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I
UNIVERSITY OF CALICUT
UNIYERSITY OF CALICUT
RULES AND REGULATIONS F'OR M.SC RAD-IATION PHYSICS COURSE.
I. Title of the Programme:
'
The progralnme shall be called Master
of Science (M.Sc)
Degree Progr.amme in
Radiation Physics.
II. Eligibility for Admission
A candidate who has passed any of the following courses in English medium with
50Vo marks
l.
in aggregate of the subjects:
B.Sc Physics with Mathernatics subsidiary
of
University
of Calicut or
equivalent.
2.
B.Sc (MRT) with Mathematics up to plus two level
of the University of
Calicut or equivalent.
III. Duration of the course:
Three years - Four semesters each of 6 months followed by project work and field
training each of 6 months duration.
IV. Medium of instruction - English
A candidate is required to put in at least 80Vo attendance in rhcory
and practical subjects separately in the recognized institution approved for thc \ume or
affiliated to the University of Calicut. This has to be determined on a semestcr basis.
V. Attendance
-
t
VI. Details of.semester break up
Each semester
will have 4-5 theory papers, 2-3 practical subjects besides internal
assessment.
VII. Scheme of Examination:
Theory papers : Three hours duration - Maximum marks 50 (exams ar the end of
semester - 40 marks + internal 10 marks)
Practical Examination : Four hours duration - Maximum marks 50
a
Record work: Maximum marks 10
Final viva per semester - Maximum marks- 50
The same pattern will be proportionally follpwed in a semester where there are five
papers. However marks for f,rnal viva per semester will be retained at 50
appropriately distributed on all papers, care exercised to limit to 50 in all papers.
Therefore the total marks per.semester shall be a maximum of 350 I 400 I 450 n a
semester with four theory and two practical examinations / five theory and two
practical examinations / five theory and three practical examinations respectively.
V[I.
Classification of Results
Minimum marks for a pass: Theory 4AEo minimum per paper and an aggregate of
- Theory and practicalto be considered separately.
a
-Award
of
Class and Distinction: 75Vo of aggregate
- Pass with distinction,
50Vo
rurks or more at the fust
appearance for all the semesters
60Vo
or above of the total aggregate
50 to 60% of the aggregate
-
Pass
-
Pass in ltrst class
in second Class.
IX. Scheme of Classes:
The classes are, so proposed as to ensure a minimum of 500 hours of theory and
practical classes per semester. The classes per day shall work out as 5 hours for
theory and 4 hours for practical. Working days per week - 6
X. Radiological Safety Officer (RSO) Approval by Atomic Energy Regulatora
Board:
The University shall initiate steps to get RSO certification tbr all
successful
conducted
as
directed
by
Atomic
candidates. The examination for the same shall be
Energy Regulatory Board or any other agency approved by Atomic Energy
Regulatory Board at the end of the 4h semester of'the course.
XI. Eligibility Criteria:
It is proposed that from the year 2001 onwards admission may be made on the basis
of an entrance test of the.objective type / or short answer questions and of duration 2
hours with the syllabus of B.Sc Physics of the University of Calicut as the basis for
setting the questions. ll%o of. the seat is proposed to be reserved for B.Sc (MRT)
students of Calicut University or students possessing qualifications of equivalent
nature. Weightage shall be given by adding 50Vo of marks obtained by qualifying
examination and 50Vo of the marks obtained by the entrance examination for
evaluating the results in the examination.
The entrance examination shall have 100 questions;
multiple choice type, or short answer
questions - about 30 numbers. and they should
subjects as detailed below:
"or"i
a
Physics of B.Sc standaid - 60 marks
B.Sc Subsidiary level Mathematics _ 10 marks
B.Sc S_ubsidiary level Chemistry l0 marks
Bisic Human Physiology and Anatomy 20 marks
-
XII. Project Work:
Eveiy candidate must do a project work under an approved
supervisor (approved.by.the
Co-srdinator/Director) in a topic having relevanci^to the application
ii radiation in
industry, agriculture and research. The project thesis should
led-i9ine,
be submitted to
the.university. The supervisor should certify atout ihe satisfactory
.o.pt"i,iori"ii*d;
project' Each candidate should present his work in a seminar and
the Course Co''ordinator should certify to the satisfactory
nature of the work before completion of the
course and before declaring the result.
XIII. Field
Training: '
,
Every candidate should undergo field training in at least two
centers selected for the same
a1d approved by Course Co-ordinator. Total duration of
the training will be 6 months. It
should be done undgr the supervision of the Course Co-ordinato,
uria a designated officer
in the instihrtion where the field training takes place. The supervisor
adequacy oi the field training on the basis of the thesis
report submitted by the candidate.
*r.;;ify1;
.
ilt
The students should necessarily present at'least on" ,",rih* on the
u.ri, .iiirJ;T;;
training and the record of the field training.must. be duly certified
by the designated
ofhcer in the selected institution and the course Co-ordinator.
The final result will be declared only after the satisfactory completion
training and the project work.
of both field
XIV. Award of the C0rtificate:
M.Sc Radiation Physics Degree certificate will be awarded to the
successful candidates
only after succesiful completion of the course as detailed above and
obtaining a clearance
certificate from BARC regarding RSO requirements;
XV. Failure in Semester:
A candidate who has failed in the first
semester shall be promoted to the 2nd dnd 3d
;;;";-.hrr", until he/she cleared the
semester and will not he allowed to attendthe;ih
first semester subjects.
t:
J
.^
XVI. Distribution of Theory and Practical
Classes
in every Semester:
Every semester will.have a minimum of 4 theory'subjects and a minimum of 2 practical
subjects. The theory subjects shall have lectures for a total duration of around 90 hours
each and the practical classes will be for a total of 72 hours each on a monthly basis.
This works out to 504 hours teaching per semester. It shall be split suitably at the rate of
six days per week. A minimum of 500 hours instruction including theory and practical
per semester has to be ensured.
XV[.
Course Content:
SEMESTER I:
1
2.
3.
4.
Mathematical methods in Physics - 90 hours
Basic Electronics -'90 hours
Nuclear Physics - 90 hours
Basic Medical Sciences (Anatomy, Physiology, Biochemistry)
Practical:
l.
2.
Electronics - 72 hours
Atomic and Nuclear Physics
SEME',STER
l.
2.
3.
4.
-
72 hours
II
Electro Magnetic Theory and Optics - 90 hours
Radiation Physics ' 90 irours
Radiation Sources and Radiological Equipments - 90 hours
Computer Applications and Programming - 90 hours
Practical:
1.
2.
Instrumentation in Radiology -.72 hours
Computerapplications - 72 hours
SEMESTER
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
III
Radiation Detection, Measurement and Instruments
Physics of Medical lmaging - 85 hours
Physics of Radiotherapy - 85 hours
Radio Biology and radiation hazards - 60 hours
Clinical'Radiation Dosimetry - 55 hours
-
75 hours
-
90 hours
Practical:
l.
Radiation Detection and Measuring Instruments
2. Medical Imaging - 40 hours
a
J. Dosimetry in Radiotherapy 40 hours
-
-
60 hours
SEMESTER IV:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Nuclear Medicine - 60 hours
Radiotherapy Planning - 60 hours
Acceptance Testiirg, quality control and Calibration of radiological systems
hours
Elective (one subjectto be chosen) - 60 hours
a. Industrial Applications of Ionizing and Non Ionizing Radiation
b. Peaceful uses of Radiation.
c. Modern trends in medical imaging etc.
-
60
Practlcal
l.
2.
Radiotherapy Planning and Dosimetry 60 hours
Quality Control, Acceptance testing and calibration of radiological equipments
40 hours.
-
SYLLABUS
.
The syllabus gives an outline of the topics to be covered during the course. However the
course
being one of Applied Physics having relevance to many fields like medicai'
..
tlaging, radiothryapy; u'se of open radio nuclides etc. recent developments should be
adequately taken care of in the teaching progrrilrme. The syllabus described may show a
certain overlap and the same is to give greater emphasis to the applied nature of the
subjects and to ensure continuity.
SEMBSTER T
Differentiation of vector functions
-
Concept of gradient, divergence and curl-Gauss's
Divergence Theorem - Green's Theorbm - Stokes' Theorem-Ortliogonal'and Curvilinear
gssldinates Applications of vectors in hydrodynamics,
heat flow and electromagnetic
fields.
6
I
., !.Vector
Spaces and Matrices
Vector Space, linearly dependent and independent vectors - Schmidt's orthogonalisation
process - Algebra of matrices - Special matrices
Geometrical significance of matrix
operatois
Rank of a matrix Eigen values and eigen vectors Diagonalisation
Cayley - Hamilton Theorem - quadratic forms - similarity transformations - Solution of
differential equations using rnatrices.
-
-
-
-
-
3.Special Functions
-
4
-
Beta, Gamma functions Bessel, Legendre, Hermite and Laguerre functions
Power
series - Solution of differential equations, recursion relations, orthogonality, generating
functions and Rodriguez formulae.
4.Functions of Complex Variable
a
Analytic functions, Cauchy-Riemann
Cauchy's integral theorem and integral
formula, Taylor's and Laurent's series "quurroor,
Singularities
- Evaluation of Residues - Residue
Theorpm- Applications to definite integrals - Conformal mapping and applications,
S.Fourier Analysis and Partial Differential Equations
Fourier series - Harmonic analysis - Fourier transforms and properties - convolution
theorems - Applications - Second order partial diffdrential equations - Solution by the
method of separation of variables - Boundary and initial value problems - one
dimensional wave equation Heat conduction equation Laplace's equation.
