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s\ t"i i9iS L
SYLLAsU
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iEg15i.,.56. tc\-P,sE
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'ltl PCLYI r-iP, L,l,[[',ISTly.
i9iS ioniss:-nn\
CF LALtCi,;
liElLtLiTI0,rS
of ttvo a.cl:-l enti-c }/:e:s.
j-on: ._, .5c. Lhem:.s*,ry/FoJl7mrr
t"i ,l=r:_,,:1i_t;r fo_. acrn_j-ss
'ln rcrt IiI wrth
Chem-:stry tnt-L-'h 51,, n.,rk (.. l:c:'":)
sc( ;. r'scy t;c
i,c-themet-i-cs .s sul:,si---a,r3,. SClot ictcl
PoI5rnc= Lh::m-i-str5r cinc-i-lcli:t:s.
l:serve ,-. fo; l.sc.
(b) 0ther conL:;i5os for acimissj-nn Qrt€s.rn3.3 -t;r:-l cf ether
Th: cDu:S-: :lrlll
/
/
\r
ccnsrst
,Sc. Ccuise of th:s UniversitY.
3.. Scherne ef f:<lm-naticns
l,i
F
Durit-j-cn
irs t Ysir
I'i
3hrs
3hrs
Paper I- Tbcorr:ticaf Lh:n:..';'L-tr
Fapcr I I- F'hys-.:::.1- Chem:-strY
Pap:r 1I.- Drgr"r-'-c ch:'n--sri---i/
Paper iV- Pof.ymer CiremistrY
Prrc',: jc::r- j .- Ph:'''-;-cc.]- !hrn-- - t:"
1DC
rs
5 hrs
5 hrs
I l-,u
3h
on
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i Yerr
Pi-pr:r V J.norqcn:c Ch=m.stry
Frp=r VI- Polymcr Chrmj-s-L:ti I-i
Paper '.lI-t- Fcl-vm=r Chem-.stry il I
Pr:cticr-i III- fncro,-n,.c P:ict-i-c:: I
P--rct-:-cef --'!'- Po&yncr lh:m:-strv :
Prr.c-iic:l \i- ic-5.'n:r ..i\r;n;st::t, i
Li-bcr:'co:r v il ecor ;ls
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Prcctic:r .I Ii- Crcrric Chem-j-st.'v
Laborr,tort, rec,:rGs 2;<11
Vi-vr Vcicc
Semincr' ( lnt;rrra.I :ss JSsrnent)
i:r
-ior.st
t ilnc' .,.jc.
-u5A +7,'3
=1.1c9
I
ttD
i
-l-
t..
Fis,s rrini-mur,' I Ll-ass;fication
A c, nCitii t.: sh:-l-l- sscurc-i not l-=ss thc-n 3Cl, rni,;ks --n .:.cl-'
p:lper t,nC t.t:,':.,'rl:s in th= .5qrco:.te -ic: i:jfss :-n ,,.Sc I in:l
(:^
l'
r,aJU.
5
TT
^.'.a
. =:j ":I
P
_,it-J:
,- i,-r.;r-;-1 .lcrik ni:isl:ib',
:-r. i;t.- :,, -f ;r_,_I 5zps1 sc:11
;-. 3--4 mr.ntits 'r,
fcr -. turrt-,r:r
_r-l_',,mcr -.nc__ xrJ-l , ijcilon
I
-I-ibo::r-tor5,, Iii: Lebc-r-r -b:lv, Li ,iiv=rsi-tv Iaborr,i r" o:r' rn thc
col.l-;:c:-- -'l ::l-r.i- -rcr:!, i:r-r- . ,- J/ s u_i_-c: _ _.: c _-n trrs .
( . S ,:n --,.-.: -.-
-_;;h
stuacnt =l,o:-r ccndl,c,c rt -t-;r,st tt..,c scn---ncr jn
su-l ti:^:fe -bop:c Bu"fornrnce in ihe s3nt::n:r
-i; to 5e i--.ssiuss3c]
-b:rn
--ln
l.li-r,, i.n r_i n-i,rl<s s hcuJ-r-i it :: cc1-iinun,i_ci t=u tr cr: n t:.:r -l t e: c i'
DXrminrt-l::ns b:frrr:31st
m.rch of tir; f.lrst vil.r frcrn tlte col-l_?oe.
a
a\
?
l"'ryf'- -r; JTlr-o?rrrlf:-' c lEyI5T3y-
12oh-)
(4sL)
(
Unit I Cuantum ChemistrY
a) Basic ideas
Particle character of radiation, I{ave character of
Matter waves. Electroi-t o j-f f ract:.ori ' The
particles.
uncertainty PrinciPIe.
(
sL)
( 10L)
$) Postulates of quantum mechanics
Complex function, complex conjugate' Mo;uius of a
complexfunctj-on.operators.EigenfunctionsandEiger.
values of an operator, Iinear and Hermitj'ln operators'
Postulates3 State function, observ::bies ana''ir-r:esp6nding
operators.' Horniltonian operator. Eigen values and expectatlon values. Time dependent schodinger' eguat'ion' stat'!onary
statss :r:cl time ind:pendent schrodinge'- eguiitj-on' statj-onery
states Q,rd time independant Schrodinger equa't:cn"
c)
Appircation of the rSchr-odlnger equation to
a
few simPle
(
systems
12L)
The Particle in a one-&imensj onal box: lligen functibns
j-rl .-' three-' dimensional
and eigen values. ?he particle
box: DeE':neracY.
The one-dimensional harmonic oscillatrrr ' The Hermit-e
polynonrialS, the three dimension,--- l; lrmon-r : o-ci'l-l-ar'or" i'he
Transformation to sp.ler:i ca1 polar coordjnates
rigid rotator.
,rnalogy to the particle on a ':i-ng rnr'' th' l; rticl'e oil a
spher:e probleins' Legendre polynornl - rr ' |'- ::r)Ci:rted Legendre
polynomialsenofunctionsrsphericalh:rmon:-cs"Angular
momentum operators ano their e"(pectatj'on vaiues'
C) Hydrogen-lj-ke
(
atorns
sL)
Thewa-/eequationinsphericalpolarCooi:.ijnatesanci
Sol-ution of P"&, {ttt'ailons'
seperation of varicbles'
Laqu=r-:epolynomials.AssociateclLangi'rer::3pcLyrrcmials'
i,ist o! rave functions, Dil-.:ussion 9f t-he ''unct;-ons' orbital
iliagrams ai:c^.their signif ic rnce '
Contd
.2
e
) eP.;roximati-on
(
met-hods
6L)
zE.man
The perturbations method. simpre apprications:
state of the heli[um
effect ln hydrogen li-ke atoms' Ground
aplrlicsl-ion: Stark
atorn. Th-' variation method: Simple
si--r:t: of t-he h'Iittm
effe:t in hydroqen like atom' G::ouito
atorn
-
f)
Elc-ctron SPin
(sL)
Sp1n functions anci ope-;ators'
Coup'1-ii'rci
of crbital
ancispinfunctions.Slaterdeterminants.Paulj-sexclusion
prj-ncipl.-. Sp='ctrcscopic term sirm::oIs for atoms'
g-
)
(
ConlPlex atoms
sL)
-he s'-:lf -consistent
Sla--er's tre.rtment o' c4rnPlex atoms.
(breif ciiscu:-ion)
f ielci tn= tiroci. Hartrae-Fock me ihod
Rei,a'r.:nc3s
3
HaII
1. I II Levine/ f Ouantum ch-mist''Y' Printice
Mccraw-Hj'II
2. F L Pilar, Elementary 3u:ntum chemisfl:Y
l':chanics Tata3. A K Chancra introcruction to lu':'ntum
- r lr(cgEAlir+HiII
I
4. Strauss Quantum I'lechanics Prent-ice-Hal '
5.ill^IHennarQuantuml4echanicsinChemi'rY'rABenjaminlnc'
6. P ;ri Atkins l'loleculal: Cualrtum i'{:chanics '
Unit II Chemical tsonding
(25L)
a) Th: hydrogell mol=-cule 1on
tn:orrz for t'l-' g I -''" s':aFe and
Th:.' mol-'cular orbit:I
e;rcitr:dstat;'sofH2l'Th:'irolecuiar'orbitalanctvalenc3 mor'--cuiehydrogen
bono t.,:e-irn.nt_s for th.. g,-ou3d sta; of
(5I)
(ilatdnic rnolr:M.o. ailci V-3. treatm:nt; of rnor:e complex
(St')
cul.,s (qualitative)
Li2, tse2t "2, N2, 02 and F, are to b= d-iscus ed as
LiH' CO' I{O
f
e>:ampl:s 6F,.-omonucI,,. 'r Ci,,tt;mi-c tnol-'cuI '
o:- he-i'ronucle''r mol--:cuIes'
and l{p F..r!> to'-'e o-i-scus-?d ''xim:lI=s
Spectroscopic te:m symbols f c'r '-i':tomie rnol-'lcul:r; '
- Contd. .3' ' '
b)
\
L-=_J
-'
3
c) Compllr.: mol_. _uIrs
(sl)
l-,ocalis,ct honus. i{ybric ot-lcil I
ls. Di,:s.:t=cl valency (M,:th.an._,
water, .,:thylen= en,l .C-:tyIe.t_to b,. tr,.:,::tt d .:; s ifx..mLrI_.s
/
3oird p.uoperl:i--s: toit<i .)J.t:gy7
)C:,)r.i :.-,ti.;t.r ic bonol
anqlir.
._L
d) l.i.C. th oi-y of conjugat-.o s,vstem
(sL)
Thr: .,r. .::tic Ie-in-a-box , mo,_ , I f o.r- iu:ar.
con juq,-ter_ systems .
The sii: :rl-: HiiO metrrod. Apr_,Iic.rt,i x to
sirnpl,_. systr_xns Iike
ethyler-r , butadiene ancl ,;_:nzen,_,.
.t_
e) Forces on molecul,-s
?he j i-nc r:i I i z d He I lrnan_Feynrn.: n t
heo5._.61 (d:::ivaticn) an1
its physi:al- siEn j_ficlnce.
(5t,)
L-
P.::f
.:r.:nc--s:
1.
2.
3.
f N Levine, ijul_l e,:uantum Cli .mi:rt:_, p:_in__ic_.
F ,-, Pilor, Il .m,lntary i.urrntum Ch.,.mi:i_ry
l,1..gn ;m i{iII
l{ I Day :.to J Selbin, Tlr,oi__.r
:.
' 't uL ,_r
**
-li nor'itril j-' chemistry'
'
R-.i.i,ord
C r Caulson/ V3 l,.pq. ELBS
L, Stretweis,:.r-7 MoIecuIar orbit aI
titecry [or: o].g:t nic
chernistry John,,iiI.:y.
P.'.i. Atkins, Molecul-.r u rrtuiir
l.i chanics.
-L
L
5.
6.
UNTT -TIT
(
a)
Grou r-: i ii.:o.,:y :rflq Si:ectroscotr17
(72L)
Th,: -concept of grcups, iyinm.tr-L
o.',.la.ition
elc.ment s. Point ETOUpS Of ilnpl,,, mOI,..Cui.-S.
(b)
Gen::.; I Theory
ot_- sr).)ctr jl
.lov symrnetry
!
.
(3oL)
EIect'om_-.qnr:L-lc .c-i:,:t lor:) .:iti;
its,.ilf--;.t. eni_ -e rcns.
int'-:r<-lc1--ion of matter wirh r:..rcii.
t-Lcl'r :rirc, its
ffect on thben *'dl
;i tt:' mor-'cuii'' ' o.iqin of mor"cur'lr: sp -e.-rl - Tr),-,o:y
of th:
^
origin c.._ :I -cri-onlc, vilcration. I a ,c,
rota,-ion :I jp.)ctr.j .
of spilctr:tI Iin.-.s . j;,t n,_ epc . o.- j_epsity
in
on
pDpulatit-:o ' Trensition prorr,l-lirities
.ct
-rnr-, sei
ion - ur:. s.
intensii.
1z
Contd...4..
I
L
(c)
Vil:r-t'i
rotaticn ..Dcctr.
( 10L)
\-ii'f r-^:'tioD-ri ..,r'f -,zilr;::ticnar*.:otat,o.r:ir
Jnrrrgy chanEes.
:1ot.':t-ro;1"'I :'-lctr-c: I.1j-c:'o '.,,/:.v..] sp,,,ctrosco.oy. ?rr,)3n sp_.ctra.
Thc= th: fy O: R..fri: rn Sil.lctl-.t.. 'r.-:| )t-iO:r '1._:[-ig,:,;n .lalnfn ind
inf ra.,: ;. SpJ.l if a .
d ) s i'ei:t.ri,sccpic oeterri;i-na+-ic,n f inor--..cur_.r
par.meters ( 1oL )
'i -le c'eterr'"ii:itioll c-'f the iriu,rnentcf
:-nei tia, bcnc lenc Lh vir-,rai_ion
f re'. uc. cv"Fcrcc coi-,st-nt rn( ti1t, no.-I zt ci-s*.,_.c.i:tio,.r-.-,r-i-i"i5",i.-'
( e ) i -rro( ;5k s1-ectrosc.Ii:r';
,iolecules.
c -'^:ra1 theori' enc .lpplicaticn to the stnc.y
c'f sinrl,Ie n,oLecures.
(f),li-.ctrcnic
sp=.tra
rts r.'l- .ti:n to th: r-.cti'c:ric a:rre.n.;oments ani ti.-r.-.
symm:-.tL:7 of nrolecuI..s. Dif :: -,_.nt typ,_.s of
I .cir-oi.ric
tralrsitlo,ts.
lI ctronlc st ctrl oI :on-iu:r_:r.:cl system_.
on:,.
I
r.ritd
Rr.fe.fr-ncc:
. ; ln:rty o A Daniels an.r R. A -lil_ey pi-rysic..I cll.rmis:ry
?. 3cr -ow, I"iol .cuIar Sg-:sct_cJCoLJy I{cGr.w_.HiIl
3- Bar i'r:J-l, Fund.am,:nt.rLs o:i mor..cur-r spcctroscop,y
T!t3 M,_.,11-w-H_liI
4. l4':;i s Chand'_i, Atonic Structur-:: ancl C. _.micaL ionding
ilr ,l-roin; moI cuI:r Si:_.ct::o:co y. T.rta_i,lccr,:w_H1II
5. P Atkinsr i:hysic;:l Ch..-mistry EL,B5.
1
P :'f
1.
-:r
....i,-t
i; .' j ,
o
'
,l_
I I.rf d, LL Mef lit
Instrum -ntaI M:tirocis of
::
i1C-j
An=,
tj .ri Dea n ,
Iysis.
Van \Tost;:.. .rd.
Contd...5^..
ryffi
a
5
PAP:R TI PHYSf C.:i,
CH
llil iT ty
(
120L)
I
C;JtlLllr,L TrIf).I10)\.rti\l{Ils
( 4Oi=, )
Thermodynamic functioi,rs :,,/ork, hc'-1 t intu.rn,l .l.rrgy
t
/
enth.ilpy, huat capacity, i_.ntropl y, I,,rork -l uncti-on and fre,..
energy.
z=roth and first ra.,s of Th.:rmodynamics, rsoth=rmar
and ldiabatic proces es, Enthal;ohy of r_-action.
S:cond I;lw of th:rmoiyn.:mics, pundam=irtaI ,,cruations
for crosBd slstr=rr, Maxwerr rer:tions, ci-bbs_Hermhotz.
L'qu'tions, ?hermodynamic equations of stst-., Entrophy of
mixing of p.:rf -.ct gaj:s.
I
Third Iaw of th rmooynamics, :_-.solute .,:rtrophy and
its d 't .rmin:tj.on, Resiclual ._,ntropy.
Fundam:ntaI :quaticns .Fo:: open 3frstL.m, partial- molar
prope'rti,-s, chemicar . pote rtlar , Gibbs-Dub..m eQuation.
,'
Criteria
o.r- --,riuilibrium aitd.
spontanirly.
