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tG ,l:stract jc Ia.rt
tG
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llill-'r'l
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:TTlf Ol' I :i:IrllI'n
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,l:stract )
, . jc .. Ia.rt SClenc,:S ( semr , :er lou.'ase )
inr;-:|..11aLttatlon of tire revlseu
scileire, sYI I3t-.us :. :t' crb,- --r'- (: .:tern - vlit -i e:Erct-ct f rom 1r99 aclmi$sion
rjilrjal:crs - nr()ers -j-oe;eo.
CrI.''l.i-.,, l: ., -'.'r:1, I .i//,T .;llTf(.I
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,aled, )s.--,:ut ilniverslty.P.o.
25.i-j,1999.
).e=d:- 1. fte'rr nc.2l of ,-'1,' ,j. Lrtes of- rreeti-n; of -loarci of stuclies
in -lotaily(?'l) ',-.- .-::-l B.i.')9.
2. .l-tem no.'1 of tll,=' ,i,,r..j11 i:?s of meetlng of, Faculty of ,-ci=,rce
helc; o.r 5.).t9t.
3. Crc-,ers of /1ce-ChanceI L;din th,: f ile i-lo . ':|,T/J1/ 4156/)g
on 14.10. | 99.
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The 3oarci of -ltuciie., iri )otany(P;) at its meeting tr:l-,- on g.3.,9i1
vi,-re iteni '.io .2, f ina'Iise. dit - rl i)ilrove(, the Scheme , sy Ilabus ani_t crr.ait
patterrt of I'l ..jc Plant jci*,:ce \,j-:mester)J,rattern .lourse.
'j'l-le jlacurty of jcience at it; meetiirg h.-ru on 6.9., g), rio:
2)
iteh
ri
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approveu
th,niitute
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s of o;:,r.d o stu,u.les.
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tc repp61 to Acaoernic lou'LciI.
4) Llroers are therefore -;;.;ueo for i. .)I.: :at1ng the revlseci scl1i,.!e/
slrIIa'r:us and crec.it patt.:.t o- ii. >.c f'Iant icience(Sem--ster _lourse)
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ieplar trrl :nt of -lotd rty r I-;.ti_ve-: sit,7 of Caiicut
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UNIVERSITI'OF CALICUT
NI.Sc.
PLANT SCIENCE - SYLLABUS
The recentiy formuiated curricuium development pian of the Universit_y
Grants Commission has emphasised the neeci of creating young srudents right
from School to Universiry ievel, who have gooci aptitude
as
weil as practicals.
it
rand
skills in theory
aiso has pointed out that the Masters Programme
shouiti be designed to inspire youngsters to think originaily and to promote
studies
in science. Instruction and evaiuation sirouid be so impiemented to
discourage iearning without comprehension and application. The syilabus
being presented herewith is the product
syliabus
oi M.Sc. BotanyPlant
oi an effon to formuiate the PG
Science course
in
rune with the above
principies. The flora and iauna of our iand anci the practices of plant
scientists, appropriate to the country and to the changing pattern of the sociai
conditions are the broacier objectives
of
ihese syllabi. We
constructive changes be suggested by the users for improvement.
request
\
IV
UNIVERSITY OF CALTCUT
M.Sc. in Plant Sciences (Semester Course)
I.
Time Schedule (preferably)
$emester
I and trI: iuiy to December
Semester
II
and
Expected hours
IV:
January to June
of instruction:
I and Itr Sernesters: 500 hotns (100 credits)
II
and
IV
Sernesters: 560hours(ll2credits)
Examination and Pre and Post Examination Holidays
15 days
of snrdy leave before the o<amination and 10 days of holidays after the
examination (Duration of Examinations: 3 hours
for
Theory and
4
hours for Practicals
for each paper)
fmpiovement of results
One chance after the completion
II
of the cotrrse as per the then prwalent
syllabus.
Course Plan
Semester
Course
I
I: Phycology, Bryoiogy and Fteridology
Credits: l0
i5
5
Totai:
30
Totai:
35
Course tr: Ivlycology, General Microbioiogy and Plant Pathology
Credits: 15
i0
i0
Course III: Gymnosperms, Anatomy oiAngiosperms and Nlicrotechnique
Credits:
13
1J
9
Grand
Totai:
35
Totai:
100
Semester
Course
v
Ii
IV:
Angiosperm Embryoiogy, Piant Tissue Cuirure anci Ceil Bioiogy
Creciits:
9
i5
i4
Totai:
38
Course V: Biochemisrry, Biophysics anci immunotecirniques
Lreolts: zl
Course
ru
!'[. Piant Physioiogy
)
-Tl
i otai
31
anri Environmentai Biology
Creciits. 22
i5
Toiai:
Crrand
Semester:
:
37
Totai: i i2
IIf
Course VTI: Angiosperm Morphology and Taxonomy
Credits:
5
30
Totai:
35
Totai:
35
Torai:
30
Cotrse lTtr: r\loiecuiar Bioiogy and Generics
Creciits.
Course
i8
fX: Biometry,
Creciits.
17
Plant Breeding and Horticulrure
i0
i2
8
Grrand
Totai: ItO
Semester I-v.
CourseX:
Speciaiization
Creciits:
Course
X[:
56
lotal:
F.l
)o
Dissertation
Credits;
56
Totai:
56
frnciTotai: ii2
(J(
\,/^
I I I. Distribution of Nlarks
ivlarks
Course
Theory
Practicals
1\O.
Or
Totai marks
COUTSeS
80
IU
800
60
i0
600
Internal assessment 50
1U
500
Records
i0
i0
IUU
Submissions
t0
Tow repons
25
Viva voce
10
lUU
TU
4 (semesrers)
100
IU
Dissertation. Submission- i 25 ; Internai-50; Viva-2
lUV
5
Grand
Total for
each Paperi(I
rUU
&
D Course
Totai :
:
Total for each Semester (I & [I):22AX3+25 (Tour Report)
Total for Iv- Semester
: (2Ct0+220t25-1
Specialization:
Ptc.,
The fieid of speciaiization shaii be mentioned in
K
Z)UU
,/.zv
:
685
:
11)
Llst
thedet-..ifue.
Pass minimum and class:
: 4O?a ior each theory anci practical papers separateiy
Thir<i ciass: 4Cfla
Second class. 50Y'o
60%
First ciass
Dstinction . S0oto
Pass minimum
f1'.Examiners:
4hrce
T\ri.e in.*ai
/iLv
examiners
eg
andi#-enernai examiners for each semester. Chairman wiil
be
seniormost of the internal examiners. The internai examiners of each semester shali be the
senior teachers who actuaiiy impart insiruciion in the particuiar Semester.
V.
C
Field sturiy anci tour report:
l.
Y
For each semester
(I,tr,[i & IV) there shall be five
days
of fieid stuciy. Visits io
research
institutes may be combine<i with fieid stu<iy. Fieiri study reports are ro be submitteri ior each
semester. In the iast semester,
ii-30
ciay piacemerr
to gain practicai research experience
is
compuisory in the case of each student in field stations, research institutes or farms reiated to
the area of speciaiization. The stucient has to submit a report properiy certified by the
supervising scientist at the end of the training. The expenditure for the training progmmme
shouiri be borne by the stu<ient.
!T.
Periodic Evaluation:
During the course of the semester, periodic internai evaluation may be carried out based on
seminars, written tests, practicai tests, viva voce anci quiz. The marks may be intimare<i to the
students and the marklist anci answer papers kept by the teacher concerneci. The stucient
shouiti be given a chance to see their answer scripts arter vaiuation. The marks shouici be
submitted to the Deparcmentai Cotmcil
for finaiising the internai marks. Finaiized
an<i
approved internai assessment marks shouid be exhibited on the departmentai notice boarci
!TI.
Grievance Redressal :
Any compiaint about the awar<i of marks in periociic evaluations may be brought to the notice
of the teacher concerned.
if not settleci, ihe matter
may be brought io the notice of the Head
of the Dept. The Head of the Department if necessary, may appoint a committee consisting of
the Head of the Depi., DC Secretary, ihe concerned teacher anci the student for redressai
measures. The ciecision of the committee wiii prevaii. The Head of the Dept.
Chairman of the Committee.
wiii be the
\
\
.^
!-iI. Plan
of Curricuium
Objectives
Memory
Weightage
Requirements
(Knowlerige2 iioto
Statements-ciescriptions-historicai reviews.
Understanding
(Comprehension) 20cto
Appiication
30%
Comparisons-correiations-ciiscriminations
Skiiis of drawing, experimenrarion, problem
soiving anci appiication of facts in new
situations.
Anaiysis
20?o
Anaiysis of daia, conceptuai merirs, defects,
probiems etc
Synthesis
i}r;
Synthesis ofapparently uniike or variani
facts, irieas, concepts, evidences.
Evaiuation
i0%
Use of weli accepteci standarcis io evaluate
Theories, conciusions and evidences.
D(. Plan of Question Paper-theory
Niarks : 80
Time: 3hours
Objectives
lvlarks
LIemory
8
4 short answer questions of 2 marks each out of 5
(Two or Tiree sentences)
118 shon answer questions of 3 marks out of i0 (50 words)
.
Unrierstanding i6.
Appiication
Type of questions
V'
24N 4 shon answer questions
of 4 marks out of 5 (i00 words
each)
Anaiysis
t6
Synthesis
8
i
Evaluation
8
2 short answer questions of 4 marks out of 3. (100 words).
r
otal
4 shon answer questions of 4 marks out of 5 (i00 words)
essay
of
I marks (no choice) (250 words)
so S4questions outoiIf 2cl
X.
Plan of question papers: Practicals
Time. 4 hours
NIarks: 60
Objectives
ivlarks
Memory
6
Nature of skili required
Spot at sight
Understanding LZ
Correiation-comparison-distinction-discrimination.
Application
Sectioning, staining, smearing, setting up
36
experiments, drawing, probiem soiving, applyrng known
principles in new situations.
Analysis
6
Analyangproblerns, experimentai set ups, data and
speclmens.
Total
XI.
OU
Specializations:
t.
Angiosperm Taxonomy and Fioristics
Z.
Piantadon Botany
3.
Seeci Technology
4.
Environmental Science
5.
Tissue Cuiture
6.
Genetics and Crop Improvement
7.
Biofertilizer Tecimology
& Plant Biotechnoiogy
8. Enzymology
9.
Nlycology
i0. Cell and ivlolecular Biology
i i. Principles and Practices of Horticulrure and Gardan Management.
i2. Conservation of Nledicinai Plants, Ivluseology and Herbarium Techniques.
PHl'COLOGY
i.
General considerations: Criteria
for algal classifications and modern trencis.
Comparison of systems of classification of F.E. Fritsch and F.F. Round, on the basis
of
phylogenetic consideration.
2.
Reproduction: Different iypes
of
reproduction,
Life history
patterns, parallelism in
evolution, origrn of higher plant groups from algae.
J.
General characteristics
of Cyanophyta,
Chtorophyta, Xanthophyta, Bacilluiophyts,
Phaeophyta, Modophyta, Euglenophyta, Dinophyta, chrysophyta and cryptophyta
4.
Ecology
: Ecology of fresh water forms and marine forms. Economic
importance
of
Algae.
5. Fossil algae : A geaerai
account.
Practical
1.
Collection and snrdy
2.
Collectioq presenration and preparation of algal herbarium (10 specimens)
i.
Staining Techniques for permanent motmts.
of Aigae
meniioned beiow. identification upto generic level.
Genera for the practicals
cyanophyta
:
Gloeocgpsa, oscillatoria, fuficrocoleus, A4qbacna, Fiostoc,
Scytonemq Stigonenu
chlorophyta . chlanydomonas, ?'olvox, chrorella, HydroCictyon, scenedewqq,
Entermtorpha, Ulva, Ctadophora, Pithofltora, Bulbochaete, Cephaleuros, Chaetophora,
Droparnaldiopsis, Strigeoclopium, Trentepholia, Oe(ogoTtium, Acdabulaio" Bryopsiq,
Codium, Cuterpa, Halimed* Desmids (Closteium, Cosmyiun),
Chue
and
Nitellu
\ofgAi*
Zygfryq,
C
Xanthophytt : Botrydium, Vaucheiu
Bacillariophyta: Cascinodiscus, Pinnuiaria
-
Phaeophyt
a'.
E ctocarpus, Dicty ota, Padin a, S argassum, Porphyra.
Rhodop hy ta'. Gracilaria, Poly siphonia, G eiidium, Amphirou
Reierences:
Books:
i.
Fritsch, F.E. 1945. The srnrcture and Reprociuction of Aigae. Vol.
2.
Smith, G.Ivt. i950. ivlanual of Phycoiogy
3. Round, F.E. 1965. The bioiogy
4.
i
and
iII.
ofAigae.
Pold and Wyane. i978. Introduction of nlgae.
Journals:
t.
.l-ournai
2.
Proceeriings of inciian Acatiemy of Science.
3
Acta Botanica Indica.
oi indian Botanicai Society
.
BRYOLOGY
Theory
l.
Generai characters and systerns of ciassification of Bryophytes.
Z. A
General account
of the Anatomy,
Nlarchanti aies, Jungermanniales, Funari
al
Reproduction,
es,
P
Life history and Phyiogeny of
oiytrichaies.
3. Origrn and evoiution of Bryophytes
4.
A Generai account of fossil Bryophyres and their ffinities.
Practicals
Morphologicai and structural study of representation members of the foiiowing $oups
using cleared wholemount preparations, dissections an<i sections
'. Riccia, Fimbriaria,
Moachaniia, Riccartiia, Fossombronia, Porelia, Anthoceros, Sphagnum, Funaia anti
Polytrichum
Reierence
Watson E.V. The Stnrcrure and life of Bryophyres, Hutchinson i-.rhiv. Press Loncion.
Cavers
F
The interreiarionship of Bryophytes. i.iew Phytologist.
Kashyap, S.R. The Liverworts of Western Himaiaya anri the Punjab Piains, Voi.
i & ii.
Clnonica Botanica.
Smith G.NI. Cryptogamic Botany
Voi.Ii . lvlcGraw iiiii. Book Co. N.Y.
Parihar N.S. An inrroduction of Embryophyt: Bryophyta, Generai Book House, Allahabad.
Verdoon, F. NI. Annuai of Bryoiogy. Ashor & Co. Amsterdam.
PTERIDOLOGY
Theory
l.
Diversity of forms among pteridophytes
:
club mosses, quili worts, mosquito ferns,
bracken ferns, bird's nest ferns, maiden hair ferns and tree ferns-General morphology with
special reference
to
South Indian species. Fossil pteridophytes-Psilophytales,
Lepidodendrales, Calamitales and Primofilicales, - morpho-anatomical features.
2. Habitat ecology of pteridophytes:
epiphyes, tithophytes, climbers, halophytes, sciophytes,
xerophytes, rheophyes, hydrophytes.
3.
History in reiation to ecology of pteridophytes Stelar evolution: protostele, siphonostele,
solenostele, dictyostele and special stelar t1pes. Vessels in pteridophytes.
4.
The fern gametophytes-i)?es of developmelt, morphology of mature gametophytes, ultra
stnrcture
of
gametophytes, biochernical and physiological aspects
development- photomorphogenesis. Development
gametangium and fertilization'
\
of
gametophyte
of sex organs- antheridiogen,
5
Cytoiogy: Ciuomosome number anci morphoiogy- poiypioiciy, origin
geographicai riistribution
of poiypioicis. Apospory,
of
f
poiypioicis,_
apogamy, agamospory-vegerarrve
reproduction and hybridisarion,
6.
