
Densitometric documentation of electrophoretogram - determination of protein
concentration and molecular weight.
REFERENCES
l.
Ackerman,
E,.
(1962) Biophysical Chemistry, Prentice Hall lnc.
2. White, D.C.S. (1974) Biologicat Physics. Chapman and Hall, London.
3. Hoppe. W. (ed.) ( 1983 ) Biophy,sics. Springer Verlag.
4. Slayter, E.M. (1970) Optical Methods in Biology,
5. Gassey, E.J. (1962) Biophysics Conccpts and Mechanics. Van Norstrant Reinhold Co.
20
6'
l
'
Daniel' M' (1998) Basic Biophysics lor Biolgists.
Agro Botanica, Bikaner.
Das' D' (1981) Biophysics and Biophy'sical Chemistrv.
Academic publishers.
Calc utta.
ZOO lC 05 BIOCHEMISTRY AND BIOSTATISTICS
PRACTICAL COURSE
II
BIOCHEMISTRY
A
Buffers and pH:
L comparison of the capacities of two buffers of the same pH.
B. Quantitative estimatiirn of carbohydrates :
2' Estimation of blood glucose by colorimetric methods (Nelson-Somogy
method)
3' Estimation of total carbohydrates by phenol-sulphuric acid
method.
C. Quantitative estimation of proteins I
4" Estimation of proteins by Biuret method.
5^ Estimation of proteins by Bradfbrd's method
6. Isolation of casein from milk
7 " Estimation of serum urea
D. Quantitative estimation of lipids
8- Estimation of serum choresterol by' zak s method.
9. Saponification value of fat.
10. Estimation of total lipids in the serum (using phosphovanillin
method)
E. Enzyme assays:
I 1' Determination of salivary amylase activiry and effect
of substrate concentration.
12. Determination of salivary amylase activity and
effect of pH.
13. Determination of alkaline phosphatase aciivity
in serum.
F. Separation techniques:
l4' Determination of molecular weight of proteins by SDS-polyacrylamide
Gel
lectrophoresis( pA GE).
15. Two dimensional gel electrophoresis.
E
REFERENCES
to Practical Biochemistry Plummer. David T. (2007) III Ed.
Tata
Mc Graw-Hill. New Delhi,
2' Principles and Techniqr-res of Biocherlistry' and Molecular
Biology,.(2006) VI Ed.
Wilson Keith and Walker John.
3' Oser. B'L. (1965). Hawk's Phy'siological Chemisrry.McGraw
Hill Book Co.
I
' An Introduction
2t
\*
\r'
BIOSTATISTICS
1.
Preparation of frequency distribution with the given data.
2. Diagrammatic presentation of census data in Kerala in the form of Bar diagrams and pie
diagrams.
3. Graphic presentation of population distribution in the form of histogram, frequencl
polygon and tiequency curve.
Computation of measures of central tendency and dispersion in anthropometric data ol'
school children.
5. Simulation of binomial and Poisson distributions.
6. Estimation of the mean number of children per family in the University campus.
7. Estimation ofpopulation ofplanktons.
8. Designing of an experiment for the comparison of efficacy of a ferv diets on different
types of animals by the method of ANOVA.
Regression analysis and conelation analysis of a data of heights and weights o1'a group
of students.
10. Data Analysis by SPSS.
4.
.
9.
REFERENCES
lr
John T. (2002). Practical Statistics for Environmental and Biological Scientists
John Wiley & Sons
22
S
SECOND SEMESTER
ZOO 2CO6 MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
l.
Genes and genomes
I . I Genomes ofprokaryotes and eukaryotes
I .2 Organelle genomes
2. Topology of nucleic acids
2. I DilIerent forms of DNA (A, B. C & Z)
2.2 Supercoiling and Topoisomerases.
2.2. Classification and mechanism ofaction of topoisomerases.
3. Replication of DNA
3.1 . Models of DNA replication : Semiconservative mode(Experiments of Messelson and
Stahl and that of Cairns). rolling circle mode and D-loop mode of replication. Role of
antisense RNA in replication initiation in plasmids.
3.2. Okazaki tragments and semidiscontinuous synthesis.
3.3. Enzymes and accessory pr.oteins involved in
replication.
3.4. Primosome, replisome. Telomeric DNA and regulation of telomere length and
reverse transcription.
4. Restriction and modification
4.1 Restriction enzymes. Classification and nomenclature of restriction
enzymes. Role of restriction enzymes in bacteria. Restriction fiagment
length polymorphism (RFLP) DNA finger printing.
5. DNA repair
5.1 DNA repair mechanisms in bacteria and higher organisms. Base Excision
repair. Nucleotide Excision repair. mismatch repair and SOS response
6. The genetic code:
6.1. Characteristic features ofthe genetic code (triplet, comma less, non-overlapping
a universal nature ofthe code)
6.2. Deciphering the code
6.3. Degeneracy of the code: Wobble hypothesis.
6.4. Reading frame and frame shift
6.5. Special feature ofthe genetic code in ciliates and mitochondria.
Mutations and the genetic code (frame -shift, point and suppressor
mutations)
suppressor , - RNA and tiame shift suppression.
6.7. Evolution ofthe genetic code
7. Transcription in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
7. I
Initiation of transcription, elongation, termination and anti-termination.
7.2. Characteristic features of RNA polymerases of phages, prokaryotes and
eukaryotes.
7.3. Promoter, enhancer and silencer sites.
7.4. Transcription factors.
7.5. Homeodomains.
DNA
r
6.6.