Thermodyn.:micS of p.:rf _,ct :litd rL>al gaS s,
and
activity.
fugacity
Chemical ureuillbrium, General i-r,ruiIi|rium (txpressj_on
for gas reactions, Effect of t:mp-.ratu::e on
=-:uiribrium
constartr. Gibbs enc'rgy function, chemicar equiribrium
in
solrttj-ons, Activity coc:f f icj-_.nt.
Contd
.6. . .
I
6
criterion of equilibrium i,r tc-rms of intt:nsive properties,
phase rule, Phase --quilj-bria, clayperon a'quation, clausiusClaYPcrgln equ'ition '
:fcrence
R
'
s:
. Al bc-rty , 'r Physical ':hemi stry'r , 1 -''t ''Citi-on '
John r'Iil-eY, New York, I9B7 '
2. I"l,t. Klotz & R.M. Ros--nbery, "lhcm.lc':l Thermodynamic".
5th eclj-tion, I'Iiley IntersciL)ilc-', New forl< ' 1994'
3. P.v,r" Atkins, ''PhysicaI :h'-'mistry", 4th editlon'
oxf ord Un j-versitY Press.
1
.
R.
.A
(
II CHIIIICAIT I(Il:;i''I:S
30L)
order and MoIi,'cularity, Rate
IJ-ws. De--.-rmination of orc.:r 3-i r.-,action, ExamPles of
mechan-Lsms <i-'duced from rate Ilr^/s, compl:x :'"action,
paraLlclr cousccutive and R.:versi':Ie reactionu steady
st3tc treatment, Equilibrium from kinet j-c vlr:w point Sys',em=t-j-c kinetics,
iffect 6f timperature on r:3tcs, Arrl',t-nius treatm:nt,
Kinet-i,c th-.ory of gasr:s and colii.;-.: cns. ,r L, ,ion th--or.;'
of reaction- cross st-.ctions--:f f 'ctiveni:s ci collitionsprobah.il-ity fectorS- Potential -'nergy 5-rrt-acr-3, ?ransiti on
stat-, theory of reactions, Radical- r.Jacilons, Chainreacticns
Reactions in ldq,irnd phasc, Diffus'icn
reactions, Fast react j'ons, \nd acid :ias:'
Enzyme cat3lysis,
con,.rolled
C- cal ysls,
whemical reat iorls , f ntramolecul lr procession ,
Fluoresc=-n: and PhosphoreSCenC,.l , Photos:nSit i ."rcl fl:aCtiOnS,
bt-r.rtum Yir' Ids
photoj- sorneri sar- ions, Phot ostat ion.rry stat.'
",
Phot
Ref g-r."nc-'s
:
1" 7(.j-. r,:ricil--r, t'Ch.:micf L kinetics"
Mcgraw-HiII, New Yorl<.
3rd edition,
conto-'7
7
2. A"',. Frost ,-1ne R.G. !.1."o,.,, ,rKinetics
:nd M.:chanlsms,,
John ,il..y :nd Soirs, irlevr yorl; l)62.
,
3' P'.i- At,tins,'rphysic,,t.l_ Ch,.mistry,r,
4th edition,
Oxaor'o Univ.-.rsi;y pri-,ss .
4. R.,i. AI):,rty, "physical ch-_misi-ry
| , 7th c_dition,
.Tohn "iij.l_.y, Ncw york, l)Bf
5'
s ' ' scirs';p, 'rFoundations
of ch..micar I(in--tiCs,, ,
l'Icci-ar/ HiI I , iilei,v york, 1rOC.
r
.
rli!-it4c-T _lEl
1
r
S
-n?.
Y
(2cL)
ThermodTntmics of curfac s/ Surf:tc.
.:nd rnt,,r-facial
tensioir , cont;lct .,.nEI.: .:ni. :d.h,:sicn
7 surf ac __s of multi_
comp:-n ' 'rt sys'l' 'rns Gibbs lc'50r
l-i-on :ri ,-'ti-on , iurf acc i,irms.
'
inTsic. I idsor:tion , Cb. ir::o:.:nr, j-o_r,
Adso.r:ption
isotl-t' --ins, Ir':'i':,: /-l ttui.r-+-visoth.-,rm, frr isorh_,rm,
Heat anci ,ntro.ily
of :oso:--;rtion, )._.r_,rnln.tio., a, ,urrl-_c.
er.j,3 a^lc por siz,:.
R-.fc.c:ilars:
1.
2.
2
.
physicaJ- ch.,mi stry.
of surfaces,, ,
-!
P . . At kln s
, ,' physlc._r I ch :mi_ stry,r , 4th -.drtj-on,
O:<ford Univ-=i-sity pross.
i:.
...,,1
Aciamson
,
"
R.A. rtll::rty r " F.hysicaI cr_r::mistry,l
, 7th -.ciition,
Joh:r WiI.-.y, I,I_.w york, l-B-t.
ry.._€-{E!l,c_,.
I
rl 1:_.1:3 i. c_ s
Mathtmt t-t_c L pr ,I-lmin ,):iL.s
(
30L)
ll rn nt. i:v comr:inations,
Stj.rlinq;s Approxirnetioit, I,1,.-thod cf l-., g.--' ng
-r mul.tiplit-.rs .
;
.lontcl ...B...
G
\,6.
B
r.rm-t--cir:'.c st=rtistics, eo=.-:;stein aniJ Maxwerrtsoltzm.n st - tistlcs, Du.ter^rnin-,tiorr tf ,-,nk.,o*.r., J-agrangr-. muItipli rr-s j:ron tlt.,rmo:l)rnamicS, i,{ax}raIl_-B:Itzmln Statistics
-:s a Iirniti.l , c---5-' of Bose-,linst,:in e:ld ?=.rmi-Dirac statistics.
Conc._pt of phas., sp3cc, mic::ostot<--.s,
t
prob.':iii..'s, Gibbs hypoth.-sis, canon'icar
.:cl
ual aprion
=nslfrn,:r-. anc
granci c,.lnonic:lr :ns6ln'lre, partition functlon ,, lrzar.uation
of un-'-.ro!-v.r ragr:n,ge murti-pri-,rs fronn thr_.rmcdynarrics,
Boltzrn:li-ts .:,c{u-:tion, Eva Iuation of J(r t ,nC dyrmic
functtoi:n-'opp'--nhir-'me:r
ions,
aporoximltiorr. Transi --ti -:na l.
parti-t-i-cn i:unction, Gi):bs F.:rf -lcio,-<- s::cliur '.c"ro l: .quation,
rotation -'r, vibratlon,'r and .,r- --ctronic pe-rt-i-tic. functions.
ion of stat i sl-- ic..r r mccrr;, nie s - .. rntrol iry of
mixin-, , Ortho"-c.-:r: hyciroE-n, {_t_t c.p:cii:i, .:.,-=:licls
'(Ai-nsr_ -.in ano. D:by.= the=ories)
i. :-'r)r
R*.f
1.
.
2-
3.
4.
5.
,.
t: i il:
1c
r
+-
_.s :
l.i.?. :cpll, ,,3tatistic:I
l.Iecl-r-:nics anc )ropcrtics
of m.j-,t.,r,l
J- 'raj.r':m anc .T.c. Kuri:i(ose, ,rThcrmocly:rmics for
strrci.'nts of cl.-.ili s:ry_ cllssicrLl, st_tir,._- .c:-. el,f
I:ai:,,-v ::si-,tl.,," r S.i,.t,r. Ch_nd, l.Ic-,,1 D. Ihi ( 1,)Bar \
ir.1 " rirr,-r{,sr'rEquiIib:-ium st:tistic:I
m-c1i11;i_ssrr,
Joirn 'Iil y t N-.rr,; york, 7)63
T. ,',. Hr-ri , "An introduction to stcrfj51 j.3;1 , -ci--rpj,cs,r
Adc_ison-fiil'y{ P1,1ss., 1t,60.
f .-.Mo-,i,ryn High.:r:, ,'physical Ch,--mistry" ,
?.",:',-i,LmOn Pf eSS , l)65
-':rntc, ..9.
-
.
,
I
9
PiPrn 111 pj=e$:ir.I"lc__Cr
S'PER.C,J;--
OF
tr;r"1rS
-,r{
(L2OL)
ORG,.i,{fC,tO}"1pOrJi_,I}S
l-
(
2sL)
B,'rnciin3-R
tt:r.ti.n -r,-und
,lor si,_:n.rI
str.liri.
ly- syrnm..try cp.,,ritions
t_:
.
-ui.
-,i-t -:ftC In,.jth:,.CS r_.t t:i:.S- lutir;n,
rlut,:r -_-t,.tt j-:,n. Opt-iceI l-rur-rtlz
j-n.rti,-r:: ,_)_: C:rrf igrul_.-_..
i,.,,,_
py.
(. Sti_.rospecif
fntr,t:lucti i-r t-, iric:L cul.:r r..c.tgniti ,n
M;-.rd.:rn 1l-rnC.jpts f ar.,m.,iicity
.]-c
r-c.retictis_
Ri;,f-.,:f *:-l:j _.s
1.
E.l. EIicl , S._mu..I H. h.iI _:r ,:rnd, Lr_,v;i:i
N. pI.:ino,.,r,
st.yOrg.enj-c
c-:trilrrun!.i.s
lcvj.s._=c
,
lrd ^,f
lntt-.rsci-nc,i, Lg94.
Sti:r,,,Chorr i
., _LI
2.
D. iri,:sipuri / 3t,.ir(.l.ch...mistry
r,^ii.L _.y f st,:rn
-.i-,_,:::g.enic
Linritr,.d , ini- ,-o,
1.9g4.
3.
l;;; .-ll''1,,..'l;-;;:; Bll"i;;3' -c1v1:::i rrs.i.,j-c ch.m- 3+-ry r
4.
P.S, lirIsj_, St._:,r,*.,ch-mr. :try c,),1.L ,rm
ti. 1
'r'IiI 1, iJstr,, v'n Ltd. i.ie i." De i_iri, 19._r0
c:,-;mpouit_ds,
.rn11
m,.chanism
PERfCYiIL irl ii. :.,.,.1,1 _1r.-r1: .-, ?rjCTOCl{ij.{IS_i:.y
_,,rr_r .-i-rCTfV.:i flITliqMEDf.r_Jg
(26LI
. ;t-. l:.
Cc-'ntd. .
.10. .
r
10
reacti rns (cirel.>ctropic arnd grcup tr:rnJr!:r re lc+-rons) lheory
of p.:-:icycLic relct'i ons symmet:w ,orcp-.rties air,.] molec...tl_-jrr
or'oil :l-s :o\:.cIati:ri-: ciia,q::'-.ii s, ,.;ooci.'1 .-ci lloffrnt,l-t ruIes. Analysis
of -r) r i,:[cric reiict-irf ,rs using tr''ronti-.r j,{crecur=r orbit,iL
(r'yio) i:ertrrrrationai vIol..cuI=:r o::bit:I (pMo) ,rnd relat--d
q
rTrr.-.thorrs Jte lei:hernistr:v .inu re,i-ocircmistrrz of rept:..s.-ntari-ve
c13s. -,f r:,:ctions-Exo-]nuo s:,I,:cr-ivity in i-rit:Is-rrICer
reacrii,rs A:-om.'ticity. I{uc -e-.l, .lrr Moc'riug systems, v-'i:)nce
isom -' - i sm. Ex-=,mpras of iipuricit ion o:i: p.:::cycric l:eactic. -r: r-o
orea,ri: syt--i-i '.is.
Tn,,m-:r ,nr, photo.:h:mical- inter:or- zer, si,rn
Of vit lirin D and r::Iat-'rf ncl-:culeS.
-r
PhOtocir.:misi-ry: EI -:ctr:om.rgns:-iC si:._,c5rum--;,:hotoch,:mi:..-I .-:,, j-on
and r-r rEy associateci with uv-vis l::-:gion-rlws oi .ohotc-L:mistry:
1nt-.ractio:i of LiEht i;Jit-h matt -1-'.',l156.iiption .ritc -.mis -ii:n*sh=pt:
;,nd iat:nsity of 35serption .rnd .:mission b:nds-J,,nltlonsk-i
di.ig':si1,-Frank'Condo:r principl:-rK;lsh.lr s uli--.-Sieln stat...s and
thcir: i rte-conversion- spi-r-r or:ltit couplirrg- pL,otophys,i:s of
raciitct.ive anci nonr.rc-j-,ct_iv= tr _nsi -.ions- r,11rre1r tra451-,.,.
proc.-s'j-- .-.xcimers :nd excipr.:x. s.- aiu-:,rchi ng- stt_-fm Voim..r
in:-r 'sj-s. Exp'-.rim..'nt:lI m .' liocs- FluorescLrnc= 'rnci phosphorescence
m.)asu.,rin-.nt- ouantum yi:ro lnc harf lif e time rre3sut:em ,nt.
photocherristry of org.riric mor.,cur...s: Reactions
invorving the
oref ia 'rond-cist:',ns isom:-.riz,rticns, v.:le.nc - boncj. tautom:jriz.ition
reacf,icas proc-r!.c'ings tlerough bond c_rissociation_ Norris.r-r type
r ano ty.-ci: r-t rssctior-rs-satu:::tea:,i:rd uns_tur:tJo keton,,s_
re'--rr- n'j -'m"flts- Enorl.:s ancl Di rnones, cti-.'flrn...-ihan . l:eclrr3.ngL)-.
ITr-'rlt R,:' fr'fi'1glsrr.:ot of arom,.tic compouncis. tsarton'
s reacr_ion.
Photofr:-emcntation- photoadciition, photosubstittrtion, cycr-o _
dciition* pa.t-rrno-Burchi r: rction- photo::eduction ar-.,;
.ohotoo,_
iation" singr:"t oxyg-,n -';rd- chmlrrrmin.-.sc:-r.lc,-:- pho'-oi;er-.,tc;d
electrcns tr=nsf.r re;_ciions (pef)-. photocn:inlstry
of visior_.
organ..: r -':ctivc i.rt:rmcc-ti-rtes G-.n.-r:.1tion, strucbt},n,e, rncl
l^
feaCt. V-. :rz Oi :3i'r11.l-trS.-l.jit.t-:rt.: J _fn._ AfvneS.
C,-:r-bOCaii--: OI)
7
cer-b''i-rir-'rr --nc Fr:-' r'';-j.ic ,rs (g,-r-awin rur-es
for .:ing c, osur=)
ls int :rm :oiat.,:s 1tt ot:j=n j c c,-:-:nistrv.
Referenc
1.
si
R. 3. i:oocward :n j R. Hof frn:nn , rTh= ccns.rvati-on
of
Conto...11...
-q-rft%
Orbital s$rmr_try, . V:rtag Chsrni-..
Press. Neti york , 797 C.
2. c.B. GiIt.rird I,i.R. r,IilI p..rcycli
' H.-lL ch--mistry text .book S,.ries
3. I. Ti.:m.ing, Fronti,:r Orlrit:Is t:
rjii'.y, Loncion . 19i6.
i-.ith.:rin
4. S.M.
cyc
r::ctions,
I r-tc. Ac , <J :mi-c
chf prnan rnct
4.
Organic Chr.mical Reactions,
Mukher ji anci MacMj_Ili_enz pe
enj.st--_ic Stuciy, ldew Du,Ihi , t9-19,
Iic Reactions- A mech-
5. RoI-nC E. Lehr ano Al-an P. I"Iarch:: , Orbit: I symmetr)/
A PI:O'CIu'm- SOlving Apcroachr,rca mlc Pr-.s:-1972.
/
6. K.li. Roht.:gi l4ukherje,, Fundament Is of Photoch.:mlstry,
WiI ry .lst..rn Ltd. N.Jw D., Ihi_, lg-t
7. N..T. Turro, I"Ioriu-fh MoI:..cuIir ilhot
cunrnings publishing Co. Ltd., i,ie
R.0. I(
ilemj.s',-ry z Th-. Ran Jamin
yrr',
Org:nic ;:rotochi;,i;is-r),, I'iCGr -i^l-HiII S,-,ries in
t.