Appiied ptericioiogy: Bio-feniiizer prociuction from Azoiia; Azoila-Anabaena symbiosis;
biochemisrry of Nitrogen frxation; nif genes. Pteridophyres as weeds. Salvinia (aquatic)
and Pteridium (tenestriai) weed problems; weed control-impacts and management;
biologicai conrrol, ornamentai and medicinai pteridophytes, Pteridophytes as ecologicai
indicators.
Practicai
1.
Morphological anti anatomicai features
Ly g odium, ceratopteis,
heiq
oi
B lechn um, Asp
Ophioglossum, Angiopteris, Osmunda,
lenium, Tichomanes, heritiium,
2. Acrostichum, Saivinia and Azolla Fassiis.' Rhynia, Lepidodendron,
Calmites anti
Botryopteis.
J
Germination
of spores
anri prothaiiiai cieveiopment
in Agar meriium (in vitro) of
Ceratopteris, Christelia and iliicrosorum
Habitat study of Lycopotiium, Athyium, Gieichenia, Actiniopteis, fiinosia, Drynaria,
Acrosiochu m and S aivini a
5.
Submission of a fiei<i sruciy repon anci i0 herbarium ofcommon, iocai pteridophytes.
Reference
i.
Bierhost, D.W.
2.
Dyer, A.C.
3
jermy, A.C. i973(Ed.). The Phyiogeny
4.
Kramer, K.U. & Green, P.S.
i97i.
i979
Iviorphoiogy of Vascuiar Piants,lviac. r\liian Co. , New York.
The Experimeniai Bioiogy of Ferns. Academic Press, Lon<ion.
i99i.
anci
Classificarion of Ferns.
The Famiiies anci Genera of Vascuiar Piants. Narosa,
i.iew Deihi.
ll
ili-r'COLOGY
Theory
i.
Significance of Fungi to Humans
2.
Characteristics of Fungi . Generai characterisrics, Fungai Walis anci Hyphai Tip
Growth, Fungai organeiies, Reprociuction and Spores, Sexuai comparibiiity
5
Fungai systematics : Tra<iitional and iVlodern Systerns of Fungal Classification, Characters
used in Fungal Classification, Phylogeny ofFungi.
4
Biology, General Characteristics and Classification of the following Phyla
:
Nlyxomycota, Oomycot4 Chytridiomycota, Zygomycoia, Ascomycota
anci
Basidiomycota.
)
Asenrai Fungr @euteromycetes) : General Characters, Habitat and Imponance of Asenrai
Fungi, Somatic Stnrctures, Stnrctures associated with asexuai reprociuction, Conidiomata,
conidia and conidium Ontogeny, Other Asenral Propagules., Teleomorph- Anamorph
cormections, Nomenclan-re anti classifi cation.
Practicals:
Using appropriate mycoiogicai methods and techniques the students
shaii
collecvisoiate and siuriy the morphology and anatomy of the reproductive stnrctures of the
following genera of fungi
:
Stemonites, Synchytrium, Saprolegnia,
ffrtium,
Albugo,
Pilobolus, Mucor Cunninghanelta, Syncephalastrum, Saccharomyces, Taphina,
Ascobolus,
Xylaia,
Geogiossum, Phornopsis, Drechslera, Aspergillus, Alternaia,
Crcospora, Fusaium, Tremelle, Auriculaia, Puccinia, (istilago, Entolotna, Ganoderma,
Lycoperdon, Geastntm, Dictyophora
an
d Cyathus.
t,/.
References,
!
-c
Ainsworth, G.C. et ai. (Ecis). 1965-19i3. The Fungi- An advanced Treatise. Vois. i-4,
Academic Press.
Alexoooulose, C.J. et. al. 1996. Introductory Mycology, 4th Edition, Wiley.
Burnet, H H. 1976. Fundamentals of Mycology, E. Arnolds.
Deacon, J.W. i988. Introduction to Nlodern Mycology, Biacicweli.
Moore-Landecker. 1996. Fundamentals of the fungi, 4e Edition, Prentice Hall.
Webster,
i.
i980. Introciuction to Fungi, Cambridge University Press.
ilIICROBIOLOGY
Theory
i.
Bacteria: r\iorphoiogy and ultra-srn:ciure, nutrition, cuitivation, growth, ganetics,
piasmids and their charactersation and general characters of each group; ganerai account
on acrinomycetes and mycoplasma.
2. iviicrobiai ecoiogy
bio-remediation
: Microbiology of the rhizosphere and phyiiopiane, sewage disposai,
an<i
water purification, cietection of microbes in air and water.
3. Methods in iv{icrobioiogy : Nlethods of iermentation (SSF & SiviF), fermentation media
anci their preparation, cuiture tecimiques (steak, siant, etc.), methods
of
steriiisation,
estimation of microbial number.
4. Microbial products : Production of primary
and secondary metabolites on industrial scaie
in bio-reactors by free anci immobilized microbes, upsffeam and downstream processing
ciuring microbial cultivation in bioreactors, models
of bioreactors
and their iunctioning.
5. Generai account on ihe mechanism of genetic engineering invoiving microbes.
(t.
Single Cell Proteins: their proriuction and appiications.
7.
Roie of Nlicrobes: in food, agriculture, industry, medicine anci war.
tJ
8.
Virology : General account on plant and animal viruses anci bacteriophages, anci their
classification. lsolation, purification, assay, iniection, repiication and transmission
oi
plant viruses. Detaiied study on TMV', RSV, Hepatitis-B, HIV, T4 -phage.
Practicals:
(a)
Test for the presence of coliform bacteria in contaminated water
(b)
Isolation
(c)
Isolation ofpure bacterial culture by streak plate method.
of micro-organisms
from soil by dilution plate method.
(d) Staining of bacteria and their spores.
(e)
Demonstration of bacterial motility by hangrng drop method.
References:
T.D. Brock (1996). Biology of lVlicro-organisms : Prentice Hall.
Friefi elder (1997). Molecular Bioiogy
R.Y. Stanier et al. (1990). The Mcrobial World. Prentice Hall.
R.E.F. Mathew (1981). Plant !'irology: Academic Press.
M. Goodfellow et al (1953). The Biology of Actinomycetes. Acadernic
Press.
PLANT PATHOLOGY
Theory
i.
Diagnosis (by symptoms)
2.
Casuai agenrs - furgr, bacteria, viruses, mycopiasmas, parasitic piants
3. Imponance
of pianr diseases.
4. Koch's postuiates - brieihistory
,.+
5.
D.isease deveiopment
- infection, progress of disease, roie of enzymes and toxins (fusaric
and victorin)
6. Defence mechanisms- structurai,
7. Effect of environment
8.
chemicai (phycoalexins),
on disease deveiopment
Disease management - by chemicais (fi.rngicicies), systemics, integrareci pest controi.
Practicai
The foilowing genera oipiant pathogens are to be studieci in the iaboratory.
Hemiieia vastatrix, Fyricularia oryzde, Colletotrichumfalcarurn Cercospora arachidicola,
Erysiphe sp., htccinia graminis or other Puccinia spp., Exobasidium vqanq Phytophora
infestans or any sps., heudomonas soianacearum, Erwinia sp., Banana virus, cassava
^^.-;^
aaautgau
References
Asrios G.N. 1997. Plant pathology, 3'd ed. Academic Press.
Tarr S.A.i, 19i2. The principles oipiant pathology. Winchester Press.
Wooci R.K.S. Physiologicai Piant Pathoiogy. Biacicweii.
Wheeier
i. i975, Principies
of Plant infection.
Wheeier H. 1975. Piant pathogenesis. Springer-Verlag.
van der Piank
i.E 19i5. Principies
of piant infection. Academic press.
r\iehrothra R.S. i980. Piant Pathoiogy. Tata-lvicgraw Hiil
Smith K.M. 1973. A text book of plant virus diseases, 3'd ed. Academic Press.
Horsfaii i.G
&
Diamonci A.E. (eds) i960. Piant pathoiogy
-
an acivanceci rreatise, 3 vois.
Acaciemic Press.
Horsfali i.G.
&
Cowiing E B. (ecis) i978. Piant <iisease - an acivanced treatise, 2 vois.
Acaciemic Press.
ii
.f
^'
Rangaswami G. 1988. Diseases of crop olants of India, 3'd ed. Prentise Hall, India.
Annuai Review of Phytopathology, Annual Reviews inc. poio Afto.
GYIIII{OSPERiiS
Instructionai:
l.
Generai characiers. Phyiogeny, Ciassification
2.
Geoiogicai horizones, ciistribution, generai accounr inciuciing morphoiogy, anaromy,
phylogeny anci inierreiationship of the foiiowing orciers wirh speciai emphasis on the
genera specifieci.
a)
Pteridospermales
'.
Lygtnopieris, Heierangtum, Sphenoprens,
Sphaerostoma,
Lagenosioma, Medu iiosa, Trigonocarpus, Pachytesru,Codonotheca.
b)
Giossopteridaies: Giossopreris
c) Caytoniales'. Cayionia
d)
Cycadoicieaies'. Wiiiiamsonia
e) Pentoxyiales'.
f,
Penroryiort
Cycadaies '. Cycas, Zamra
g) Gnkgoales Ginkgo
h)
Coniferaies. Cecirus , Crypromeria, Cupressus, Agathrs, Podocarpus.
1)
Taxales '. Tmus
l)
Ephe<irales . Ephecira
k)
Weiwitschiaies'. il eiwirschia
l)
Gnetales
3. Evoiution
'.
Gnentm.
oi Gymnosperrns
4.
Distribution of iiving and fossii gymnosperms in inciia.
5.
Economic importance oiGymnosperms.
lL)
f
Practicais
\--
i.
identiflcation of petrifactions, compressions, impressions, slicies of iossii types inciucieci
in groups mentioned above.
2.
Comparative sruriy
of vegetative and reproductive
srructures
of aii iiving
genera
mentioned above.
i.
Nlorphoiogicai and anatomicai studies oi above mentioned iaxa
References
Andrews, H.N.
i96i.
Studies in Paleobotany. Wiiey, N.Y.
Banks, H.P. i970 Evoiution and plants of the past. Wadsworth.
Bierhost, D.W.
i97i
Morphoiogy of Vascular Piants, Macmiliian.
Bower F O. 1935. Primitive piants. lviacNliiian
Chamberiain, C.J. i935. Gymnosperms Structure anci Evoiution. i-,,hiv.
of Chicago
Press.
Foster, A.S. & E.ivi. Gfford. 19 r'4. Comparative morphoiogy of vascular piants. Freeman.
Maheshwari, P & V. Vasii. Gnetum . CSR, New Delhi.
Ramanujam, C G.K. i976. Indian Gymnosperms in Time and Space. Today
&
Tomorrow,
Deiua Dun.
Sewart,
W.N.
1983. Paleobotany and the Evoiution of Plants. Cambricige Univ. Press.
Stockey, R. S. I 98 i . Some conrments on the origrn and evoiution of conifers. Canadian
i.
Bot.
59. is-Ez.
Taylor, T.N. i982. Reproductive bioiogy in eariy seed piants. Bioscience 3?. 23-28,
Walton,
195
i
An introciuction to the Sturiy of Fossil Plants.
LI
AliG IO SPE Rrli An*A TO iviy.
Theory
i. Differentiation:
Concept,
its
signiflrcance
in
cieveiopmenrai stuciies, toripotencv,
phyiogenetic anci ontogenetic perspecrives of ciiiferentiation - generai iciea of enrropy
2
ivleristems . Recent tireories on organisation of root anci shoot apicai meristems. Origrn
of iarerai root. Leaf
anci
buri cieveiopment. Piastochronic srage, experimentai stuciies on
meristems, vegetarive to reproductive apex Reversion from reprociucdve
to
vegetative
4PV^,
3.
Tissue sysiems: Differentiation anti fi.rncrions
of
ciifferent tissue sysrems such
as
epiciermis, parenchyma, chiorenchyma, scierenchyma, iaricifers, gian<is, uansfer ceiis.
Environmentai factors infiuencing iiifferentiation
of the riivergent tissue sysrems,
experimenral studies, their economic imponance.
4.
Seconciary cambium: concept, ciassifrcation, origin anci constirution of cambium, cambiai
activiry, cambium
in
woun<i heaiing and grafting, factors influencing cambiai
ciifferentiation anri activity, cork-cambium, ciifferent rypes, origin anci frrnction.
5. Abnormai cambium:
6.
ciassification, origin anri firnction, experimentai srudies.
Seeciiing anci noiiai anaromy, rooTcot vascuiar connection, pauern of nociai anatomy,
controversies on phyiogeneiic tren<is in nociai anatomy.
r-
.
Xyiem:
ftgin,
structurai ieatures anci fi.rnction of fibres, fibre trachieds, rrachiecis, vessei
elements, xyiem parenchyma, rhe rrencis of speciaiization, taxonomic significance, iactors
affecting xyiem iiifferentiation, eiemenis of w'ooti anatomy.
8.
Phioem. origin, srrucrure and iunction of sieve ceiis, sieve tubes companion ceiis anci
fibres, uends
of
specaiization, iaxonomic significance, iactors affecting phioem
differentiation.
9
Leaf: Origin and cieveiopment of iamina- generai parern.
lo
+
10. Fruits and seeds : General anatomy of fieshy anci ciry fruits - anatomy of seeris in generai,
!
,
-\
cievelopment dormancy and drought resistance from anatomicai point
oiview.
i L Roots . Initiation and rieveiopment oispeciaiized roots.
12. Anatomy in reiation to ecoiogy and to<onomy.
Practicals
i.
Diversity in ceiis
an<i rissue
in a monocot and a ciicoi plant with respect to position,
distribution, structure and function.
2, Epidermis - Trichomes,
stomatai types, stomatai index.
3.
Clearing shoot apical meristems - different Paiterns.
4.
Clearing and staining of ieaf young twigs, roots, floral parts etc.
5.
Nodai anatomy.
6.
Vascuiar cambium and cork cambium
i.
Xylem and its constituents by sectioning and maceraiing the tissues
8. Phloem and its components.
9.
Abnormai secon<iary growth
- different patterns '. Dracaena, Bignonia, Aistoiochia,
Amaranthus, lu'yuanthes, Aerta, Beetroot, iuiirabiiis, Pisonia, tsougainviiiea
10. Submission of siities - 30 Nos.
References:
i.
Plant Anatomy - K. Easu - Wiley Eastern Limited
2. Plant Anatomy - A Fahn - Pergamon
3.
Press
- i983.
- i977.
Piant Anatomy : Experiment an<i interpretations Part
Arnold
i
anci
ii - E.G, Cutter - E<iwarri
- 1978.
4.
Piant Anatomy - J.D. Ivlauseth - The Nenjamin Cumming Publishing Co. i988.
5.
Practical Plant Anatomy - A.S. Forester - D. Van Nostranci Company, inc. i960.
t9
A
6
1'aa
Cyociifferenriation
in
Piants
-
Roberts,
L.W. l97o
Cambricige University Press,
Cambridge.
lYrIL.KL'ItLrll\rvur_
: TY'EAIF
i.
Basic insiruments and equipments used
in
ivlicrotecirnique, rheir uses anci principies
invoiveci.
a.
ivlicroscopes : Orciinary L ivi., Phase conirasr, Eiecnon iviicroscope.
b.
iviicroscopic measuremenrs.
c. Use of camera iucida.
d. ivlicrotomes : rotary an<i sierige anci their uses.
e.
Embedciing oven.
f.
Coupiin jars.
2. Kiiiing, frxing and staining piant iissues:
a. Hncipie and purposes.
b.
important chemicais anci reagents useci in the preparation
oi
fixatives and their
propenies.
c
Common chemicai fixarives, their composition, preparation, specific uses - FAn,
Carnoy's fluid, Cirome aceric, ir[awaschin's Fiuici, Crai, Zircies's fluici, Fieming's
fluici.