.
23
\r
v
7.6" Post transcriptional modification of RNA.
7.6.i. Capping and Tailing of mRNA.
7.6.2. Removal of intron sequences by RNA splicing in mRNA, t RNA and r RNA.
Splicing and Rib ozyme. strategies f or designin g ribozymes.
7 .6.3. Cis
- and trans-splicing
7 .6.4. RNA editing- g RNA.
8. Split genes, overlapping genes and pseudogenes.
8.2" Interrupted genes (discoverv, R-loopingi in mitochondria and chloroplasts)
8.3. Overlapping genes (in phages ). pseudogenes. promiscuous DNA
8.4. Organization of interrupted genes and their possible evolution
i
9. Details
of translation
9.1 . Initiation, elongation and termination of protein synthesis
9.2" Structure of t RNA (primary, secondary and tertiary structure)
9 .3. Organization of t RNA and r RNA genes
9.4. Protein localization or targeting.
10. Regulation of gene expression in bacteria.
10.1. The operon model. .lac operon. irzc repressor negative and positir,,e controi
I 0.2. Constitutive mutants
I 0.3 " Catabolite repression
10.4. Basic features of tryptophan operon: Operator-repressor regulation and
attenuation regulation.
11. Regulation of gene expression in phages
1 I .1 Circuit of lytic cycle and lysog.ny
11 .2 Lytic cascade in )" phage
11.3 Transduction : generalized and specialized
12. Regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes
12.1. Regulation at transcriptional level
12.1.1 Activation of transcription
12.l .2. Repression of transcription
12.2. Regulation at translational level
12.2. I Regulation by gene arrangement
12.2.2. Regulation by alternate pathway's of transcript splicing.
12-2.3.Anti - sense RNA strategies for regulating gene expression: molecular
mechanisms of anti-serlse molecules.
12.3. si RNA, mi RNA
13. Characteristic features of eukaryotic genome.
13.1 . Chromosomal content and C-value paradox
13.2. Unique, moderately repetitive and highly repetitive DNA sequences
13.3. Reassociation kinetics of the above rypes of DNA.
13.4. Cot value and complexity of the genome.
13.5. Satellite DNA and selfish DNA.
1 3.6. Molecular phylogenetics.
14. Transposable genetic elements
24
t
{
i4.l.Genetic instability and the discover)- of transposable elements.
14.2. Transposons in bacteria.
11.2"
l. IS elements. rhe Tn famil
1,1.2.2.
Mu phage as a transposable element
14.3. Transposons in eukaryotes
14.3.1. Controlling elements in maize
| 4.3 .2. P element s rn Drosophila
I 4.4.Retroposon type transposition
14.4.1 . Yeast Ty elements
14.4.2. Alu family.
14.5. Retroviruses and transposition
15. Human genome
l5^ 1. Human genome mapping
15.2. Sequencing the human genome
I 5.3.Organization .of human genorne
16. Structural organization of globin genes, their evolution and concept of an
evolutionary clock.
17
, Cancer
I 7.
I Biology of cancer
.2 Causes of cancer. Role of chemicals. Ionizing radiations. Virus- induced
cancer. Role of DNA and RNA viruses. Role of virus in hurnan cancers.
Rous sarcoma virus and cancer.
17.3 Metastasis.
17 .4. Cancer and cell cycle.
17 .5 Therapeutic interventions of uncontrolled cell groMh.
17 .6 Genetics of cancer
11 .6.1 Tumor-suppressor genes and oncogenes.
17 .7 . New strategies for combating cancer (immunotherapy, gene therapy)
17
18. Bioinformatics
18.1 Genetic data and the Internet
18.2 DNA and protein databases
18.3 DNA sequence analy'sis. rnultiple sequence alignment.
1 8.4 Data base search usins BL.AST
REFERENCES
i.
Alberts, 8., Bray, D., Lew'is. J.. Raff, M.. Roberts, K., Watson, J.D. (2002).
Molecular Biolog,v of the Cell. Garland, NY
2. Brown T.A. (2000) Essential Molecular Biology. II Ed. Oxford OUP.
3. Brown T.A. (2006) Genomes 3. Garland science, New York.
4. Attwood fK, Parry-Smith DJ (2003 ) Introduction to Bioinfbrmatics. Pearsor.r
education.
5.
6.
Clark. David P.(2005)Molecular Biology. Ameterdam, Elsevier.
Ku.p, G. (2002) Cell and Molecular Biology. John Wiley, New york
25
t
Ktinemith, L. J. and Kish. \' M. (1995 ) Principles of Cell and Molecular Biology. 2'"r
Ed. Harper Collins College Publishers,
8. Kothekar V (2004) Introduction to Bioinformatics.DHRUV Publications. Delhi.
6 Lewin. Benjamin " (2008) Genes IX Ed. Boston. Jones. Bartlet.
7 Lewin , Benjamin . (2006) Essential Genes, Pearson, London.
8 Lodish, H., Baltimore, D., Berk,A., Zipursky, S.L,, Matsudaira. P. and Darnell, J.
(1995). Molecular Cell Biology. Scientific American Books, New York.
g. Malcinski. G. M. and Freifelder, D. (1998) Essentials of Molecular Biolog)'. 3'd Ed.
Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
10. Mayers, R.A. (Ed) (1995). Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: A Comprehensir e
Desk Reference. VCH Publishers. Inc., NY..
1 l. Nelson D.L. Cox M.M. Lehninger A.L (2001). Principles of Biochemistry. IV Ed.