Applications in image reconstruction and evaluation
STANDARD BOOKS FOR STUDY.AND REFERENCES
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
L.A.Pipes, Applied Mathematics for Engineers and Physicists - McGraw Hill
Book Co., 1980.
E.Butkov, Mathematical Physics - Addison Wesley Co., l.ondon 1973.
E.Kreyzsig, Advanced Engineering Mathematics - Wiley Eastern Ltd., 1980.
M.KVenkataraman, Advanced Mathematics for Engineers and Scientists National Publications Co., Madras, 1986.
A.Arfl<en: Mathematical Methods for Physicists (Academic Press).
PAPER rr
-
BASrC ELECTRONTCS (90 HOURS)
Basic Electronic components like sources
of EMF, Resistors,
capacitors, inductor,
transformers, cables and cables connectors - Vacuum tubes - Diode, triode, tetrode and
pentode,'gasfilled tubes - thyratron - Static and Dynamic characteristic - Gas tubes - Hot
and Cold Cathode types - Circuit elements - R, CR, LCR and LC networds - Equivalent
circuit of triode - Electrical measurements - Galvanometer and its applications,
Multimeter, Universal Bridge, VTVM and Cathode ray oscilloscope - Special tubes Electrometer tubes, Photomultiplier tubes and decatron tubes.
Basic amplifier principles - Pulse, amplifiei and pulse shaping
- D.C. ampliher Power, amplifier - Distortion in amplifiers - Feedback amplifiers Cathode follower
- Types of oscillators - Power supplies - Rectifiers, filter circuits Regulated HT an4
EHT supplies - RF power supplies.
Trigger circouits - Multivibrator and univibrator - Discriminator Scale of two - Scale
of ten - Cold Cathode decade counting, circuits - Coincidence and anticoincidence
circuits - Amplitude analyzer and counting rate meters - Small current electromcters
- Theory of semiconductors - Small signal equation and equivalent circuits for
transistors - Applications of transistor - Principles of Servomechahism and control.
,
Digital electronics, Logic system's
Amplifiers and Oscillators - Power amplifier design'- class B push-pull amplifier
emitter follower - Darlington pair operational amplifier characterislics Of4trAe
amplifier and its frequeqcy response - Instrumentation amplifier Differentiating and
integrating ciicuits. Solving differential equation - RC phase shift oscillator
Blocking oscillator - ND and D/A converter - Frbquency to voltage converter
Digital voltmeter (Ramp type).
LVDT
-
A.C and D.C Tachometers -. Capacitance transducers
-
Thermistor based
thermometers - Strain gaugb - Ultrasonic transducers'and their electrical equivalent
circuits. Principles of filters and their application in instrumentation.
Strip chart recorder - Magnetic recording - CRo phosphors - LEE
display - Seven segment - dot matrii system - Guest Host effect.
-
LCD plasma
STANDARD BOOKS FOR STUDY AND REFERENCES
l.
. 2.
3.
4.
J.D.Ryder,'Elechonics Fundamentals and Applications, Pr.entice tlall of India,
New Delhi. 198' .
J.Millilan and c.Halkias. Integrated Circuits, McGraw Hill, 1979.
W.Cooper, Electronic.lnstrumentation and Measurement Techniques, Prentice
Hall of India. 1970.
Sawhney, Electrical and Elect:;onic Measurements and lnstrumentation,
Dhanapat Rai and Sons, New Delhi - 1982.
PAPER
III - ATOMIC AI\D NUCLEAR
PHYSICS (90,HOURS)
Nuclear Structure - Isotopes - Nuilear nomenclature - Stability of nuclei Binding
energy - Nuclear forqes - Radioactivity - General properties of alpha, beta and
garnma rays - Laws of radioactivity - Decay 'constanL - Law of successive
transformations - Radioactive equilibrium - Natural radioactive series - Theory of
radioactivity - Theory of alpha, beta and positron emission - Beta spectrum
-K
electron capture - Nuclear energy levels - Nuclear isomerism.
a
'Basic Quantum Mechanics - Dual nature of matter, uncegainty principle - Operator
formalisms - Eigen function and Eigen values - Expectation values - Schrodinger
wave Equation. Rigid rotor - Harmonic oscillators and Hydrogen Atom. Elementary
perturbation theory and variational principles - Heitler - London theory of Hydrogen
molecule
-
Scattering theory.
-
Production of X-ray - Gas tubes and their design - Modern Xray tubes and their structural details - Basic requirements for diagnostic and
therapeutic tubes - Classification of tubes - Line focus and dual focus tubes Rotating anode tubes - Tubes for X-ray crystallograBhy - Rating of tubes - Safety
devices in X-ray tubes - Ray gnd shock proof tubes - Insulation and cooling Mobile
and dental units - Faults in X-ray tubes - Limitations of loading.
Discovery of X-rays
Electrical accessories for X-ray tubes - Filament and anode circuit - Hall and full
wave rectihers - Voltage doubling circuit - High voltage circuits - Cunent and
voltage stabilizers - Coritrol panel.
Nuclear reaction - Compound.nucleus - Artificial tratrsmutation - Production of high
energy particle with cascade, Van-de-Graff generators, Cyclotrons, Betatren, Proton
Synchrotrons and Linear accelerations - Types of reactions - Energy considerations Discovery of neutron and artificial radioactivity - Nuclear f,tssion - Fission products Fissile materials - Criticality - Four factor formula - Diffusion and sl6wing down of
neutrons - Fermi equation - Homogeneous and heterogeneous systems - Various
types of reactors - Nuclear weapons - Fusion and thermo nudear reactiotts.
Interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter Exponential absorption - Linear,
mass, atomic and electronic absorption coefficients - Photoelectric ef{ect - Angular
distribution of photoelectrons - Compton process - Klein Nishina cross-section Scattering coefficients - Angular distribution of Compton electrons - Pair production
- Angular distribution of paid production electrons - Annihilation radiation - Total
and true absorption coefficients.
Interaction of electrons with matter - Absorption proces'.s - Scattering Ionisation and
excition - Bethe's equation - Radiation energy loss (bremstrahlung) - Range of beta
particles - Black scatter and self absorption - Cerenkov radiation.
Interaction of neutrons with matter - Neutron capture - Elastic scattering - Energy
transfer and logarithmic energy decrement - Inelastic scattering - Dependenc.e on E
and.Z- (n, p), (n, X), (n, Y ) and other-reaction - Neutron aetivation.
Books for study and Reference
:
l. K.S.Krane, "Introductory Nuclear Physics", (John Wiley & Sons)
2. B.L.Cohen - Concepts of Nuclear Physics - Tata McGraw Hill
3. I Kaplan -.Nuclear Physics - Addison Wesley (1962)
4. D.C. Tayal - Nuclear Physics - Himalaya (1994)
5. E. Segre - Nuclei and Particles - Benjamin (1967)
6' w.E. Burcham & M. Jobes - Nucrearand particle physics _ Longman (1995)
7. P.M.Mathews and K.venkatesan - A Text Book of
euantum Mechanics _ Tata
McGraw Hill
pApER IV
-
BASrC MEDICAL SCIENCE (90 HOURS)
Basic Anatomy and physiology
, sex cells, early
bone-bacteria _
leton _ joints the
'thorax etc' The
^^a:---- .1
the diaphragm the abclominal
skeleton _
muscurar s
cavity
and
ltjffi-'
vein, capillaries and heart structure and
muscle, cardiac dynamics ECG _ blood
Physical laws in respiration Trachea
nervous regulation o f respiration.
-
Lungs and its functions
-
oxygen transport
-
Pituitary glands and its functions functions of
adrenal, Thyroid etc. secretion
chemistry - physiological actions, effect
*;;;;; effect on administration,hormonal assay detailed molecular mechanism""of
hormone
action.
Hormonal control over reproduction
Brain and spinal
-
cord its functions central Nervous system and
Autonomic
nervous system func.tions physiology of special
senses of hearing, a*",
Kidney and its functions water and-eiectroiyte
"ir1"."i".
metabolism
-
-
Biochemistry
Chemical Evaluation of origin of
iells - Single cell to multicellular organisms _
Chemical cornponent of a tel
(cular recognition process Nucb[ acids _
protein structure and functions _
(cal signaling in and between cells _ Local
chemical mediators Harmones and
- Enzymes - mechanisms of actibn
and kinetics - Carbohydrates, Membrane
of small moleiules and ions _
Voltage gated channels and action potential
Channel regulation and memory _
-
-
sugars, Amino acids,-Proteins, Fats, Glucose
metabolism, Anaerobic metabolism, Free
radicals, Scavengers, Surflrydryrs, gSH, Radio
p.ot..toi., Radio sensitisers.
Synoptic transmission
developments
-
- . Sensory input - determinants neuronal structure and
Development of neuromuscular connections.
Elementary idea of bonding and.structure - Stereo ctr"*irt y - Elementary (UV-VIS),
Fluorescence spectroscopy Vibrational Spectroscopy (IR-Raman) optical rotatory
dispersion and circular Dichroisrn (ORD/CD) - Principles of NMR and ESR Different electrophoresis and chroriratographic systems - application to Biological
systems.
Basic ideas on structure and conformation of polymeric structure - Brief Description
and structural analysis of monomeric building blocks of Biopolymers, conformational
analysis of two linked peptide units. Ramachandran map - Aminoacid - side chain
conformation - Description of protein structure of fibrous and globular type Analytical calculations of atomic co-ordinates - Generation of helical Structure for
Polypeptides and polynucleotides - General Principles qf molecular mechanics
(Conformational Energy). Folding pathways and qxperimental approaches to the
protein folding problems - random and self direcied mutagenesis as a tool in
understanding protein structure and folding. Protein engineering and design of new
proteins.