3. Imponant dehyciratihg
agents, ciearing agents anri mounting meciia used in
microtechnique anci their properries: Ethyi aicohoi, chioroform, giycerin, isopropyie
aicohoi, butyi aicohoi
4.
Stains used in microtecimique:
a.) Principie and purpose of staining
Lv
b)
-s
Classification of imponant biologicai stains:
i)
Natural dyes - Hematoxylin, Carmine, Orcein.
ii)
Coai tar dyes
Basic dyes : Safranin, Crystai vioiet, basic Fuchsin, corton biue
Acid dyes . Fast green, Light green, Orange-G, Erytirosin, Eosin.
c)
5.
Technique of staining.
Preparation of whole mounts, macerations and smears;
a)
Glycerin-xylene method for whoie mounts
b)
Tertiary butyl alcohol method for whole mounts
c) Nlaceration
6. Methocis
i
.
8.
flui<i, preparation of maceration slides ofpiant tissues
of cioubie staining of free hand sections using the ioliowing combinaiions:
a)
Safranin-Fast green, Safranin-aniiine biue
b)
Crystal violet-Orange G.
iviethocis of embeciciing piant materiais in paraffin wax using:
a)
Alcohol-xyiene method
b)
Teniary butyi aicohol metho<i
c)
Aicohol-chloroform metho<i.
Technique of sectioning materiais embedded in paraffin wax using rotary microiome and
fixing paraffin ribbons on siides:
a) Fixing
blocks on microtome
b) Curting sections
9.
c)
Adhesives and their preparation
cil
lvlounting and spreading ribbons on slides.
Niethods of staining paraffin sections using the foiiowing combinations
a) Iron aium-haematoxyiine-
Safr animfast green
2i
i0
bi
Safranin-Fasr greeruaniiine biue
c)
Crystai vioier-Orange GErythrosrn
Technique of mounting, cieaning, iabeiling anci storing peffnanent prepararions.
i i Vitai staining : rVethods and significance.
i2.
Histochemistry - a generai introciucnon.
Practicais
Srucients are expecteci
to famiiiarise with preparation oi
staineci perrnanent siicies
of
the
foilowing:
Whoie mounts, free hanci sections, maceration and seriai microtome sections foiiowing cioubie
and triple staining procedure. At least iwenty permanent siides representing whoie mounts,
free hanci sections anci seriai seciions shouici be submitted for evaiuation.
R.eference:
iohansan D.A. i940. Piant lviicrotechnique. fuicGraw Hiil, New York.
Sass.l'.E. i958. Boranicai Niicrotecirnique (Eci.) Constabie
Lacker
i.R. i966. Cyroiogicai techniques.
Berlyn G.P. and iviikshe
Chapman
i.P. i976. Botanical
& Co. Ltd.
Loncion.
& Haii, London.
iviicrotecirnique anri cyochemistry, iowa State
University Press, Iowa.
Gray P. i964. Hanribook of Basic iviicrotechnique (Eci.3; E<iwarci Arnoici Ltci. London.
Gahan P.B.
i984.
Plant Flistochemistry anci Cytochemistry
- An introciuction,
Acaciemic
Press.
Dwivbdi J.N., and Singh R.B. 1990. Essentials of Plant techniques. 2"d Edn. Scientific Publ.
iocihpur.
Krishnamoonhy K.V. i988. r\iethocis in Plant Fiistochemistry. Viswanath Pubiishers, Trichi.
San<ierson
J.B. i994. Bioiogicai lviicrotechnique. Scientific Pubiishers, U.K.
LL
G
EilIBRYOLOGY
Theory
i.
History and cieveiopmenr of angiosperm embryoiogy.
2.
Niicrosporogenesis
-
srrucTure anci
iunction of wali iayers, ultrastruciurai changes in
rapeium anci meiocytes ciuring cieveiopmenr
- roie of caiiose, roie of iapetum in poiien
deveiopment.
3.
Nlaie gametopirye - microsporerpoiien mitosis, division of generative ceiis, heterogenicity
in sperms, poiien ienility and steriiity, poiien srorage, viability and germination.
4.
Ovule - ontogeny, types anci evoiution, reduction, nurrition.
5.
Nlegasporogenesis
-
subceiluiar features
of archesporial and megaspore morher cells,
megaspore tetrad, ciyad and coenomegaspore, termination of functionai megaspore.
6.
Embryosac - ciassification anci ry?es, uirrasinrciure of componeils; synergrd anci anripodai
haustoria. nurrition of embryosac.
7. Poiiination -
uitrastnrcturai histochemical details
of style and stigma, significance of
poiien-pistil interaction, role of pollen wali proteins and stigma surface proteins, inrraovarian pollination an<i in vitro fertilization
8. Ferrilizaiion - roie of synergids, fiiifotm
apparatus, heterospermy, differentiai behavious
of maie gamates, syngamy and tripie fi.rsion, post fertiiization metaboiic and stnrcturai
change in embrosac.
9. Enciosperm
- classification
anci types, ultrastructure, ceiiularisation
in nuciear endosperm,
enciosperm haustoria, their extension an<i persistance, fi.rnction, storage metaboiities.
i0. Embryo
-
polarity
in
relation
to rieveiopment,
ciassification and iypes, Histo
anci
organogenesis of mono- and ciicot embryos, deiayed <iifferentiation of embryo;structure,
cytology and function of suspensor, physioiogicai anri morphogaretic relationship of
enciosperm and embryo.
i i. Polyembryony - ciassifrcation anci types.
i2. Apomixis - ciipiospory - apospory, panhenogenesis of embryos
i3 Fruir anci seeci - parthenocarpy - inciuction of seediess
fruits.
i4. Experimentai embryoiogy - embryoiogy in reiation ro raxonomy, embryo cuiture, anther
cuiture, ovary cuiture.
Practicais:
i.
Preparation
oi
dissected whoie mounrs
of
enciothecium, tapetum, ovuie, enciosperm,
embryo and haustoria. Squash preparations of taperum, microspore mother celis, ciyacis,
reiracis, poiiinia anci massuiae.
2.
Stu<iy from permanenr prepararions - Deveiopmeni and structure of anther, poiien, ovule,
megasporogenesis, embryosac, endosperm anri embryo. The comparative stuciy of the
typicai monocot and grass embryo.
3.
Poiien germination - viabiiity tests.
4.
Study of eiectron micrographs iisteci in the theory part.
5.
Experiments of intra-ovarian poiiination.
References:
i
Bouman
F. i978.
Ovuie initiation, ovule rievelopment and seed coai siructure in
angiosperms. To<iay and tomorrow publishers, New Delhi.
2. Bhojwani S.S. and Bhamagar S.S. i9i4
The embryology
of angiosperms.
pubiication, i.iew Deihi.
i.
Davis C
4.
Eames
5.
Johanson
6.
Joiri B.D. (ed.) i984. Embryoiogy oiangiosperns, Springer Veriag, Beriin.
L. i965.
Sysiemaric embryoiogy of angiosperms. ioirn Wiiey, i'[ew York.
A.i. i960. iviorphoiogy of angiosperrns.
ivicGraw
i{ili. iiew York.
D. i950. Piant embryoiogy. Waiiham, ivlassachuserts.
Vikas
.F,
i.
N[aheswari P. 1950. An introciuction to the embryology of angiosperms, ivicGraw
\,
Hiii,-
iiew York.
8.
---
(eci.)
i963
Receni acivances in tire embryology of angiosperms. inti. Soc.
Piant. iviorphoiogists, i.iew Deihi.
9. Reghavan V. i976. Experimentai
i0. warciiaw
embryogenesis in piants, Academic Press,
iiew York.
c.w i976 Embryogenesis in pianrs. iviethusen, Loncion,
i i. Guha S. anci S.C. iviaheswari.
i964. In vino p,rothretim=o3emirryos from anthers of
Datura. Nature (Lonrion).
PLANT iIORPHOGENESIS A$+BrTISSUE CULTURE
i.
Basic concepts of piant morphogenesis and its importance.
2,
Comparative morphoiogy and piant morphogenesis, experimentai works on root, ieaf
anci
3.
fiower.
Piant tissue culiure
:
Filstory; Definition; Basic aspecis; Differenr meciia, components.
$owih reguiaiors, expiants, steriiizaiion, inocuiation, subcuituring etc. Toiipotency.
4. Different
cuiture
-
types of cultures
ciifferent types
: Caiius
and Organ cultures, Celi culture, Suspension
- appiication. Significance of ovary, ovuie, endosperm
anci
embryo cuiiure.
5.
in virro morphogenesis : Organogenesis; Factors affecting.
Different stages of ivii croprop agation
app ii cations.
Somacionai variation anci it significance in crop lmprovement.
Somatic embryogenesis . Factors affecting
6.
Production oi pathogen free piants
roor tip cuiture oi orchids
i.
Protopiasts
-
-
significance, Synsee<is - appiications.
- Nieristem cuirure an<i its application;
Shoot anci
.
Isoiation and cuiture methocis : Somailc hybridization.
L)
Difierent rypes
8.
Hapioicis
-
anci fr.rsion merhocis; appiicarion
in crop improvemenr
Anther anci poiien cuiture; Factors affecting.
Significance in crop improvement fn vrrojeniiization anci irs signifrcance.
9
Brief accounr of germpiasm srorage : iong
anci shon term.
Cryopreservarion anci irs appiications.
i0. Brief accounr of seconciary metaboiires; production tn wtro Biosensors, Biochips Briei
accounr)
i i Brief accounr of appiieci aspecrs of tissue cuirure wirh speciai reierence to Keraia
Spices, Nledicinai piants and
-
fruit crops.
Practicals
i.
Preparation of stock soiutions : ciifferent meciia
2. Preparation of soiid and iiquici me<iia
3.
inocuiation tecimique : Cuiture oidifferent expiants
4.
introciuction of caiius anci organogenesis
5. Aniher, anci ovary, embryo cuiture;
lvleristem cuiture
Reference
i.
Bhojwani SS anci Razcian iviK
i983.
Piant tissue cuiture. Theory and Practice.
Eisevier, Amsterdam.
2. Doocis iH anci Roberts LW i985 Experiments in pianr tissue cuiiure , Cambridge
Press.
3.
George -nF 1993.96. Piani propagation By Tissue Cuiture - 2 vois.
Exegedcs Ltci.
4. iiarayanaswamy S i994. Piant ceii anci iissue cuiiure Tata ivicGraw
5
Pierrik Ri-ivi.
in
i,7no Cuiture of Higher Piants.
Filii Ltci.
v
CELL BIOLOGY
I
Siructure and organisation of prokaryotic anri eukaryotic ceils.
fugrn and evolution oithe
ceii, ceii concept, ceil cycle reguiation.
/.
Detaiied study
of
the uitrastructure, function and organisation of celi, ceil membrane anci
ceii organeiies. Theories on rhe origrn of cell organelles.
J
Chromosomes: Generai accounr, detailed morphoiogy, chemistry
and
moiecuiar
organization. Heterochromatin and euciromatin.
+
Speciai types
of
chromosomes: Polytene chromosomes an<i iamp brush ciromosomes,
Struciure and significance of giant ciuomosomes in piants, B-ciromosomes, minute and
mega cirromosomes.
Chromosome mechanisms and evenrs in mirosis anci meosis.Comparison and their
significance. Liiuasmrcture oi spinciie appalaruS anci synaptonemai compier.
Karyotype and Karyomorphomerry. Karyorype anaiysis, Roie in evoiution. Ciuomosome
banciing an<i various banciing techniques- G,C,T,N,& Pr,Q and Flurociuome banding.
Numerical anci smtcturai variations of chromosomes and their consequences, Breakage Fusion-Bridge; Mobile genetic elements; Translocation heterozygotes; Renner compiex.
inciuction of polyploidy by coichicine.
6
i.riucieic acid biosynthesis and different pathways invoiveri in
it. Stnrcrure and composirion
of DNA anci fu\A. Forms of DNA(dB,C,D,E,H,Z,\L) and
Evicience of
DNA
as genetic materiai, sateilite
fu\A -
difflerenr iypes.
Di\iA and seifish Di.iA. Different modes of
repiication of DNA. Chromosomal proteins and their molecular interactions. Chondromes
and plastomes.
9
Gene action: One gerre one erzyme hypothesis, one cistron one poiypepticie hypothesis.
Genetic code
- feaiures, protein synihesis
anci
its reguiation. Transpositions in Bacteria
27
anci eukaryotes. Operon concept
-
Genettc reguiation
in prokaryoles - iac opgrOn' fiP
operon. Gene expression in eukaryores'
i0 Raciiation cytoiogy,
Pirysiologicai
isotopes anci their appiications' Bioiogicai'
anci
Raciiation hazarcis
chromosomai effects of raciiations
raciiarion
ckomosome realTangenrenr anci cancer,
i i. Crn cogenes. Cyoiogy of cancer,
anci
DNArepairincatcinogenesrs,Tumoursupplessorgeneandcancer,chemicai
Cancer gene therapy'
carcinogenesis and fi.rture prospects'
i2. iv{odern teci'rniques
in
cytogenetic characterization:
In situ hybriciization technique -
spectrai karyotyping' chromosome
DIRVTSH, FiSH; Eiecuophoretic karyoryping'
painting.WCPP,USP;Fiowcytomeiry,imagecytometryan<iciuomosomeiibrary;PCR
tecimiques-RFLP,RAPD;ci:romosOmeuptake,ciuomosomeengineeringandceii
frrrsion.
Practical
specimen suppiied'
i.
Srudy
2.
permanent siirie'
Camera Lucicia cirawings of Karyotype from a
3
.
4.
of mitotic inriex oithe
preparation of PivICs'
Study of meiosis in Datura.r'RhoeoiChiorophytum by smear
Srudy of giant ciuomosomes in Drosophila
References
.
The ciuomosomes, oxiorci & iBH. Deihi
i.
Archana sharma ( i990)
2.
Celis, E.i. (i994) Ceii Bioiogy - A iaboratory Hanci Book.
3. Darneli.j,
Lo<iish,
H.
anci
Voi.I-[I,
:
Aca<iemic Press.
Baitimore, D. (i99i.) ivloiecuiar Ceii Bioiogy, Scientific
American Books.
4. De Reobenis E.D.P. anci Robenis E.ivi.F. (i99i) Ceii and
lvloiecular Bioiogy,
Washingron; Lea & Febiger.
LO
5. Gunning, B.E S
and steer, ivi.w.
(igg6). piant Ceii Bioiogy - Siructure
anci
fi
Functim'
V
Sudbury, lvlassachusetts'
Jones and Bartlett Pubiishers,
6.Haii'J'L',Fiowers,T,j'andRoberts,R.ivi(i9si)PiantceiisiTuctureanciivietaboiism,
York
Longman, Loncion an<i New
\f'
Press'
Loncion : Oxford University
7
Lewin, B. (i997) Gene
6
Sharma,A.K.an<iSharma,A.(i980)CkomosomeTechniques:TheoryandPfacilce,
Butterwonhs' London'
Atiitya Books, New Deihi:
9.
Oxford and
Sharma, A. (t9S6) Ciuomosomes'
i0. Roy,
Saryesh Chandra anci
AgencY (P)
Ltd
iBH New Delhi
Books
Ceii Bioiogy, i.{ew Centrai
Kalyan Kumar De (i997)
Caicutia'
BIOCEEiTYiiSTRY
TheorY
i.carbohydrates.Generaiciassif,rcationofcarbohyriratesSmrctureofmono-'cii-'anri
poiysaccharides'Reactionofcarbohydrates.i.iucieosiciediphosphatesugarsan<ithe
synthesisofgiycosiciicboncis'StarchancisucrosesynthesisHy<irolysisofgiycosiciic
ivieiaboiism of caroohyciraies : Gycoiysis'
bonds. Amyiase anri inveriases .
giuconeogeneus
iermentation, psntose phosphate paihway anri
2.
of '?rotein amino acids" Generai
Amino aciris and proteins: classification anci siruciure
properties of amino acicis. Reaction of amino aci<is'
3. Amino acid
metaboiism: Transaminarion, aminaiion, deamination an<i GS/GOGAT
pathway. Ciassification of protein according to soiubility characteristics. Generai function
oiprotein.
enzymes
4.