7.
a-
NY.
Freeman and co,
r
12. Panno Joseph (2005) Gene Therapy. Facts on file. New York.
13. Sinden. Richard R (2006) DNA structure and function. California. Academic press.
14. Snustad. D.P. and Simmons. M,J. (2000) Principles of Genetics. 2''d Ed. John W'iley
& Sons Inc.
15. Synder, L. and Champness.W. (1991) Molecular Genetics of Bateria ASM Press
Washington, DC.
l6.Watson J.D., Gilman M.. Witkou'ski J. and Zoller. M. (1992). Recombinant DNA. II
Edition, Scientitlc American Books. W.H.Freeman and Companl'.
Westhead. D.R.. Parish, J.H. and I r,r1 rnoo, R.M. ( 1999) Biointbrmatics. Bio:
Scientific Publishers, Ltd., Oxfbrd, UK.
18. Gupta, P.K. ( 1999). Elements of Biotechnology, Rastogi Publications, Meerut. \
19. Gupta,, P.K. (2000). Cell and Molecular Biology, Rastogi Publicatins, Meerut
20. Strachan, T. and Read. A.P. (2003). Human Molecular Genetics, III ed, John-Wiley
& Sons, NY.
17.
ZOO 2C
07 MICROBIOLOGY
ANN IMMUNOLOGY
MICROBIOLOGY
l. History and scope of microbiology
1.1 . Discovery
of microorganisms
I .2 . The spontaneous generation concept.
. Recognition of the role of microbes in diseases.
I .4 . Discovery of microbial effects on organic and inorganic matter.
l..,s . Development of microbiology in India.
1.6 . The composition of microbial world.
1.7 The scope and relevance of microbiologl
1.3
2. Microbial taxonomy.
2.1 . Major characteristics.
2,2 . Genetic analysis and molecular characteristics.
26
2.3 .
2.4 .
2-5 2.6 "
Numericai taxonom)
Phylogenetic studies
Phenetic classification and Bergey's manual.
The kingdom of organisms.
3. Prokaryotic cell structure and function.
3. i Plasma membrane and internal systems.
3. L l . Cytoplasmic matrix.
3. 1.2. Inclusion bodies
3.l.3.Ribosomes.
3. i"4. Nucleoid
3.2 Bacterial cell wall
3.2.1. Peptidoglycan strucrure
3.2.2. Gram positir,'e and gram .egative cell wall
3 .2.3 Mechanism of Gram staining
3.3. Components external to cell wall
3.3.1 . Pili and fimbriae
3.3.3. Capsule and slime layers.
3.3^3. Flagella and motility
4. Microbial nutrition and growth
4. l. Common nutrient requiremenr.
4.2. Autotrophs and heterotrophs.
4.3. Culture media and ty,pes of nredia.
4.4. Microbial growth.
4.4.1 Growth curve.
4.4.2. Rearrangement of microbial growth
4.4.3. Continuous culture of microorganisms.
4.5 Influence of environmental f-actors on growth.
4-6. Control of tnicroorganisnrs using physical and chemical agents.
4.7" Use of physical agents (hear, flltration and radiation)
4.8. Use of chemical agents lphenolics. alcohols, halogens, quarternary ammonium
compounds. pldehydes and sterilizing gases) and effect of antimicrobial agents_.
.
5. Virology
Morphology and classification of viruses.
5.2" DNA viruses.
5"3. RNA viruses
5.4. Enveloped viruses.
5.5. Virus-host interactions.
5.6. Lytic and lysogenic life cycles.
5.1 .
5.7. Pathogenic viruses.
IMMUNOLOGY
1. History and scope of immunology
I .1 . Overview of the immune system.
1.2. Types of immunity: Innate and acquired. Active and passive,
27
1.3. Structure of lymphoid organs: Primar.v and secondary.
1.4. Cells of immune system, Cell mediated and humoral immunity.
2. Antigens (Immunogens)
2.1. Characteristic features of antigens and super antigens"
2.2 " Factors affecting antigenecit.v
3. Antibodies (Immunoglobulins)
3.1. Different classes: Structure and tunctions
3.2. Antibody processing and presentation
4. Generation of antibody diversity
4.1 VD (J) rearrangements.
4.2. Secretion of Immunoglobulin.
4.3, Monoclonal antibodies and applications.
. 5 Hypersensitivity reactions
5.1 . Type l, II and III hypersensitivitv
5.2. Delayed type hypersensitivity.
6, Complement
6.1 . Classical and alternate pathways of complement activation.
6.2. Lectin pathway.
7 . Nlajor Histocompatibility Complex
7.1. Structure and function of Class I and II molecules of human and mouse.
8. Vaccines
8. I . Principle.
8.2. Different types: Recombinant vaccines. Peptide vaccines, DNA vaccines,
9. Transplantation immunology
9. I . lmmuhologic basis of graft rej ection
9.2. General immunosuppressive therapr
9.3. Transplantation antigens
10. Auto immunity
10.1 Organ specific and systemic autoimmune diseases with examples.
10.2. Animal models of autoimmune diseases.
10.3. Treatment of autoimmune diseases.
11. Antigen-Antibody interactions and applications
I 1 .1 Agglutination and Precipitation reactions, ELISA, RlA, Immunoelectrophoresis.
WIDAL test, VDRL test, FACS, Western blotting.
I
.
REFERENCES
L Harper, D.R. (1994). Molecular virologS,. Bios Scientiflc Pub.Uk.