Advrt,c .ci rlh. mistrv.
9. I. _'I_inomiya tnc* T. I\:rito, pnot
ni stry . Syntl-r si s , ,Ac:demic
pf--S-/ Nryt York, i,89.
B.
-.
10.S.?. i,IcM.:nus/ Organj-c
Fr:ss, 7'.-'73-
Rl,--'-C'nIl'-S
6 J'
R.e_,rctiv_.
crm-.',di =t e s, Ac:ct,'IT]lC
:l
.,-ili,
; ?T-Gf;:.ITS I'.T O).GAtji.l
]
1:1
S"'RY
(27L)
Olefin forminE ie-actloi-rs Wittig anc .-'I :t -.d reactions- stera,_-a
s,.Iective sythc-sis- $eterson r.-.acti - Mcl{urr3\/ coupling_
reactions of 1-IJqrn=ss, aLlr:nea and c
Li1,-. s-hydr:tionhycirobor: t ion-hyiiro: Iumi nat icn-o)(ym -. CU.rrr t i on-ha l olacti_ onsat i on
h ydr og.' a t i,tn - hydr oxy I c t i cn - poxi o.r ion ( shrrplr:ss and related)
met-:IIrtion. (t.-.rmiit :l iki,,n.,3; )
l-r
_.
.,
Contd....12...
.
t2
j-cns c'f c:rrt)onyr comprouncs r ncidition of nucl.:ophiI€s
(I r2:-' 'c i ,4 .:c,clitiOns) -acid t 1).)z _j r :tltfl nucI.,ophiIic catalysis
hydr:t oir-: ocJit-ion of arcohols.-ester anci am-i c: formation ::nd
hydro l',z s j- s-r .-i uct i ori e2'? c r-bcnyl grou p-hy c--i- jd,. t r.Ln sf L.r
reag-'nts-ch jrnos '1.-.ct j-vity-st r,_.och..rnis-.ry, c-,rbcnyl r,:duction..
IaIorf f :{ishn.r :-nd Cr---mmensoil r rctuctiol'rs-i.,,-surfur-i_s:tion of
thio,t:t'ls-r,:lrr:in13lm.-nt
r.r.:ctio-,s.invoi_vj_ng cI ctron C.fici..nt
nitro ,,-n .',ncr oxyg-'n-r,iolff , Hofm;nn, Curtius, schpidt, Bc-qkmann.
Neb.'r-coil 'i nsation f c-;ctlons-p;'rJij-n ,I{no.-,v._ ir.:g ...r . stobb.,
Ardor ( sti.,r'os,:r ctivity) . cr-:is-:n. Di ckmann, acyroi i-i , Manni :h,
Ru-f crrn.' t:;'.y / Darzon- R.o-binson -:iln :I ticn.-f orm:tion of :rnor:lte>s
:lnd n. :rrin - s-kinctic :nd thcrmool/n-mlc control--l-.:gios I _.ctive
:Lkyr - ion-'rctivr- m.thyl,,.n.- compour'ris rnc c-rrbon acicityMichl - L rc-'ct-ion- ccrr-juq )t r ,cci.iti.;n cf cupr:atL.s-umploung
f ..,.?Ct-ir)n-Ciitht'rn ' i..,,.fiv.-tiv,: i_n 9yt'. ,.si_:- SuIr=ui ylii,es-t
con - -:r.1.:t j-r:n- b.:rtzyL,
bt--tioin
b .nz'z.l-i-: .lcicj r:-rr:iE-r.n.;.,:ri1.nt.
/'
P.eact
-;
:-r
_
Sp,cif i: t':r'.j. n.s fo:_ sj_..:tlv ' :i,r.r:t_iti-r> l.:itriytie hydrogc.n_
saticns.-PC/ Roney r.i,. Trisi(liritt.yl-pfros,hia--)
rho6.ium chloride,
l;rfdt+r I ia:,:-f., , Litl-rium tri-t .'t.itoxlz:I.rminium irydrlo_., LiH
cliisobutyl-'urninium h',cirioii, Jo:.'ii-r:, i.t:ll{4, socrium cyanoborohydrior, tr j-i.=thyl--sir.:-i .r, ri.-'ct::oLrztic ,i:.. duction, souium (girch
r..duction) z so.:ium :malgain .llurninum arnalg:m. ZD, Te, h,
chromou,s chiordi , [email protected], hyflriodic :cir_r, H2S.
Soclium sulf 1t-,, cithlonrt.,
hydr=zi;t , hyprooa-rosiJhorous :cid,
triarklzrphos:^hitr.-s. L-'uk..,rt ::caction (r-.ductiv.: an.Bh:tion)
ano biochmic:l r,,ctuction
I
spr:eific rc:rJ:nts f o:: s -rl-.ctivc o><jir':ic:rs
ry.q- Jon-.s r j-.:i.ir:nt
corrlns rc:; 'nt , PCC.Tetralcutyrer-rmorrium chrornet -,. t4no2
xi&€, singl::t oX!.)i::r1. pot: ssium Bl;,,,r*rsurf rti:. organop.rroxy
acids, :upric c _,t,.tte r siIv...:: c><i,--,... , .r:t:nonj_um nitrat. , I :ad
nitrrt---', LT;',t surfur, s,-.r niui-r c'i,cxld,', chromium trioxio.,.,
tetrabutvr- arn:nonium Ch.r=:om,.'tr,. , sorliurr- c-iicir;:o;:r rtc, socium
hypOChIor.lrL'i, sOclj-um chl o-r::t,:- 7 So,'-|um h.z.;o-ti ot-niti,.. pt,,r:iOCic
acid. socrir-rm p rj-ocl , t.:, poL .sj-, lin p rr.rne:D1r--.. , purbr: ,r-.nz-,n
Ferric clrrorii-. . oso4 rutir -n1urn t-t. c_i:-i e, . F::,r.my sart. scmrnn.- .rj-ocil:.mj-c:l- oxidrtion.
''Ir't oxicaticn, dim .th7r suL -oxii
7
.-
Conto. .13
13
Itti:. i;- ci
cro.'.ir - . : -^rr,
,-:1, .,L_:
Iili_- AIB\,,
A<,.I<iirs
c,rtalyst /
BB'.I , NBS.
--cth..-:.-,l.zoc. i --. rrr(r,.:-.;,r. -_ _ , nex:-.ri€thyr..:neter.amine,
n:.)xa,c.y' n,--f --r-.r_.-t. (f f f ), DI{,3O, DCC uroi-_i-c)pjp:,.
?os.., Bsn.qaI,
T?\./
P.
.-r" .,
i.t., ,
_'f ._-f ti1C.-,S
.
i:
"''
-1,J, .;_:)t
'^,..\:\,
,L-.C.
.'..
O. I-Iouse , lulodern Synt1r.:tiS. .iicactions . Ii,,,c.int ld. Th-.
,
ts.-n jtmin Cummings publising Co.. .F1..:ntcj park.
,
"Organic
2 . J... Marcbr''Adv,:nc. d
che.rnistry RLr.tcrions Mcchanisro
ano itructur-, i^iil._.y 3st-.rn, 5th cd.
1
FI .
3- F..'r'.. ]3rjy and R..r. sund-b,:rg. idvanc.c or.,anic ch,,mistrv.
pa:t a. 3i-d Id., pl__num pr )st, N.-.r,v ,:fork,
1990
4. R.C.-J. N )rrn,)n -n,- .T.l{. Coxon, p.r:incj_pl.:s of Org,rnic Synbliresis,
3rd lG. , Ili-:gl.,i.-. :-C-G_,mi: o:! Froj=;s_i :.rI; 1993.
E. iq:trv Fi:,;.:r,
6
R_.:E-ints iL.,: Org.rnic Syntncsis, AII volumi:s.
. I{ir()s Fjunirck, '1-,ductlor:s in crgani.: che,mistry, r}
Hor-rvooC -td.,
199o.
rj_s
7. MiIos Huilickrz, O:.<id, tions i.l Crganic r:h..,mistry, Am-_rican
Ch -:mic: I Soci.:ty, .198 j
Physic:I in..:hois ill orEanic ch:.nristry
Appric:tions of uv, rR, ESR end d.-ipor
:Iuciietion of organic coml:ouads.
(
--
32L)
rnom:nts in structu,:aI
NI'IR: trroton NivtR- ShJ_-.Icj_ns, d_ shi Ir.ing p:.-cton
.,,h .mical shj_ft_
Ani-scil-c -'ic -ff 'ct :,d proton ch mic:.r shift,
ch micar .r.d
man tic *'aluivl . _ nc _,, ch_,mic:l_ shi.r_=t ; ,ignm n,_s
f or m.i jor:
functi.:.r-rI qrcu:s- iuadrupl: lcr-oc ni_nq i;-t lI l sign.rl-s.
Spin_
Spin coul-'Iing & Spin-SL_-j.n splits, F_lrsr ui-ri _5 .ntl non fj-rst
orcier st-rictl:1. M,-.gnituc,. oL_. CoupI i._^,c.i , ccrr_cI-rr_ ccqsttnts
J. F.,tct or',_- , inf Iu.:ncing cou cIi n; ,_c:i st li: -t .
_
Contd. . .14-..
4
t4
e.13
Chcmical shift .tssignm-_nts
in carbon_t3 Wtrn sp(4tra,
H-D.:couplinq- nolsc <i..coupling_brold
b:nd d-,coupling off
reasonsDce Decoqprinq- strtrctur.ar
appricatl0.s
irIMR:
of 13 cNltm_
I,tass spE-ctra : Baslc prlncipl..s,
l{et a st a}c r c i ons-lt s etgnif,
ic.3.!lc
Isotope abuneanc.., Moll.cuI*1r""
-:, f ragmc. nt a tj-orr proce^es- Fragh
mentation ::ssociatc.d with functional
group.
Refg'FcIlC€S:
1. SiIv rst-,j-n.: Sp...ctroscopic j-d-nti:_.j.c,ltj.,ln
of org.:nic corngrncis.
2. Kc.mp3 Org3nic sp..^tros,copy.
3. KaIsi organic spgctroscopy
4. Rel_-vant chi.:ptc,rs in orgenic c.ll-.mj_s.ry
by pin.,7 Hi:ngrj-cksort
r--t :. I
5. Probl ms in aclvanc.-.d org,lniq ch,imistry
by J:r:y J4arch
Contd...15....
.1
I
15
P+ P
POI-rYM.,-r?
SCf
.\i,.1
i}g_
-B.,o.,,
,.
{B- -c .{:StE T-y_-. r
(
(
120L)
15L)
Conc.:pt of polymu-,:s ano matcrorrolu,CUl:,sr
d-. finition,
.ltion, n Ltur:IIy occurrinq
and. synth,tj_c
clr.ssj-fic_
macromole_cuI:s,
structur r units, poryconc., osrtion
r:--.acti.ons, polyadclition
re:ections' ch-'mistry or' monom-,ric
units, or-:fins, di_r'r:.s
funct j-cn]lIity :n,C m,:croirtolJcular s truc
tur,:. lul_.cl_ranisrns end
kln-'tic of poly:ddition r_-aCtions,
initi:-t.d
by r-._dical c:tionic
:rnc lnlc,ic ml 'ns, coordirv;tion poryro--r:is.:tie.n,
ring op.,,ning
poLym-riza'tion, pory. stcrs aaL pory'
mlor :.j, poryurG^.s ancl
poryurethanr's, porypeptidcs. polynucro.io.,s.
synthi:sis of
ln,)cfclTloi.Cui S ,)y photoch,_:mic:I in,:ri)S. tI
ctroqh:micaI m,thods,
chain trlnsf r, chain t..rrnli _tiop,
;r :ft _.nc blocl< copolym:.,rs/
simultin..ous prolym,..risat j-on of r,ror-._. t:: -n
onq) rnonom.tr, polyfun_
tion I -tt.lrtirr.; m.:t..r1,:lg, I:toe: -r ,tnc ,.mii:,clcler
pclym._.rs.
7
Polym.-'r' ch'rr,'ct -.rj-s:ti_on: solr.ition
pr:op,rt j__.s r MoI :cul-_r.r w_.ights
anc 1ts o ti'rmin:tion by v--:-i ;r.,:s .,:.t.hoclsr
rnol:,.cuI:r iu_.fg[t
c-fV-f --:Qys. Morccur-rr vv.-igi-it
distri_butions, fr ,cticn.,tion of
porynr'-'r-s porymcr conformation
:ncr configuration crystelr_in
plrysiqal prop:'rti,-as .c
i'orym - '"
ch. i-ri-car structur.. ii)
porym-,:s, sp ctroscopic techni-:
ucs of inv_ stiErt_i_ng macromor.._
cuI -.s. polym.rr c1e.;r.:d:tion
polym.rj-C films :nc
. Dif fusion :ncl tr.:nsport .cros j
m.,mbr:rr-1-.5.
Polymirs ls n w rn.lt,_.rirIs ( sm,:rt
m,rt_,ri.rIs) polynr.:rs :s
r.,rctants.
porymer sup.icorr__d orsanic
synth:sis,
::j:::.:
DUL-LLa-. :t. ::"
se pcptici.: synthcsis, m,:cromoli:cuIr:s
ls cat.:lysts
inzyrn-.s ,colym r support _Ci c_.t Lysts.
Rc-fu-lCC.rlC -
1.
S
. F ory ,' prir-lci wi.. s of ,:cIym-:r ,:lr
- ini stry,, Corn I
univ. sity pr-,sJ Lollc-lon 1953.
F.W. BiIIm:y .I_-. ,rT _,::t . ocl< c:: pol_;zir ,3:i nC..,r .,IiI.!_
inr rsci_nr-:. igi6.
P. .i
1-
_.
2.
Con{dr. . 16.
.
16
,.]
3- F. Iodn;u.-rs "Pincipi-cs o.i r--or}m.,:r
syst.--ms',
/Mccraw Hirr
Sccrn Com.,-,ny 19A2.
4. G. ocli.-n."Princi.rl-,:.s of pol_ym'ris,,tion'r,Mcgr w Hirr 19T0.
5. J.i. Br;;dson."PI:stic Matsrj-rl-s" . lTg.wfics:-Butt.-rvrorth.
6. .j.i..C. Coinri: "i--olym.,,rs,'Ch r,list_r.,,. ,nc;i physics of l'Iocern
ffia-.:rilrs"
int.-:rn ition,:r t,:xt 3oor< company Ltd. L913.
(16L)
Tc-xtur',-' of porym.-'rs : l,Iorccul rl f or,J-.s ..ncj cir-:rnic: r bonding_
Scconcl.:ry bcnc f orcas T3ctj-cj_tv in polyml.rs. Stu.fco j-som::rism
in polym-rs. Basic d-,t,_:rmin:nts of pol1r._.r .Jj:oL-\ rti,s.
pollrm:r
chain f l;xibirity.
Frctors -.ff ,cti-rg ch,:ii'r f l-xibirity.
Grass tr-=nsiticn t..,mrr :r3tuj:e inci cryst ::rriir rn:rtin.r points.
Variatir:n ,ln'-: structur-,.: Mor,:cur ,r ii-ri-.:::.r,:-.t-. tici-r 6f th grlssy
st'at'. cf poryrn.:rs Rh-orogy of .'orym.-.rs. Typ.s o:f m._.ch:nicar
d,:f orm- F-icrn. Visco:r -s+-i-c f ror^r. Kiii trc tir..or.y of ::ubb-,r
crastic-ty. Structur,rr param . t-.i-s d :.t;rm j-ninq rn._,chrnica r
prop r{,-i-.-'s. Prop.,rtv r-.qu--r-l-,m irts ..nu porymi:r utiris-rtion.
Elastcn. r-s. f ib-.rs anci pllsl-_icJ. fI,:ctronic p.,:cpertlcs.,
i, opticai .,-r)C tir rm:.. p::op-rti*.s.
i, I;cti'ic
R..f
:f :l:c
-5
, rrT.,.xt ool< of polym:i- Sci-,ncc.,r , .,.,riII yn
i-nt-r'scj--ntrr/ 19?5.