Stnrcture and conformation
. Biosynthesis
oiprotein. Ramachandran's
piot. Proteoiysis
of proteins.
Lipids: Classification of iipitis. Synthesis of fatty acici.
&-
anci B - oxidation of fatty
acids.
29
5
pyrimiciine bases. Generai accoulll
i.rucieic acicis: The stnrcrure of imponanr punne anci
of biosynthesis of purines anci pyrimiciins. Types of
Structure of
^1B}'iA
anci their struclure anci fi-rnction'
Di'ia
o. Bioiogicai oxiciations: i'rebs cycie; mitochonciria -
eiectron transpofi system; cyariicie
pathway
resistant respiration in piants, giyoxyiate
i
of enzymes' Roie of
Etzymes: The ciassiircation an<i nomenciature
of enzyme
coenzymes anci enzyme cofactors. iviechanism
inciuceci
fit
B
-
action Lock
vitamins
anci
key
as
anci
cataiyseci reactions various
hypothesis. Energy oi activation of enzyme
faciors aiieciing the
enzyme
activity. iviichaei's - ivienton
constant 1Km') anci its
Enzyme inhibition anci
cierivation. aiiosteric enzymes anci cooperativity.
types
/
Practicais
for carbohydrates, amino acids anci protein.
Generai quaiitative color reaction
any suitabie methoti'
of reciucing sugar from piant rissue by
Quantitative esiimaiion
eI' ai' methoci' (Foiin Ciocaireu reagenl)
Estimarion oiprotein by Biuret methocirlowry
the Fiske-Subbarao meihod'
Estimation of inorganic phosphate by
DeterminationofpHoptimumofasuitabieenzymefromapiantsource.
Burk methoci;'
suitabie enzymes by rhe Lineweaver
Km vaiue cietermination of any
BIOPH-fSICS
TheorY
i.
Hasseibatch equation
Buffers. Derivation of Hencierson
of
the
buifers Function of
bioiogicai research'
bufiers in bioiogicai system; uses in
2.Photometry:Coiorimetryancispectrophotometry;tireirappiicationsln
bioiogicairbiochemicai studies
JL'
.-€
3.
Principies and application of ciuomatography.
4. Principles
and appiication
oi eiectrophoresis.
5. A briei account of centrifugation as a separation technique.
6.
Bioenergetics : free energy and entropy. Stan<iard free energy change
in equiiibrium
reaction. i{igh energy phosphorylated compouncis; Energy hydroiysis of ATP.
Practicals
i.
Preparation of buffers anci measurement of pH using pH meter.
2. Determination of isoeiectric
3. Paper ciromatographic
pH of casein
separation of sugars
4.
Thin iayer ciromatography of amino acids
5.
Separation oisubceiluiar parricies by sucrose <iensity graciienr cenrrifugation
.
R.eferences:
Physicai Biochemistry. rrpplication to biochemisrry an<i moiecular bioiogy.
by David Freifeider
Biophysics by D C.S. White
Biophysics : Concepts anci ivlechanics : by E.j, Casey. Pub. Van i.iostrand Rein
Biophysics : Eci.Waiter Hoppe (ed.). Pub. Springer Verlag.(i983)
Opticai methocis in bioiogy : by E.ivI. Slayeter . Pub. 'r4liiey interscience.
JI
iivliiUi{OTECHNiQUES
Theory:
ceiiuiar
of immunity, concepi of antigen anci antibociy'
Generai accounr on iymphocyies, types
anci humorai immunity, theories invoiveci
in
antibociy iormation' immunogiobuiins'
gene siruffiing anci
antigen presentation' ivlHC anci
compiements ciependent immunity,
anri poiycionai
hypersensitivity, opsonisation' monocionai
anribo<iy polymorphism HLd
immunoprecipitation, reaction' immuno<iiffrrsion'
antibociies, immunoiogicai memory,
ra<iio-immunoassay' immunoflutescence'
eiectrophoresis, eiectro-immunodiffi,-rsion,
i mmuno sorbeni assay'
immunob lotting, enzyme-i inke d
Practicals:
of ABO antigens in man
(a; Biood Soup iesting, for the cietermination
(b; Immunociiffi-rsion studies on agar
gei
References:
Ltti'' Japan
1.
Company
Srryer . (i995). Biochemistry : Toppas
1
(lgg4) ivloiecular Ceii Bioiogy
J. Darneii, H. Loddish, D. Baltimore
:
Scientiflc
A'ivi' weiner (i996)'
) J.D. watson, H. Hopicins, J. W. Roberts, i.A. Steitz,
ivloiecuiar
American Books inc, USA'
Co' USA'
Bioiogy of Genes. The Barjamin Cunnings Pub'
4
: wm' C' Brown Pubiishers'
K.ir{. Prescoii, J.P Hariey, D.A. Klein (1996) lvticrobioiogy
USA
5
of iviicrobioiogy : Orient
R. Ananthanarayan, C.K. jayaram Panicker (1992) Test book
Longman Ltti. Madras.
o
C,B. Powar, H.F. Danginawaia (i9g7) Generai lviioobioiogy (Voi'ii)
Publishing House,
PombaY.
:
Filmaiaya
i7
PLAi{T
\,
PIiYSIOLOGY
propenies of water
Water relations in piants: Fhysicai anri chemicai
i.
oi waier
-
concepr and terminoiogy
-
- Chemicai
potenriai
ln
Gibb's free energy concepl - water movement
-
warer absorption by roots
-
celis and iissues through celi membranes
Apopiast anri
sympiastpathway-Theascentoiwaterthroughxyiem-waterreiationsofrhewhoie
plant
of
?.
-
soii water atmosphere continuum (SPAC)
-
Transpiration
-
Stomatai reguiation
rransPiration.
r\iineral nutrition
sympioms
:
and cieficiency
Mcroeiements, beneficiai eiements - requirements
in piants.
Caicium anci metaboiic reguiation
in piants - i'iutrient culiure
tecirniquesiorpiantgrowth-Absorptionofnrineraisbyroots_<iiffi.rsiorrantifaciiitateri
diffirsion
-
Appareni free space
-
radiai path of ion through roots
-
foot microbe
of ions across bioiogicai membrane
interations - bacteria an<i micorrhiza - Transport
passive anci active transpolT -
proieins Transpon protelns or camer proteins - channei
ion ciistribution across the membraile
Nernst,s equation, eiectrochemicai graciient anci
-
roie of ATPase
-
Active ranspori anci eiecrrogenic pumps
Trancelluiar transpofi
3.
-
-
-
Patch anri ciump stuciies
-
Apopiast anci sympiast paihways anci acttve pumps'
Phioem transporr: Transport in phioem
-
sink-source relationship
pathways of transport of organic soiures paitern
-
phioern ioading, phioem unioaciing and sink-
of ffanslocation
-
source iranspofi
- pasflve, active and pressure
flow mocieis
-
sink-source association anti
parts and piants'
assimilate ailocation and partitioning between different
4.
photosynthesis: Carbon metabolism'..activation and reguiation
t,
photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle
-
- C+ photosynthetic carton assimiiation cycie - C4 syn<irome -
cz photorespiratory carbon oxiciation cycie-c fu\I metaboiism.
5.
Respiration: Energetics
Reguiation
of giycoiysis
of respiration by energy
-
Kreb's cycie anci eiectron ranspori syslem
ciemand anci concentration
-
oi key metaboiites 33
Aiternare eiectron parirways in piants
insensitive i.iADH ciehyciro genase
-
'extentai' i'iADPH ciehycirogenase
-
Cyaniri e resi
ciinitrogenase activity
transamination
-
Bioiogrcai nitrogen fixation
-
-
r'.litrogen incorporation into amino acicis -
-
nirrogen cyciing
-
Roteuone
ant respiration'
st
i.iitrogen metaboiism: i.rirrare assimiiation pathway
ti
-
expon iorms of nirrogen amicies anci anci ureicies
-
iiitrogen nutrition
-
agricuiturai anri ecoiogicai aspects.
1. Growth anci morphogenesis: Growth
photomorphogenesis
-
reguiations anci their effect
growth
phytociuome'
g. physioiogy oi flowering: Physioiogicai anti
flowering
on
of fiowering
theories
Biochemicai changes associateci with
conuoiiing
factors
photoperiociism
anci
vernalization.
'i.
Physioiogy of fruit cieveiopment anci ripening
i0 Physioiogy of seeci deveiopment
i i. Growth anci ciifferentiation
:
anti germinatron'
Pattern
oi
grol*th,' Growth f,inetics' principies of
' i,
t
i2. Bioiogicai ciock : lvieasuring time, Rhythmic piienomina'
i3. Suess physioiogy
:
PSysioiogy
oi
piant. uncier stress
-
waler temperature' sall'
environmentaipoiiution-heavymetaisandairpoiiution.
i4, Piant movemeils : Phototropism, gravitropism, nastic movemerus'
References:
w G. i995 innoiiuction to Piant Physioiogy, iohn wiiey & Sons inc
i.
Hopicins
2
Salisbury F
B
and Ross
C.W. 1992. Plant physiology. 4d'Edn. Wordsworth Publ. Co'
3. Bidwell R.G.S. 1979. Plant Physiology. 2"d Edn. Macmillian Publ. Co. Inc
4.
Ancierson
j
W. anci Boarciaii
i. i99i.
Nioiecuiar activation of piant ceiis - An introciuction
to Piant Biochemisrry. Biackweii scientific Pubiications.
r/,
Publishers-': f*'
Plant Physiology 4d' Edn CBS
i986
H.
F
Witham
and
R.M.
5. Devlin
Disiributers, New Deihi'
(t.
Wiley &
Bioiogy - Concepts anci Experiments' ioirn
Karp G. i996. Ceii anri ivloiecular
Sons, Inc.
of Inciia
Plant Physiology Prentice Haii
Noggie G.R. and Fritz G.i, i992' Inuoductory
i,
Pvt. Ltti. iiew Delhi.
S.StewardF.C.PlantPhysiology-AtreatiseVot.itoX.Acad.Press.
g. TatzL.
co' Inc'
The Benjamin cummings Pubi'
a1rdzeigetr-. lggl.Plani Physiology.
Technicai'
Physioiogy' Longman Scientific &
i0. 'wilkins lv1.B. i984. Advanced Piant
Journals & Periodicals'
i.
Annuai Review of Plant physioiogy'
2. Encyciopeciia of Piant Physioiogy'
?racticais :
l.
an<i their diiutions'
Preparation of moiai, molat, normai and percentage soiutions
2.
Dry Weightimoisture contem determination of piant materials.
3.
Factors afiecting membrane permeabiiity'
4.
iv{easurement of water potentiai of plant tissues'
5.
Soiute potentiai of sap by ciensity gradient method'
6. Piasmolysis
i.
- Deplasmolysis method..
Histochemicai iocaiization of potassium in the guard cells unrier ciifferent conditions of
transpiration.
8. Potassium
g.
Separation
uptake by exciseci roots chioririe'
of piant pigments by paper chromatographyrthin iayer ciromatography and
absorption spectre of each pigment separated.
35
i z\
spectrophotometry'
. .,-- of
^r^,^larr
chrorophyil content u$ng
r0. euantitative estimation
ii,Lightcornpensationpointspertainingtophoiosynthesis-anatomicalstudy.
12.Plchanges in root surfaces'
i3.Roleofphytocirromeinthegerminationoflightsensitiveseeds.
14. Nleasurement
parameters'
of growth rate using various
15'Amylaseactivityandgibberellicacideffectingerminatingcerealseeds.
References:
1.
I&
Science' znd Edn' vol'
Biological
1990.
al.
et.
Green N.P.o
Press, New
York'
2. Meidner H. igs4.
London.
3.
II
cambridge University
and unwin'
prant physiology, George A*en
in
Experiments
class
-,
.,rd
inPlantPhysiology. ALaboratoryMannua|.2*
ResearchExperience
1981.
MooreT.C.
Edn' SPringer Verlag'
EN!'IRONilIENTAL BIOLOGY
TheorY
t.
and function; trophic
relationship berweor stnrcture
components,
Ecosystern-stnrctural
structures - Ecological awareness'
2.
and processes of primary production;
Productivity and energy flow-concept, limits
of productivity measurement; efficiency with regard to energy capture and
methods
transfers.
3. Biogeochemical
4.
cycling- basic types; the global water, Carbon and Nirrogan cycles.
Succession, climax and stability - concepts, characteristics of pioneer and climax species
;
climax concept and stability.
JO
t-'e'
) population characteristics - density, diversity indices, alpha, beia and gamma diversity,
natality, mortality, age distribution, biotic potential, carrying capacity, aggregation,
dispersal, ecotone and edge effect.
6.
Genecology-basic concepts, ecotJpe, ecophenes, ecads'
7.
Love Canal episode;
Environmental pollution-types : Land, air and water : Ivfinamata anci
plants; control with
pesticides, radiation, noise and automobile pollution; effect on
house
emphasis on biological methods, cumulative effect on global environment-green
effect, Ozone dePletion, Ozone daY.
8.
types of
Biodiversity : concepts-cenfies of diversity, phytogeographic zones, vegetation
conservation
India, Kerala, and endemism. Importance of conservation, agrobiodiversity,
stratery, Organisations- history and development, ruCN, WTVF, CITES, TRAFFIC,
Ramsar
Species Survival Commission. Conservation proglammes- UNEP, IVIAB,
convention, Convention
on
Biociiversity,
Rio +5,
Eco-development progritmme,
Red
environment day, Conservation movements in India and Kerala. ruCN Hot spots,
list Categories, Red Data Books, Threatened plants and animals oi India and Kerala-case
histories. In sinr-ex situ conservation, proiected area concepts, wildlife
sanctuaries,
national parks and biosphere reserves. Afforestation- social forestry, agroforestry,
environmental impact assessment, particrpatory management,
lllldlife
Preservation Act
(Lg7l),Indian Forest Act (1980), Biodiversity Act, Intellectual Properry Rights (IPR)
and
Patenting.
Practical
1.
Evaluation of biotic and abiotic components of any fwo important ecosystems'
2. Evaluation of food chain in the ecosystems mentioned in l'
3. Determination of the importance
quadrats, line and belt transect
Value Index
methods'
(M)
of plant species in the community by
.a
4.
pomparative stuciy of poiiuteci anri non-poiiuteci aquatic ecosyslems'
5.
Park, sewage treatmenl untl
Visit to a meierologicai siation, Wiiciiiie Sanctuary, i'iatronai
anci
major consiructlon areas'
$eference
i.
Aganvaii, U.P., i988. Forests in inciia'
2. Ciarks, G L. 1954. Elemenrs of Ecology'
3
Cox. G.W.
4. Dasman,
i969
Reaciings in Conservatron Ecoiogy
R.F. i968. Environmentai Conservatlon'
5.
Data Book'
Lucas, G. & Synge, H., i986' IUCN Piant Reci
6.
Niisra, R., i968. Ecoiogy Workbook'
1
.
Nayar, lvI.P & sasrry, A.R.K. i987, i989
,
lgga, Reci Data Book of Inciian Piants 3 vois'
8.
Orium, 8P.,lgi6.Fundameniais of Ecoiogy
9.
Odum, P. i978 Basic Principies of Ecoiogy
i0. Puri, G. indian Forest EcoiogY'
ANqIo srERlr IVToRPEO LOpJ
Theory
1.
fiowers
and evolution of flower' co-woiution of
General concepts of morphology, origin
vis-i-vis Pollinators.