2. Harvey. R.A. and Champe. P.A. ( 2001 ) Microbiology. Lippincott. Williams and
3.
4.
Wilkins.
McKane. L. and Kanel. J.(1996) Microbiolosr,-Essentials and Applications (2"d Edition).
Mc Graw Hill Inc" New'York.
Pelczar, M.J. ( Jr.), Chan. E.C.S. and Kreig, N.R. (1998) Microbiology, tata McGraw
Hill lnc. New York.
28
:,
u
&
5.
6
7.
8.
Salle' A'J' (1961) Lboratory Manual on the Fundamental principles
of Bacteriology.
McGraw Hill Book. Co.. New york.
Stainer, R., Ingraham. J.. wheelis, M. and Painter, p. (lgg7)^
General Microbiologr,.
Macmillan Press, New york.
Claus. W"G. (1989). tlnderstanding microbes: A laboratory
text book for Microbiolsgr.
W H" Freeman & Compan)-, New york.
Madigan.M'T.' Martinko- J.M. and Parker,
J. (2000). Brock Biology
of.
Microorganisrns. Prentice Hail Intcrnational Inc.
,
9. Adul K" Abbas and Andrew H. t.ichtman
(2003). Cellular and Molecular Immunol.gl,
(Fifth Edition)" Else',,ier Science, IJSA.
10. Collier^ L. and Oxtbrd. J. (2000). Human
Virology. Orforcl University press.
i I ' Godkar' P'B'( 1998)' A Text Book of Medital
Laboratory T'echnolog)'. Bhala,i
Publishing House, Mumbai.
12. Janis Kuby (1997).Immunolog),. wH Freeman,
New york.
l3' Joshi' K' R' and osamo N. o' irqq+1. Immunology.Agro
Botanical publishers, Bikaner.
lzl' Kenneth M' Murphy'. Paul Travers and
Mark walport (2007).
Janewar,-s
\evv ' t' -'c'.rr
Immunobiology (Seventh Edition). Garland Science.
New, york
l5' Peter Parham (2004). The Immune System (2nd Edition).
Garland Science, New york
I6' Raif Geha and Fred Rosen (2001). case Studies in Immunology
:A clinical companion
(Fifth Edition). Garland Science, New york
17' Richard A' Goldsby, Thomas J. Kindt,
Barbara A. osborne and Janis Kuby, (2003).
Immunology (Fifth Edition). wH Freeman, New,york"
l8' Shett). N. (1993). Imnrunologl,. Wilev, Easrern Ltd. New
Delhi.
I 9' Thomas J' Kindt- Barbara A.
c)sborne and Richard A. cjoldsbr (20t)7
t. Kubr
Immunology tSixth E<tition). wlJ F'reeman, Ner,r, york.
ZOO 2C 08 BIOSPHERE ECOLOGY
l. Population Eiology
1.
i Population
growrh
Exponential growth, Sigmoid growth, Chaotic systems.
of natural increase, Concept of carrying
Catastrophic theor,v-. Intrinsic rate
capaciryI .2
I .3
Life tables and survivorship curves.
Life history strategies (r & k selection)
Niche theory: Modern concept. Niche width, Niche
overlap, Fundamental and
realtzed niche
1.5 Meta population dynamics
Ecological energetics
2. I Models of energy flow
2.2 Ecosystem productivitl,,
2.3 Ecological modelin-e - Ar-r introduction
1.4
)
29
Q
V
3. Ecosystem studies
I
3.l Ecology of Wetlands: Uses, threats and management
3.2 Ecology of coral Reefs: IJses, threats and management
3"3 Ecology of Mangroves : Uses, threats and management
3"4Ecology of Tropical Rain Forests: Vegetation structure. Productiviqv and nutnenr
cycling in forests, Uses, threats and management
4" Biodiversity
4.i Management of biodiversity. in sttu and ex situ conservation.
4.2lndian case studies on Conservation/management strategies (Biosphere Reserr,,es)
4.3 Flagship species" keystone species. lndicator species
4.4Hot spot and warm spot Evolution of hot spots
4.5 Sustainable development
4.6 Ecotourism
4.7 Ecological foot printing
i
5. Conservation Ecology
5.l Impact of major ecosystem process like fragmentation, Deforestation and land
gse
changes on biodiversity.
5.2 Restoration Ecology
5.3 River conservation and management- Impact of sand mining
\
6. Resource Ecology
'
$.1 Conventional energy resources- Nuclear energy, advantages and
disadvantages
6.2 Sustainable energy resources -Solar energv. Wind energ)," Tidal energ\
advantages and disadvantages.
6.3 Water resources and its management
7. Soil Biology
8.1 Physical and Chemical properties
8.3. Mechanism of erosion
8.4. Soil conservation: Managing topography
8.5. Organic farming
8. Biogeochemical cycles
9"1. Nitrogen cycle
9.4 Phosphorous cycle
9.5 Sulphur cycle
9. Pollution
6. 1 Environmental Pollution
6.2 Environmental Impact Assessment
6"3 Brief account of Environmental lau,s
10.