.r
2. F. R.odricu:2, I'Pincipl,-s of llotS rization,r. McGraw l{iII
3. G. Cclian, 'r principl ,s o;l lofyn.-lizat-ion,, , McGraw lliII
4. J... . 'JrvGSon.'t PI.=st j_c l4-_rt;_:rl': l_ s,' , lJcwn.. ss=3utt_:rt^Jorth.
5. J.li.G" Cor^ri:" "pol-yrn.rs: Chcmisr-rlz -:ro ]:irysi: of M,.rt,-.riars,,
fnt_rnrticr-rtI Tcxi_ 3ook Ctrn;c,.tnv Ltri., I9i4.
5. L.;1 . Sp.;rtinE, "physic.=rl_ ;;olyrrt .,: Sc j_..i-r.l .,r z riiL.:y_Int.:rsci_
--nc , 1cu_bIic ttj-ons , 1986 .
l-,
F.T,J. 3iIm:-1z-:)f
Contd....13....
,/
77
tsi.Sr
I
POLyi'4Eq
pHysr,l;
(22L)
Morphorogy at:d order in cry.starri-ne p<;ryrn.,rs.
configur-tion
of porymer ch.:.insr 6rystar structure of polymers,
morphcrogy
of crystallinc. polym,_,rs/ crystal-Iizat.ion ;:nd nr,-Itinq,
ki-n.,tlCS, strain-inducecl morphology, som:: 1;-.prr,;cnt.atdv:.l
cryst'-rI strucr-urcs, polymi.,r- singl-. crysta I s grr;.,,.ltli _ .rr:
_.
,
soluti'--rr-rs, hurllow pryramics, morphor.!:y of polym.=rs
cr:.,,.t':Iliz;d
from th,: m,'rt i int:rrarn,;rL,,.r t-iis, ori :rte1-_-i . ;1
lnd cL:.rr.,rir)g, chtractarisati:ir
cf crystai linity.
Transi:ic-:n;--rr Lrilr,.nom,- na First-o;..ci.,r tra;sitions/
th,_. ._I .. rss
ti-ans-l-.ions r th.' pr:-:rci p.,I..s of catJj:r.sl_Dndj-ng tcnrp,,,r.i_.tur-iis,
transi,'-icn t,,-.I-ri)erJtur,c .rlld .:ilQiDc;:]it-i1Q{g1. ti:,i1..L:r._tturcs/
rnolL'Cui,r rnrt1,:,n :rn('r t,t:'-,1 -t.i i.'. .:.. . , ._-, Iicy,._:._B_,.m.in
::uI,:,
i-nturrnrrrr- C'-ir -rr: b:,.ci.g, cxtcrn:rL pri.
fact_l]r s, rn,..-;I_,cuI r:r il,::,ie;h,u .
sticizatir-::r str,r.i,
Transi--;r+- I .t..i1cm,-n ,. fntr;iu .,.-i .., ._j t1r_r._1 pr:incipli-s
I
of
m:'"sS tr:trEj--ri)rL ii: p :)_ymt.,ric m.rt,..rj-aIs,
-...ickt s iitw, Hcnry, s
lawt, m,:alsur.--'m..'nt of r.r.r,,ss traitst,)rt..1-r,_rmr_irti,.rn
metli,1;d,,
s,:rpr-i-'o m.:tir:o- f actors af f*ct i ng +-ranspc.rt-cf fcct
cf
ternf;.r-tturc, n.tuj:i,: :rf f-ti, polizm:r, typ._. of curj-ng
tgci:,i_
cf f er:t r-f f: j_ili:r:s r ils-t_q6... .:f p..ni- i:rrnt
,
.
'r visci-:r'rsticitv; ?r,-cr.,;y- typ,.-s of m-crrlnicer- d fr fm':tii-'rt r sirnpl.: fh:,,:IOgic.iI f e.,Str._iilS,:,S intrcCcuti .n
r
t,.,
tht visco._,i:lstic i:rop:rti.:s i>f.i-.-:,._.:|:111_.,1is. Scm,-, Simi.;l
Lin-',li Viscr-,,,. I.;s1-i-c 1,1,.>d-. Is }Lixrv,.rIl_ r, ,,C,_:l, .r/r iEt
mcL1,.,, I,
sr.,I:i.. s ct.n:bin: ti;n of lriaxlvrl I .;.11,:_.1 rr .-,*qt
i,t,.;,1 , I S.
Poryi-n
Guo.-'r-'-:iisi:rci irin-.ar visc-rclasi:city.
Th.,: Lj-n--i:r VisC,),,_:Iastic 8.,.h:vi:l:
fh,,_,
:lortzrnrn principr,,
:- i-'.. lyrn.:.i-ic s..:,1-io.s
cr,--.p .--xp..ri;li.nts, strt=sS--r I'i_>1,:cj---;., .,;v,p_,:1jp- J-_.i,
st::._,ss_
strrin ':xr:t-i-im..nts,, :fs,:ir-i; 1:;.r1' -,rr. iiLlr _.rts. Th_.
Erastj-c
Mooulus. 'Iin: ,. t.:mprlratur - rrYuav
.
r,,eulv :..l_r.n,,,.
Lt !r''r\ /, t r.lt.
=t-.m__^-rtturr:
superp,,siti.-.n principl. .
_.
Ccntcr....18-...
I
---<
't
1B
rntr- <lucti -,;r t,.r p,,., Iyq.:r I,l ,_rt .r?-].,rj;,g|.gy,
viscr_:sity, typcs ,..rf
f 1ui,, f i ,;.1 , tim.r ci- p..n.r.r
_,nt f l-u-ldsz rirn,.: indep'rnd.,at_
fluios
visc - I.:s,-ic f Lrriris, c,.-,mpi...x r]1.-,-_..l,.,qric,-tI
f luids, Ncwti,nian
f Iu_L.ls, n{.r,n_Newtr;ni_:i.: f }uicie,
Rringh..m pl rstic_s, peeUdc
pI.-rstics, rhiop..ctic :ncl thix.:,tr,rpic
bt:havir.,rz rh...1,:rgicaI
m_:.tsu.:_m.- irts_t.
c-.pill .-ry rhc,;m,:tcr c.)r_1. ._:no
pl._r:;tic
visc|rn_tu-r, ir(,,1t f 1cw ini ix .lpptr.:]tus}
Ei :stj_c ,.,ff._cts
in .c :I_r,mcr rn.. It .r--I:_.w_d.i,_, sme1I,
clast-tc iurbul rnc.., ,
mr,lt fr,:ctur,.., sharkskin.
Rt:,f u-iIr- IlC,.: S 3
1.
ll.r.r,
-:L,
u irvi'LS_Lry
2'
principl.-,s
pr!:ss?
ithec.:
i.I
.y.
"l:;.;'rPhYsic:r
' J: - i'cr:y, r,/isc i
3
Chcmisiry C,,:wr:II
1:,53.
:h.;nist--7 'rf
;
pt.
lvmi.'i's, *ir ;:,ubrish<,.rs,
- .-.ic plr
.,r-r-:r --r'is
vr ''::r':r
i..rs '-:t pi:}ynrers j
r,"ril.,y, N- i^,, {l_-.::k i971
D vici J.-rliIIi:ms, 1,tly:r:r Sci._,nc._,
;ng,i:r-^:rir:g,
X.acI..,r.:i.t [r .Sons/ \].y. 197C"
tlirr-:tc1r''.r, Ts,xt 3:;. :-. ,f
]r,.ilyp-.5 scir.oCr: . John
I:l'"
ivr,_.-y ,); ij()nS, N. ta. 1984
J.Cr.tnk -,itcl G. j. pri-kr,rijif fus j,
n i;, polyrnrrs,, J Crank
end'G.S., tr.:.rk _,ds.
.T.rt\. tsry,C5,-rlr FI,:w pr:p.,.r-ti..s
i,f i:__Ilrmer .rnr..1t S .
G-:',._,rq,- Fr,ci,v-irt 1l8:l-.
!'.i{. CogrswcII, }?:Iym.:.r m
-_It rhr:c.rigy,
L)
4.
5
(_,f p:-llyrn-.i
'
6.
7.
_
.
8.
1
9'
John wi I
981
H-r's-G -:')r"J': Eilins-M.rcrc,m,:r:i:ur
..s v,;r.f
7)e 4
1rJ. Ro,:,r T. Fenncr, principl.:s
M:cnililrn
POLY",I'R. IZA
TI ON
1979.
,-.y.S. S, )nS
r,r_.-,num Eli,+qQ
-lf p lyrni:r pr:::.-.ssing,
.
I{ECH|.I,J r Si,4S
(2oL)
of c 'ndi,hs 'r-i -11i ;::11,,"n._r.i:; t_i il ry,:..s
:l:Tl:t:v.
e'rLr rrr -'i-.'lYft'l:'r's typ'-'s
'..-f stepr,vist--:
,:_,f c._:,ndch_
lilci,-:ns. rntcrf:cial
e'-'nd.:trs't-i,.'.:r p,inq vrt:.sus c.rrn
r r-m i,r._.-,.n K-,nctics
*o:ct-r-vity
no l::-rr-crir.-l:: s:Lzc.
.
,\\\
C*,ntd.. _L9-..
,------
-i'L,
2L
propu.rtit,s.,Electrical pi'.rp;rt-.1_*s. OpttclI pri,pcrti::s
The.rm -i pr-i-:p... rti=s str. uctur I rc,.1ui-,r-m'ri't-q fr.;r fi_ll,..rsr
plasti:s -tnd i:ubb,-:rs.
cqir.:riii-:s n..l p,:lymi:s: crassif ic.lti .n ,.:f c,:r..imics, structure
cf c,-r rmics, lil,.:ctric.-rr pr -;p.:rt1:s ^,f crrrrnic.s/ Thrrm:r
m.-Clt jnitr-iI pI.L.,peFtiesT R-=frectur:i,.:s -:nc1 gI:ss.,.s, p:;Iymcrs,
,..;f p1,,Iycrs ir: r::ltti
pr:c1 :rti-s
n tc oth.;r m:t,_..ri:rIs.
,:r
FUncti'-:n -'.I pc;lirm:'rS 3 f ntr,:dUct-i,-,11 , ph.-;t,lC .nduct .i vc p,.:Iymcrs
Icn rxchangc r.-sins p,Iym.,ric r_,agcnt
Transitir,'ns in pe'rvmt:rs : Thc gli:ss transitia:nr De.r-,:rmin.etilr:
cf Tg, Factors 1nf luu.ncing Tg, Thcrmrrcryn:rnjss -,f rn:,Itir:,E,
Gen='rrl- '-rbs':'rvatir-n ,:br-;ut rq -'.nd Tm, Crystarr_inity in
polymcr. ;-lf f cct .;f crystsL Iinitlr r,:n pr:opr)rtii- s ? ijlcct.ric.:I
lnd i-,prllqiI nrri:,:rtic.s _sf p.-rlrzrners.
Strr--s :nrlysis
::f_ pr- Ivm,-,rs:
Stress str:in lc,,h:vi-l,us
Str-,s,s ,:Inf iys.i s .rf pclym -.r, c1rr,1 .,11,1a Io:rC ri;splns. :f.
pcrlymcrs :n,i,_ff,-,ct,.f
cycl-ic IitrciiaE
R.ef ,.r,.itc.:s
- l{- n:-i Urr:ich, rntrr;Jucti- --.n i--i; inciustri:: r p,_.r)rm,rrs,
iI r:lsr.n publish..rs, L9B2.
2. J..:. Srycs-:n. PI,_.sj-cS M.it.,ritJ.s, Nc-.;,,n;_-SS RutIt:rwerths,
1
345.
ic:i -t .
i"1'1t-Jri'.r Sci-'ncr: & pr,:ci'ss, s.K. EIajr:-: Cr-r;:ucihury
Iiatcri:-I Sclcnc.: , J .C. :.f1,_ig;si_n & i{.D. Lclv<r.
w-r,:d m:. II.r,
Ir,, rule I Lj_=11.;,
_lui
pltstics pr,lducts D:sign
p-rrt r-; & B
H .,:tabr,_.;<,
I
I
I
i
I
t
I
I
;
I
I
C-ntcl...:.22
22
i,iic f vc'-,r
:-..
--
PR;:c!rc
1.
Ch:mi_ccI kinetics
:!_i
(Z
_--__I]$yS r C.:,L CHEMTSTRY
cXpi:.r-jm,.:nts)
1'
s1:-:ci'fic rescti'-'n rat,- ,)f :cids c:rt;rly2.cl
leydrcryses
. .,:: m,,:thyI _-rc.:it.:t.tr.
( a) ,J.. term1n:rtion
;f r:_i_e ,cr__rnst lnt
.(b) Conrparisr-,n (rf strength r:f- tvr,:-, sm: l_.,s
t._.f stmr., .rc-iC
2.
S=
p>n_tf ic.1ti;_;i.t
L!, -.crs--,rpt1 n
,:f cthyl t:.j,titt.: (:,j.t_..3ri.tii)nrlqr.:,nduct;1pc.,)
(3 :.,ip._:;irn.,llts)
1. V-rif 1c,-,ti _,n , f ?r..un,jIj.cii lnil L.,.t-nruii- _c1s
_,rpti,:,n
isr thirm
2. t'r-,terrL:ini."i.:n ,.,t c a:-. .1.1 : ti i-: ,, _,.: .ii:
_cii/,;x,rlic
r_lsf :tg L-rngmui-,: ,-rsl:,:tl;ti
.fh,rm
,:n isi
ITf .
Ph.:rs
-. criuiIibrj.l...
(
4
--:lp.:r-ira.
,:rs)
. ,5:-1,,.)1 :: .-ut.:ct ir: .rys1-lm
2. Dct<_'.r-ninrti,--n t),f st mpa,s .:_ _,n binar.r ,:utcctia
systenr
3. Phrse di:qr:m :_.f bin.:ry sc;lici sys+_,.iii f,:;rrning
n c(-)mpund
4. ,lritic.rl
sc:l_uti.,n t-,..mi_-,-.;:__rtu.r_, ,-:i pi-r.. noI
1
w:Ltc,r system
IV.
f.
ivil,
C,.;I L j_E.:_t
ivi, pr(-,p_)rtic
l-,:cuI,irr.
T,.!7.t
iglit-fr,m
Ct.,r,Iing CUrV,.;
2.
3.
l'1.-'
'1,,.,;cuI
M,: 1.,
g
d-,.:pr,.:,ssi,
ru:
r-.,f
tr rrrsi,t1,.:,n
p<__,i
nt_
m.,th,:_rd
er weiEht-cry.ls. _,ilic
euI-.r.r
,t.i
j_ght_f,.ast rn..thr
;nc c,.:.rJ
,d
V. Equil ibrj_um
:il;-,;
:' ;;H:::;";:.;?":'ff";
tnc lia3
p:,irtiti
CuS:,4
by
;n m th;G.
f
c, mpI --x fnrm:l-_i
t"l :t t.
,-'
-.,n
,'j'.ii,i:C . . . .23 . .
23
Rcf r:r,; ilcL-s
1'
:
trr'-:cticar physi-c rr cht,mistry, A f Fincray, Ix;nernrlrrr S
grcrn & Co
Pr..ctic,-.I physical chemistry, i..M. Jlmes. J.r-.. Chicochil
\'
2.
, #,-{
L LV..