2. Origin anri evoiution of monocot and dicot fiowers'
3.
concepts of foiiar origin of carpels
Evolution of carpels : Different types of carpels,
alternative concepts and approaches'
4,
Specialised carpels
- poly and syncarpy- supenor, sani-inferior
and inierior ovary-
evolution ofplacentation types'
appendicular and receptacular concepts JO
5.
Roie of florai anaromy in inierpreting the origin anci evoiution of flower anci
florailTts.
Practicais
i.
Preparation of cieareci whoie mounts of fiorai parts to sirow vascuiature.
2. With the heip of ciissections and hand sections, exarllne
a) Transmitting tissueicanals
b)
in styie
anci stigma.
Different rypes of ovaries.
c') Different types of placentation
d) Vascuiaiure
of anciroecium anci gynoecium in speciai types of flowers.
References
i.
Eames
A.i. iviorphoiogy of Angiossperms.
2. Barnarci C. The interpreiation oiAngiosperm flower. Aust. i. Sci. 24: 64-72 (i90i)
3. ivianiial K.S. . Vascuiarisation
of coroiia of Compositae. J. ind. Bot. Soc. 50: i89-i9ti.
(ie8 r)
4
ivleeuse
A.D.i. Some fundamentai principies oi interpreting florai morphoiogy Inti
Biosci. Publ., Hissar
(igi4)
5.
ivleiviiie R.A. New theory of angiosperm fiower. i.iature : i88 (i44i8) (i960)
6.
Puri V. inferior Ovary. Phytomorphology. 2 . 122 (1952)
i.
Sporne K.R. The morphology of the Angiosperms. Hutchinson Univ. Press. Lonrion
\Lv t+).
)u
* t'
A d GIQ
E
(
ErY-"ri T A X Q i{
Orr-iY
heorY
i. Torononry - Its objectives,
scopQ anti imponaqqe
Historical development of
/,
ciassiflcatiott
theories and concepts oi bioiogicai
speciai
classificatory systems with
classification
oi the foiiowing :
gasis
emphasis on rhe concePtutri
Bentham
&
ano
of the
Hooker' Engigr
& Prgpti, tfutchinson'
oi
Taxqnomic caregones,
pronquist and Takhtalan
concepis
Taxonomic structure, Taxonomic hierarchy anci
5
.-,
species,- genus,
4.
iamily an( infr 4sp ecific categone
s'
Concept of characrer, c[trracter variations and their t&\onon]ig
taxonomic characters
-
iflfPiitafiqns Sources of
morphology, anatomy, embryotqFy, pplynPigp, cytology apd
phyrochemistry.
5.
Mociern trepcis
in Taxonomy Conceptuai and r.gglhodoiogi,gfi pro6lg*s; Bisystemarips,
N.umerical fpxonomy, Cia{istics, Chemotaxonofity.
6
Practical identificaiion of
Pl+qls; Different trpps of keys; c?nlfruolion
of
dichotornous
keys; various kinds of taxopol4ic
lit?rnrure.
7.
Plant nomenclatqre -
n Opfll?fl $Ildy of the mpjor
provisiglls of thg fulgna,tional
Cocie
oi
pi
What is there in a npmp
? pho ahpppe
8'
Methods
i
of plant
"+ploruq?n spllectiqn anf herbpr,rq* pI?p*4fipn, impgpapge
of
Herbaria, Botanical$g{eps
+0
\
\
Practicais:
t.
During the course of this study, the sru<ients shaii get iamiiiarity with the iocai
Z. The students
J\
\
fiora.
should get familiar with the methoti of dissecring and stuciying planis in the
laboratory, describing them
in
technicai tetms, preparing scientific iiiustrations,
anci Hooker's system
constructing artificial keys and identifying them base<i on Bentham
at ieast 3 members of each
of ciassification. For this purpose, each studenr shaii work out
the ioliowrng famiiies of Angiosperms availabie in the area.
Families , fuienisperfnaceae, Poiygaiaceae, caryophyilaceae,
Tiiiaceae'
Aizoaceae' R'ubiaceae'
Rhil,ophoraceae, fuIelastomataceae, Passiiioraceae,
Boragninaceae' Lentibuiaiaceae'
oleaceae, Asciepiadaceae, Gentianaceae,
Loranthaceae' EUphorbiasceae'
Pedaliaceae, Acanthaceae, Lauraceae,
-ii-riicaceae',
orchidaceae,CommelinaceaeZingiberaceae,Araceae,CyperaceaeandPoaceae.
3.Duringthecourseofthisstutiy,eachstudentshaiiundertakeafieicistu<iytourforat
at a piace ecoiogicaiiy
and supervision of a teacher'
ieast ten <iays , under rhe guidance
piant
one shaii aiso coiiect
piace of reguiar sturiy' Each
their
of
diiferent
and floristically
one huniired' weii
anci shaii submit at ieast
preparation
herbarium
specimens ior
prepared,correctlyidentifiedherbariumspecimensaiongwiththefiei<ibookandreport
of their practicai examinatlon'
for evaluation during the course
References
. Angiosperm
. --i
Taxonomy' New York.
p.ii. & V,ii, Heywooci. igti3. hncipies of
i.
Darris,,
z.
in india' Delhi'
in the history of botany
Burkitl i.H. ig65. chapters
3.HeywootiVH(Erin)i9ti8.Nio<iernmethotisinPiantTaronomy.London'
4,
5.
London'
Essays inPiant Taxonomy'
i978'
H'S'
G'd')
Street,
i984 Current concepts
ivioore
@tis'i
D'M'
&
Heywood, V'H'
in Piant TaxonomY'
+L
London'
(t.
Vog9l E
F
(Ed
Taxonorpv
) l9$7' lviapual of Hqrhprium
L9i$9n
7.StytesB.T.(Ed.)tgs6.Infr4sPpcificclqssificationofwildarrdcullivffgdnlapts.oxford.
sPseig$ levTi camundgg'
plants, Evolution above th?
8.
Stebbins,
G.L.
'g74.F|oweriig
lvlass.
g. Ivtayr. E. rgil.Evorution and diversily
10.
of rife. cambridge.
to Plant Taxonomy' Lopdon'
Jeftey.C. 1968' '\n inuo{uqion
& cambridge'
of flanl Too,rryFry. Delhi
pinciples
to
r99i. Inprodpq*on
i r. sivarajan
v.v.
t2.Stuessy,T.F.1990.PlantTaxonomy.Columbia.
Npw P9lhi
Taxonomy of Angiosperms'
13. Naik. v.v. 1984.
t4. tnternational Code of Bol4pical \openctature
(Latpst)
ilI9I,EpvI.,4S PIoLoGY +lP G+liPTIps
1. Evolution ot gtngtlfs
rediscovery
oi
lnd In?f,t-
advances:
on
$en{e[ism: $ecent concePts
inloaction; Ivtultipig
lvlendelism; Modified lvlen{ellen raiios; Q7+etic
alleles; Statistical appiicptions in genetics'
2.
Link4pe, crossipg gypr
lpd f;tfe mapPi[rE
:
ciaqgical experiments
Punnett, Morgan, Bridges, tWo point and ttnee point croSses, models
Trisomics and translocation
in Linkage analysis.
oi Bateson
an<i
oi crossing over,
Linkage and recombination in
Neurospora, Bacteria and Bacteriophages; sex-linked, sex-influenced and sex-limited
inheritace. Extra ctnomosomal inheritance.
3. ilIutation: Spontaneous
and induced mutations; physicpl qrd cfirgmical Futag'ens, sex-
linked mutation, the mutaJor gene and paramutation, revtrsg mutation, detection of
mutation, mutation rete, molgcular basis of mutation, sile dippcieq
mutagenesis, DNA
repair, mutarion and evolution, significance of mutagenesis,
"itplily
muF,tion.
+L
4,Populatitingenetics:Basicconcepts,geneticequiiibrium,geneticpoiymorpitism,
gene migration'
gilecology, gene flow and
5.Quantitativegenetics:Polygenes,multipiegeneconcept,uansgressivevariation.
of genetic material;
and its action - i'iature
materiai
garetic
The
6. ilIolecurar genetics:
protein synihesis anci regulation
acicis, geneiic code,
ofnucieic
biosynthesis
and
stnrcture
DNA technology
of gene action. Recombinant
gerre
cloning, gfl€
. impoftance and appiications'
enzymes,
gun method,
microinjection and shot
electroporation,
transfer, Vectors,
genomiclibrary,genebank,DNAsequencing,PCRandsitedirectedmutagerresisandit's
applications,blottingtechniques-Southernnorihern,westgTn,South.western,north.
westeTn,dot.blot;applicationsofRFLP,RAPDandDNAfingerprinting,transgaric
7.
organisms,genetherapy,anti.sensetechnology,cloningplastiriandmitochondriaigenes.
engineering - applications
and euthenics' Gefletic
eupharics
Eugenics,
Applied Genetics:
inmedicine,agriorltureandhumanwelfare.Hazardsofgeneticengineering.Biosafety.
of species.
molecular mechnisms.origrn
E. organic evolution: Populational and
Practicals:
t.
parts have to be worked out'
Problems related to the theory
z.
mapp g inNeurospora/Sordaria'
Recombination analysis and gene
3.
from leaf tissue'
Extraction and isolation of nucleic acids
4.
UV spectrophotometric estimation of DNA'
References
I.
Sinnert, Dunn and Dobshansky. Principie of Genetics, lvlcGraw hiii'
Z.
Narin P. (1990). Statistical Genetics, New Delhi,
3.
Singer, Ivl. and Berg. P. (1991). Genes and Genomes, Black Well Scientific Publications.
4.
Watson, J.S. (i990) . Ivlolecular Biology of the Gene. Benjamin Sydney.
lliley
Easter Ltd.
+3
Springer Veriag, Bsrtm
G. i995. Gene rransier to piants.
Pptry KUS, I anci Spangenberg,
5.
6.r\lahiga,P.,Klessing,D.F.Cqshmore,A.R.Grinssen,'v1..anciVarner,j.E.i995lv[Ethods
inpiantmoigcuiarbiolopv.Alqboratorycoulse-ManuaiCqrLPress,NewYork.
i.Dodds,J.H.igS5.PiantgareircEngingering,PanimaEtiucalionpookAggncy.
i985' Basic genetics w'iyi c FrorYn Pubiishprs'
,yy-eaver,
R.E. anci Hedrick, P.w.
g.
g, Hartt. Daniel, i-
of pgpuierion genetics'
altd ,\nd1ew, G. clark. Frincipies
t989
Sunderland, Ivi.A: $i1av91,
an<i pavrri,
i.0. iviaunen, J, chrispeels
E
ii
editions
anri 4gnculiure' Jongs
sadava' i994 Piant' g?.?s
andBartlettPubiisherslntrrnntionai,London.
PioilIErsT
gra'Phicpl rTprgselttairon'
distribution and thejr
statistical meihods - Numertcat
i.
2. Sarnpling - Theory anC methocis
3.
gkgwpess, 'rurtosis.
- Ipeani median, mode; ogivQ,
tQTqPqcy
ceniral
of
Measures
4..MeasuTesofdlspprliqp.ppggqw,nt"rieviaiion,mgqndldailon,valianceandstan,<iar(
deviation.
5
Frequency disgnbution
6. Test of significance
-
aqd
poisson diqTriputigp
ngrmai, binomiai apd
Cfti square lest'
i,Designofexperiments.lan'(oy.rsedblocks,latinsquarea11(f19i9ppi
8. Analysis of variance'
9.
and regression'
Theolies of probabilitigs, corrgiaiipn
i0. Linkage and iinkagg analysis
in
ciipioid organisms'
i i. Tenad anaiysis to study iptiEpendgnt assonment
an<i
iinkpge in h4pioici org1niSms
++
\t
Fracticals
Practical skiils to solve anri work out probiems in biometry.
References
l.
Panse and Sukhatme, Statisticai methods of Agricuiturai workers,
2.
Mathor, Measures of linkage in heredity.
3. Kempthorne,
4.
Steel and
ICAR Publ.
Introduction to Genetics statistics.
Torrie, Principles and procedures of statistics with special reference to the
biological science.
PLAi\iT BREEDING
Theory
i.
Introduction, History of Plant Breeding and Breeding systems in piants.
2. Floral biology
and its significance in hybridization.
3. Plant introductioq Gen*ic resources
consewation and utilization
in plant
breeding -
National and International germpiasm centres - t)?es of germplasm collections.
4.
Selection techniques - Principles and applications of selection, ganetic basis of selection,
pure line selection, disnrptive selection, recurrent selection, seiection
of
segregating
popul ations, clonal selection.
5.
"'
t
Hybridization
-
Genetic and bree<iing consequence
of
hybridization and consequent
selection. Systems of incompatibility and hybrid sterility and methods of overcoming.
i\Iethods of handling segregating population for superior strain selection - Bulk method
and pedigree method. Inter specific and intergeneric hybridization
in crop
imp'rovement.
Back crossing - Theory and practice; Inbreeding ciepression, Heterosis and heterobeltiosis;
methods of exploitation of heterosis or hybrid vigor; use of male steriiles.
^o
Poiypioidy in piani breeciing'
i.
other countries in diiierent crops
ivlutation breeciing - iviajor achievements in inciia anci
8.
Breeding ior pest, ciisease anci stress reslstance'
g
Recent acivances in genetic manipuiations
oi crop tirrough in vitro inciuceci
transgenesis iviicropropagation
somatic hybridization, tissue cuirure anci
pracdce
mutauon'
- theory
anci
seecis anci suiciciai
- in vitro storage anci exchange of germplasrn - terminator
piants.
Practicals:
i.
Sruciy
oi fiorai bioiogy
anci r'iower structure in crop piants
(rice' cashew' puises' soianum'
caPsicum)'
2.
practice of hybriciization techniques
uncier item
Pianis as above
in seif anci cross poiiinaieci crops avaiiabie
(same
i)'
FORTICULTUBF
TheorY
i.
Concept and scope of honicuitrrre
?.
soii, ianciscape' propaggies' impiements
Basic requiremenis - ianci, waler,
rypes
j.
anci practices -
oi garden Piants
ciassification oi
garden, pubiic parks, rock garden'
garciens - aesrhetic garciens, home
roof
garcien,bonsai-vegetabiegarden,kichengarciensan<iorcharcis-meciicinaigar<iens.
4
piants'
Propagation methocis of garden
5.
ior garciening
impiements, toois anci machineries
b.
Disease anci pest
conroi in garciening
t-. Fenilizers - types anci appiication'
t'
+o
8.
Probiern of garden poiiution -
g. Planning
v
preservaiion
and management of gardars.
Practicals
Grafting, buriciing, iaYering
Determination of soil pH, estimation of ciissoived oxygen, and estimation of NPK ratio.
Operation and use of garden implements.
SPECIALISATIOI{ SUBJECT
Angiosperm Taxonomy and Floristics
Theory
i.
A detaiied and criticai sudy of the conceptual development of biologicai classifications.
Theories of classification of organisms.
2. Evolutionary
taxonomy - probian and prospects.
3.
Species problern in biology - a critical analysis.
4.
Character variation, adaptatiorg reproductive isolation and specialization; biodiversity
and
their importance.
5. Classical and experimental
@iosystematic) approach to ta(onomy - a critical shrdy.
6.
Floristic studies in India -
brief outline.
7.
Taxonomic literature - Floras, Revisions and Monographs.
8.
International code of Botanicai Nomenclature (ICBN). Detailed study of the
rules and its
a
application.
+l
fl
'
$.