Anatomy and physiology in radiodiagnosis and radiotherapy - General anatomical
terms - Structure of general tissue - Skeleton - Arthology - Mascular, Cardiovascular
and Respiratory systems - Alimentary system - Urinary system - Nervous system Eye and Ear - Lymphatic and Reticulo-endothetial system - Reproductive system,
marnmary gland
-
Ductless glands
-
Endocrine glands.
STANDARD BOOKS FORSTI]DY AND REFERENCES
l.
C.H.Best and N.Btaylor "A Text in Applied Physiology" The Williams and
Wilkins Company, Baltimore 1986.
2. C.K.Warick, "Anatomy and Physiology for Radiographers" Oxford
University Press 1988.
3. Aiterts B.Bray, I-ewis J., Raft M., Roberts K, Watson J.D, Molecular Biology
of Cell, Garland Publishing Inc. London 1983.
4. Van Holde K.E, Physical Biochemistry, Prentice Hall, New Jersey, USA 1971.
5. Contor C.R and Schimmer P.R, Biophysical Chem. Vol.I WH.Freeman
and Co.San Francisco, USA, 1980.
II
Experiments:-
I. Electronics - Eight experiments to be carried out
l.
Measurement of L, C and R by Universal bridge
2. Series resonance and Q of a coil
3. Dynamic constants of triode by bridge method
4. Two stage RC coupled amplifier - frequency response
5. Construction of a voltage multiplier
6. Construction of a V. R tube power pack
7. Characteristcs of a regulated.power pack'
8. DC voltage regulator using transistors
9. Feedback'amplifier
of an oscillator
Free runningmultivibrator
12. Construction of a scale of two.
13. OPAMP circuits - Inverting and non inverting amlifiers
14. Integrator and differentiator circuit using OpAMp
15. Simple D/A converter - Ladder type
10. Construction
I
l.
II. Nuclear Physics - Eight experiments to be carried out.
I'
GM counter
-
characteristics
applied voltage
-
plateau and'variation'of pulse height with
2. GM counter - Statistics of counting
3. GM counter - Feather Analysis point energy
"na
4. GM counter - Inverse squiue variation
5. Determination of K-40 half life
6. Measurement of radioactivity using an isotope calibrator
7.- Measurement of linear and mass attenuation coefficients of an X-ray beam
8. Measurement of linear and mass attenuation coefficients for a gumma ,uy
beam using GM counter
9.
Measuremint of'range of Beta rays (l) in air .(2,) in material like aluminium
and calculation of absorption coefficients .
10. Scintillation spectrometer - Catbration and determination of unknown energy
11.
- Compton scattering
,,
1 2. Coincidence circuit
SEMESTER
II
PAPER I..ELECTRO MAGNETIC THEORY, LASER AND OPTICS
l.
2.
3.
Time varying fields and Maxwell's equations, potential functions, electromagnetic
boundary conditions, wave equations and their solutions, time harmonic f,relds
Plarie electromagne-tic waves
Plane waves in losslbss media, Plane waves in lossy media, group velocity, flow
of electromagnetic power and the Poynting vector, Normal incidence at a plane
conducting boundary, oblique incidence at a plane conducting boundary, Normal
incidence at a plane dielectric boundary, oblique incidence at a plane dielectric
boundary.
Theory and applications of transmission lines
Transverse electromagnetic waves along a parallel plate transmission line, general
transmission line equations, Wave characteristics of finite transmission lin"r,
Transmission line impedance matching.
t2
4.
4,,.*
Wave guideq and cavity rssonators
Genral wave behaviour along uniform guiding structures, parallel-plate
waveguide, rectangular wave guides, circular wave guides, dielectric wave guides,
cavity resonators. '
5.
.
'
6.
'
Relativistic electrodynamics
Magnetism as a relativistic.phenomenon, Transformation of the freld, Electric field of
a point charge moving. uniformly, electromagnetic field tensor, Electrodynamics in
tensor notation, Potential formulation of relativistic electrodynamics
Lasers
The Einstein coeffigients, Laser rate equations, Thrbe level and'four-level systems,
Temporal and spatial cohereflce, Ruby laser, Helium-Neon laser, Four level solid ,tut"
. lasers, Carbon dioxide laser, Dye laser, Semiconductor laser, Harmonic generation
and stirtrulated Raman emission.
.
.7.
8.
.
Optics
in diffraction theory, Fourier series and spectra, Fourier
transforms, Convolution, Coherence and correlation, Correlation as a measure of
coherence, Fourier transforms spectroscopy, The intensity interferqmeter,
Holography.
Fibre Qptics
Propagation of light in a dielectric, Propagation in planar dielectric wave guide,
Propagation in optical fibres, Calculation of fibre bandwidth, attenuation in optical
fibres, hbrd materials and fabrication methods, connectors and couplers
Fourier transforms
Text Books
:
1.
David Griffiths, Introductory electrodynamics - Prentice Hall of India-I989
,. Field and Wave electromagnetiis, Addison Wesley
3 .. K. Thyagarajan and A.K. Ghatak - Lasers - Theory and applications - MacMillan
4. F.G. Smith and J.H. Thomson, Optics - ELBS
5. M.J.N.Sibley - Optical Communicatioqs (IInd editioir) - MacMillan - 1995
2. David Cheng
Reference Books:
1. A. Ghatak and K. Thyagarajan, Opiical Electronics- Foundation Books
2.
(Cambridge University) - 1996
N.,Sharma - Fibre Optics in telecommunications - Tata McGraw HiX - 1987
I
PAPER
II.
RADIATION PHYSICS
Characteristics of Electro Magnetic Radiation, Electro Magnetic Spectrunr, Radiation
of Energy from an Atonr, Mass and Energy, Mass and Velocity,
Production and Properties of X-rays, self rectified, half wave rectified, full wave
rectified circuit, three phase systems, high frequency systems, anode and cathode
structures, rating of diagnostic tubes X-ray spectra, interaction of electrons with Jarget
t3
atotns, continuous spectrum and Bremsstrahlung radiation, angular distribution of Xrays.
High energy machines, design particulars of isotope therapy units, betatrons, linear
acceleratorS, wave guides and complete details about medical accelerators, Production
and properties of micro waves - Magnetron, Klystron and such oscillators D/T
generators, medical Cyclotrons, prciduction of radio isotopes. Characteristics of
photon and electron beams from Linacs, Principles of modifications and relevance to
radiotherapy.
Quality of X-ray Beams
HVL, attenuation coefficients, effect of filters on an X-ray beam, measurement of
HVL, equivalent photon energy, measured spectral distributions, spectral distributions
of scattered radiatiohs, inverse square law effects
Production and Properties of Ultrasound
Natural and artificial radioactive sources - Large scale production of isotopes
Reactor produced isotopes - Cyclotron produced isotopes - Fission products
Containers for sources - Self shielding - Gamma ray sources for medical and
industrial uses - Telegamma units - Radium needles, tubes and plaques - Cobalt
needles Caesium needles - gold seeds Tantalum wire - Iridium wire and pellets =
Iodine - 125 seeds - Beta ray applicators -'Thermal and fast neutron sour""s
Preparation of tracers and labeled compounds - Preparation of radiocolloids.
Commonly used isotopes, methods of their production, decay patterns and nature
radiations emitted from thern
of
STANDARD BOOKS FOR STUDY AND REFERENCES
1.
2.
J.P.Woodcock, Ultrasonic, Medical Physics Handbook Series I Adam Hilger,
Bristol, 1981.
J.R Greening, Medical Physics, North Holland publishing Co, New
3.
H.E.Joles, J.R.Cunnighanr, '"The Physics of Radiology,, Charles C.Thomas,
"ot,
1981.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
NY, 1990.
w.J.Meredith and J.B.Massey "Fundamental Physics
Wright and sons, UK, 1989.
of
Radiology" John
Christensen 'Physics of Diagnostic Radiolo Ey' I,ea and Febiger
(1990).
-
Philadelphila
$
w.R.Hendee, "Medical Radiation Physics", Year Book - Medical publishers
Inc. London, 1981.
E.J.Hall Radiobiology for Radiologists J.B.Lippincott Company, Philadelphia
1987.
J.R.Greening "Fundamentals of Radiation Dosimetry", Medical Physics Hand
Book Series No.6 Adam Hilger Ltd., Bristol 1981.
1tt
t4
.
PAPER
III . RADIATION
SOURCES AND RADIOLOGICAL EQUIPMENTS
Nuclear reactors, Artificial radio activity, Production of radioactive sources,
activation of target atoms during neutron bombardment, activity produced and
dependence on neutron flux, nature of the target material, nature of the radio
active
product, irradiation time, neutron energy, absorption characteristics etc.
Production and properties of all radioactive isotopes [sed in radiotherapy, nuclear
medicine and allied branches. D.etailed schemes of radio nuclides.like Co 66, Rudir.226,Cs 137, As 74, Au 198, I 131,I 125, Sr 90,Cl4,CI5,y32,Cf
252,h tg2, Cr 51,
Tc 99nL Ga67 etc.
,
;,
Radio active nuclides produced in high energy accelerators and their applications.
Details about current suppliers and procedures for procurement. Methods of storing
radiqactive isotopes, general aspects of handling radioactive isotopes, principles o?
Time, Distance and Shielding with emphasis on corrmonly used radionuclides.
Special properties of alpha, beta, gamma and neutron sources.
Safe custody of sources, procedures for issue for applications and methods of eventual
disposal.
X-ray machines of all types, constituent parts of X-ray units, electrical circuits, details
of high tension supply, use of single phase, three phase systems, high frequency
generators, star delta and combination circuits, function and working of KVp, mA,
mAS measuring and indication systems.