Environmental Biotechnology
I Cleaner technologies
l0.l.l Solid waste and soil pollution management
10.
l0.I .2 Bioremediation
Bioreactors for liquid waste treatment
10. i.4 Biof-rlters
10. i .3
10. I .-s
Vermicomposting
3r)
-
I
\
10.1"6 Biomethanation
10. I .7
Removal of oil spills
Biosensors to detect environlnental pollutants
10.2" I Environmental monitoring and biomonitoring
l0'2'2 Ecological irnpact of genetically modified plints
and other organisms
I l. Diversity of kinds and groups
li.tr Extent of diversir)
I1.2 General features olgroup diversity
I 1'3 Diversity within species. inherent diversity, externally
induced diversity.
occasional and abnormal diversity, cell diversity
I 1.3 Diversity in reproduction
12. Taxasphere and inventorying
12.1 Reason for undertaking inventoryinq. priority conservation
arearecognition
i2.2Indexing of world's known specie s, species 2000
12'3 Evaluation of biodir..sity inaices Shannon- Weiner
indices, Similarity and
dissimil arity index, Association index
11. Human Ecology
I 1. I Human population growth Consequences and solution
I I .2 Global environmental issues Ozone hole, effects
on human lit-e
I i '3 Human mediated Global climate change the green house
effect and its impact
12' Remote sensing as a tool for the study and the Management
of ecosystems
l2.l Physical basis for remote senslng
i2.2 Role of remote sensins in ecological research
10.2
REFERENCES
1'
2'
3.
4
5.
6'
.
8'
1
9
'
10"
Arora. C.K. (1997) Encyclopaeclia
of Laborartory Techniques, No. g. Anmol
Publicatiions, India
Alfred, J'R., Das, B. and A.K. Sanyal (1998) Faunal diversity in India. En Vis
Centre.
Zoological Survey of India
Bhandari' S C. and Somani, L.L. (lgg4) Ecology and Biology of
Soil organisms
Agrotech Publ. Acad., Udaipur
Bossel' Earth at a crossroads- Path for a sustainable future. CambridgeUniversity,
Press.
Brewer, R. (1994) Science of ecology. Saunders, usA
Caughley, Graeffie , Sinclair and Antony ( Lgg4) Wild life Ecology
and Management.
Blackwell Science. USA
carson. R ( I 963) Silent Spring. Houghton. Mifflin. Boston, usA.
Chauhan. T.S. and .loshi. K.N. (1996) Applied remote sensing
and photoIrrterpretation. Vigyan prakash. .lodhpur
Cunningham, P.w. and Woodworlh,S. B.( I ggg) Environmental
Science.WCB/McGraw Hill
Francois Ramade (1984) Ecology ofNatural resources. John wiley
and Sons, N. york
3l
u
11. Fred Van Dyke (2003) Conservation biology: foundations. Concepts.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
r9.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
Applications"
McGraw Hill.
Gary,K. Meffe. C. Ronald Carroll and Contributors (1991) Principles of Conservation
biology, Second edition. Sinauer Associates.
Goldman, R.C. (1994) Limnology. McGraw Hill book Co., London
Heywood. V.H. and Watson, R.T. (1995) Global biodiversity Assessment. LINEP.
Cambridge University Press
Jhanwar. M.L. and Chauhan, T"S. ( 1998) Remote sensing and Photogrammetr)
Vigyan Prakash, Jodhpur.
Kormondy, E.J. (1986) Concepts of Ecology. Prentice hall, New Delhi
Krebs, C.J. ( 1985) Ecology: The experimental analysis, distribution and abundance.
Harper Collins, N.York Odum. E.P. (1911) Fundamentals of Ecology. Saunders. USA
Minelli. A ( 1993) Biological Sy'stematics. Chapman and Hall" London.
Muker.iee,( I 982) Endangered animals of lndia. ZSI, India
Moss. B. ( 1998) Ecology of freshwater. Blackwell Science, USA
Miller, Tyler Jr. G. (2005) Living in the Environment: Principles. Connections and
Solutions. Thirteenth edition. Thomson Brooks/Cole.
Negi. S.S.(1993) Biodiverstiy and Conservation in India. Indian Publ. Co.
Odum, E.P. (1997) Ecology: A bridge between science and society. Sinauer associares
Inc.
Osborne. P.L. (2000) Tropical Ecosy'stems and Ecological concepts. Cambridge Unir
.
Press
25.
26.
2l
.
28.
29
.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
O'Riordan, T" and Stoll-Kleemann. S. (2002) Biodiversiry, Susrainability and Human
communities. Cambridge University Press IJK
I
Peter, S. (2002) Ecology: Theories and Applications. Prentice Hall of India
Quarrie. J.E.G" (1992) Earth Summit , 1992. The Regency press. London
Ricklefs, R.E,. (1990) Ecology. W.H.Freernan & Co.. Sanfrancisco
Ross, H.H. (1914) Biological systematic. Addison- WesleyPublishrng compan\ .
London
Sandiurd, O.T., Hindar, K. and A.H.D. Brown (1982) Conservation of biodiversitl, fbr
Sustainable development. Scandinavian University Press, Columbia
Smith, R. (1996) Ecology and Field Biology. Addison wesley, USA
Southwood, T.R.E. and Henderson,P.A. (2000) Ecological methods. Blackwell Science
Scragg, A. (1999) Environmental Biotechnology. ELBS
Seragelglin (1999) Biotechnology and Biosafety. World Bank, Washington. D.C.
UNEP (1995) Global Biodiversity Assessment. Cambridge univ. Press., Lond.
Wild, A. (1993) Soil and Environment: An Introduction. Cambridge University Press,
UK.