Practic4ls
i.
pipnts g$m,
a minimum oi 25 igcai
of
description
oi anaiyrical
Exercises on preparation
gY'
taxonomic terminoio
keys'
of synoptic and anaiyicai
Exercises on preparation
s on preparation
oi botanical illustration
5
Exerci
4
nomenciaiurai problems'
Exercises on solving
se
s'
References
DavisP.i{.&Heywooti,v,H.tg63.PrinciplesofAngiospermTaxonomy.iiewYork'
Heywood,T.if'\Ed')i968'ModernNlethodsinPlantTaxonomy'Loncion'
Heywood,v.H.&[email protected])lgS4.CurrentconceptsinPlantTaxonomy.London.
in India' Delhi'
in the History of Botany
Chapter
1965'
I.H.
Burkili,
Street, H.E.
London'
(Ed') i978' Essays in Plant Ta:ronomy'
of Herbarium Taxonomy Jakarta'
Voger, E.F. G,d.) 1987' Manual
New Delhi'
concepts in flowering Plant Taxonomy'
New
i958.
J.
Harrison,
Heslop
Londo
Jeftey C. 1968. An tntroduction to Plant Taxonomy'
i98i. An integrasted
Cronquist A.
Bubitski,
K
'
New York'
System of classification of flowering piants'
(Ed ) i977. Ftowering Plants. Evolution and classification of irigher
Categaries. Wien'
Radforci
A.E. i986. Fundamentals of Plant
Stuessy, T.F.
Systernatics. New York.
i990. Plant Taxonomy. New York.
Sivarajan V,V. 1991. Introduction to principles of Plant taxonomy. Cambricige & Deihi
(Ii
Editionl
Internationai Co<ie of Botanicai Nomenclature (Latestl
+o
P
SPECIALIZATIOF{ SUtsJECT
.T
PLANTATIOi{ BOTAi{Y
TheorY
i.
the economy oiKeraia State'
imponance of Piantation crops in
Z.
Coffee'
fuecanut, Cashew' Cocoa' Coconut'
iike
piants
crop
the
of
ieatures
Diagnostic
Pepper, Rubber, Tea and other major spice crops'
3.
crops'
origin, ciistribution, ciimatic and soil requirements of the above
4.
Different varieties of the crops. Seiection, propagation anti nulsery techniques'
5. Crop improvement
programmes. Breeding and Biotechnoiogy'
(t. Agronomic practices
such as : Pianting tecimiques, maintenance of piantations, manuring
anci other operaiions.
i.
Posr harvest technoiogies anci vaiue added prociucts.
8. Pest anri disease management.
9.
Importance oiResearch and Deveiopmentai programmes anci marketing.
Practicais:
i.
Coilection anci identification of crop planr varieries
2'
Laboratory investigations of the vegetative and fioral morphoiogy
of crop piants.
3. Fruit and seeci morphoiogy anri germinarion
4'
5'
studies.
Speciai techniques of propagations like budding,
grafting and iayering.
identification of common posts and diseases
of the crop
piants.
.:
References:
i.
2
Chan E.ivI
ivfenon'
i953
Cocoa
_
inierscience pub. Ltci.
K'P'v & K ivl' Pandaii i969.
Committee, Ernakuiam:
Loncion.
,,
)
The Coconut paim Monograph Inciian Centrai
Z. I.C.A.R i969
Agncuiture'
Hand book of
iiew
Deihi
-
Arecanut ano
j.Pauiose,TT,igi?Arecanut&Spices-Grou.ersiianribook.Directorateor
SPtces'
l.
Rubber Boaro
and its cuitivauon'
Rubber
i976ieti'i'
P K. Narayanan'
5.Rao,Ev.v'8.&H.H.ilhanteri.)igS4.CashewResearciran<iDeveiopnrerrt.(Proc.Syntp
-'\nq Kaser'''^:
"v ior Fian'^-:
inciian
Cashe. 'n'l-;-'
& iiew
6.Tharnpo^^,r.ryDI.lI*^^uuULir\\,IuoconutpaimoxforcioriijliNewDu...
Crops Voi i' oxforci
piantation
Ivlenon. igE6.
sasrry & K.K.c.
H.c.B,
i .Srivastava
Delhi'
Journals
croPs'
Journal Piant
Cashew
Bull
fuecanut and SPices'
SPECIALIZATION
SiJ
BJECT
SEED TECEI{OLOGY
Intiia
development in
their
Testing,
and seed
of seed technoiogy,
History
:
Introduction
TheorY
l.
to agriculnrre'
and imPortance
2,
recommendations,
and
ISTA Ruies - Presoiptions
objectives,
:
Seed tesung procedures
Physicai puflty
seeti purity Stolage
and
int sity
of samples, equipment,
sarnpling, type
rastes) seed
grornrns on
(Laborarory and
determination.
garetic purity and
and anarysig,
germinatlon cootent; seed
moisture
to determrne
and effects' methods
corrterrt
rnoisture
vigour.
Seeri and seediing
seeriiing evaluation;
iests,
viability anri germination
and <iouble siBmoidro
pa$erns - sgmoid
$owih
deveropment
3. physiorogy and seedrgrain
\r.
gowth curves -
phases
of growth, roie of pericarps (Huii)
see&grain development. Biosynthesis
of proteins,
seed coats and
carbohydrates, lipids,
flag
leai
in
Rr\A during
I
seedr
4
grain development.
Niorphoiogy and anatomy of seeds : Exomorphic character, Gross internal morphoiogy,
development and structure of seed coat in main groups of angiosperms, classification
seeds
on
seeci
coat
characters, identification and structure
of
seeds
of
9f important field
crops and their seeds..
5
Seed production: Principle, Seed production
in
self pollinated cross-pollinated
and
vegetatively propagared crops, hybrids seeds, germplasm banks, lifespan of varieties and
factors responsible for their deterioration. Hanresting separation, cieaning and upgrading
of seed including the equipment used.
Seed storage and ciassification
:
Characteristics
of orthodox and recaicitrant
seeds,
principles and methods of safe seed storage, rype of storage strucilrre, factors affecting
storage iife, effects
of srorage environments on seed iongivity, seed deterioration in
storage and its control.
Physiology of see<i germination: Seed maturation, food reserves, imbibition, mobiiization
of food reserves, germination and growth factors affectrng germination.
8
Biochernistry
of
seed germination: Primaryieariy biochanical events
Appearance and role
materials
of
proteases, amylases and lipases
in storage organs.
Nlobilization
of
of
germination.
in hydrolyzing stored food
hydroiyzed products
to the
gfowing
ernbryonal axi siseedling.
g.
:
Seed dormancy aRd longivity
dormancy, longivity
dormancy
-
significance, types, control and release
- life span of seed, fuwors
cytologicai effects or iongivity
oi
affecting longivity, biochemical and
.
JI
\
deveropment of seed certification concept, minimum
10. seed certification: Definitions,
seed
certificationstandards.gerreralandspecificcropstandard;fieldinspection,ISTA
certificates.
tt.Theseedactoflndia(i966)andSeedRuies(i968)withamendments,limitationsofthe
Act.
in indi4 Agencies
seeds corporation, seed industry
i2. National seeds pfogramme, national
seed (State
production and supply of quaiity
in
reliance
self
achieving
for
responsible
Councii,
Corporation, National Seed Development
Farms Corporation India, States Seeds
Central Seed Committee)'
quarantine regulations
and imponance, Principles of
i3. Quarantine for seed: History
an<i
theirapplication,implicationsofpermissibletolerances,phytosanitarycertificatesplant
quarantine in india'
Practicals:
1. Preparation of working sample using
mechanicai seed diviser'
2.Determinationofphysicalpurityofseedsampleinsamplesoffivefieldcrops.
3.
Composition of pure seed of sampie'
4. Moisture content of seed using even and any
other method'
5,Viabilityoiseedtirroughgermination,biochemicalandexcisedembryomethods.
6,Percentgerminationofcropseedsusinglaboratorymethods:(i)Topofpaper(2)berween
(a) pot method'
paper (3) roll towel method and
i
.
8.
germination tests'
Evaluation of seedlings in the above
seeds in a suitable seed sample'
Determination of hard and fresh ungerminated
g.Detectionofdormancyandmethodstoovercomethesame.
t0.Exo-andendomorphicfeaturesofseedsofrepreserrtativecropsandtheirweeds.
(
i i, Identification of common seecis using seed photographs, seed manuais seed atias etc.
12. Detection
of mycoflora of seed samples
i3. Symptom, loss in
i4. Comparison of
seed
viabitity and seed vigour in stored seed sampies.
seed leachates from normai and infected seed lots.
i5. Detection of aflotoxin contamination in stored seed sample by
16.
v
oiSivtTlPDAmethod.
ij
v-
fluorescence iight.
Determination of contents in infected seed lots by thin layer chromatography
17. Quantitative and qualitative determination
18. Determination of enzymatic
of chemical constituents of
.
seed.
activity during germination, amylase assay demonsffation anri
estimation of lypase and protease activity.
t9. Seed adulterants, identification of aduiterants, effects of adulterants on the food value.
References:
Barion i96 i.
Seed preservation anci
iongivity.
Bewley, J.D. & Biack M. i983. Physiology anci biochemisrry oiseeds in reiation to
germination vol. I, II. Springer Verlag, Beriin.
&. -------------. i985. Seeds
-
Physioiogy, Deveiopment anci germination.
Plenum Press, New York.
& ---------- ---.1gg4.
Seeds - Physiology, Development and germination. 2"d Edn.
Plenum Press, New York.
Bewman F. i978. Developmant of ornrle and seeci coar strucrure of angiosperms. Tociay &
Tomorrow, Delhi.
Bryant
i.A. I986.
Danscent
Fenner
i.
i983.
M. i985.
Seed Physioiogy. Eiiwarci Arnoici, Lonrion.
Seeci
See<i
proteins. Acad. Press, i'{ew York.
ecoiogy. Capman & Haii.
Kozlowski i972. Seed Biology, Acaci, Press. New York.
(*
..ivi.
',
& Poljakoff - Iviayber A. i989. Germination of seecis.
,----- &
-
i989. Germination of
seecis.
ivlacmiiian, London.
rrray D.R. @d.) Seed Physioiogy. Vol. I & Ii Acad. Press. i984. (F H.)Ed. 19i2.
\i''1.
Vrabrlity of seeds, Chapman & Hall.
NicDonald tvI.B. & L.O. Copeiand. 1992. Seed science and technoiogy Laboratory manuai.
Scientifi c Publishers, Jodhpur.
Copeland L.O. and ivlcDonalci N{.B. i995. Seed Science and technoiogy. Chapman & Hali.
DTT,LIAL TAT-|L|(
-hn^r
ENl:iRONivIE liTA L SCIENCE
l.
Introduction: What is environmentai Science? Interdisciplinary nature - Ecosystem componealts
- popuiation, community and biosphere - history and deveiopmenr -
narurai
history to ecologicai models.
2.
Conditions for life:
Climate: Soiar radiation - origrn of earth - evolution of environment - origru of life - Gaia
hypothesis
-
leveis of organization -theory of integrative levels, continental drift-iand-
bridge hypothesis.
3.
Physical factors: Light : Soiar radiation - Beer's Law and aiienuation of iight - adaptation.
Temperature: Plant-ternperature interactions-metaboiic adaptations
of
plantsJife in
extrerrres.
fuIoisture: Structure of water molecule - unique properties of water -water cycle-tolerance
towards floods, water scarcity, and saiinity-phenolory.
N'utrien*: Macro and micronutrients
microorgnnisms
in nutrient
-
geology, climate anri nurrients
cycle-Leibig-Blackmann
-
theory. Biogeochemical
role of
cycles-
Carbon, Nirrogen, Suifur
and phosphorus cycie
pyramids.
^rail: Soii formatio. - soii irorizons-soii types-soii
organisms-soii propenies-soii
mosaicscai ion exchange capaciry_soii
erosion.
4
Population: Unique fearures-ciensiry-dispersion
of inciiviciuais-ciemography -age
srrucrure
-fertility and fecunciity-naraiity
anci monaiiry-popuiarion growrh-growth
rare-iimiring
factors
-
popuiation inreractton anci
reguiarion-inrerspecific
competirion-Lorka-,vbirerra
equation - preciarion' commensaiism,
mutuaiism anci parasitism
-
human interacdon wirir
natural popuiation_Bioiogicai conrroi.
5'
Population genetics: Generic variarion
anci naturai seiectron-source of
variation-genetic
consequence
of different reproduoive
systems
- cioning-pa*ems of genetic
variation-
ecotones, ecorypes, ecophenes anci
ecociines.
6'
communities
definitions
-
deveiopment)
: History and deveiopment of
community concepts-concepts
anci
stn'lcture and function-Habitar and niches-succession
(ecosysiem
-
causes and consequences
of
succession-dynamics and prociucts of
succession-Gause's competitive exclusion
principie-filnciamenrai anci reaiized
niches_
recent deveropments in community ecoiogy-wooci
wide web
7
'
Energetics: Energy and entropy-principies
of thermociynamrcs-energy iiow and transferefficiency-p.i.ury productivity in aquatic anci
terresrrial habitars.
8'
Ecosystems: Ecosystem pattern-ttmdra anci
taiga, grass iancis anci savannas, sirrubianci
and
desert-ternperaie and rropicai forests-iakes
anci poncis-fresh warer weriancis, iakes
anci
ponds
-
rivers-oceans, intenidai zones and
corai reefs-estuaries, siot marshes anci
mangrove forests-phyogeographic zones
of the worid-vegerauon types
oi
Inciia-Gacigii-
Nlehr-Homji's Ciassification-Remoie sensing,
sareiiire rmagery-wesrern Ghars
Himalayas.
JJ
\
s
HimalaYas
Conservation:
reasons r
conservation-Noah's
mission-first conselvatloil$;
of environmental modification-deforesiatlon'
and disasters-Impact
hazards
environmental
and pesticides of chemicals as fertitizers
apptication
urbanization, in<iustriaiization,
biolo gicai control'
biopesticle s, biofertiiizers-applied
LiliDP' Red Data Booiq
Summit-siient Spring-rucN'
Ealth
Sustainabie development-Rio
srrategy-Biodiversity conservatlonconservation
Facility
IB,GR, Global enuronmentaiBioresefves'
sanctuaries' National Parks and
Life
fauna-wiid
an<i
flOra
Endangered
Elephant Paients' GATT' Biopiracy and
Environmentalism. Project Tiger and Project
Biosafety.
10.
cFCs
Pollution: Kinds of poliution: air, water, iand noise thermai and radiation'
and
Ozone depletion.
Global warming-Green House effect-Pollution abatement. Environmental laws - i'iGOs
and environment movem
Practicals;
l.
Standardization of quadrst size using species -area curve method for the anaiysis
of
iocai vegetation.
2.
Determination of irequency of l0 common species in the local grassland vegetation.
3. Determination of density of 10 dominant
4.
Determination of
5.
Soii analysis-physical characteristics -
M
species in the local vegetation.
(Importance Value Index) of 4 species of the local flora.
components-t
e -humuns contert. Chemical
characteristics - pH, saiinity, chernical components.
6.
Water uralysis - Technique
z
Sampiing-colour and odour-Dissoived oxygen estimation-Estimation
of
COD
JO
(Chemicai Oz demand)-Total organic carbon
Bacterioiogical methods-Exnaction
of
- i.i2 anci P -
pesticicies
for
Suspen<ieci particies -
anaiysis
-
Chromatographic
analysis-spectrophotometric anaiysis.
Reference:
Chapman J.L. and Reiss, Iv1.i. 1992. Ecoiogy- Principie anti Appiications Cambridge
Univ. Press.
park C. i997. The Environment- Principies anci Applications Rontiecige - Lontion,
Smil, V. t997. Cycles of life. Civiiization and Biosphere W.H. Freeman and Co. N. Y.