Description about commonly used X-ray machines and their characteristics..
etc. Working of
Dependence of X-ray intensity on exposure factors, distance, filter
automatic exposure systems, over load protection in X-ray units.
Conventional X-ray therapy units and their characteristics.
Rating of X-ray tubes of various types, dependence on rectification, nature of targets,
nature of cooling systern Study of rating charts supplied by manufacturers.
Tele isotope therapy units of all versions and their constructional features.
High energy accelerators and their characteristics relevant to photcin and electron
mode radiotherapy.
Physical principles of X-ray diagnosis - Density, contrast, detail and dehnition of
radiographs - Choice of KV, mAs, frltration, FSD, screens and hlms
Grids
Contrast
media
Radiographic
Myelography, Tomography, etc
-
-
techniques Special procedures such as
- Fluoroscopy -
Detailed description of the working
15
of
.imaging-..systems like' Image intensifiers, C-CTV systems and specialized
equipments like cathlab, imaging systems used in neurology,
bone densitometry etc.
Natural and artihcial sources for radiogr
and gamma radiography - Choice of s
cameras - Radiography of .welds _ C
Autoradiography - Flash radiography _ Sl
- Fluoroscopy - X-ray diffraction analysis.
Radioisotope gauges - Use of transmission gauges for
measurement of thickness,
density and composition - L,evel indicators
of
back scatter !urg", ro,
--Use
measurements of the thicknesses of coatings etc. Bremsstrahlung
gauges - Neutron
and gamma scatterings gauges.
Radioisotope tracer applications
-
Measurement
of'flow rate - petermination of
Diffusion and vapour pressure
by tracer methods _ Study of
ment studies _ Go_devil detection _
eases
ac
o,",,ilJ'ii;Y;flil1;:T'ilt:?;":,:",*l'#
anarysis by
oxidatiqn by ra
painting - Stam efiminators Sterilisation of
foods and drug
d-s, drug-s, and ,.g"tables _ Radiation ird;;.;
genetic changes and crop improvement-- Speliahsed
apilications
of radioisotopes in
It
industry and the life sciences.
Autoradio
photograp
Mounting
results
;^-.
r ^L^-^e^--.
,-
.
;",T,;r?il'efir;,H:::T,l;.Iffi
-:':-'r'-"
'^--r-^^-
-,,r_"{ ;}1*ffj":,f""#i"f,H::,il,,1"0,
li
-
Ion exchange techniques Physical basis of separation
- Cation and anion exchangers
- Rem-9val of impurities of interfering substance - Concentration of trace constituents
- Applications.
STANDARD BOOKS FOR STUDY AND REFERENCES
l. J.P.woodcock, ultrasonic, Medical physics Handbook series
I Adam Hilger,
Bristol,
1981.
J.R Greening, Medical physics, North. Holand publishing
co, New york,
1981.
H.E.Jones, J.R.Cunnighanr, 'The physics of Radiology,,
charles C.Thomas,
. NY; 1983 Edn. .
4. w.J.Meredith and
"Fundamental physics of Radiology,,. John
_J.B.Massey
Wright and sons, UK, 19B9.
5. Christensen 'physics of Diagnostic Radiolo gy, r_.eaand Febiger _ philadelphia
(1ee0).
6. w.R.Hendee, "Medical Radiation physics", year Book Medical publishers
Inc. London, 1981.
3.
t6
7.
E.J.Hall Radiobiology for Radiologists J.B.Lippincott Company, philadelphia
1987.
8. J.R.Greening "Fundamentals of Radiation Dosimetry", Medical Physics Hand
' Book Series No.6 Adam Hilger Ltd.; Brisrol 1981.
9. Hussey M, Basic Physics and Technology of Medical Diagnostic Ultrasound,
McMillan, London, 1985.
10. McDicken.W.M, Diagnostic Ultrasonics Principles and use of Instrument, 2nd
edition, John Wiley and Sons, New York 1981.
11. Evans D.H, McDicken. w.N, skidmore R and woodcock J.p (1988) Doppler
ultrasound Physics Instrumentation and Clinical Applications, John Wiley,
Chichester, 1988.
12. F M Khan - The physics of Radiation Therapy, 1984. williams and wilkins,
Baltimore.
PAPER IV. NUMERICAL METHODS, COMPUTER APPLICATIONS AND
PROGRAMMING
Linear Systems of Equations and Eigen Value Problems - Solutions of linear systems
of equations by Gauss e[mination method - Interactive methods of Jacobi and GaussSeidel-inverse of matrices - Eigen value problems in matrices - Solution by power
method.
Interpolation and Approximation - Interpolation - Newton's formulae - Forward and
backward difference - Lagrange's interpolation - Curve fitting - Principles of least
.squares - Fitting of polynomials - Straight line, Parabolic and exponential.
Numerical Differentiation, Integration and Solution of. Differential Equations Numercial differentiation - Numerical itegration -Trapezoidal rule - Simpson's rule
- Numerical solution of ordinary differential equations - Euler's methods - Runge Kutta methods - Taylor's series methods.
Probability and Siatistics - Basic concepts - "Mutually exclusive, independent and
dependent events - Binomial, Poisson and normal distributions - Correlation and
regression analysis - Sampling distributions - Large samples, . small samples
Student's - distributiorr - Chi-square distribution - Error analysis.
History of Compoter development and respective generation; Computer classification:
Main frame, Mini and micro computers; fundamental of computer architecture.
Operating systems: introduction to types of operating systems. Over view of MSDOS, Windows, Unix and Linux.
Languages and packages: Conventional languages, their advantages, limitations.
C and Visual Basic: InpuUout put, operators, [.oops, decisions, functions, aray and
strings, pointers, files. Forms and Menu in Visual Basic:
Word prbcessing, spread sheet, presentation and tables: Demonstration by MS- ,
OFFICE
l7
f
Data structure using C and Pascal
Sorting algorithms using C
Principles of Database Systems: Overview of Database system, the hierarchial model,
Relational model, Reiational Query language, design theory and normalization.
Computer applications in Medical Physics
Practical Dernonstration and Computer Training
Interpolation - Newton's
formulae - Forward and backward difference - Lagrange's interpolation - Curve
fitting Principles of least squares - Fitting of.polynomials - Straight line, Parabolic
Demonitration,of Interpolation and Approximation
-
-
and
expone*rl.
Famijiarization of Personal Conrputer components and assembling.
STANDARD BOOKS FOR STUDY AND REFERENCES
l.
2.
3.
4.
5
6.
7
8.
S.S.Sastry, Intioductory Methods of Numerical Analysis, Prentice Hall of
India, New Delhi,1979.
S.Ramani, N.V.Koteswara Rao and R.Nagarajan, A test book on Computer
Programming, M.M.C School of Management, Bombay 1984.
v.Rajaraman, computer Programming in FORTRAN 77., Thfud edition,
Prentice-Hall of India, New Delhi,1987.
S.C.Gupta and V.K.Kapoor, Elements of Mathematical Statistics, Sultan
Chand and Sons, New Delhi, 1983.
J,R.Greening "Fundamentals of Radiation Dosimetry", Medical Physics Hand
Book Series No.6 Adam Hilger Ltd., Bristol 1981.
Hussey M, Basic Physics and Technology of Medical Diagnostic Ultrasound,
McMillan, London, 1985.
McDicken.W.M, Diagnostic Liltraionics Principles and use of Instrument, 2nd
edition, John Wiley and Sons, New York 1981.
Venkataraman, Numerical Methods in Science and Engineering, National
Publishing Co, Madras, 1986.
:,
PRACTICAL
PAPER I - INSTRUMENTATION IN RADIOLOGY
1. Study of absorPtion of beta raYs
. 2, Study of absorption of X-raYs
3. Absorption of Gamma rays from differbnt isotopes
4. Absorption of Gamma rays by different materials
18
5,
^
.
'
.
Study of the absorption characteristics with reference to energy and atomic
number
6, Inverse. scluare law propefties
7. Determination of haU life of a short livecl isotope
8. Dependence of radiation intensity from a source on time, ciistance and
shielding.
9. Measurement o1'exposure time of X-ray units using spinning top.
10. Study of dependence of e.rposure on factors like Kv, mA, timb and distance.
.,
'
PAPER
II . COMPUTER APPLICATIONS
1.
Microprocessor experiments (A'ddition, subtraction, division and multiplicatior
bit using 8085)
Forlran Programmes :
2. Solution of quaCratic equation
3. Least squares fitting
4. Numerical interpolation
' 5. Numerical Integration(Simpson's method)
6. Numerical solution of first order dilfeiential equati<ln by Runge_Kutta
Simulation (BASIC / C)
7. Quantum mechanical particle in a box
8. Bouncing ball
9. Phase space plots for darnped and undamped oscillator'
10. Transmission coeff,rcient for a potential barrier
SEMESTER
PAPER
III
I .
INSTRTJMENTS
-
method
.
RADIATION
DETECTION,
MEASUREMENT AND
t
Units of radioactivity - SI units for all quantities used in radiology like activity,
KERMA, dose, exposure, dose equivalent etc. The cuire and i1s interpretation in
relation to various types of radioactive decay .- Units of radiation Intensiiy and fluxroentgen and its relation to energy flux - Energy absorption in air and other media
-.
The gram roentgen - The rep'and its relation to the rcrcntgen -l Concept of absorbed
dose - The rad, Gray, R.B.E and Sievert- Factors governing the value of R.B.E for
different radiations - Measurement of radiation doge in rerm, Sievert, Gray etc.
Relation between flux and rem dose for neutrons.