Wilson, E.O. (1992) The diversity of life. Harvard Univ. Press, USA
Wilson, E.O. (1988) Biodiversity. Academic Press. Washington
ZOO2C
09
DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY AND ENDOCRINOLOGY
DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY
l. An overview of Gametogenesis and Fertilization
i -i
origin, migration and fate of primordial germ cells
I.2 Spermatogenesis. Factors controlling spermatogenesis, Gamete specitic
gene
erpression and genomics, lVlale inf-ertilitl
l 3 Oogenesis - Vitellogenesis (lnsects and Anrphibians) Gene activity (lnsects and
Amphibians)
I .zl Hormonal Control of gametogenesis
1.5 Biology of Sex determination and sex differentiation
1.6 Fertilization - Biochemical and Physiological aspects, Egg sperm interactions.
Species specific binding of gametes, Cortical reactions, Polyspermy and prevention
of polyspermy. Activation of egg, Embryo Transfer (ET) and In Vitro Fertilization
(lVF) in Humans and Livestock, superovulation and embryq culture
.,
Cleavage, Blastulation and Gastrulation
2'l Cleavage types. mechanisms and influence of yolk, Chemical changes associated
with cleavage, Cytoskeletal mechanisms of cleavage, Midblastula transition.
Morphogenetic movements of cells and epithelia. Exogastrulation, Metabolic events
during gastrulation.
3. Cell Interactions
3.1 Proximate cell interactions. Concept of Primary organizer. embrvonic induction
and competence. neural induction, regional specificity, double gradient
rnodel.
molecular correlates oineural induction. Nieuwkoop centre. Def-ault nodel of
neurulation. inductir,,e cascades
3"2 Mesodermal induction
3.3 Grouth factors
3.4 Cell interaction at a distance. Amphibian Metamorphosis. Insect Metamorphosis
4. Morphogenetic determinants
4.1 Germ cell determinants . regulation of cell deternrination by ooplasmic
determinants, Mosaic development. Cell position and gradients in
development..Regulati v e devel opment
5. Cell differentiation
5.1 Equiv'alence of nuclei and genome constancy', transcriptional regulation of
gene expression, translational control of gene expression
5'2 Levels of differentiation, dedifferentiation, hormones and differentiation
6. Stem cells
6.1 Embryonic stem cells, Adult stem cells, Medical application
7. Genetics of axis formation
7.1 Genetics axis specification in Drosophila, maternal effect genes,
determination of dorso-ventral and anterior-posterior axis, zygotic gene
activitl in development
1 .2 Pattems of homeotic gene expression. Homeobox
concept ip dif ferept
phylogerric groups
7.3 Axis specilication in amphibian and chick
1,'l
_1
J
f
8. Regeneration
8.1 Histological and biochemical changes in regeneration of various
invertebrates and vertebrates , epimorphic regeneration, determination
of
Polarity and role of gradients in regeneration, neural and endocrine
influences
\
9. Ageing
9' 1 Cellular ageing, Senescence genes, role of free radicals,
hormones and
ageing
9 .2 Extracellular ageing
10" Teratogenesis
10.1 Teratological effects of xenobiotics
ENDOCRINOLOGY
l.
General class of chemical messengers
1.1
.
Peptide hormones
1.2. Steroid hormones
1.3 Bioamines
1.4 Eicosanoids
1.-{ Chalones
1.6 Neurohormones
l.l
Lumones
"8 Phytohormones
1.9 Synthetic hormones
I
2. General principles of hormone action
2.1 Nature of hormone action
2.2 Protein hormone
and catecholamines
2'3 Receptors as mediators of endocrine signals and classifications
2.4 Receptors-signal transductio, mechanisms.
2.5 G-protein and control of adenl,late cvclase
2.6 Cyclic nucleotide cascade
2.7 Steroid and thyroid hormones
3. Biosynthesis and secretion of hormones.
4.
3.1. Hormones in circulation and other body fluids
3.2. Biosynthesis of steroid hormon es de novo
3.3. Biosynthesis and amino acid derived small size hormones.
3'4' Biosynthesis of simple peptide hormones. Pre and prohormones
3'5' Co-translational and post-translational modifications of
hormone structure.
Endocrine glands and hormones
4.1. Hypothalamo-hypophyseal system
4.2. General anatomy
4'3' Hypophysis hormone. chemical and physiological details.
4.4. Somatotropin and prolactin
4.5. Glycoprotein hormones (FSH. LH. l-SH)
4.6. Pro-opiomelanocorlins (ACTH. MSH)
34
\
a
" Gonadotropins of non pituitary origin (PMSG & HCG)
4-8 Neurohypophysial octapeptides (Oxytocin and vasopressin.l
/i 9. Fl.""pophysiotropic hormones-chemistry,
localization and control of
4.,4
-
secreticln.
Neural control of adenohvpophl,sis.
5. Organization of adrenal cortex ancl medulla
4.1 Synthesis and control olsec:retion of glucocorticoicls and rnineralocorticoids
4.2" Transport, metabolisrn and action of cortico-steroids.
4.3. catecholamines- epinephrine and nor-epinephrine
6. Hormonal control of calcium homeostasis
1" Gastrointestinal hormones, Pancreatic hormones and metabolic regulation
8. Thyroid hormones - synthesis, control of secretion and physiological actions
9" Pineal hormones
10. Disorders of hormonal imbalance
11. Functional organization and role of endocrine glands in crustaceans and
4. l().
insects"
B]E,FERENCES
DE,\'ELOPNTENTAL BIOLOGY
" Balinsky,
B.I. ( 1981) An Introduction to Embryology, HoltSaunders, Philhdelphia
2. Benil. N.J. and Karp. G, (1978)Development. Tata McGraw hill. New,Delhi
3" Brachet. J. ( 1974) An Introductiorr to Molecular Embrvolosr,. The English Llniversirr
Press " Oxford
4. Bror,vder. L.W. and Erickson. C..A ( 1991 ) Developmental Biolog,v. Saunders C--ollege
Pub., Philadelphia
5" Davidson, H. (1986) Gene Activity in Earlv Development,3'd edition ,Academic
Press, New York.