-
3-
Ex1:-'r-i-m,.nt,-:r
Mccr:iw Hj-lI
Expcrim ntll
inivi:irsity
physic.rl chcmi-stry R.i,. Arberty
pltysicai chcmistry
.,ther
r,,rl.G. pa.Imr:r, c:rnbrj_<1ge
p.r(::ss
5. Expi;'rim-'nts in physical chemistry-, D,tr.
C.lii. Gerl::nd, MccrLw HiII
PR/iCTrqiL If
.en.f
shccm-rk._.r and
. Oii.Gl,trIIC CHEMfSTRY
f . Lablr3tilry tect]rriqu:s
I{r_=t}rr:ds -rf se p:rati,.n ,:rrcl purific::;1.._,n i:f ,.rrgf ,nic
comp">ur'rds-fracti 1rr r stc.:.rn -,nG r. iv prtss,fc' cj-istirr.aticn
fr:rcti. i:al cryst:IIiz:tt_icn rnd sublim ,tion
rr. s.-p'rr::.ti,.;n -'lnd id+ntific'rti- r .,f ilr c,-1.r)()unds
Org-lnic bin,,r)r mixtUrijS ,.rn:t-. l/s,_- S ,.:f al_.r_ut ten mixt,i-JS?
scm(-, .":- v,ihich r:,,ut rinj_ng ci.mp(jui.jcj s .,;ith mi-rre than
with
functi-;::. 1 gr,;ups ic:nt-i-!iciti,;n
:rf iir= )rQt-rDic ccmpound
r-c-tl
by r.-,hirs
m,-.'uh .,ds incr by prrp-.ir, r.ti,:)n f d.._.rj_vativc.s
f ff
IV.
.
,llurl-j-t:..t-ivi: :rrg:nic tn.tl.,,5;,;s (Tw: t,-,
bc <1.,.,n:)
Crg..nic cstim-ti_,-,n rf,.,8.,:G (_)lt functir-;n-rl gr(:up
Prep:r itir:n ,._:f sirnple ,,rq-nic c^,mp:uniis (12tobe done)
-.t Ie;st C sh'uI.l bc ,:f c.:uJ:1I,,
st_,qq- Drlp.l;:.ti rn.
Id.:ntific ti_ ,n by uj,in,J physictl_ rn:th;ils
Refercnc-.s:
f
i' ' -i 'vi"gr'-'r - , ,1i Text b,rok o-f pr:ctic:ir or,qanic chemistrT
2. System:tj.c iclcntif ic:ti _,n f r,-...rt-iic c,,mp.und.s_
shrinar, Fuson inci Curti._-n
Contd..1.241 '
f
11
24
irts in ..rg-rnic ::l-r .,.i,t'l:y by Fi S-..i.
Pr-,ctic-1,,rgtnic
:h-:mistry. li -nn . nc s unc,-rs .
5. L-h,. r;::t:ry m nu-,I cf :rglnj_c ci-t.rnistrir-D
y, Sj_ttf-imu
-nci G:vind :ch ri
6. Exp._rim it-I ._rrgr;ric c.le,rnistry_v I.f :,nci
V.-:,I-II..p.R- Singh,
D.C. Guot- -no ;a.S. R.,jp i
Pr'- ctic- L ,.rg lnic ch.,mi_strv
by.vi-s.rm.:ri
3.
4.
Tx1o.
r1m.
gqg_rlJ.'lr
._P*B
1.
2.
3.
4.
-Q.-Ij .L.;IIf :-rilQlQ_.rr:
Jl.l- '1I.r J,r?y
- -'-
lt pt? r
D_t.::min-t_i n -'j H:trdn.-s: (rf 1rr:l_:-,.^
iu :ntj-t -tiv , ii1'rlys.,s .f O.r.s. (2:xa)
Qu:ntit 'tiv._, :n':Iys-'s :: ,:,IL.zs, t,2- <p)
EsLin ti 11 ,f IvH4+, rr-=3'l--| go cr. ' :tc 5y c l.rrrim:_.tric
../4j
m th
S iI
c.rs
5.
nc1 F-.rtj-lizcr
-n-:lysis.
6. Fr p'r:ti 'i-r -,,f fn ;r;-nlc c.,lirpl--:ig: s (Bnurl--:rs)
R,:f
:rcnc
.,s :
1. ;. t .;-, bi,:k -.:f rru::ntitativc in. :g_ j.li_c _,nrIysis_
;_.I. V:g.:I.
2' 'Ju-ntit'tiv-'
ch--mic.ri n.r-ys..s- r.ii. K:th:.ft -ri.ld a.3..
seun_
dcrs n
3. ?-.ch.,ic-I mcthr;cs _f -)r_ n_Ivsis
4. ,.dv rlC -O'. Dr':ctic.: I inr,rc, :nlc cit _i.istr-y .D.i;
. r,rc-j ..c &
L,
5.
6.
7.
. i.
t]|D'-:I
Ixp rin'i,nt-'I in,_,rg_.p1" ch_rriistry r:i..G" p Im_.r
f n:,r,-:rric synthesis. C II .,ctiv.., vr__,Iurnss
H-li-rC.l:.- k l-;f prr.p-:rr:t..ry irr,.rrg_:nj_c
cit- mist::1r v.,,1 i & fI
G. 3r-'u r.
.L IV irO-yl1lR Cri Tif f?.iy_ I
F--R lp ?..Tfi/'l pOLyl,t:R
f.
3,i,j"tf iTRy
1. Pr.;: r ti n f nyli,n 66
2 . Pr p-.r:.rtj--.n .;f r.:Iym-,thyIm:tl_i cr:yIt-.
o
.
PR,.C?fi--.
{
( pl,O4/i)
C,*,nt(i, 1c,t25.eio
I
25
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
B.
9.
Prcp::r -'tr,- r ,f poly ..yi^mi.i: (F:-,.-r dic-.I pclymc.rlTa{ir-:6}
trr i; i- ti n ,f 1-.- Iy,tcryI rmii - -ly r.:d.:-.x 1oolynr..-riz,rti --n
Pr. p'r':ti -n cf glypt:l r-,sisns
Pr.:p:rati;n ,:f Lj_n.:.:r p,jIystyr-.i1 ,
Pr -p:-:: ti n 'f crosslinl<,<.r p,_,Iystyr-i-t.:
Pr.-,p r,lti.-n 'lf urc.1-f '-.,rm,rIo.hyc.. r.,sin
Pr..:.p-1-;-.ti:n of 1:hcnrrl-f.)rm-, lcJ. hy.., r-.sin
II.
1. lurlit-rtivc .':n':Iys..:S '',f p'. Iym-.rs
>yst--'m tic rn IySis cf vlr,;i---r p'Iymlrs (10 s mplcs tr,. be d-.ite )
2. Ourntit':tiv,: .n-:Iysis ;f p )Iyrx.r prcducts f ,:r th f iIlers
us.:o.
P?j,CTIC
(3)
.-1,--
i:r
P:rt
V
POLYITTiR. I ]:I:I:?P.Y
Polym-r physj-cal
II
\
't,f p';Iym-.rs by
pfr,sslJf:: m :th,:d.
Vj-sc.-rm!.try I D.'t =rminrti:n
:[ .n I criI.:: .rl.ight :,f i>rrlymcrs
by visc,.'si-ty m-'isur..:'m-.Dts l-f di.lutu s--rIu.tilns.
pct -nticm.tric *;*-"51ilS: f*r*X*t5 t t
.i'.-.1.^ / r.r-'r15
csm-tic
2.
?
to,io,
nts :f pcly-.1-.ctr rlytic s- Iuti.:os
Study cf p.Iym:r ctr.,I;rti:n by sp,,,ctr,-:phot:rmctry
6. ChrlrLr:tr,gr phic techniqu=s fc,r ti:. ,fi-rlysis::f 1:llym-:rs
'7. MC,SU:r-,jm nt r--f th rm,rl c_,ni;uctj.vittz :f -', 'palyrn.-r sh:::,:t
usi.,g L:-.s Oj.sc m-..thi-rd
B. T.st f :r l,,tcx: dry rub-ber c ntcnt, tr-.t:l solid c.lnt.-,ot,
4.
5.
PH m,-..:.sur::'m-
3mr-nl c,-,nt..l.lt rnc.i pFI
9. C.,.m;::ris, n
P
R.T
B
,'L
c-,u-city ,.-f p--:Iym.,r' s..'Ii;,s hy phctom--.tric mcthod
:l'O:,Yitil.R. -P"OC :lS
i I'rc
1. pllstic procr.ssi ig
l) rnjccti n molding-H.rnri typ,
b) Ccmpr.-,ssi ..n m"Iding
II I\t:,r:Sui'-m nt .;f m,:ch.:niCal_ prCp,'rti S
5p cim-.n pr..p ir::ti:,n f .r rn--1sur mi.'i'rt r,f t-.nsiI-. stfcrrgth.
m.: ^iSul: :'ITt<'ilt ,;f h rdn: ss, .,Jcrri si' n rcsj- st: nCs. , ::nd t.:ns1L.'
str^cngth ( dcmi:n str rtl- 'n :nIy )
Centd. .. J6. - . .
26
Referunc.is:
For IV and V
1. Mc. Ctff..rty, L.ilccrrtl,ry pp;.p':r:ti:tn f.
ch -mistry, Mc Gr-rw HiLM'lC
2.
Irlacri_r
moli:cuIar
BiIIueeyer, Brros :ncl CoIIipsr ,,Expcrim,.nts
in polymer
Sci .ncc,r
.
3.
K..rrn 7,,Ti_.c16i<riui-,s
ll:"1"ch:r,ctcris:t
.ln::o,.:,nd j_:n", riiley,
rnd
79f
!.
.,f
!.Drt_ym:r.
- rJrui.L
synthesis
:;ynEncsl
C;r:td...Z'1 ....
t lt
t
Z>
Ref er'_,nc.- s :
iriv i-lc..o inorglnic chcmistry , F.,-. C-:,tto.r -'ir(Gi vliIl(ins,_rn
2. In,'rgrnic ch;_.rniStry, J.2. I{uhcr:y
3. 11.c..rn .sp.rcts of incrganic ch_.mistry I{._r. Ernsl.,-r ;,
& .G. Shrrp-.
4- Pri-.-rcipl. s -rf Jrgtno m(ftf-Ilic ci.,mp:,un<1s p.
F,rseII, ChaFoan
.rnd !-I Il.
5. Or1 ,.61 ,t, rr:-taIIic chi:mistry_ i:p intrr:c,uct
i :,n R.C. M.-.6rrtra
f.
6
.rirci' sinEh
Ini-::E-; nj.c
.
chemistry I(.F. P:rc-.II
:pcr,
J.C. i(,tlz
r .s :
1. -i-f .,r.:ilC:,s in ,_)r,,, 1no m .t.-. Ilic c..rnil uncls
112 -rllu
i';r17--1116" in -rg:'ic
2'
cl-I-'nrlstry- vor.rr Gurd():-,p ?:j.
R ,.f
.::,:
i-t
IL'IST?.ll',- lmirL l{ITI{Oy)S f)I I;.TO;?G;.:.rIC lar-l.l\if
iTRy
6
(16L)
Er'=ctr'-: :,nrryticrl
t -chniqu:s: vrrt:m try, cycric vot")m:.tfy,
sp;.ctr-t photometry.
Thr,rm.:I ,:ln-, Iysis : Friocipl_.s, TGi, )Tii :nd
,
DSC_th.:ir
,
- p :lic t iun s PoI trim.,try,
.,: : fr ..ct ._.m.:t ry,
cttrr :1.;t,,t D.,ir3 phy_
c- Iuiln/ ,ip.:r, T.L.C G:s & :J.p.i,.C.. Det_-.rmi_nltir-:n
of
?. v-:lu-.
Principl:s C,f rt::mlc ',tcs;rpti n .Sp-.ctrr)sc )p1r (A.-.St ,nd
;tcmic ;missi.,n sp.-.ctr )SC,),L1y (,i.8.S. )
Pr>Ilr':,qra1:1-ry, *lmph,-.1:omr_.tryr Cr_r|.u-r:linctry,
r
?ef
f.
2.
-.1-
-.ilc..
S
l
iu-Iit rtivc n:Iys,_.s A.I. V:g-. I
Instrum..nt.rI m--th-;os in ch-,mj.ocstry ,IiIl.--ricl
,
:1
I'trUCLE..'1 CI:I li1I.3?Ry
M.-_D1I
& )eaw
(I6L)
R--'.dio-ctiv-' o.Cly '-.nd equirirrrium-nucl.or r.g_:,t*cti,-,ns_
e rraru<-typ's ': r-'urcti---ns- ch-.micrr i-..r-.f.-:cts f rucr_-,rr tr:rnsfarm,rti,n
{- r-c -il-;ff ,-cts lf r.ecri-ti n c. m-t-,ri Ls-fis,,ir>n ,nd fuston,
fissi.n ,)F ,CUCts .nci fissi n yi., Icts_,? di.- f;:ctivc t,:chnj.qUr-,S_
tr'tcer t chniqu.,_.s- n.utrr_.,n rctiv.ti.ir
n-rlys. s-- crrunting
tc'chniclu''s suc]'r s G-11 , i:'iz--rti.,n r;-)'-. r.,'r-.]),rLio,n.r
ci.rrter
R.ef "'f -:nC:
1.
?'.ii'ti.
S;
n ch._:mistry t .,A ilrtr-,oucti.,n
,...
tr. SwrII,::w. I.rongm.rn
Ccntd...30...
30
2.
2
' '::n i-ntrcducti-n to r.er;i ,ti ,ii cir.-iiristry J.u.?. spinks
D T
frr^^^l
i\e(rr
3'
"*,;.ods, Jlhn
Eso-'ti:r^:
Sou::c".
fi'IORG.
b.-,
IVil_.y
--if nucr.r-r ch.,-rni,+-r-y FI..f - Aruikrr..
)l< of l,IucIsrr Er1.::re}r. GIQ.stOne
.\if l pOLy}IEp.S
Jr>hn
e
irir*y
(.72L)
Clrssii-i:-lti
h: 3or;n p,;Iyrners: f _ir(tzines, bor,-rnnitrides,
siric':n ,crr'mers- silic )il srs, silic t --s
..ha.snhi:,., us 1,',rym,-:rsm;t,r. ph, :p)e t,. s, p,rly 1:r :sph::t.:s, pir..,si:h,:nitrii
.. p.-:Iymers.
Sulilhu:: .;i- lymr.f s: Nitr.idcs -:,: suI,,__,hur
R,l.f
erenc
f ncrg.n i
-.
e
3 if :tlymr-rS : Ch:tw , I
C.,,nto....31....
-'1
{j-q?iR
v!
.r-')t,'-.1'r. j-.Ry
.P.'-,'-
-: -rj
(
120L
)
.L prt.LytrjDR j
(r5l)
Pr':oucti.n, pr p:rti._.s c__xnptunu,1,r,g
rti, .,pirIic tti rts ef ilrlustritl
polym:rs: C,:mm_.,ctity pI..:stics.such
ts ?p, pE, pVC, pS.
Engin''rlng pr'stic- such 's
-rriryci,'tr.r, pr--,Iy:miqr-. (ny-..n 5 anc
nyl-',n 6,5) , pqly:ryl,rt ,, p:Iycail!.Jn_tr-,,
;).,Iy..st-.r (p*/ p_.i?)
f ).rDUS:.R.f
,
p:;'rvimioc p,.rli"nvr
-'n -' oxii.r, r)
'
::':"il:i-I, ''-'trlrc ''
'lv (phc-nyr-.:.pr:stics such 's pF, Trr, irF
r.poxy, uns6,1tur-:tad
;I;:;::::'"n
Fi'aers s.rch ,rs :.]ci--t3tg, r y.)rt,
vicsq. .r:a!:.,,i.t, p_ly_=ster, nyir:n,
,::lefin s, -r.cryl_ics
c-=ncrc:- ,S1p rs: rubb-.:cs
suc r r s ri, --_.-r? F,i.. rrf
/
/ ED.)l"i
Sp;ci'. I ,-urll)s,. i-ubb_.rs such
., cf " ,.ill , C_rlr,, fl.u.rpc:r]:..n
rublce s/ sil.icone rubbg.rs
-.te.
lef:r-nc_s:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
" -3ry,1s.,n, pI :_tics Iirt-,r-i-:Is, !I-.wn,,,. ss-$r-r
cterw,r:rth s 1 :Ag r.: .
C ";,,r. llrLw, lubb-.r
T-.chn,.-. I ;q.,2 ..ird Il3n
-:
uf Ct ure ]tr',wnc.-s -e_Ilrit t ;r_
w,-.,r'l .:;, l9'l 7.