Smith, R.L. and Smith T.M. 1998. Eiemenrs of Ecoiogy BenjamiruCunnings Pubiishing
Co. USA.
(AIso
rhe references
givar to the Core paper Envti. Science
page-
)
SPECIALIZATION SUBJECT
TISSUE CULTURE AND PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY
i.
(A) Biotecirnology : History, Definitions; Branches; r\Iajor Cenires In india.
?. Medicinal
and Aromatic Plants
:
inrroduction; Importance of exploitation by tissue
cuihrre with special reierence to inriiarKerala.
3.
Basic aspects of plant tissue cuiture; hisiory; Dfferent media; components; $owih
reguiators; Cnowth retarriants; Un<ief,rneci suppiements; Expiants; Steriiization;
Inoculaiion; Subculturing etc.
4. Different rypes of culture
: Caiius
-
Diiferent types; Ceii cuiture; Suspension cuirure-
different rypes; cuiture methoris of single celis; Tesiing of viabiiity of
ceiis;
Application of ceil and callus cuirure with speciai reference to Nledicinai and Aromattc
Piants.
in vitro MorPhogenesis
:
(a) Organogerresis
-
micropropagation
to
probiems reiateci
affecting;
factors
different types;
plants'
of woody (lvteciicinall
Different stages of
Estabiishment'
Rooung anri
to
speciai reference
wi'th
importance
lvticropropagation;
and its
Sornaclonal variation
aromatic Planis'
medicinai and
@)Somaticembryogenesis:Differentmeihods,FaciorsaffectingEmbryo
Synseeds
maturation; Apptication'
pathogen free
5,production of
prants
:
and its significance'
and its
Nleristem cuiture
methods;
Different
importanceincomrnercializationespeciallyofMedicinalandArornaticpiants.
hybridization :
affecting; Sornatic
Factors
and curture methods;
anti
6. protoplast . Isolation
reference io medicinal
speciai
with
methods. Appiication
Different types; Fusion
aromaiic Piants'
i
.
porlen culture
Anther and
Hapioids : Different methods;
.
cuiture'
Advantage of polien
Significanceincropimprovernentwithspecialemphasiseonmetiicinaiandaromatic
plants.
6
ovary, ornrie, endosperm
fertiiization (recent
and anbryo cuiture;importance' invitro
advances) and its significance'
v
Secondary metaboiites : Different ciasses; methods of production
-
factors affecting
yieid. Biotransformation; Different types with exampies. Immobiiization : Different
approaches, Techniques; Advantages. Bioseasors, Biochips.
i0. Major cennes of secondary metaboiite production in India.
i i. Germpiasm storage'. in vrtro methods; iong term and short term; Cryopreservation and
its significance with special reference io medicinal and aromatic piants; Major centres
in India.
i2. Recombinant DNA technorogy: Basic concepts and strategies
; DNA synthesis;
f
J
Enzymes
in r-DNASynthesis
Cioning vectors (Plasmids, phages cosmi<is, piant
viruses, reiroviruses, shuttle vectors, transposons Agrobacterium) Vector
transformation; Direct gere transfer; Isolation
sequencing, gene bank
of DNA
-
Plant
fragments; Blotting, Di.iA
etc., Screening techniques : Polymerase Chain Reaction,
Site
directed mutagenesis.
i3. Applications
oi r-DNA: Medicinai, Agricultural, Inciustrial and Environmentai.
Transgenic organisms
with special reference to recent developmenrs especially in
piants.
Practicais
i.
Preparation of Stock solutions of different media: MS, 85, \l'irites, Nitsch. Preparation
of
stock soiutions of Growih Regulators.
2. Preparation of soiid anci liquid media;
3.
Cuiture of difierent explants.
4.
Standardization
suspension cultures
of media for callus induction, direct and in<iirect
organogenesis an<i
somaiic ernbryogenesis (Medicinai plants)
5.
Standardization of media for Androgenesis, Nleristem culture (shoot and root meristem)
6.
Ovary, owle, and embryo culture. Dernonstration of in vitro poiiination.
7. Deveiopment
oiprotocoi for the muitipiication of atieast
one medicinai piant.
)t
a
SPECIALISATION SUBJECT
GENETICS AND CROP I}IPROI EilIENT
floral biology' breeding
Crop GeneUcs : a general account of origin, genetic variability,
l.
iecimiques, agronomic practices
6d major
achievement in the case of the major cereals'
millets, plantation crops, c,otton, sugarcane and spices'
z.
in crop improvernent. Centres of origin
Genetic resources - conserrration and utilization
- Rural gene banks; International
of cultivated plants - centres of variability. Gene banks
piant domesticatiorr, introduction and
netwofk of gerre banks, IPGRI; NBPGRI. Role of
acciimatization in crop improvernent'
3.
Seiection as
a method of oop
improvemealt
-
principles and practices' Section of
segregating PoPulations'
4.Hybridization-systemsofincornpatibilityandsterility.Backcrossing-theoryand
practice. Inirreeding - inbreeding depression'
5. Applications
an<i
6.
Significance of haploids
of eupioidy and aneuploidy in crop irnprovement -
polYPioids'
Clones and clonal p,ropagation
- clonal selection .
somaclonal
variation. Somatic
of tissue c'rture in crop improvernent hybridization - remote hybridization. Appiications
Micropropagation and
in vitro exchange
of gerrnplasm'
T,Mutationb,reedingandcropimprovement.achievementsandfunrreprospects.
pest and stress
g. Breeding for pest, riisease and stress resistance. Genetics of disease'
pests and diseases'
resistance - integrated management of
g. Nitrogen fixation - garetics of
nitrogen fixation
-
use
of
biofertilizers
in
crop
improvement.
t0. Genetics of photosynthesis'
60
1.'
i i Appiications of recombinant
DiiA
technoiogy ln crop lmprovemenr
-
Transgenic
pianr :.
prociuction.
i2. Genetics of
seeci srorage proreins.
i3. Piant Breeding instirutes in india
anci
their major achievements.
i4' Sociai and economic perspectives of agricuiture with speciai
reference io Keraia.
l5 Patenting life forms - patem iaws, farmers'rights
and piant breeciers,rights.
i6' Production of improved
- variery
agricuitures
-
seeci
-
seed certification
ecoiogicai agricuiture
-
reiease
biotech agricuiture
-
procedures. Alternate
intensive agriculture
Sustainabie agricuiture.
i
T Terminator seed tecimoiogy, ganeticaiiy engineered crops
anci the future
of
Inciian
Agricuiture.
Practicals
i.
rllorphological and cytorogicar identification of polyploid
varieties.
2.
Study of the cytoiogy of in vitro callus.
3.
Ideniification of major pests and diseases of crop piants.
4'
Study of chemical composition and use oi pesricides, weedicides,
fungicides and other
plant protection chemicais.
5 lisit
to the major plant breeding stations of South Inciia and submission
oi a certified
repori or piacement training at a Planr Breeding institute for
i 5-30 ciays and submission of
a certified repon signed by the supervising scientisr of
the institure.
6
Study of major diseases of crop piants by fielci icienrification and
submission oi specimens
reiated ro pathology, crop improvernent, conservatron or propagation.
j-1
0t
e
References
t.Allar<iRwig60.PrinciplesoiplantBreeding.JohnWileyandSons'
2. Bajaj 1?S 1990. Haploids in crop improvernent' Spninger
Verlag'
3.ChopravL.lgSg.PlantBreeding:TheoryandPractice.oxfordBH.
4.
chopra
vL &
and Biotechnology : concePts
Anwar Nasim, 1993. Genetic Engineering
and APPlications. Oxford
5.
Frankel
IBH'
oH & E Bennet, i970. Genetic Resources in Plants' Blaclcrvell'
6. ICAR. 1989. Forty years of agricultural research and education in India'
7. Khush GS. 1976. Cytogenetics of Aneuploids.
IL.
Academic Press.
1982. Biometrical Genetics. Chapman and
Hall'
8.
Mather K and Jinks.
g.
Nema, NP. t986. Principles of Seed Certification and Testing. Atlied Pub.
i0. Perelman JM. 1987. Breeding Field Crops. A!T. Pub. Co.
tl.
Swaminathan, MS,, Gupta
PK and Sinha U. 1983. Cytogenetics of Crop
Plants.
Macmillan tndia.
t2. VavildvNI, 195i. The origrrU variation, immunity and b'reeding of cultivated plants. The
Ronaid Press Co., New l-ork.
i3. singh P. 1996. Essentials of Plant Breeding. Kalyani pubrishers.
14. Sharma
JR. i994. Principies and Practices of Plant Breeding. Tata lvIcGraw Hill, New
Delhi.
62
c'
SPECIALISATIOiI SUBJECT
Y
BIOFERTILTZER TECHNOLOGY
1.
Introduction - history, definition, importance oF biofeniiizers.
2.
Farming, Information
Integrated Intensive Farming - Ecologicai techniques, Ecofrien<ily
skill, Organisation and Nlanagement'
j.
Chernical fertilizers
- Fooci security, heaith anri the environment,
Nitrate poiiution,
nitrogen leaching.
4.
Classification of beneficiai microorganisms'
5. Types of biofertilizers
- classification, symbiotic, nonsymbiotic and associative symbiotic
organisms.
6.
Importance of biofertilizers
-
Ecology, characteristics, mass multiplication' method of
inoculatiorq growttvyieid response of
l.
Rhisobium
2.
Azotobactor
3. AzosPirillum
4.
Mycorrhiza
5.
Bacillus megatherium
6.
Cyanobacteria
i,
Actinorrhiza
8
Vfu\I
7. physiology, biochemistry,
molecuiar bioiogy anci genedcs of nitrogen fixation, nitrogen
metabolism and carbon assimilation
g. Molecuiar and uitrastnrcturai
in
symbiotic and asymbiotic microorganisms.
studies of rhe Rhizobium iegume assoqiation anci Azoiia-
Anabaena association
63
I
g.
Acetylene Reduction Assey fgr mgasuring nitrogEn
Vsp of l5N teghrrigue and
f,xation'
biofertilizers'
t0. Factors favouring the growth and muttiptication of different
Azolla.
t t. Nutrient requirement of beneficial microorganisms and
12. Germplasrn conservation, preservation and
utilization of biofertilizers'
genetics
Satinity tolerance, herbicide tolerance, pesticide tolerance and
13.
of
stress'
herbicide, and disease resistances in biofertilizers'
14. Pests, pathogens and diseases
of cyanobacteria and Azolla; and their management'
15. Soil amelioration by cyanobacteria and Azolla'
t6. Mineralization : degradation and lignin decomposition
17. Economic analysis
of BGA
and Azolla
in soil'
of biofertilizsr use'
PRACTICALS
i.
and stern nodules'
Isolation and cultuing of Rhizobium from root nodules
z.
Biochernical test to distinguish Rhizobium and Agrobacterium.
3.
Spore collection and
4.
Estimation of nitroganase and nitrogar fixation'
5.
Study of Relatire Growth Rate - of Azoulla and Cyanobacteria
6.
Isolation and orltrning of Azospirillum, Azotobactor and cyanobacteria'
7.
Study of pests of BGA and Azolla'
8.
Estimation of PhosPhates.
orlttning of VAM'
'
g. pot culture experiments of paddy with Azolla and cyanobacteria , as biofertilizers'
References
Bothe,
E
D. Brurjn and W.
Bustan Fisher,
Stuttprt.
E.
Newion (eds.)
. t984.
Nitrogen fixation i00 years after.
{
I
Carr, N.G anci B.A. Whitton i973. The bioiogy of biue green aigae. University
Caiirbrnia -\ 7
Press, Barkdey, USA.
Elkan, G.H., IvI. Dekker. i987. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation technoiogy. Inc.
Goff. L.J. (ed.) i982. Algai symbiots. Cambridge i-rhiversiry Press. USA.
Hollaender, A (ed.) i977. Generic engineering oinirrogen frxarion.
IRRI i987. Annual repori for i98ti. Azoiia pests. P.O. Box 933, Ivfaniia, Philippines
Kannaiyan,
S. i982. lvlultiplicarion an<i use of Azoiia Biofeniiizer for rice
prociuction
training. TNAU. Intiia.
Ladha, J.K. and
I.
Watnabe
i987. Azoiiz utiiization. [nt. fuce. Res. inst. Los
Banos,
Phillipines.
Lewin, R.A. (ed.) i976. The genetics
of Biue Green Aigae.
Biacicweii Sci. Pub. Loncion.
Lodden, P.W and J.E. Btrrris i985. Nitrogen fixation and carbon cii oxide metaboiis. Eisevier
Sci. Pub. Co. Netherlands.
Lumpkin, T.A. and D.L. Piucknett. i982. Azolla as a gleen manure.
Lyons,
J.M., R. Valentina, D.A. Philips, D.W. Rains and R'C. Huffakar (eds)'
Genetic
engineering of symbiotic nitrogen fixation and conservation of frxed nitrogen. Plenum, New
Yorlq USA.
Newton, N.W. and O. Ioirnson (eds; i980. Nitrogan fixation. Univ. Park Press, Baitimore.
Rai, A.N. (ed.) i990. Handbook of symbiotic cyanobacteria. CRC Press Inc. Boca Raton.
Silver, W.S. urd E.C. Stnoder (ecis) 1984, Practicai appiications of Azoiia for rice production,
MartinsrT,iijhoffrDr. W. Jink Pubiishers. The Hugue Boston and Lancaster.
Subba Rao,
N.S. i996. Advances in agriculturai microbioiogy'
oJ
\r-''-
f
\
EIiZYilIOLOGY
t.
enzymology
Historical back ground anri importance of
2.
Speciai terms used
in
enzymology
: subsuate, activation,
aciive centre' coenzyme'
inhibitor,ligand etc.
Factors affecting enzyme activities Quantitative
Study of enzyme : Generai procedures.
3.
measurement
of enzyme activity ,
enzyme assays' Definition
of
units and specific
activity.Differentmeihodsoiquantitationoienzymereactions.
4.
Extraction
Enzyme isoiatiOn and purification.
:
composition
phenolics and organic
precautions with plant tissues containing
oi
media'
speciai
acids' Homogarization
techniques.
5.
purification
:
incluciing saiting oui, adsorption'
Fractionation by diffoent methods
criteria of puriry of enzymes'
coizurm ciromatography and electrophoresis'
gradiart
(r. Localization oienzyme : Differentiai centrifugation and derrsity
i
.
centrifugation'
Km'
temperature and enzyme concertration'
Enzyme Kinetics: Effect of substrate, PH,
value and its relevance'
S.Enzymespecificitiesandmechanismofenzymeactionwithexampies.
g. Enzyme inhibitors
and activators. Types
of inhibitors and determination
inhibitor
constant.
i0. Altostenic and cooperative effects of enzymes'
and
metaboiism' Coarse and fine control
i i. Regulation of enzyme activity in intermediary
examPles.
i2. Isoenzymes, their significance'
i3. Immobilised erzymes; a short account'
b6
:r
Reference
i.
Enzymes by ivi Dixon and E.C. Webb
2.
Enzyme Kenetics by i.H Seqei
i.
Enzymes
-
Boyer and Lardy
4, Principies of Biochemistry by A.L. Lehninger,
D.L. iieison
anci ivi.N[. Cox.
Practicals
l.
Exrration anci isoiation of any suitable enzyme from piant rissues.
2.
Standarciization
of homogenizing meriia with
fixingTeducing agents, such
3.
Standardization
of
as
respect
ro bufrer, Ei.iTr1
phenoi
polyvinylpyrrolidone anri Suifny<iryI. compounds.
assay systern
with respecr ro pH optimum, subsirate
saruration,
iemperaiure, iime and enzyme concentraiion
4.