6- Gilbert. S.F. (2003 ) Developrlental Biology. 7"' edn. Sinauer Associates [nc..
I
Massachusetts
1. Gilbert, L.1., Tata. J.R and Atkinson. B.G.(1996) Metamorphosis, Academic Press.
Nelr, York
8. Gross, R.T.(1979) Principles of Regeneration. Academic Press, New York
9. Gurdon, J B.(1974) 'The Control of Gene Expression in animal Developmenr,
Horvard Universitt, Press. Neu, York.
iLl. Russo. V.E.A.. Brodr,. S.. Clove. D. and S. Ottolenghi (1992) Deveiopment: the
Molecular and Genetic Approach, Springer-Verlag, Rerlin
I 1 . Slack, J. (2001) Essential Developmental Biology. Blackwell Publishing,UK
i2. Vasudeva Rao. K ( 1994) Developmental Biology, a Modern Synthesis, Oxford-IBH.
13"
New Delhi
Tw1'man.R.M. (2001) lnstant Notes in Developmental Biology, Bios Scientific
Publishers Ltd".Orford
35
d
14' Wolpert. L.., Beddington.R..Jessel,-f ..Lawrence.P.,Meyero wrtz. E.
and Smith. J.
(2002) Principles of Development. 2''d
E,dn^
Current Biology. Oxford
ENDOCRINOLOGY
l-
Barrington, E.J.W. (1975) An Introduction to General and Comparative Endocrinology,,
Oxford, Clarendon Press. London.
2' Bentley,P.J. ( 1998), Comparative Vertebrate E,ndocrinology, 3'd Ed. Cambridge
University Press
3. Brook. C.G.D. and Marshall, N.J ( 1996) Essential Endocrinology. 3"j edn.. Blackw,ell
Science, London"
4. Gorbman, A and Bern, H.A. (1983), Comparative Endocrinology, John Wiley & Sons.
New'York.
5' Gupta. A'P. ed. (1990). Morphogenetic Hormones of Arthrbpods. Vols. l-3, Rlrrgers
ljniversit-v* Press, London
6" Hadle-v" "M.G. (2000), Endocrinologl'. 3'd edn." Prentice Ilall Inrernarional Inc.. Ncu
Jersey.
'
Highnam. K.C. and Hill. L. (1917) Comparative E,ndocrinology of Invertebrates . 2"d
edn., Edward Arnold Ltd., London.
8' Jones.C., er al(1987) Fundamentals ot' Comparative Endocrinology. plenum press.
New York.
9 Martin C. R.( 1985). Endocrine Physiolog,v-, Oxford University press.
l0 Norris,D.O. (1997). Vertebrate Endocrinology,3'd edn., Academic press.
I 1. Paxton (1986), Endocrinology, wm.c.Brorvncompany, Iowa.
l2' Schreibman and Pang (1986). Vertebrate Endocrinology: Fundamentals and biomedicalI
implications. Academic press. New- york.
I 3' Turner and Bagnara ( 1976). General Enclocrinology,
W.B.Saunders Company,
7
Philadelphia.
l4' williams.R.H. (ed.) ( 1988), T'ext Book o1'L,ndocrinology, W.B.Saunders Company,
Philadelphia.
ZOO zCIO MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, MICROBIOLOGY ANT)
IMMUNOLOGY
PRACTICAL COURSE III
1.
2.
3.
4'
Estimation of DNA by diphenyl amine method
Estimation of RNA by orcinol methocl
Estimation of Protein b1, Lorvrv's rncthod
Maintenance of E.coli cuhure (Shake ancl surface cultures) and quantitative
e'aluatio,
(number of cells/ml) of a given sampie o1'culture by dilution
and piating.
36
5.
6.
.
8.
9.
E.coli growth curve.
Isolation of plasmid DNA.
7
Isolation of genomic DNA
Isolation of RNA from Yeast.
Southern blotting
10. Northern blotting
11. Western blotting
12. Preparation of restriction fragments and their separation by electrophoresis
13. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
14. Transformation of E.coli with plasmids.
15. Search databases for getting nucleotide sequence of genes and amino acid sequence of
proteins.
16. BLAST search to compare gene sequences.
I 7. Multiple sequence alignrrent and phylogenetic tree
REFERENCES
l.
,t
.
M.l.
ana Russel., D.W. (2006).The condensed Protocols from Molecular
cloning: A Laboratory Manual. Cold Spring Harbor laboratory Press. Cold Spring
Harbor, New York.
2. Brown, T.A. (2007). Essential Molecular Biology a practica[ approach Vol.2. Il Ed.
O*ford University press.
3. Plummer, David T (2007) An introduction to Practical Biochemistry,Ill Fd. Tata Mc
Graw-Hill, New Delhi.
4. Wilson Keith and Walker John (2006). Principles and Techniques of Biochemistry and
Molecular Biology VI Ed. , Cambridege University Press, New York.
5. Brown T.A. (1998). Molecular biology Lab Fax. Vol. 1. Recombinant DNA. II Ed.
Academic PresS.