Mu::ic Ii- r-t:,n, f ubtr T_ciror..,I _ .:iz
-ilcu.stri_,t
I{<-.it.i:i Ulrichr fntr,-.oucti : L
p-,Iym-,p- Htnscr
Fub]:- ;h.:rs l)a2.
H-.ns:-G._.,:jro. EIi.:s/ i.I,-rcr],m.-rl,_cul,_,s
V..I.2,
Ch-'.rI_s.-,. iJ,:\fii-f, Il:lnrl.).: ft _,r pl_st__i_gg
'liltj. i:1: 91r )rnjr s ,
McGl .-HiIL 1915.
J "..
POLYIII
"
lR :
-rr':pOUr,rDf
.1G
,-iD P'?otlssfrr.l
(20L)
,--dditiv .s f r c.jmp u:roinE pI-:stics:
FiII.:r-s, FI-,sticiz-.rs
lnci ,s.-'ftl,r: s, lubric-:nt s
--ncj f I::ri pr_r in..,t __i-s z _nti-_.rg,- ing
.ld.iti,z.:s, fI -m. r-t-fi.,i-.1-g, :,:Ilur-:uts,
bI,;,ing rg.,nts,
IfV st::iIizsrsr
?_.9rr.ril:.:m_,nt rnr. furr:ti.;it
_f .-.-,:h ir.tgrcdir.nt_,
ccmp(-uDrri---tg Ingr=-cii-.nt s
f :r R.ub.b _r : , Fil_ I _.rs_r inf .rcing,
s.-'r.ri-,. -'i.i =ij''aciiig- rnc n,.,.n
r.li.lf rrcitrg, ;;.:ptisirs, vurc.:nising
Contd.,a32...
!
32
lgeitts / ctiv :t -rrs 2 ac,J,-. I.-.:r ' t :'.s / ^: ilti ;xj-dants, pigm..lrts, t;rcl<if crs, bI':.;in.' rrli..iltsz b'ding rg,-.nt-s, -:rtc p-::lccs-inE -iils.
C()mp':tunL l-sv'ii.-'1Jn-.nt, f :fm.rl ti ,l ]- ,, i>ai 3 / g ;,.n-1.;1-16r-if t1g f ':t
If,..cif-,i c ?lpplicrti -ns--.-.2 jn-j r--sistrnc-r, h - -:t r sistanc.'r we :th,:r.
.;iL tLrc, ri)ci -ti-n rcsisrfoC-, i-np,rrlrs: Ltit-ity, m-'Cic-I .pDIigiltirt.n
I,-]Wz t.;il,t. j1. ttUr.. lJli .jp_,1-ti_.S, -, Ls.ct;-1C.-:I ..^tul -rl--\EiC 1 rppliCltj. ,nS.
.
--
rn-th itis f'-r t'1, m:nu'F ctur: ,.,-i p,:.-.'Jucts with ciry
rulcb=-r oI.i1oii1; -rno m'stj-c.ti n/ mrr-sc.-.r britching c'f polymers,
mixin:- litc c'.-,r0i),.)unclin:J, mj-Ii:, n.; i'ii:.::n I mix .rs. C '1.-.ndcring
shu.-.tl -- r f :lcr-ic c-'-:tiitE / extcirsi n, ril >L'-"irtg. B:,tcl'. curing
t.'r cu::ing,
math.:cr s-" utncl-tn., curlngrg-ls curing, (.,v,-'l cufiriQ,
I.-td curl,'rE .crIo curing c':,ttinur-us vulc':nJ-zrti- n m-.'L-hcds-bigh
prcssu.c.l st.-':mr hct :-r-ir tunir,-:l rnrlt ir .;'lt 'l:t,th7 fl-uiclised
b.:d c-.,:tinu ,us drum cura' :-xo micr )!v lvr' curii-t.1 .
Finj-stiiirg - .! rubb.::: c .'mp()n.,nts: .PI-sh n.,, 5p.:.'u; r-Rr'-,V.lr punching,
grindin,l , sl-iot blrsting, p-jnting (J)J. I,cqu-,ri-::r.i rnc'ch.mic-:I
surf ,:Ic..' :r-, 't-m.,nt.
Prcc=.ss:,'lq m th-.cs f rr .:l :l-i:s y)': -. u:ts il-;nu;'tctur-,: I{cthods
cf rnixirg, anj,.,ctj- ir, c -;npr-,s i .r .ril i-r ;tsf -,r mr, Iuiin,l/ ..-xt'-:nsi:-nr.
c.1I.-'n,. *:;iirg, th-.rm';f :r:rniir,. '-)--o,,-' rrir'li-ii-i-.,, t'rt-rt j--n l m:ICing
lnLr s,i-usl.r rnrlcii-rE,
Pri--rc.-s;i.-t1,
\
'.
R.=f -=f
-';l':
,
S:
1. J. . '3ryo.s:ln , FI ".stics m 't..riris.
Butt-:ri,,r:rths 1989.
2. F.- . 3iIIrn'*-yc'r. 'I rxtbc,:k :f ,',,-,I1rm,.'r Sci -nc-., ,iiIt y
int.'rsc j- - D,ru. , 1971 .
7. w. - " H.,m-s- ;'jelkerr pcrlym-r c rrversi.,r-r, ,;ppli-ro Scicnce
1y-75
. 14: urici Moft,_-rn, lubbcr T._,chn._,Irr--]y.
5. C.i'. 3I w t R.ubb;r T:c'hn .I '.Ey it(r Iit'nuf 'ctur-',, ll--wnesg,
Butt -rw.rths, 79'7'7 .'
6. R.T. F-nn;r., Prj-,13ipl.:s f .--,Iyncr -i).t c..,ssitrg, Mrcmillrn
7)79.
7. 'i'r ...-">. lI:untln, Th-. rppli-,d Sci n.,-, f ?ubb-.r/ St.I,inrtj.nrs
4
Y. l )'c7 .
B. !,"3. fish-r.,
-,xtrusi n r --l c'-'i,-:: ,r:rr/itg.SSz BUtti:rrr/-)trth.,
l9-7I "
9. R.C. r. Py.-', l.n j l:ti n Ilrl-us l-,si-rn G,.c-:'rin 1918.
10. . ?.., I-v:nt Ch.-pt-.r:s f .t:.,1.'_ .-.'- j_- t: i) lyrr r sci._,i-rc_: &
'il -.ehacI: ;y.
Fl: ,.s , .
l':I
.
Contci.
.. .33. . . .
-
^\r
33
PO-1Ir . : -l:l- I:-G .".r1)
Cr-r
,?j,CT-l-.f S Tf ir:.r
(21L)
j.l . 1' S';'-nt, I:ci3 :nCl St .,-.),-,'^f(,-) <:fc;'niZ:lti .nS. -DrCCc.Sjtilu p.-rf "rm' nci, rte sti ;-, ':f cl- rstie : 'nd rubb--rs. l{.ltJri-:l
bilit',2
chrr ct riz-ti
rn t-.Sts such ',s trrgit fI' , iitc,..;( hl.it, c:pi_lL.lry
rher_,n,:t_r teSt-/ vj_SC,Sity t-.5t, 1,,_I D_.rrl"ilti'n cjtrlm,,tlgraphy/
th rm L 6n'-.t Lys:s sucil ,s TG.,,,, 'lli', -,.),:-, -) jl .
Imll:-,::',-
a
M::tJri I: ch rrct-.i:is
ti -'n t-,s; s ,!'r the.rm s,.ts: ,.pp'-r.nt bulk
c--ns-L'iy, buI)< ,! ct'->r .-i:u p,.- u:f -rr1 i Ii. .z :' 1:I: :.;l i.:s m t.:r'i'rIs.
Fl _-,w t=-i:
such tS S.oj_r.r.I j_1,-_, ,, cupr 1'I , visc :ity .t-_-:S:s
f . :: t,r-'rITl .- s,.t r-.sins-Bur:.bl - visc ,rn-t -,'i' . l-l . l<f 1 l-cl visc 'rTl1.,'t*lr,
g.;I 'i--ir' -L'tu ,f....:k ixl)thJ'rmic tem -cr '-it - -f- r:'t.'-:ri'a,-;.-ttit-tc rasins.
a
T:;isiI?,
f l..xur-':l -ir,- C''f:r).l -.s-i ir
Mlci-r-,ri: -I p:::o'.rtj---s.
cr-.-,p pr-,-,'., lrti.-J,
st-r-,s1 r L::<rt-i-n, jinir-ct pr')pcr-pr.,p-;:ti.-s;
i-br:si'.'1 , f -i-iru- .;it-l -: rin-s= .-tc.
tj---s1 -'J..".T gtr-n;th,
n'..,,nir L-tura,-,/ vicat s-'ft-.ning
h.r:(.-t Jefl.t.'tr
Th-.rrr-1. ,;,:-'p:rti-s
tem.]:;:'..ii:r , t;rsi -n p.:ndulum t St, t,-i';rrn-'I I ,;lC:uCtivity,
th.-.rin ) .xn- :i.3j. ^ 11 7 britt-,'l- .-.n
.
ti.'s o:-.I ::tr:i'r :rt:c rr]th/ 'li. i ctric c :nstant,
!- ct:-,r , I :ctr.ic:. 1- fl lisl:(.,i1 . :i{e r,,;ist.rncc .:tc.
,J- -[J,r'tj-:s. UV, I-., '-r ),, mic,::..,dr9 iri-ms, humidity,
|o, v{ t-r / ti, rri :L .t'r 'trj-I , c-'l!,mj-c -:I -1 ct rs
L)r-i:r-,r
.,
Optic lL -t'rr 'prl:ti., s r.,.f f :ctiv,- 1n...:x,
Lnci ', z. cr- Ir-uir z gI -.ss
iL-,,-rtiir.,,t'.;
tr itsnritt:.ncc
rcterizlti
n: f uncti'-ir- I \jr' u:) -t n,Iys'i rl/ us.r 'f
n Lysis,
ch.--rRi: '- . -.sli:.,ils rnd d :;r :d-;- i n f ''t structur.t
v-:i .,r3 ,iiiCr.tgg;_ pj-c t:clrniqu,s Ju.cr-: ,.I.-l t trc '1 rnlCraSC.-lly
,:l,.. li:r ;l mlcr'-, sc,;.-)1/ rnu -. I -,ctr- n '-,if ?r cti t\ r sC 'oDiilQ -I-'ctr':n
micrrc 'ly -tc. lnci sp-'ctr,t'sc pic t:clrniqu.'s sucil As I.P,/ FTIR/
',:C.
i,jMiR / l.-.'r-, ?am .n, IIV-VISj-'tI:, f 1-u:-'r: SC:itC P-:Iyrn--,r, c:) -rr
Rcfer,nc--s:
1.
2.
. Br 'rvn T:stlnrl '.,- Rulcl--:, .,pp]1-u ici -,rc-- Pu'clish-'rs.
l- -lo -1C s T-,st m-.th rcs /
Tv -:: , .Iylc -rd nC. {1 i.'1' , i - ;rJ.h . .. ;
lit-, oubIish,.'rs
.e. ?
Clntcr. ..34. ..
.
a
ti
J.!
3. R. p. 3r i;n , H .nclh ::ii 'f '?L stics Ts'st m.'th'rus.
4. Vishu sh-:h, l{.,nilbc:k O,f .lI-stics tcstj.ng t-::trn;}cgy. j',finb
''iI-y E s'-ns, 198l- .
5. AfTI\ir .B.3. BIS '-rncl lIlI st:nilarcls "'.1,- t-st rn<=thlds.
FIts" I :CI l)1:l
,:l) TEC11'-OL(trGY '
(
29L\
Intr: iucti ..n. D-.f in-itj. -n ,f f i'.lc-rs, us- : f i'-r,.::s i-n th.' rubber
irrcu;try, cI-:s:i-fj-c-ti :n lnci n.:m.=ncI ,tur - :f '=ibrrs. structur:I
1;ri,:tcipi ,s -'f f iber f -,rrning p ,l1rm*.r::-rJ.guL:fj-t'f , shl];c ,-,nci
1nt:r-cti
, t pe-:t Ienqthr '-.ii1 :il-t <.,ir,-'cti -;r:Iity, singI" ch-lin
c-,rrf a-,ril ci':i-i ;lo cjrtin stj-f f n-.s':.
't1
Fib.:rS uSr>c in rulrll..r- -i-nuUStry. Ch-mic:'I c.rm .''-:siti'n, p:-'rductil;n :).n(_. US_- -.-i= v-g-,+-:bI-. fi.l_,:S SUCl-i a C,-;ttr-'n fI:X (Iin n and ,
c,-,ir) :nrm- l- fi't:r's such 'aAs r . -lI il- :+-hc::sr mitl-'reI fj-r:ers
such ', -: sb':st.s :nr1 EI s:.
Prri,.ucti:.'n, ch-.mic-, I clm': siti rn, p:: .,-r.-'rti,s nq t-'sti19 '--'f
man-m..'--. fib-r:s sucl-l :s visc-:s---r^rv(11/ c'-'IIuI '5; -lc-'t::tr-,
nylr:nl. 55, nyi.-n 6 , p-Iyst Li, - :rwlics :rtd EI rs; fib*rs'
princirrl- s ,-f f inishiirg :rnd. oy*ing -.'f rn-.i1 m :i.: f il--;rs - Fiber
:.f v-ri:us textil-'
pi: .p-'r:ti-s l'n'- pr';c-'ssing - D--f initi:'n
t rms such -s t3p:city, C,:ni 'r, m'isj-ur-j c.-'nt-'nt, m'listur-'
r;.g ,,ii-i, f unci.,m;nt:lS ln(r g -.n-,r.:L t-,ChniqU-.S ''f f itcer Spinning
(mPIt, .,^/-.t & dry spinning), fir:i-r ur:',vi.t<7, h:rt si'ttj-ng,
t=Xtuvisin,; .f f il:ers jtc. Pr ,-.ucti 'n f y:r1-1 - nd textil:s
i<nittlng nui I .cing, bonding
frrm clff-,rcnr- fir::rs-f,:Iti-ng,
usi-' tnd t:stinq.
a.nd',v-- :viilg-th,'ir
I
?. f -'f L'IIC.-'S
1.
'2.
3
-f e InIrn-m::d-,. f i'ocrs
IncycI.:,i-'.crj-e --,f P .Iymcr Sci"oc- & Engin- ring., "{i}
intcrsclJnc..s 1985,
14,--ncri
,'y
Contd'-..35..7
35
(2q,\
LATEX T'rlCHi.-CLoGY
3tlv,' Study ,.:f i -tcx ^tLi lf -Iymer s. Iuti rt5, n.'tur.iL ..:nd
syntli:tic I:tic:s , I ttex - no. i ::iz rubl: :r c .'rnp.-'un(. inE . Principles
-,f I:t'u>< c..,mr:.'uniing-deanrn:,r j-&t j-.-^-t :f l-,'!t-)<3 sc.I-.ctj.Lltt c--,mpluncling 1ngr...oi.:nts rnd th i:: ma...,, ,.i! inc-'r:p'rati )n (oisplrsicns
& cmulsi i:s) L.rt..:x c )mprunding-st,-l:iliz:rs, dispcrsing end
cmulsifyirrE qg.:nts. d ,'ttj-nE .:q..;nts, tl-iici<:ninq -:gen'ts, =rc j-ds
:lnd .l:h-:r misccll'rn-vus rn-IEc,:j--'I s.
.r
CCrmp,rtl
'
i ubb:i: E ''lds
rctu;
f I:t:x p:r:cducts. iI:nuf :ctur;
by impr:gn--tirn --no spr.-loj.n3 ilr.c-'sscs-f -'':::ic ,jrrcf ing,
casing :n,i imprugn'.tion, tf-='.trn*-,-tc .,= )r'r,ls, thr.',ld,s, c.t-ds
:nci th.- Iih- iir tir. I:.t-.x t -, m - nu:r:- ct-':r-' pi:^-uctS ,'f. c .mmerc-ilI
int-'rests.