Determination of dose in roentgens - Conditions of ionization current measurement iParallel plat'e ionization chambers for low and medium ener1y X-rays Ibniziition
chambers for high energy X-rays and Gamma rays - Inadequacy of roentgen as unit in
measurenlent of radiation dose - Bragg-Gray theory and conditions of its validity
Utility of the theory of the measurement of radiation dose in roentgens and in rads
Ionisation dosirhetry of high energy photons and corpuscular radiations.
o'
19
Dosimetry of beta sources ---Point source dose distribution - Assumed point dose
functions - Values of the energy dependen[ parameters in the point source dose
function - Theoretical calculation of a point source dose dislribution - Dose
distribution formulae for localized beta souries of the following types:
(a) Infinite thin plane: (t) mfirit" plane slab of infinite thickness; (c)
Infinite plahe slab of finite thickness; (d) Thin, plane, circular disc; and
(e) sphere - Examples of beta particle dose conrputation for biological
models - Radioactive cloud (immersion) exposure dose - Beta ray
absorption in source and capsule.
Dosimetry of gamma sources - Point source dose function - Dose distribution
for*nulae in the case of (a) needle,sources; (u) ring sources; (c) discs and (d) spheres Gamma ray absorption in source and capsule - Gamma ray absorption and scatter in
water and tissue
-
integral gafirma ray dose.
Neutron sources - Theoreticai neutron dosimetry - First collision'calculations Calculations inv<ilving multiple collisions - Methods of experimental neutron
dosimetry - Dose measurements in mixed radiation fields containing neutrons.of
various energies.
of internally administered radioisotopes - Equation for 'tissue dose
distribution - Mean, effective half-life in tissue - Beta particle dosimetry - Absorbed
beta ray tissue dose from distributed sources - Integral dose - Gamma ray dosimetry
Doiimetry
-
Gamma ray dose rate calculations
tissue dose calculations.
-
Absorbed garnma ray tissue dose
-
Examples of
Radiation measuring instruments and their calibration - String electrometers Victoreen Condenser-meter - Siemen's Universal Dosemeter - Pocket ionization
chambers and minometers - Valve electrometers - Baldwin Farmer Electrometer Baldwin Farmer Substandard Dosemeter - Vibrating reeld, electrometer - Philips
dosemeter - EIL Electrometer - Gun types ionization Chamber survey meter - Alpha
survey meter - Isotope Calibrators - Beta gamma G.M. Familiarization with presently
available dosimetry systems.
Counter survey meter - Contamination monitors - Alpha scintillation 'Poppy'
Portable radiation probe for alpha, beta, gamma rays and neutrons - Gamfna
Spectrometers - Medical scintillation probe and scanners - Miscellaneous instruments
such as Hand and Foot monitor, continuous air sampler, whole body monitor etc.
Thermal and fast neutron survey meters.
-
Thermo luminescent dosimetry, common TLD materials, their characteristics, energy
dependence and method of use. Functional aspects of a modern TLD reader for use in
low and high dose levels. Applications of TLD in routine work and research.
Photographic film dosimetry - Film resporise to X-beta and gamma rays and thermal
neutrons - Nuclear track emulsions for fast neutron dosimetry - beta, garnma
20
dosimetry with chemical systems - Organic and inorganic systems Ferrous-ferric and
ceric-cerous systems - Glass dosimetry - Calorimetry.
Standardisation of X-ray beams Design of free air ionization chambers Characteristics of free air chambers - Accuracy of free air chamber'measurements
Inter-comparison of standard chambers - Calibration of substandards.
Methods of measurements of absolute activity - Dehned solid angle and 4n counting
Beta-Gamma coilrcidence counting - Standardisation of beta emitters with
proportional, G.M and scintillation counters - Ionisation chamber methods - Gas
counting
Extrapolation chamber. - Routine sample measurements with
radioiosotopes - Liquid counters - Window-less counting of liquid samples Measurement of neutron flux - Activation and absorption meth'ods - Methods using
Threshold detectors - Emulsiorr techniques - Scintillation'
space integration methods - DeJermination oT the yield of neutron sources.
(ri, y) and (n, p) reactions
methods
-
-
Statistics of nuclear counting - Application of Poisson's statistics - Goodness - ht
tests - Lexie's divergence co-efficients - Pearson's chi-square test and its extension Random fluctuations - Evaluation of equipment performance - Selection of operating
voltage - Energy dependence of voltage characteristics and discriminator, setting Preset time and preset count methods of counting - Resqlving time - Use of rate
meters and recorders - Efficiency and sensitivity of radiation detectors - statistical
aspects of gamma ray and beta ray counting - Special considerations in gas counting
and counting with proportional counters - Statistical accuracy in the double isotope'
techniques.
PAPER
II . PHYSICS OF MEDICAL IMAGING
Production of a pattern on radiograph, latent image, developing, f,rxing.' X-ray films,
construction, characteristics, optical density, contrast, garnma, spe.ed and latitude,
screen films, non-screen films, singe coated hlms. Fluorescence, intensifying screens,
construction and action, typbs of screens, intensification factor, rare earth screens,
screen unsharpness, fluoroscopic screens, use of lead screens, artificial contrast and
contrast media. Scattered radiation, grid, types of grid, grid ratio, grid factor, PotterBuccky diaphragms, unsharprrs i, radiographs. Eiposure timer, hand timer,
synchronous timer, electronic timei, mAS timer, photo timer, ionization chamber
timer, timer testing. lmage intensifier and CCTV, tomography. Interlocking and
safety devices. Mammography equipment, X-ray tube, hlms and screens for
mammography, accessories. Portable X-ray machines, capacitor discharge units.
Xeroradiography, principles and working. Automatic film processing, principle,
equipment.
Geometry of Radiographic Image, subject contrast and radiographic contrast,
characteristic curves, toe region, linear region, shoulder region Diagnostic
relevance. Fogging and factors responsibie for the same. Image quality and
dependence on radiographic mottle, sharpness and resolution. Factors that affect
sharpness Geometric Unsharpness Motion- Unsharpness Absorption
2t
Unsharpness - Screen Unsharpness - Parallax Unsharpness -.Total Unsharpness.
Resolutioh of the image, line spread function and .study of films and .screens.
Modulation transfer function and signiflcance in medical imaging. Noise and the
wiener spectrum. Dependence of geometric and sharpness on factors like focal spot
size, FOD, FFD, OFD, slanding beams. Magnification of the radiographic image and
factors affecting the same. Estimatiqn .of focal spot size by different methods
Quantitative evaluation of resolution.
Principles of Computer Tomography, Basic principles of data accumulation, storage,
image reconstructiofl and display. CT numbers, different. generations of CT
machines, reasons for higher contrast and resolution, various scan configurations,
modern developments'like CVCT, spiial CT, 3D reconstruction. Characteristics at Xray tubes in CT units. Detectors and Detector configurations in various generations.
Mathematics of image reconstruction and display; algorithms forimaging
reconstruction, back projection, iteractive methods, analytical methods.
Characteristics of image display systems, image quality, quantum mottle. Resolution
- Spatial and contrast resolution. Patient eXposure in CT imaging and cornparison
with conventional techniques. Artifacts
Hardening Artifacts - Ring Artifacts
-
Motion artifacts
-
Streak Artifacts
-
Beam-
Quality control of diagnostic X-ray machines, acceptance. tests. Description and
functioning ef various QA an( acceptance testing Devices - KVp meter, KVp
cassettes, mA and mAS measuring systems, resolution device, focal spot and held
congruence test tools, cassette test device, spinning top, use of Pocket Dosimeters for
QA etc.
Patient dose measurement, dose level for diagnostic procedures, methods to reduce
patient dose
Ultrasound: basic principles, nature and production of ultrasound, intensity,
interaction of ultrasound with medium, different scan modes, A, B, M modes,
Doppler methods. hr^I.:tical effects of ultrasound. Transducers and their construction
- Characteristics of Piezoelectric Crystals - Curie Temt:erature - Resonant Frequency
- Q Factor - Fresnesl Zone ald Fraunhoffer Zone and their dependence on size of
Transducersaridfrequencies.Interactionsbetweenultrasoundandmatter
Reflection and dependence on Angle of Incidence, Thermography, Acoustic
impedance of various materials. Refraction, Absorption. Quarter - Wave Matching.
Real time scanning, Principles o1'Gray-Scale Imaging, significance of gain and gain
compensation, pt'lse rate and its ;ignificance. Resolution and frequency, depth and
frequency. Doppler Techniques and principles of Colour Doppler, Pulse Doppler,
Duplex Scanner, Real time measuremenfs. Various types of Probes, Oscillating
Transduier, Rotatilrg Wheel Transducer, Linear Array etc.
Thermography, basic principles, scanning techniques, radiation dose to patients.
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and N!['.I, Angular mcjmentum bf the hucleus, electro
angular momentunl orbital angular momentum, Magnetism and the Magnetic Dipo.le
Moment, MDM in a nugnetic held, MDM for Rotating Charges, Angular Momentum
22
and Precession, Larmor Frequency, Energy States for Nuclear Spin Systems. NMR
Parameters, Magnetaation Vector, RF Field, The rotating coordinate. system, Free
induction decay, Tl and T2 relaxation, Mechanisms for relaxation, spin-Echo
Techniques, Use of Fourier Transforms. Instrumentation, Magnets, Resistive Coil Air
Core Magnets, Supercopducting Magnets, RF Coils. Study of NMR spectrirm and
schematic irrrangement fbr a nonimagiqg NMR system. .