6. Brown T.A. (1998). Molecular biology Lab Fax. Vol. 2. Gene Analysis. II Ed. Academis
Sambrook,
Press.
.
MICROBIOLOGY AND IMMUNOLOGY
1" Preparation and sterilization ol media.
2. Preparation of broth and agar media and agar slants.
3. Antibiotic sensitivity test - Disc diffusion method.
4. Isolation of bacteria using pour plate method and spread plate method.
5. Streak plate method for isolation of pure culture.
6. Aseptic transfer of microorganisms.
.
Staining techniques - Gram staining. spore staining
8. Motility' testing using semi-solid medium and hanging drop methoci.
9 ^ Oridasc- test.
10. Catalase test"
I 1 . Oxidation/fermentation (O/F)test.
12. Estimation of bacterial load ilr a given sample.
7
37
t
quality testing using MpN coliforms.
14. Blood group determination using agglutinarion reaction.
15. WIDAL test.
16. VDRL rests"
I7. ELISA.
18. [mmunization and production of antibodies in mouse.
19, Estimation of microbial load in food.
20. Biochemical estimation of fermentation tood by-products
2 I . Microbial degradation of xenobiotic pollutants
13. Water
REFERENCES
I'
Cappuccino' J.G. and Sherman, N. (2007) Microbiology: i
Published by Benjamin-Cummings publishing company, usA.
2"
Kannan.
N.
(2002). Lab Manual
in
Company, India.
3.
4.
Laborator,v Manual
General Microbiology Panima publishing
Talwar. G.P. and Gupta, S.K. (2002)
a handbook of practical and clinical
immunobiology (2nd Edition) cBS publisher-s. Inclia.
Wilson. K. and Walker. J. (Eds.) ( 1995). Practical biochemistry - principles and
Techniques" Cambridge University press.
ZOO 2C 11 DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY, ENDOCRINOLOGY
AND ECOLOGY
PRACTICAL COURSE ]V
DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY
1.
Regeneration studies on tadpole tail.
2. Hormonal Control of Amphibian metamorphosis: Effect of thyroxine
3. Removal of blastoderm and preparation of stained whole mounts
4. Vital staining experiments on chick embryos employing the window method and
tracing the development of stained parts.
5' Collection, identification and study of inr,ertebrate,,v,ertebrate larval fbrms
6' Histological preparations of stained slicles ot'chick ancl amphibian embrv,os
REFERENCES
38
b^to Embryology 5trr Edn. Holt Saunders Publ',
1. Barinsky,. B.I. (19g1), An introduction
-rrd
Philadelphia.
,1 n,..., .\/\ n^-.^r^^-anrr:l Rinl
Biology'3'"
(lggr)o.Deveropmental
R.w.
Jeffery,
and
2. Browder, L.w., Erickson. c.A.
Edition. Saunders College Publ" Philadelphia'
'- ,.,. a ---^^^r D.
Pvt'
Avian Embryology , lst E,dition. Anmol Pubi'
j.
Diwan. A.p. and Dhakad, N.K. (1995),
Ltd", Nern'Delhi
rnetamorphosis. lst Edition' Pergamon Press'
-1 Jenkin. P.M. (1970). control of grortth and
Oxtord
ENDOCITTNOLOGY
i
t
gland & androgenic gland) of crab'
" Exposure of endocrine glands (sinus
2" Exposure of pituitary glafid of vertebrates'
maturation, regeneration and
3. Effect of bilateral eye stalk ablation on gonadal
blooci sugar level in a crab
4. Histochemical demonstration of steroid dehydrogenases
5. Exposure of endocrine glands of insects
cells in the brain of insects
6" Histochemical demonstration of neurosecretory
tissue of rat'
7 . chromaffin reaction in the adrenal
REFERENCES
1.
glands. Pergamon Preis' oxfbrd'
Arvy. L ( lgil). Histoenz,vmorog-v of the endocrine
New York"
2.Humason.G'L.(|g62\Animai-rissueTechniques'W.H.FreemanandCo.
Sanborn ( 1964)'E'xperimental
3. MX zarrow. JM yochim. TL Mc carthy and Rc
Academic Press, New York'
Endocrinoiogy - A source book of basic techniques.
,1.Thomas.J.A"(1996).ErrdocrineMethods'AcademicPress.Neu,,York"
ater-light and dark method'
Determination of primary produ.r,'"
2. Identification of marine plankton'
applying Berlese funnel
3. Separation and Identification of soil micro arrhropods
of richness and evenness:
4. small scale field inventor),ing on biodiversity and calculation
Simpson' s diversifY index
5. Demonstration of GPRS based land mappingindices
^ao ,,oi-field inventoryrng data.
using fiell
6. Tabulation and preparation of speices diversity
shore, muddy shore and estuaries'
l. Intertidal studies: rocky shores. sandy (marine)
g. E,stimation of salinity, phospha,.r, .hrorides and silicates in water samples'
9. BOD in Polluted water
10. COD opl, reflex in two water samples
waste
E,.g. starch, canteen waste' liquid
i l. Methane index calculation in different substrates.
(vFA) estimation in anaerobic fermenting system
12. Volatile fatt1, acid
1
.
39
Study tour: A study tour is to be conducted for the purpose of collection of animals
belonging to different niches other than local area and study of their actual habitat
oond"itions and their behaviour. A report of the field study is to be included in the practical
record to be submitted at the time of examination
REFERENCES
Michael, P. (1984). Ecological methods for field and laboratory investigations. Tata
-McGraw -Hill Publ. Company.
,
40
-
Fly UP