M;rnuf . ctur-. r-f t-]t.,* pr:.'cucts ry 'i-p i --tg. P::inciEl- 's f
c,-mp utlcing, dipping-dinRj.ns f rm.,rs -1,ft-r tr,:tnr.-'nts _,I
Lat-x -;prrsits s.i:'ir ': 3 cj:tr.ctl I : ' t:r si-'lrul-,,.1- -'5, vu'clnisati:'ir -:l'.- strJ-.oplngr, --'l ctr:--d'-'p' sitr il'
Mtnuf ctur!, :{ s'--rii-f imp'rt-'rt ui'.-.''-- i,'cs }il''' sdrg':- lns
--e....r, ilil: .ll - S, nrl i;hyl,lctics,
q},.:V.-'S , h:'us.-h'.;Ic gl -.v _.S, f ;
:II--.-,t-ts. yi:nuf 'ctur. ')f g.--s by i t-x c'-st--ng-E-'n:raIs
princi ,rI.-s i ',':-'lr, ,d, c sting m- -1-I * "
I4.'rnuf ctr-; - -,f i -t --.x f '-m imi: rt-.nt si cps inv - Iv';d j-tr ii-tc
ccmm .)n rir_-tii ,-s :f I _t_._i( f .-lirn D'^. - t,.c1: L n-- cl ju:rr, 1n.-,.' lrnrn:;ni',
clnt.:It.|- ,":, Irt.-'x, c rrl)i-un<;in;, m-c',-t lnlc- I fr':,thinE by brcathing,
':rfi^us
g-t1_inli , vulc -niZ: i_i n t , shing .n.ll ,,l-yi.r- . v
g :ttinsyst -lrrs-lrl .'rit s :nci C -'m - rit s f f,q ch.
Menuf
I
I
,
,l
.
C:ntiitu' us f,l-,r.m ( pr -Cucti'n, Ty.;ic'I I:tux c'mp-unds, mrchinjry tL m--TUIGS uS.d l{.nUf 'Cturi f rlll:-C -II :n,.'U:; ::Ubr:,r pf :dcts f r -rm I.itcx ru'lrb;r tl)r.''':.-.2 I 't -'x sJITI .'rtts -'i(-l :t'he siv''s,
l,:t.-.x .p.. 1nt.s, pr.t-'ctlv'-' c ^-r'Lj-ng,,.
Re
f -f iIlC-'S
:
D.v. 3I :ckl-'y, HiEh p,iym r -rtj-cs-r/':I -T s,2 r }4lglr'1pBn o
j ns, L: nC 'n.
2. l.-,,'. i"ir.Gg -', l1 teX f -nr ::u'cb-,r/ l.-cI-'r.i-l & S-ns, Ir'itd)n
i.
':
1
3.
4.
982
I''t:.'< 1-r:ildbo:k 3ro -'ditjL'--n,
L.R.. u'rrrss-r, th Vlit--r:ii:
puiclish''c by R.-T. Vrnci rbilt tr-'--i-nc.US'r' 1987.
],ip,;:,t- .l as , J. f Rull]-,'r c: --v, -'l- llln - nt s , v::L25,P9. 12.!4.L )'72
Ccntd..36...
36
POL-fM_-r. _ilG r.,L).,TIO1i
ir
ST.
lIiJIi
.Tf
(ll
.
ntr: ,r- uct 1 , : Chemic -rl c.j,qr .J:ti._,n z ;:,tysic -. I .^\igr..<1 ti rn
,
.:g_.iirv.. ilnnt'6iing, cr:zing, d,--.gr:c -ti:)n by mi_crc., .19 ,flis{as,
hiod,,gr-.i:bl-. ,: lyme.rs, r:cl tl n s,_,ilsitiv,. it,_-,lym.rs.
M--chrnisms, Prim-:ry b.:nc scisi n i -:cti-.n- ,rond crcav_-gg tr>
giv*. frc-, rldi-C:IS, b,-nO l:,-.trr-lng._,iTt..rlt tl. qiv:, m,:1.-.cUI._tr prr,,,j_
ucts, i ;]ic cr-'av:go t: cti,'r'rs, s-c..r,,-rry ch,-micar: R-..lctirjns_
s:rf r'---Cti .nsz c-= pcrymcris.::i )t cl-r .i p r-c. cti..n i-i,vrrving
'-,Xyg-',1 , m-t,rr crtrrys.:11 fl-:gr.rt-lrti. n-th.-rm- r ,_-xiu- ti .n, phl>to
rrxici:.ti' i'r, b s,:- ctrt:,rys .i u-,-::er -G-,i:i n t p. iymjr cr.rs-,-rln)<ingr
'ln<-, br nching, ,-)zi')nc ^tt cl(, m-.c:l-.r'ric:r c-;rrc:ti
.n7 u-,Q[r:.c-ieti.n
by i'-niziirE r-di-,tj-.,n.
f
:
-.
ti-. ir .,f sp-.cific p:Iym_,rs: 1: Iy.- l__fins/ pVC,
i)' ly-:tlers, trMl,il , pS, C-=IIuI._;s.
D-.9:: :'j-
ptrFr:-,
st-'biriz:ti
nB Ch in-br--rki,rg
iti xi-u:nts, pr:-.v-,ntiv_,
:nti:'xici-rnts/ non-migrrt..ry iiti -,;ci.i:lnt s, bond nt j-oxidants,
r:ci -,tir n pr'-lt ".cti.,n sta_biliz,r.t_1 ';Ft .lg.:iln st bl ld-.gr:rd ati :,n
,
tr:st m. tir:'...]s.
Rg>f r-.f .ti1C - S
3
1- Encyer'-.p_oi'. -'f ,-.or1rm..,r sci -,i-rc_ s: rngin_::ring v.;L.4., 1985,
j -n.r ,ij-I._-y & s.)ns.
2. Inclrgl:.;p-cti: .:f p:Iym _-r sci,_,rtC_. & Engin_. r:ing V-_rI.15,
1:.185 . J,_.hn - ti)_ :y 6r s, ,ns
3. !'. Fcdng-.r, p:j-ncipl. s -_.i f, Iyin:r syst._,ms
4. F.'I. BiIIm.-,y:r, T:xt b:,:,< .f pr lym r sci _.nc.:, .iiI,.y
intcrsci_nce pu-bIic::ti i-ts 19S4
Ccnt<l-..71..,.
lh
t
31
p;,pfil VIT
pCLyI.lTp. CIItl,I_! j?Ry-IIf
(
POLYI{',,? CO}tPOSIT?5
.',}I:
(
.rI,LOYS
r2cL)
20L)
Pol)rrn.jr 3l-...nds: Def inj-ti.:n tnc j-rnp-,:;61 fnC,: .f bI,,-'ncij ''tg, EI:ndj.ng
t-=chnio;u s, sr,-rIuti.,n mixing / mr.ch-itic:tl rnixinE , lLtr:x bI.:nc1ing,
rr.ch.rn ch:mic:I bl.-=nc]inE c )m,p"tibiIity if p'lym-:rs iit s ;Iuti rns r ci-t rmin :ti,-'n ,-'f inutull s -:lt-rbiliiy .--'- p'-)Ifrm.-'l-s, miscibj.lity
os r . 'p 'lym r --f f--ct, r-:11-. s: di-rgr:ms
thr --:ugh sIJ-cif 1c int.:r'cti
Jf p-Iym::-p;, ]..251;1- syst;lrr s1 LC3T :nr-, UCST b:h^v.]- .r, ':lin rd'rI
fltd s'[--j--:)m]I curve-s, critic.ll
1-: ii-tt-, i-n-.2'rn' <jynemic tr-)- tm.'nt
.f pir ),i 'r-h:vior rf rTrlym-'r mi;<tur-'s: FL y-Huggj-ns th. "rY,
blt;nc, i:, 'r i.JhoI )gy, p'-rpp[r--L -.gy -,.-'rt .:-- -] t-i l1 ilu c itt-r I, mirl: rhL\Icgy
ch-lrtc1--,rlz:ti--n t:clrLliqu.:s, c )mrr!':!:ic'l --rI.:nu.s 'itui 1--11 i;
applic:ri ns.
Criteri,
Meth,.'u: f -r D.:t-ci-mlning r:-lyrnc-: -p lyn r misci'ril-ity.
f E cst"1-. Ii-sirii-rg ri.i,,]C-r-'--1ir;y '. - ,. ctritr .'.-r.-'l---i --s, micrcrscollyr
m..ci1a,rtic. I / cI rui p int ir ,l:l^r i-r , :Lr-'.,.r- -:, ic , mciitr;t s, criI,-'tcm-.try, v-i,:.:,sity m,:th js, v'Ium .'f m1;<-i-n'--1 , fIu;.,:c'sc.'nc.)
spu.ct]:. ;c -,1'!, IR, FTIR./ i.lI,IR, mr-r.tu-I s..,Iv.nt m.-.tit -c, l1-:rt- ':f
mixing r,r.Iti.r,; p i;i: ,- -1;r js'-r :\ t i-nve :'s, g1s c:lr'--m-:tcgrnhy
C--rmp::t.i'--iIis ti-'n ,:f immrsci'':i.., ':l . ncis: -'o.,,iti ir :f gnft
ti.,n by I'rw
cr l:I,,:,c,: c'p-l-ym-r, r., ctivi c il:-r'til:il's
,,,ic_nt rtl i-tiv-'s t:1pes f c :mp.,tibilj.se::s - lnctltuttreori-:s.
f :,rm--ci, sw,c'rt-,--11z- ,du.:c c ,r; Iyme -i, c ,nrp-ltibiiisati:n
P,:Iyrn:: c - mp:,srt-,s: Du'f ini ti -n :n(-, ci. s-.if j-c:ti n t i..L-' ,:f
b-;,nCi-ng
fi-b.-r rnLl. m-trix in j-mpr:vinE c iiplsit:-.;:-r-p-'rti-,s,
-r'j
-: b,.'nciing _.ntS,
b-:twc:n f1'-._r rilC' rn-'r-rrx tn,--i fun:ti,ns
f ilo-.r I-.n;th in sh rt f 1': r c .,mil'-;sitrs/ f j-Iu:: i
erltic:I
mc-rch::nisms in CJrTrpJSltu:s7 c'rmp sit-. f :'biic'rt-i-rr t,-chnlcru.sf)i):.fi m,ulq pr.lc:is5.r.s suci-) r.l 1-r lnd L'y:up7 s!f 1]/ up' vfeuuln
b:g m--I..inc 7 pr:,:ssur--j fXag m uI,-1t-t,: , c ltrifu;-. l- c st1-rQ7
paltru;i :n, -I.:s-'<i m:ul-d l-)r'ccs--s ;JC.1 's ,'tr :ch.-'--'uir
m')uldi-.rq, in j , cti',n m,.,ulcing, c i-it j,-ti.. u. -j I ^r:',ritlting / e ,mpresm,ul*i.,.;, -ilr-. th-rm'lf;r:rning.
si.ln r ul-ciitE, r-:'sin tr'nsf:f
m:,I.:ul'r
-
'?..'f
tf .-,nc:S:
1. D,?. P-ui rI-tC S. i{.i-,^Im-c. .r-",-yn.:;: bI
c:';-mic pr- ss inc , 1-91 A.
i-r\-:s V-.
I.f & 2.
r-''ntd,-.38-..
\
r,
3B
2.
O".aIt')ii:i/
-.1 v
z.
L
p lym-r--p i,,rir r ;niscit_.iIiry/
1o?-lJ
.,,c..
d,mic pr_.ss
Lr
f i'rr'' r-inf. "i/ged ! -.n-,rl-.it-1s, p.-a.
in-:rricr<. 4.K.K. Chcwro,+,r,
C:rn.f,-rsit-- mi.t:::j_t\Is. 3.orln:;,,r.-"r_rl+..i| .:
. .y " t lgBT .
F.?. .r -n-.s, FIrni.,r'.,k ,f. ,; ,I,zm.:z- fi..-iai
;1.:il jcj-,:ntj-f ic & T.echnic -,I . 1j94 .
c.imp-,sit,_.
-
L rng
SPX.T .-j-IY POLYI\IE .S
P.rIym.-r' structur - ..n,. 1:n r.-,1_ pr ,p _.cti,_ s ; ., _ l)rm ,r
stru6;tur..
rni>r1ch-I -qy tnC s,-rfti-.nlng b_=h:v i, r , L.rr.ji-rl: h_us
i)r)Iyr-n.,r. s ni
/
,:
r ir"
-h,,,vi::r, s -,m.i-_cr:yst r I Iin_ il ,lym.,;:s _i-lc. s !t ning
bch :vi r, mr-'I-,cul ,'r wr.iqilt u c ;_.,-. Iym-,.rs, cit'.mic__. I ,a ,h.vi..r/
so lu':i I-i !y | _L:.cl ic : I ,Jr ,j .rt i ,.s .
rntr(,,L-uc:i:. , tr-r n -- ,'o f r th-rm rry : s1 ;trnt p,,rym:s,
impr,rv"'
ing I.."v:p.rf ,rt:, nc , ,_..:Iymer_. f_,: trr.;,_r r.,mi-_:1-t.u-^' uuc, th.:
n.:,'d f -'r .'iir...' r-:Sist ,nt ,:, i-y-rt:_tls., ,, l_z;.ir:.:rs :r :r
I, ,v f ire haZ,.:rc1S,
p:ryme'rs f - r: h-Lgh .cmp'r-'- - ,u.: .r---ii,rir
--rc --,r1-uz-^,)-,-'r-ymu>.ris, :--romtic
p 1ym:rs , hyc,:.-,c trb..n .]t : Lyr .- ) , - Iy.,th-::s,
.)hr)nI sulf idr-,
Lr. Iy
r
pt, Iysulp.r-i-l-.j, l.--, Iyest..:_s,
!j i-, .,.; s, rt-.iyit.t. r,_S, I{e.tr.,rcyg}jq
i::Iym.:,- S...p. ,'r-1ztni-'-.g :i)i -t1. r: p lizrn .r-S.
Hyd.rr-ri=,hilic io,.,, Iym.:rs: n:tur ._ ,,- Iym.-rrs c r.t hycirlt
s prrtej_ens,
sitni synth-'tic p:rymer:s, syntrr tic p. r.7rn.:r s:hycr
,--r, i)-rry-rcryI,emid:s, ',.,,,lyvinyI .rIc :i-r ,I, F ,,IyvinyI i?yr Ilici, irc
-,.!!
si-',rt
-^ -
r.i1
Pirlymcrs -,vitir -. I -ctri _: I I :nrt ,I:ctr rrlc p.r: ;p_:rti
-.s : C:,nOucting
p-;Iyers, c'niucti rr m ch'tnis,n-;, ,-_: Iy:.c-tyl..i-j_,,
,.r-Iyp-l-.ph,_.nyI_
r;aCS, .i--, iypyrr Ic, .-.th..r imp rt:i-rt c ,rJuctirtq p_Iym.r:;,
ig,in_
:_rm:taIIic ;:,rlym.:rs, :pplic.rti its f c rrrc,uccirrg lym
::s/
i-l,_,
ph--'tcc,: i'r-'uctj-,rg r.-rym-rs, p:ryrn.,,::s i.r ir{.,-r rin.-:r -,ptics,
p(.Iymcrs ',,lth ';i,-.z',: .I.ctric,
pyr -,,I c,._.r.i c .i.l_, f T ., :I..ctic
pr,l:crtl s, j-) ),yvinyi rvcnc: flu_r,, 7 )_,tr.z171nylic_ncfIu-rir-c_
trif'Iuor.;tl-rI-.n, c ir )l_ym.jrs.
Ph,-t:rcsists f ,r s_rnic.n,,u3:):.;!i-l:lli,-_-,j .qa. ;,Tgrqttiv.,. phbtr:s_
ists, 1--:--'siti-v- ;;h r - si',ts, - r,ctr rr )- -, r itir .;r.1-,hy, prrsmr
rc-sisti':1.. i.'ir, - tr:;-. sist s .
Jt-:nic !i _ym:.i:s: Cl-:ssifi:,r.i
n , ty )-t '.