Principles of MR[, Gradient Coils, Slice Selection, Phase Encoding, Frequency
Encoding, The Spin Echo Imaging Sequence, Image Recoristruction, Multi Slice
Imaging, Multi Echo Imaging, Contrast Enhancement, Tl and T2 Weighted Images,
Signal to Noise Ratio. Safety Considerations. Recent'Developments. Functional
MRI.
Recent advances in diagnostic racliology. Radiation protection, biological effects if
radiation, radiation hazards,'maximum permissible doie, maii*u- po-issible body
burden, time, distance and shielding calculations, primary and secondary. protective
barriers, radiation protection in radiodiagnosis, radiological protection survey. Patient
Exposures in Diagnostic Radiglogy.
STANDARD BOOKS FOR STUDY AND REFERENCES
1.
2.
J.P.Woodcock, Ultrasonic, Medical Physics Handbook Series I Adam Uitg"r,
Bristol, 1981.
J.R Greening, Medical Physics, North Holland publishing Co, New York,
3.
H.E.Jones, J.R.Cunnighanr, "The Physics
1981.
4.
5.
of Radiology'i Charles C.Thomas,
NY,,lgg0.
W.J.Meredith and J.B.Massey "Fundamental Physics of Radiology" John
Wright and sors, UK, 1989.
Christensen 'Physics of Diagnostic Radiology' I*,a and Febiger - Philadelphia
(1eeo).
6. W.R.Hendee, "Medical Radiation Physics", Ye4r Book - Medical Publishers
Inc. [,ondon, 1981.
7. E.J.Hall Radiobiology for Radiologists J.B.Lippincott Company, Philadelphia
1987.
8.' Hussey M, Basic Physics and Technology of Medical Diagnostic Ultrasound,
McMillan, London, 1985.
9. McDicken.W.M, Diagnostic Ultrasonics Principles and use of Instrument,2nd
edition, John Wiley and Sons, New York 1981.
lQ. Evans D.H, McDicken. W.N, Skidmore R and Woodcock J.P (1988) Doppler
ultrasound Physics Instrumentation and Clinical Applications, John Wiley,
Chichester, 1988.
11. S.S.Sastry, Introductori Metlnds of Numerical Analysis, Prentice Hall of
India, New Delhi, 1979.
12. S.Ramani, N.V.Koteswara Rao and R.Nagarajan, A test book on Computer
Programming, M.M.C School of Management, Bombay 1984.
23
A
13.V.Rajaraman, Computer Prograrnming in FORTRAN 77, Third edition,
Prentice-Hall of India, New Delhi, 1987.
14. S.C.Gupta and V.K.Kapoor, Elements of Mathematical Statistics, Sultan
Chand and Sons, New Delhi, 1983.
15. J.R.Greqning "Fundamentals of Radihtion Dosimetry", Medical Physies Hand
Book Series No.6 Adam Hilger Ltd.,'Bristol 1981.
PAPER
III
. PHYSICS OF RADIOTHERAPY
General introduction to tele, brachy and internal therapy, Therapy X-ray tube.s,
superficial, ortho voltage and mega equipments,'construction, cooling, focal spot, heel
i:ffect, collimators, cones, beam limiting diapluagms, filters. Cobalt 60 teletherapy
units, constructional details, source head, collimzrtor system, shutter, stationary and
rotational units, isocentric mounting. Linear accclerators, construction, production of
X-ray beams, electron beams, scattering foil, beam flattening f,rlters, electron and Xray energies available. Betatron, constructional details, production of X-ray beams,
electron beams, electron energies and X-ray energies.
Production of neutron beams for radiotherapy, cyclotron DT generators, production
mesons, proton for therapeutic purposes.
of
Modern features of recent teletherapy machines and simulators, multi leaf collimators,
intensity modulated radiotherapy, virtual simulation, portal radiography, patient
immobilization systems.
A
Calibration of therapy units, in air output, output with back scatter, tissue equivalent
phantoms, dosimeters used,'calihration of ortho voltage units, cobalt 60 units, super
voltage units, calibration of electron beams, routine checks in therapy machines.
Back scatter factor, percentage back scatter, variation of back scatter with field size,
shape and q\rality of radiation, Percentage depth dose, build up, reference point,
variation of per^ciii.age depth dose with depth, field size, field shape, SSD, quality of
radiation, measurements of percentage depth dose, isodose curves, automatic isodose
plotter, percentage depth _dose tables. Advantages of mega 'voltage radiation.
Equivalent square and equivaient diameters of rectangular fields. Composite isodose
curves with t.wo fields, three fields and multiple held techniques, integral dose.
Tumour dose calculations in rarious techniques, TAR and its use in tumour dose
calculations, TMR, TPR, rotational, arc, skip therapy.
Use of Radium, Co-60, Ta-82 and Au-198 for surface, interstitial and intracavitary
applications - Patterson-Parker nrles for radium implants - Extension to'Co-60, Au198 etc. - Treatnrent with Sr-90, P-32, Sr 89 and other beta applicators.
S.ome illustrative radiotherapeutic techniques - Gland areas - Neck and exilla region,
spleen and liver, mediastinum, pelvis - Carcinoma of cervix uteri, corpus uteri
overian catcinoma, generalisel pelvic secondaries - Bladder - Skull and spire-Brain
and spinal tumors - Limbs - Penis, seminoma of tests - Lung and medihtinum -o
Oesophagus - Breast cancer - Mouth cancer, tonsil, maxillary anfrum and ethomoids
- Pharynx, larynx - Skin.
24
-
Use of I-131 for diagnosis of hypo and hyper thyriodism Blood volume studies using
RIHSA and Cr-51 - Red cell survival studies using Cr-51 Studies of iron metabolism
Circulation studies
Diagnostic test using vitamin B-12 labelled with radiocobalt
-
with Na-24
-
Cardio vascular studies
-
Tumor localization.
-
- Treatment of hyrotoxicosis,
of colloidal gold and chromic phosphatein the
Treatment of Polycythaemia vera and leukemia with P-32
thyroid cancer with I-131 treatment of malignant effusions
Use
-
Calculation of treatment doses.
Computerized treatment planning systenL radiotherapy simulators and CT simulation.
Brachytherapy sources, needles and tubes, interstitial, intracavitary and mould therapy,
treatment planning calculations in brachytherapy, singe plane implants, biplane
implants, volume implants, mould calculations, linear sources, intracavitary treatment'
of cancer of cervix, dosage calculations, after loading techniques, rectal dosimetry.
Modern innovations like gamma knife, X knife conformal radiotherapy and planning of
the same.
Recent developments in Brachytherapy and use of new radionuclides, 3D planning.
Radioisotopes in therapy, II3l, P32, Aul98, applications, calculation of dose.
Radiotherapy .room planning, radiation protection in teletherapy and brachytherapy,
radiation protection survey. Invivo and invitro measurements, statistics of counting,
dynamic function studies, scanning and imaging equipments, moving detector systern,
stationary imaging devices, comparison of imaging systems, radiopharmaceuticals for
scanning, 99m Tc generators, 113m In generators, other types of generators. Handling
of radioactive materials, radiation units, permissible radiation exposures, ALARA,
radiation protection measures, nuclear medicine special laboratory procedures. Radio
nuclide imaging cerrtral nervous system, liver and spleen, thyroid, kidneys, lung and
other imaging and monitoring procedures, bone imaging, Sr 85, Sr 87nU Fl8, 99nr, Tc,
placentography, regional blood flow. Principles of PET imaging, clinical applications.
Organisational aspects of radiotherapy and nuclear medicine wings.
STANDARD BOOKS FOR STUDY AND REFERENCES
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
J.P.Woodcock, Ultrasonic, Medical Physics Handbook Series I Adam Hilger,
Bristol, 1981.
J.R Greening, Medical Physics, North Holland publiihing Co, New York, 1981.
H.E.Jones, J.R.Cunnigham, 'The Physics of Radiology" Charles C.Thomas,
NY,
1980.
W.J.Meredith and J.B.Massey "Fundamental Physics of Radiology" John
Wright and sons, UK, 1989.
Christensen 'Physics of Diagnostic Radiology' lra and Febiger - Philadelphia
(lee0).
25
6.
W.R.Hendee, "Medical Radiation Physics", Year Book - Medical Publishers
Inc. London, 1981.
7. E.J.Hall Radiobiology for Radiologists J.B.Lippincott Company, Philadelphia
t987.
8. Hussey M, Basic Physics and Technology of Medical Diagnostic Ultrasound,
lvlcMillan, London, I 985.
9. McDicken.W.M, Diagnostic Ultrasonics Principles and use of Instrument,Znd
edition, John Wiley and Sons, New York 1981.
10. Evans D.H, McDicken. W.N, Skidmore R and Woodcock J.P (1988) Doppler
ultrasound Physics Instrumentation and Clinical Applications, John Wiley,
Chichester, 1988.
11. S.S.Sastry, Introductory Methods'of Numerical Analysis, Prentice Hall of India,
New Delhi,1979.
12. S.Rarnani, N.V.Koteswara Rao and R.Nagarajan, A test book on Computer
Programming, M.M.C School of Management, Bombay 1984.
13. V.Rajaraman, Computer Programming in FORTRAN 7V, Third edition,
Prentice-Hall of India, New Delhi, 1987 .
14. S.C.Gupta and V.K.Kapoor, Elements of Mathematical Statistics, Sultan Chand
and Sons, New Delhi, 1983.
15. J.R.Greening "Fundamentals of Radiation Dosimetry", Medical Physics Hand
Book Series No.6 Adam Hilger Ltd., Bristol 1981.
.
'
PAPER IV . RADIO BIOLOGY AND RADIATION HAZARDS
.