Purification of enzyme. steps inciuding Heat and acid treatment. Ammonium suiphate
fr
actionation, diaiysis, gel fi irration, acisorption ciuomatography etc.
5. Km value determination
of the purified enzyme by Lineweaver-Burk methoci. Effect
6, Effect of metal, ion and selected compounds on ihe enzyme
7.
activity.
Determination of inhibitor consrant (iU) of the purifred enzyme by the Dixon's
method
using any inhibitor.
ol
.\
srEclAl-tzATioii suFiECT
ntl'COLOGY
Theory:
L
Principies
of
Nomenclanrre
Fungai Taxonomy
of
:
Nomenciature
pleomorphic Fungi and Concepts
of Fungi' Taxonomic
of
Criteria'
Anamorph, Teieomorph
anci
oiclassification, Phyiogeny of f,rngi'
Hoiomorphs, Traditionai and modern systems
2. Phyta of fungi : Deiailed
ciassiircadon
srudy of the biology, characteristics anci
oi
Plasmodiophoromycota' Oomycota'
Myxomycota, Acrasiomycota, Dictyosteiiomycotta,
Zygomycota' Ascomycota'
Hyphochytriomycot4 Labyrinthulomycot4 chytridiomycota,
BasidiomYcota.
3.
and imponance oi Asexuai
Asenrai Fungr lDeuteromycetes) : Generai Characters, Habitat
conidiomata'
Fungi, Somatic structures, Stnrctr.nes associateri with Ase>nral Reproducrion'
conidia and conidium ontogeny, other Ase>nral Propaguies, Teleomorph
-
anamorph
connections, Nomenclature and ciassifi cation.
4. Fungai Metabolism
: Carbohydrate and Energy lvtetabolism, Nitrogen lvletabolism, Lipici
Metabolism, Secondary }vletabolism.
5.
Fungi'
Growth : Mechanics of growth in Fungi, Growth of yeasts, Growth of Nlycelial
Culnring of Fungi in the Laboratory, lvleasurements and Kinetics of Crrowth, Nutrieni
Acquisition, Nurritional Requirernents.
6.
Nurrition,
Sporuiation : Hormonal conrrol, General Principles of Environmentai Controi,
Physical Factors, Moiecular and Biochemical changes Accompanying Sporuiation'
Rhyhms, Reproduction in the Natural Habitats.
7
.
Spores : Passive idechanisms
of
Spore Release, Active Mechanisms of Spore Discharge,
Spore Dispersal, Sore Dormancy, Spore Germination'
.\,
8. Fungi as Saprotrophs : Decomposition,
interactions
Sapronophs
in Terresrriai Habitats,
in Terresrriai Habitats, Roie oi Fungi in
Degraciadon
of
iviicrobiai
Pesticicies anci
Hydrocarbons, Fooci Spoiiage by Fungi
9.
Fungi in Parhoiogicai Reiarions
of Agricuiturai imponance,
'v'iruses aifecting Fungi,
Fungi as Parasites, iviycoparasites, Fungi as Parasites of Pianrs, Fungi as Parasires
Preciators
anci
of Nematories, Fungi as Parasites oi Anhropocies. Bioiogicai Connoi utiiizing
Fungr
i0. Fungi of Veterinary and rlieciicai Inieresi . Fungi as pathogens, Fungi as Aiiergens, Fungai
Toxins, r\lycotism.
i l. Fungi as }vluruaiistic Symbiots
S
ymbionts, Anaerobic
C
. Lichens, lvlycorrhizae,
Enciophyres, Fungi as insect
hyrrici s in Herbivores.
i2. Fungi anri Human Afrairs
:
indusrriai Niycoiogy, Fungr anci Fooci processing. Fungr
collected or cuitured as fooci. Fungi an<i biotransformation of usefui metaboiites.
Practicals:
Coilection anci srudy of micro- and macroiungi lrepresenting aii major goups of Fungil
commoniy avaiiabie
in Caiicui University Campus.
Students shaii prepare
a recorci
compiiing iliusradons anci descripiions of at ieast 50 ciifferent fi.rngai genera sruciieci by
them.
References:
Ainsworth, G.C. et. ai. (ecis.)i965
- i973
The Fungr
- An acivanceri Treatise. Vois. i-4.,
Academic Press.
Alexopoulose.
Burnet
cJ
H.H. i976.
Deacon,
j.w.
et. al. 1996. Introductory Mycology. 4u\ Edition-
wilev.
Funciamenrais of iviycoiogy, E. Arnoicis.
i988. Inrrociuction to ivlo<iern ivlycoiogy, Biacicweii.
\)>
the fungi, 4d'Edition' Prentice Hall'
Moore-Landecker 1gg6. Fundamentals of
university
webster, J. 1980. introduction to Fungi. Cambridge
Press'
SPECIALIZATION SUBJECT
CELL AI{D ilTOLECULAR BIOLOGY
Theory
i
.
uitra
of the various celi organeiies' their
General organisation of ceii and a brief overview
stnrsture, composition and
iunction.
Techniques
ior the isoiation of
subceilular
sequence transfer'
organelles. Cytochemicai technique s. organeile
?. Karyotype concePi and recent tecirniques in karyorype analysis
Cytotoxicity - agenis and
significance.
3. Topoiogy oi DNA, forms oi DNd
supercoiiing,
RL heiix
an<i topoisomerases'
Cairn' Okazaki' Roiling circie
Replication oi DNA - Experiments of lvleseison anci Stahl,
and other proteins invoived
model, concurrenvsimuitaneous DNA repiication. Enzymes
in replication (Prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA
poiymerases, ligases' SSB proteins'
helicases, primases, etc.).
4.
A in repair of DNA
Restriction, modification and repair of DNA inciuding the roie of Rec
and SOS response.
5. Organisation
of eukaryotic genomes: C-value para<iox, different ciasses of DNA and their
reassociation kinetics, cot values and compiexity of genome.
6.
Genetic Recombination: lvloiecuiar mechanisms invoived
ganeral, site-specific anci iilegitimate; modeis
recombination iniermediate, heterodupiex
-
in recombination of DNA
-
HollidayiHoiliday-Radcliffe,
Diid gene conversion,
Rec A protein and its
roie in recombination.
r-A
f'
1.
Genetic cocie : characteristic features, tripier, comaiess, non-overiapping degeneracy and
1
universality, reading frame shift, point and suppressor murarions, suppressor t-nr-'lA in
frameshift.
8
Transcription in Prokaryotes anci Eukaryotes : Basic process (promorers, enhancers anci
transcription factors), poiycistronic messengers and coupiing
translation
in
bacteria,
mfu\A
ranscriprion
anci
processing, capping, spiicing, raiiing anci eciiting;
ribozymes, simcture and processing of
9.
of
rfu\A
and
tfu\A; enzymoiogy of uranscription.
Translation : Detaiied account of protein synthesis in prokaryots anci eukaryores.
10. Transposons
in bacteria and eukaryotes,
reiToposons; Transformarion and conjugation in
E. coii and temporal mapping of its genome, transduction.
i i. Operon concept : Lac operorq lac repressor, negative and positive controi, constitutive
mutants, catabolite repression, tqrptophan operon, histiciine operon, arabinose operon.
12. Homeotic genes and homeodomains.
13. Genetic
engineering. Blotting, fingerprinting, footprinting, ciuomosome waiking, RELP,
RAPD, PC& Transgenesis.
14 Protein trafficking,
RNA editing, Protein sequencing, DNA sequencing, artificiai
synthesis of genes, artificial synthesis of chromosomes.
Practicals
1.
Stutiy of induced chromosome aberrations in Ailium ceparTiaemanthus - Ciastogenic and
physiological types.
2. Microscopical measurement
of ctromosomes from a permaneru siicie using micrometers.
3. Karyomorphometry - Estimation of centromeric index, arm rado anci totai forma ?o using
given data.
4.
Idiogram preparation
irom a karyotype photograph
suppiieri.
/L
5. Cell fractionatiort and isoiation of nuclei and DNA.
6. Demonsui
i.
chondria by vitai staining (ianus green) in Saccharomyces.
Agarose gel electrophoresis - fractionation and staining of
8. Colorimetric estimation
9.
DNa
of Di'{A by diphenyl amine methoci.
Colorimetric estimation of
fu\A
t
'rcinol method.
References
t.
Karp, G., 1.996. Cell and lvlolecular bioiogy
lliley
-
u
rnci Experiments,
i996.
John
and Sons Inc.
Z. De Roberiis, E.D.P. & De Robertis, E.N,I.P. t987. Cell anti r\ioiecuiar Biology, Eighth
Edition, 1987, B.I. Wanerly Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.
3.
Snustad, Simmons and Jenkins.
i997. Principles of genetics, iohnWiley
and Sons, Inc.
New York.
4.
Lewin,
5.
Watson, Hopkins, Roberts, Steitz, Weiner, Molecular biology of the gene. 4ft edition,
8., 199i. Genes
V'[, London, Ordord University Press.
1987. The BarjamirvCummings Publishing Cornpany Inc., Caiifornia.
6. Darnell,
J., Lodish., H. and Baltimore,
D. LggL. Molecular Ceil Biology, Scientific
American Books.
i.
Steat, G.S. and Calender, R., i986. Molecular genetics and inrroductive narrative, CBA
Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi.
8. Wolfe, S.L. 1993. Molecular and Celiular Biology,
Wandswonh Publishing Co',
Belmount, California.
g.
Alberts, B., Bray, D., Lewis, J., Raff, M., RUberts, R. and Watson,
J.D. i994'
lvlolecuiar
biology of cell III edition Garlent Publishttlg, Inc. New York.
10. Prescott,
Hrley
and
Klein (i990) . Mcrobiology, Wm.C. Brown
Pubiishers, USA'
IL
SPECIALIZATIOiY SUBJECT
V
PRINCIPLES AI{D PRACTICES OF HORTICULTURE AND GARDEIY
ilIAIiAGE}iEIi[T
Theory
i.
Concept and scope : Defrnitions of differeni rypes gardens, concepr behind each, brief
history, familiarization
of
famous gardens
in the world and in India,
economic -
educational - hygienic - and aesthetic values, scope of the study and funher researches on
gardening.
2.
Basic requirernents
:
Land, water, soil, landscape, on-scape and off-scape, seeds and
seedling materials, propagules, traditional implements and practices
-
factors taken
care
in growing nurseries and piants, ornamentals - annuals - perenniais - fiowering rrees ciimbers
- buibous plants,
varietal collestions, ge(m plasm collection and speciaiizeci
collections.
J
Ciassification of garciens and horticultural taxonomy : aestheric gardans, home gardens,
pubiic parks, gardens associated with buildings, ofEces, schoois and colleges, rock
gardans, bog gardens, roofgardans, container garciors, bonsai, vegetabie gardens, kitchen
gardens, fruit gardms (orchards), medicinai piant gardens, forest nurseries, sociai forestry.
Specialized fearures associated with gardens : Garden waiks, paths, pavements, rerraces,
lawns, hedges, borders, arches, pergolas, founrains, benches. ponris, bridges, umbrelias,
statues, dwarfing, pruning, topiery, tree surgery, avenues, green house, coici irames, hor
beds, nurseries.
5. Propagation
methods reiated
to differsnt types of garciens: Seeci propagarion,
seeci
biology, seed testing, seed srorage, germinadon, dormancy, orihociox anci recaicitranr
seedp. .Propagadon by cuning, grafting, bu<iciing, iayering, poiarity
in grafting,
graft
t)
:\rir'-
incompatibility, scion-stock relationships, propagation
by specialized stems and roots,
methods of micropropagation.
6' Impiemants,
iools, small-scaie machineries and their uses . ploughs, power tillers,
conventionaL'traditional agricultural tools; specialized
tools- pruning knife, budding knife,
secatures, lawn mower, sprayers, metal label, name
boards.
7. Diseases, pests, control measures.
8'
Fertilizers: manures, $owth promoters, other chernicals their uses. Biofertilizers, green
manure, mulching, cover crops. Insecticides, pesticides,
fungicides
and
weedicides.
Flower hormones, root hormones, ethylene.
9' Sounces of pollution and prevention by zuitable garden practices. pollution
, what, where
and why? Pollution by pesicides, feed lots, fertilizer
nrn-off, soil erotion, plant residues,
Etc.
i0' Planning and managemeni of gardens: Budget making, pncing, sales promotion
marketing, labour management, maste,r rolls, accounting.
Practicals:
i.
Grafting: different types ofgrafting.
2. Budding: different rlpes of budding.
3.
Layering: different types of iayering.
4.
Tree surgery.
5.
Preparation of potting mixture, potting.
6.
Imbibition rate.
7. Determination
of local biomass.
8.
Estimation of dissolved Oxygen.
9.
Alkalinity iacrdity of soil.
and
f-'
i0. Estimation of NPK ratios.
i i. Operation
of
garden.
i2. Nlechanisms and use of impiements.
References:
i. Hartmann H.T., Kester D.E., Davies F.T. and Geneve R.L. i997 . Propagation
and
practice. 6ft Edn. Prentice Hall of India, Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi.
2.
Lancaster P
199i, Gardaning in India. Revised by Bose T.K. anri Mukherjee D.
3. LaurieA and RiesV.
ri956. Floriculture. fundamentals and praciices NlcCrraw
Hiil Book Co. Inc. N.Y. Trinidad, London.
4.
Macmillan 1962. Tropical planting and gardening, 5ft Edn. Macmillan Co. Ltd.
Lontion.
5.
Nonhen
T.H. and Northen R.T.
1956. The compiete book
of
green house
gardening. The Ronald Press Co. New York.
6.
i96i. Ornamentai tree : For gardening and roacisicie pianting. W. H & L
Pearce S.A.
Coilingridge Ltd. Loncion.
i.
Prakash R. Choucihary D
C
and Nagr
S.S.
i99i.
Propagation practice of imponant
indian trees. Intl. Book Distributors, Delra Dun.
8,
Radford A.E. i986. Fundamentais of piant systematics. Harper & Row Pr"rbl. inc.
g.
Hay [email protected]) i960. Themoderngardan. G. AnhurPearsonLtd. London.
10. Shoemaker
i.S. and Teskey B.J.
E. i965. Practical Horticulnrre. John Wiley & Sons.
Inc. London.
if
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SPEpIALIZATTON SUB.IFCT
Conservation of ilIedicinal Plants, ilIuseolory and Herbarium Technigues
i.
Globai importance of medicinai plants - reasons for their conselvauon'
Z.
Medicinal Plants in India - approaches to exploitation and conseffation'
3. Teihniques to conserve medicinal
plants - Agronomy applied to conservation -
of
of botanic
Biotechnology in the production and conservation of medicinal plants - role
gardans in conservation.
4. Conservation
oimedicinal plants : The need for public awareness'
5.
The Developmert, purpose and rypes of herbaria'
6.
to collect - recording
Collecting - equipments used in the field - objectives - how and what
data, pressing and drying specimens'
7. Processing oitmmounied specimens, motmting and labelling - alrangements of herbarium
collections.
8. Curation of zucculents.
g.
- filing of specimens'
Incorporation of mounted specimars - stamping - numbering
10.
Collecting and preserving specimens for the museum
I
l. Collection
12.
and curation of bryophyres'
Collection and curation of fungi and lichens'
13. Storage of specimens - boxes - cases- storage of
buiky dry materiais - spirit collections'
/()
\-.\
-_-
."!''
f ':
tr ..
Pracdcais:
l. collection, identifications and pwrrcarion of medicirldl pianrs (i00
2.
nos).
Visit to nvo irnportant mdicinal ptant gardens aad two eeniers.of Fioristic srudies
anci
preparations of certifi eci reports.
3.
Study of meciicinai plants
fi"the
ireatmenr of a major ciiseasey'anci preparation f a
report.
I
1
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Fly UP