-:m:-,unt
l:t:uLt-.
th'
i. n,
f \.u.i, L.i^ ltt -_.i_
]c:ckr:,.;.n-... STnth-sj's, physic :
-i lyr- .)_'r'ti-s
uli, , i:-rt, p
': ,: uill__f_i
-:n(-.
-
sj-ti _n r f
-pplic-:tj.
L) -OC.
.ns
;
C-ntC..39..
39
t:"_t", cr
i -,n ixchf nJ -,, hycir ;phiicitl.
, i'rn,'m_:rs based
,iu [r'r_, . :s-Iinking,
ryl..i._/ -i. ^st.ll_,.ic i ,-tim_.-s, j_ .it-.m_,r,s -j.,c
h
n
p rystyr''1r' i-nm'rs b- s-''-ir pTF,-, ;: rycl,:ctrlrytcs
fr.,r ion
.:XCnair , _ i_-iy.- I _ctr l)rt,_
S b.s _; Lr carl.,,_xyl"te,S, p()Ilrmers with
integr: r i ':ns-h 'r-t'rt :r 'ch-.ric
.f:')r)m!:rs/ i-n - .n;..52 p:.1y--16rr.:nimiti;, 'rr-l-ycLctr..Iyt-: c )mi?I-_,X,_,s, bI.-n.-s
:f .;.-Iymcrs ?nu stItr
bi,:l--gi: i :no inirrg:njs i pic
1c:.J_ym_.rs.
Th -,rrn,- 1I
Thcrmr -i:I
.i:ltl
Pf ''li
1,:f
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
c-r:.,.
stic EIast-)nr.irs & r,iquid Cryst . I Iine
rl,:. ym,_.rs.
stic eI-r Sti.,me rS tnC Iiguid cryst rl_ iin..
1r, i1,rn..rs_
-:n z pI- r)p,:I-t:LrS
rnd rpplic- ri:ns.
.,i
nc : s :
. lysr-ln, sD.-.ci-:Ity )-lyms.s, Ch.-,:ittp
I Ij:||,
t;.y. i987.
F?z -r A.lJ. High tcmp jr-tur_, i-(sisr:.,,it
tl .lyrn-,,rs- r.IiI..y
int,r:'sci nc-. N.y. (116g).
.lu
Lre,..'in LI ,.,',11-:o j.i.i.
9_. jlJ._,-_,1 .":,.rlI_ri.n. ret_lrdtnt
polym..ric
m-:.t._r_t_'l .i.
Di:,r -- .I. i(,n,2-: \,r: t(. C.sr_i: l_; J.f . -nd
L;g.p J. r\. CcnQuc_
tiv-. -o,,],-J.1 _rs(id. icyn,-)m ,r,f ^ ) pI:num pross.
lI.Y. 1981
H-lIi
.^r- .u.t I-r,ic p,-liym_,;-;r,:Dl-.,i__u
Sci_nc.: Publishr.rs
R.'.1
rtr, .t 1975 .
6. a 3iumst-,iit r Lic,.rici cryst:il-ii-r,, ,:,:C.:r in pollrmers,
Aclcic-mic
pr- _-ss inc lr.y. l97B
7.
lncycI i:-ci:
f -^r lym ;r sc_L_nct tr ..rr:,irrc rinq, vtI.
9
iiil -y int-,rsci.tnc,rs 1987.
B' H:nb k f tir-.rm-,;or-rstic
--r-st -rm,crs by ch rr_rs & Rrcrer,
v,1n ij -,sti rnd Ru,inhr, IC Ct-,. i,:1.y. 198g.
L
7
_
COI{PUTBR-..IDED DESfGN
fl] pOLyI{fR
TXC.,i-Or,:OGy
(20L)
rntr'-'cructi -'n t ., --,r.-,ctr .,nic crtr .l?lrrc.ss.i n,:_ -ri-ii,
-i_ts lporicati .irs
in th-= c -,i.:tr::I tou ._-sj_gn .f ;__. Iyrn-,r _l*t ..Cr,s-;irrc,
quipm._.nt s,
m )Ulu's -.rr.... c1i,,s
F:tmj-Ii-riz .ti n i c..,mput_,r .,r .,,r,.trls _ls-_
f 'r t'-:. frll.tiaring.
.?.hc::1.,gic 'l ,, i p-rti=S ,,,f :) ly:n_r
nt _ l_ -.,.
' lyn rr- I f'-,r m.-It
visc';sit1z, c IcuI- ti n .:_-,f rh_ ,I -.-.-ic r-. i)l: :_rti:s..
fitting
the.fm cl.yn mic cl-t- by r._.qr-)S-_i _l .
Ci
-.
l'.;ntt"...40...
4C
Mert f rr w ,ri -, -'xtrusi n -f ,- r:,1rr.,r-. -l ricurrti -,n .f f rr:r,v i:r..f iL-.'s in '. tu-r,, c.:Icui '-i'n r; :)l:J.fsu.:,-: trri-1:/ sh--r r.,t-. ';ucL
r,-'sj-*l 'nc. tin; in ;xtrur-;r n c.i:s " l:IcuI. ti n .:f c-xtrucjer ..,utPutr sc.r.jvJ Ccslgn by ;c:I;.-ulir m:r:it:-s.
Inj.cti. n m,. uI-iitg 'f p- lym.jr:s: C,'.IcuI ti -,rr :f : ,.:Iing tim,i :f
cryst-:IIiit
f iiij-.cti n ;)r,,,ssur._, ,nd
;:r-,lymcrs, c'.IcuI ti,n
cI,--mp fi,,:c:, us-, ,f r,im nsi l-tIs.s. ituml):-rs 1t-t inj.:cti
n m, ulcij_ng
R..'fure'nCj;
. Nrtti S. ?.-''-l . D,,sj-gning Ii 'cl-tn :,:
s sing ,i-th c: mljutL. :: Pr 1gr-lms / H:ns.r/
1
BIi-OLY}4ID.3 li"j
SJOr.iq-Df
C;.L
PCl-yl.it_tr.
POIyp. 'i)tl---s ,'i1 - .ora,:i,cins;
pr.>Iy:min . -rCiaS-pfcro -lti,'n,
Ci,-s f r,r ,,';,Iym,..r proc-'-
199 1.
(22L)
r
Iy,;-.:
,-tr.-
, ,i,.= '::-l .ti Il nc, str-uctur.:
t,:r_lctur._ , - r- i)_,ftl s lna-, - pplic:t_
1r.,ns. Prlt-ir'r;.- ci ssif ic -ti -t ;tructur,-le. '.).^ ,;u,r-ti_"S.
Prim. ri', s c iiC -ry .-nL t-rti- r
str.rctu::_, f .-,.:. t_.ins \IucI _,ic
:cics Ll i. g -.n-- t.-'chit Ir gy. 'iuc.'.-. sic; s, nucl: )ti-..i; rnu nucLic
:ciis R:;,: ror, r-rt)Iz:i-- structur - / 'lr L g-i-c,.r .;i,;iri-:ii-c'nc.-, -,irc.
pr,;pr-:ftics G;n t -cltrr I ,-.,y ,pi:Iic ti il f gcn .tic .:n,7in.;cring
technj-c;u.-,s ln _jricu.l i-ur . , '-)i ,t- 'jy --t-, m. uicitt
3i-,m _.cji_c.rI
applict'tj-..ns f pr', Iym. :-:;: P, Iy;p-ilrs irs ,,:u.J c .rri.:rS, ?.Iym. rS
f ,.-,r su.r.- -ry nq 1-'I'. sm s..l'lsti':ut.,s " Pr,Iym :ric drugs. .-. Iy-:tif icj- l_ _,nzym,- s. iynzyrn s Bi(minr--tic chcmistry
mcrs
Dr.
.''_r
_--.
:,
?cf.r'--n: -'s:
1.
Schulz - ni r,ch jln,-.r ., Princi pL
si:;in j-:t , 1980.
,i= r: t 1n structut:.-r
/
2. 'L=.hsig rr-:t 2 B.i-l,ch.:mistrv
3.
M:.thuo,
t-
4.
5.
" I-,
Iym.rs :S i-s in Org.rnic 'lh,-ini Stry't / ;.C:dcmic
9Bo .
St ',rk, , "Bi 'ch mic- I .s t_ct.s f r'-, Iym.r.-sul',i,-rt-.cl Rc :cti,lns'l
G .Icllo-r, tt3i-:ch.mic:L r-I.,rn- -s", .,c:u,. miC y)r.cs _,,. 1983.
C^ntd.-.41.-.
---
47
ADHEJfVIS r;.-'j SURF,I.C: CC.:-if:IGS
Mcch::nis,ns c.f rdhv.sio_ :
.lUs..,.r:-i>ti,
(33L)
M.:ch nic I int-'r:i:.ckj_i-rg r int_.rcjif fusi -r)
,
n, I :ctrr_,strtic :ttr .cti,_,n
n jnd surf._jc_. ri::cti
Surf'rcr an<l int-.rfaci:1 pr,rprrtj'cs.
Surf:ct.r t::D grrphy, surfe_
ce t -'nsi r-l 'roc ' -''-f9yr rv'stti,g .r,,rr s-'tti.ig2 th-,rm,ryn.,mic
w,',rk,-,f dhi.sj-,-,n.
Surf.rc; char.^ct.rrj_zatj.:.n. prcfj-Icrnetry, I ,w
.l:.rgy r..1..:etir.,n
diffracti-in
(La..ci) r rJti.,I.e:ted t-,.:rr r-. ji.ct.rnc,.
sif .ctrtseb*rlry
(Atr) , l(-r-iy f luorescene (xf s) , El:ctron
sl_1.,ctr()sg_py f .,r
ehe'mic',I :.n :Iysis (gsCa), i-:n sp\rctr.sc.:i>y_i,:.n
sc._tt..r.io9
spcctr..rsc:py lrss), s\ic,-.nd:ry i ;n, !j.l-Ss si):-:etr_.:s"on (SIMS
)
SUffrc.-: tr-..:tm:nt CriSJ"G (erosslj.nlti,r
Incrt G:ts) -)r pI:sm-, trettm..ntz :..: !l
trans crystrllj.zrtj---:n gr,:twth, surf .:
f Iuor':,c-.i:btn prlymers .:no m.-.t: l-.s.
'
\
_
._
':ty ,,ctj-v'it.,..-i Spu.cies cf
c-isch.r j, reld _,tc[ipg,
Er-'fting 1:rc"ttm-,nt fCr
-,r ch .'mic-r 3ondinq ; C.-:,upri,g gents.
5tr-.ngtir :f
.:.dh-.s.i.; _ j ,ints Frtrcturc) rrt:lcn_nicb -t.
_int-",
sim1 l _. j
mc6g,s ;f
f:irur-*i-'js-ring seprr- ti,:n, r' i: sh...-..r, t;nsil . cl_.t.-:chm,nt
fr'-in : ri3j-cl pL,n-,, <,.,trchm.nt f:- m : sph.-.:ic-ir lncrusi.,nr
puII_ut f inextensilll., fibu,j-.:.
rnterf
- c'i
Tack -rn :ut'-ldhcsi..,n. pres:,ur j,--s.nsit rrV. rclhcsi,.,,
r t.-ckif i.,_
f sr f 'rt - f p,-.-.r -ncl t,=,mpcrrtu-r, .-,ffects iir
l_rr-)ssura-, s rnsiti_
v'= lt-ih- i n, tutotdh:rsi n -.f ,--I-.stlme:-^S,. ,_,ff_ct
_rf . I...cuIrr
weight -1 r. sk rnd grc-.n str,.ngth
-f NR .-,ffcct f c.:nt:ct
time Dr irrussur3 i,n th_. ttck .rf cl:st l.ilr-_.rso
-;ndinc : b:,n<1j-nE termj-n,;l t 9y, b.-:,ncir,; n ; h _ _ls_m
_.ch-rnic _.I bcn_
ding, f rstcn..r b:-'noin._j, f usi:n bcncli. ..rT.r ..1h,_
I
jqg.
B
si. n b1-.,i_rj
str.-.ngth pr,;fj_I_ :f j:ints,
-rlh..slv. i:^,ir_i.rg ,rquj_gn:nt.
Fri-Iur-- -,nticip-ti, n: th-.rm.,I _i>:p ,,:i,n r:
iL, mism ,tch,
Iatent subscrit-, ch-,micl.'l_ r-.ret_uity, : inD_nent
migr:ti,,n,
b:nding Ltr )ccss in,j.uce<l c:.qrtr^ -ti n.
BonCi
Ccntd... .42....
\
,
1-
1.
Dl.siqn ,lriu,.-.ri:: Unif .,ni :ci:,-.'s, cristributi nt se If eligcI --mp:L v-rtic: I inscrti-tns, h< ri-zcnm.-int,' s If t:xturinE,
p1::I .:pplic,ti ns- g:rp c ntrol.
Physic.tI n'turc 'f .-,u.h--slv.:s: h:t Ln. It, s 'iuti-:i'ts, ,1QUs-C:us
cl1sp..rsi -n, activ:ted :dhesincs, f iIm - dhcsl.v..', pr,:ssur.-' s-:nsitive ,r<J,h. siv--s, p.rIym':rj-sing typ..'s-.r :d.i,'ti :n curbl:.
Boncl
slfrr! cr)-- tinE, D':wd:r eortingflnediscc bed cclting, :I-'etr:-.static p',-,wd'r spr-'y c::rtingr
el.,ctr',rstrtic f luedised-beC cillting / vLcu.ufll - crrting.
Co:tii-rE_m--th.:os: RoII ccating,
Colting m:ttcrj-at Is 3 Bj.nc.,rs-olls -n,-i :.rl:9 -:re sl-i,nrtus bin,j*rs,
re sj.ns such 1s pl-r,,roIlcs, rIkyIT irli,)37 ,.rr.)l(y, siIic,---n.: tc.,
c.:,!LuIl..s- estcrs rnri :th -'rs, vinyL chl -'riu,.-' -r;r,-' j-nyI
f cet.3t; lli:r lym-irs / leEtrr-l.ld.lnc mcth'-'c::1rl-ic - st-'r r-'-rlymcrs,
wlt-.fb-l'rn.,' syst-.rns, n.lnlgn,;-')us isp-'r'si ..n7 ;) -rd..;f colti-ngs
VoIrtiIc c:-,mynonants, Pigm-'nt s rnu it r-I c+.' :nt s.
-.2
ecturc lnc t-'st m.:th ,os--c I ur, hj-uing l):-'r,--'r, gI:ss
"br r si , h 'rdn-'ss :nd adhcsi 'n , visc -,sf ty, tir --nc ss, \v-:lth,:'ring.
M.rnnuf
11
Applic:t:-.-'n ')rr-.'perti-.s f IDvr, L'v':l-i-irE 'n:.
fIo-rrlng ud fIr-' rtil-lg.
settling, fiIIing,
s
tgging, pigmcnts
Rcfer-.nc:s:
1.
2.
3.
4.
tr
Jr
5.
EncycI:.p:Cir- -'f p.,, Iym.,.r sc1.-'nc- i-lr^ ingin",rlng, Yi';L.2.2
1985, J:hn I'I1I-:Y & S''ns
EncycI;p.:cii:'-;f p.:Iymer sc.i,ftc': & Eng. Vc'I.3, 1985/
J,:hn r,rilcy & s'lns.
.D.T. Clerk -rni W.J. Fc-rst. P.rlym-r Surf -rc*ls, i,viI-y intr-'rsci.-'ncs', L978.
.rncl rdhusi-,.,n by S'-:uh '.rlo "'lu Mrcci
P., Ilrm-.r intcrf:ci'
D-=kl<:r Inc.N. Y. / 79A2 .
B.r,,I . Chcrry, P'.Iym:r Surf lcJs, C-m'friul 1-' Univ -'rsity
Pi-:s5, 1981.
H-ndb-rrl< cf pl:stj-cs -t st'-'nius -;1,-- c'rm.o''sitss, Ch:rIes
n":':t
^.
N\l/29/72/eB.
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