-
Action of radiation on living cells - Target theory - Direct and indirect action - Role ol
water, oxygen and temperature - Effects of radiation on nucleic acids, proteins and
enzymes - Ihibition of mitosis, chromosome'breaks and death of cells.
Initial changes in a cell due to irradiation, LET and its effect, immediate radiochemical
effects, solvated electrons and radicals, radiolysis of water, effects on macro molecules
like DNA, dependence of radiation darrlage on LET, cell survival curve, mathematical
aspects of survival curves, multi target single hit survival curves, statistical nature of
radiation damage, effects on normal and tumor cells, Tumour lethal dose, tissue
tolerance dose and therapeutic ratio, RBE, cell cycle and radio sensitivity, oxygen
'effect.
Somatic effects of radiation - Acute radiation sickness - ID 50 dose - Effect of
radiation on skin - Blood changes - Sterility - Cataract formation - Effects of chronic
exposure to radiation - Induction of leukemia and shortening of life san - Genetic
effects of radiation - Doubling dose and its effect on genetic equilibrium.
Effects of. radiation on different systems in man, dependence on dose and dose rate,
tolerance limits for various systems, acute radiation syndrome, effects of 'low level
irradiation, effects relevant to women, foetus and children.
26
a
Natural sources of radiation - Radiation dose to individuals from natural sources
Natural radioactivity in man - Man made sources of iohizing radiation - Risk factors
Application.of radiaticin and radioisotopes - Atomic weapon tests and fallout.
-
Basic concepts of maximum permissible levels of radiation - Historical backglound International Commissions on Radiological Protection ahd its recommendations Categories of exposure - Permissi.ble genetic dose - Permissible levels for neutron flux
- Factors governing internal exposure - Concept of critical organs and- the maximum
permissible body burden - Permissible concentrations in air and water lor different
radionuclides - Maximum permissible contamination levels, current concepts.
Evaluation of external radiation hazards - Effects of distance, time and shielding Shielding calculations - Personnel and area monitoring - Internal radiation hazards Radiotoxicity of different radionuclides and the classifications of laboratories - General
requirements of class A, class B and class C laboratories - Control of contamination Bioassay and air monitoring -- Chemical protection - Radiation accidents - Disaster
monitoring.
Radiation protection measures in industrial establishments using X-rays and gamma
rays for radiography - Radiation hazards in X-rays diffraction rpparatus autl
radioisotopes gauges, tracer applications of radioisotopes, irradiation of foods and
drugs and the luminising industry.
Evaluation of radiation hazards in medical X-rays diagnostic and therapeutic
installations - Radiation monitoring procedures - Protective measures to reduce
radiation exposures to staff and, patients - Radiation hazards in radium departments and
radioisotope lab_oratories - Minimising radiation exposures by adopting different
techniques
-
Protective equipment
-
Handling of patients
-
Waste disposal facilities.
Special safety features in accelerators, reactors, fuel fabrication plans. Fission product
processing plants and in mining oilerations for radioactive materials.
Transportation of radioactive substances - Historical background - Classification of
radioactive materials - General packing requirements - 'Transport documents Labelling and marking of packages - Transport of large radioactive sourccs and fissile
materials - Exemptions from regulations.
Disposal pf radioactive wastes - Sources of radioactive waste - Classification of wastes
- Solid waste disposal - Permissible levels and authorization - Disposal of liquid
wastes - Treatment techniques - Treatment of gaseous effluents - Air sampling Permissible levels - Disposal of gaseous waste - Meteorological parameters.
Planning of medical -X-rays departments and radioisotope laboratories - General
considerations - Design of diagnostic; deep therapy and telegamma installations Radium and radioisotope laboratories - Radioisotope procurement - Maintenance of
record - Radiological Safety Officer and his duties - Film Badge Service - Layoff
periods - Service conditions for radiation workers.
27
Planning of X-ray and radioisotope units in industrial establishments - Facilities of
storage, handling and field operation - Planning of ra4ioisotope laboratories for
agricultural and research institutions - Design of gamma gardens for agriculture Planning of accelerators and reactor installations.
Administrative and legislative aspects of radiation protection - Historical background
of legislation in the atomic energy field - Need for control of radiation exposure at
national and international levels - National'control through acts wilh supporting
regulation at central and state levels - International control through specialized
agencies - Third party liability and insurance in the atomic energy fields.
STANDARD BOOKS.FOR STUDY AND REFERENCES
S.P.Yaremonenko, "Radiobiology of Humans and Animals", MIR Publishers,
Moscow,-1988.
2. R.F. Mold "Radiation Protection in Hospitals" Adam Hilger Ltd. Bristol, 1985.
3. A.Martin and S.A.Harbisor, An Introduction to Radiation Protection, John
Willey & Sons, Inc. New York, 1981.
4. NCRP, ICRP, ICRU, IAEA, AERB Publications.
1.
PAPER V
- CLINICAL RADIATION
DOSIMETRY
Instruments used in Clinical Radiation Dosimetry, construction, principles of working,
calibration and quality assirrance and control. _Ionisation chamber type, GM type,
scintillation type detectors used in radiation measurements. Commercially available
dosimetry systems, water phantonr, isodose plotters, multi channel dosimeters, Q.A
tests systems
Radiation quantities to be measured and estimated. Exposure,'dose, Kerma, dose
equivalent, SI units and practical units.
LProcedures for calibration of radiotherapy machines, radiation soul.ies and methods for
determining factors used in radiotherapy like percent depth dose, black scatter factor,
TAR, TPR, SAR etc.
Specific garnma ray cbnstant for various isotopes and methods of calculation of dose
for point, linear, sealed sources. Factofs of tissue dosimetry as applicable to single
field, multi field, arc, rotational and skip modet of radiation treatment. Method of
calculation used in computerized treatment planning systems.
irodor" charts - Computation of combination isodose charts and methods of evaluation
of dose within and outside the target volume.
Modern computerized treatment planning systems, principles una ur" of the samd.
Methods of tumor localisation - Radiotherapy simulator, Q.A of simulator, portal films
and identification of target volume.
28
I
Manual treatment planning and dosimetry
Principles of fractionated radiotherapy and methods of evaluation of radiobiological
e-quivalence, NSD, CRE, TDF, linear quadratic model and other developments in
evaluation of radiotherapy regimes.
Brachytherapy, conventional ICI, ICA, linear sources' LDR, MDR,
HDR, PDR, calculations based on radiographs, manual and computer systems.
Dosimetry for permanent implants.
Dosimetry
for
Dosimetry for large held irradiation, whole body irradiation and in irregular fields
STANDARD BOOKS FOR STUDY AND REFERENCES
1.
2.
3.
J.P.Woodcock, Ultrasonic, Medical Physics Handbook Series I Adam Hilger,
Bristol, 1981.
J.R Greening, Medical Physics, North Holland publishing Co, New York, 1981.
H.E.Jones, J.R.Cunnigham, '"The Physies of Radiology" Charles C.Thoriras,
NY,
1980.
W.J,Meredith and J.B.Massey "Fundamental Physics of Radiology" John
'Wright and sons, UK, 1989.
5. Christensen 'Physics of Diagnostic Radiolo gy' l*,aand Febiger - Philadelphia
(leeo).
6. W.R.Hendee, "Medical Radiation Physics", Yqar Book - Medical Publishers
4.
Inc. London, 1981.
E.J.Hall Radiobiology for Radiologists J.B.Lippincott Company, Philadelphia
1987.
8. Hussey M, Basic Physics and Technology of Medical Diagnostic Ultrasound,
Mclvlillan, London, 1985.
g. McDicken.W.M, Diagnostic Ultrasonics. Principles and use of Instrument,2nd
edition, John Wiley and Sons, New York 1981.
10. Evans D.H, McDicken. W.N, Skidmore R and Woodcock J.P (1988) Doppler
ultrasound Physics Instrumentation and Clinical Applications, John Wiley,
Chichester, 1988.
I L S.S.Sastry, Introductory.Methods of Numerical Analysis, Prentice Hall of India,
New Delhi, lg7g.
12. S.Ramani, N.V.Koteswara Rao and R.Nagarajan, A'test book on Computer
Programming, M.M.C School of Management,'Bombay 1984.
13.V.Rajaraman, Computer Programming in FORTRAN 77, Third edition,
Prentice-Hall of India, New Delhi, 1987 .
14. S.C.Gupta and V.K.Kapoor, Elements of Mathematical Statistics, Sultan Chand
and Sons, New Delhi, 1983.
15. J.R.Greening "FuMarnentals of Radiation Dosimetry", Medical Physics Hand
Book Series No.6 Adam Hilger Ltd', Brjstol 1981.
16. R.F.Mould, "Radiotherapy Treatment Planning Medical Physics Hand book
series No.7, Adam Hilger Ltd, Bristol, 1981.
7.
'
29
17. S.C.Klevenhagen "Physics of Electron Beam Therapy" Medical physics
Hand
Book Series No.6 Adam Hilger Lrd, Bristol, l9gl.
F.A.Attix "Radiation Dosimetry'? Vol I-III, Academic press New york.
18-
19g5.
PRACTICAL:
PAPER I . RADIATION DETECTION AND MEASURING INSTRUMENTS
l.
Study of working of ionization chamber
2. Characteristics of an ion chamber
3. Characteristics of a G.M counter
4. characteristics of a flow type proportionar counter
5. Characteristics of a scintiliation counter
6. Statistics of counting
7. Estimation of resolving time of a G.M codnter
8. Liquid counter
9. Isotope calibrator
10. Scintillation Detector
11. Use of a large volume ion chamber for rponitoring
12. Thermo luminescent dosimeter
13. Scintillation Spectrometer .
14. Measurement of contamination level and methods of decontamination.
15. Auto radiography of discrete sources
16. Contamination monitoring of discrete sources
17. Measurement of HVL of an X-ray beam
a
II - MEDICAL IMAGING
PAPER
1. standard procedures for processing of an exposed firm
2:
Study of safe tight and right proof rrature of iark room
3. Study of speed of an intensifying screen
. 4. Latitude of a film screen combination
5. Testing of collimator and field congruence
6. I\{easurements of KVp, mAS for an X-ray unit
7, Study of radiation level around an X-ray tube head
8.
9.
10.
systems
gnostic radiology
11. Preparation of processing chemicals
12. Use of a sensitometer
PAPER
1.
2.
3.
III
. DOSIMETRY IN RADIOTHERAPY
Calibration of a cobalt therapy unit
Acceptaace testing of a cobalt therapy unit
Measurement of central axis percent depth dose
30
4. Measurement of TAB and BSF
5. Measurement ofTPR
6. Use of an isotope calibrator
7 . Use of a large volume ion chamber as an isotope calibrator
8. Calibration of a survey meter using a standard source
9. Fabrication of beam direction shells
10. Plotting of combined isodose curves for parallel pair fields with various IFDs
11. Plotting of combined iso dose curves for parallel pair fields for various en"-rgies
photon beams
12. Combined iso dose curves for oblique fields
13. Wedge helds planning
14. Planning of a three field isocentric treatment
15. Dosimetry of brachytherapy / Conventional
16. Orthogonal films and calculations
17. Use of optical densitometer for field profiledeternination
a-
SEMESTER IV:
PAPER I . NUCLEARMEDICINE
Use of unsealed sources in diagnosis and treatment, details of radionuclides including
decay schemes, method of preparation, storage and handling, nature of pharmaceutical
preparations.
Instruments used in rddiation detection and measurement in nuclear medicine, GM
systems, liquids scintillators, solid scintillators , electronic circuits for a scintillatioh
detector, statistics of isotopes counting, Poisson distribution, standard deviation,
pobable error, resolving time and loss of counts, sample counting procedures.
instruments used, method of uptake
measurement, determination of plasma volume using a. well counter, time dependence
studies like life of erythrocytgs.
Uptake
itrdi"r, thyro uptake, details of
,
Imaging using radio nuclides,,rectilinear scanner, the Anger Camera - Principles of
construction, use and maintenance, positron emission tomography, studies with
radioactive tracers, uses of isotopes like C14, P32, Crsl, Co57, Co58, Gallium 67,
Tc99m, 1123,1131,. Xenon 133, Au198, Tallium 201 etc - Radionuclide generators,
.SPECT/PET.
Biological and Effective Half Life and Significance.
Methods and study of plasma volume, RBC volume,872 absorption, thyroid studies,
brain studies, study of liver and spleen, kidney,.lung, lymph nodes, bone scanning etc.
Absorbed Dose Arising from Radio nuclides
permissible doses in nuclear medicine.
*itirio the Body - Methods of estimation,
3I
STANDARD BOOKS FOR STUDY AND REFERENCES
W.H.Blahd, "Nuclear Medicine", McGraw Hill Co., New Delhi, 1980.
2. H.N.Wagner, "Principles of Nuclear Medicine", W.B.Saunder,s Co, London,
1970.
3. Herbert (John) & D.A.Rocha, Text Book of Nuclear Medicine, Vol 2 & 6, l-ea
and Febiger, Philadelphia, tr984.
4. S.Webb, The Physics of Medical Imaging, Medical Science Sries, Adam Hilger,
Bristol, 1984.
1.
PAPER
II . RADIOTHERAPY PLANNING
Tumor localization, various methods, use of diagnostic systems, simulator, CT
simulation, imaging in 'radiotherapy, Patient Data Acquisition, Radiotherapy
Simulation, Patient Positioning and Immobilisation, Treatment Planning Agorithms for
Photon and Electron beams, 3D conformal radiotherapy, intensity modulated
radiotherapy, gamma knife and X knife procedures and planning, treatment plan
evaluation, radiobiological principles of fractionatiofl, gap correction and evaluation of
combine modalities of treatment.
Assessment of target volume, contours, direbtion of beams or iurangement of sources.
Use of accessories like bolus, tissue compensator and patient immobilization
Techniques for verification of treatment planning
Techniques of radiotherapy planning for all malignancies in the body.
STANDARD BOOKS FOR STUDY AND REFERENCES
1.
J.P.Woodcock, Ultrasonic, Medical Physics Handbook Series I Adam Hilger.
Bristol, 1981.
2. J.R Greening, Medical Physics, North Holland publishing Co, New York, 1981.
a
J. H.E.Jones, J.R.Cunnigham, 'The Physics of Radiology" Charles C.Thomas,
4.
5.
NY, 1980.
W.J.Meredith and J.B.Massey "Fundamental Physics of Radiology" John
Wright and sons, UK, 1989.
Christensen'Physics of Diagnostic Radiology' Lea and Febiger - Philadelphia
(1ee0).
6. W.R.Hendee, "Medical Radiation Physics", Year Book - Medical Publishers
Inc. London, 1981.
7. E.J.Hall Radiobiology for Radiologists J.B.Lippincott Company, Philadelphia
1987.
8. Hussey M, Basic Physics and Technology of Medical Diagnostic Ultrasound,
McMillan, London, 1985.
9. McDicken.W.M, Diagnostic Ultrasonics Principles and use of Instrument, 2nd
edition, John Wiley and Sons, New York 1981.
a
32
t
10. Evans
D.H, McDicken. w.N, skidmore R and woodcock J.p (198g) Doppler
ultrasound Physics Instrumentation and Clinical Applications, John Wiley,
Chichester, 1988.
lI. S.S.Sastry, Introductory Methods of Numerical Analysis, Prentice Hall of India,
New Delhi,1979.
12. s.Ramani, N.v.Koteswara Rao and R.Nagarajan, A test book on computer
Prograrnming, M.M.C School of Management, Bombay 19g4.
l3.v.Rajararnan, Computer Programming in FORTRAN 7'1, Third edition,
Prentice-Hall of India, New Delhi,lg87.
14. S.C.Gupta and V.K.Kapoor, Elements of Mathematical Statistics, Sultan Chand
and Sons, New Delhi, 1983.
15. J.R.Greening "Fundamentals of Radiation Dosimetry", Medical Physics Hand
Book Series No.6 Adam Hilger Ltd., Bristol 1991.
16. R.F.Mould, "RS.diotherapy Treatment Planning Medical Physics Hand book
series No.7, Adam Hilger Ltd, Bristol, 1981.
17. S.C.Klevenhagen "Physics of Electron Beam Therapy" Medical physics'Hand
Book Series No.6 Adam Hilger Ltd, Bristol, 1981.
18. F.A.Attix "Radiation Dosimetry''Vol I-III, Academic press New york, 1985.
19. Treatment Planning in Radiation oncology,FaizM.Khan Roger A.potish
"rL
PAPER
III - QUALITY
CONTROL, ACCEPTANCE TESTING AND
CALIBRATION OF RADIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS
National and international protocols of QC and QA, recommendations of various
professional organizations
ptanning of radiologicai instattations (Diagnostic and
therapy)
-
PAPER fV - pLnCTM (one subjecr to be chosen)
A) INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS OF IONIZING AND NON.IOMZING
RADIATION
B) PEACEFUL USES OF RADTATTON.
T
:
C) MODERN TRENDS IN MEDICAL IMAGING
.
D) IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION AND DISPLAY IN CT AND MRI
E) PARTICLE TYPE RADHTIONS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS
F) LASBR SYSTEMS IN MEDICAL APPLICATIONS
G) BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF NON IONISING ELECTRO MAGNETIC
FIELDS
.
H) GENETTCS EFT.ECTS OF TONTSTNG RADTATTON
33
:
PRACTICAL
I.RADIOTHERAPY PLANNING AND
l.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
l
i
:
:,
DQSIMETR.Y
Plarming and dositnetry for single field photon irradiation
Planning and dosimetry for multiple fields
Use of TAR and TPR in practical situations
Study of advantages of longer SSD using isodose curves in parallel
irradiation
Dosimetry frr rotational treatment
Dosimetry for four field iso centric inadiatio
Determination of critical organ doses in typical multi field techniques
Measurement of entrance and exil doses and evaluation
Exit dose measurement and evaluation of deep tisiues in homogeneities
Dosimetry for a case of irradiation of maxillary antrum
Use of computerized treatment.planning system
Mana!;ement of emergencies in a cobalt therapy unit
Management of emergencies in a brachytherapy unit
li3ili
l"il,ii Tffi#:""rrricator
i
pair
and its do simetry
of irregular fields
of a linear arrangement of brachythetapy sources
18. Dosimetry for qingle plane and double plane imilants
19. Dosimetry for a cylindrical mould
16. Dosimetry
17. Dosimetry
II.QUALITY CONTROL, ACCEPTANCE TESTING
ANI)
CALIBRATION OF RADIOLOGICAL EQUIPMENTS
l.
of a simple diagnostic X-ray unit I.
of a simple diagnostic X-ray unit II
of brachytherapy systems
of C.T units
of telecoblat therapy units
Routine testing of a linac system
7 . Room planning of a radiotherapy installation
8. Radiation monitoring around a teletherapy installation
9. Study of the effectiveness of protective systems in diagnostic railiology
10. Study- of the effectiveness of shielding blocks in radiotherapy
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
I
Q.A testing
Q.A testing
Q.A testing
Q.A testing
Q.A testing
us/02/01
cvelt4S
34
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Fly UP