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I SC. structure, questlrn p3per pIan, periodic evaluatio*i

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I SC. structure, questlrn p3per pIan, periodic evaluatio*i
I
J4
i"I.
SC. Ii\T .PLANT SCIENCES
(STIIqNSTUR COUi].Si,
)
UNIV|iRSITy OF CI\LICU,|
Course Schedul_e, structure, examin_t {_.ns.r
cur-ricul.am p1an,
questlrn p3per pIan, periodic evaluatio*i
Examin.rt.lon and
Examinars, criteri:r of passe Cfass :nd
Cistinction,. and
detaiLed syllebus mo.Cl-fj_ed and apprcved
b), p.". .lolrd of
Stuclies (Botgny) ..r tB_2_i)94.
rhe University Grants uommission ha.i
forward , curricu]-am
dcvelopment plan jn plant sci-ences
in 1,g9 lhls is in the
form '---f a report of tht= c:ur::icur_um
ievelcplirent- ccntr:e (uGC) i:r
plant sciences' rhe report points
out thri-. rther:e is an
lnrnediate need to create groups r,f youn.J
sturien+_s, .right frn;n
schccr- up to university r-ever-r who
have the aptrtu<le to study
the plant sciences'
' '; ' . 'r'he laboretory caurse is totally
iladequate tr match the
in theory, p:rti,,:u1ar-ly
in the more recelt
I TPe
I'lasters
programme
anrl to prmote plant sclences.
Instruetion anoil eval_uaticn
should be so inplemented as to
discr,ur3g" learrring
by rote
without conprehension' - For-rowlng
these uGC suggestlals,
the Faculty cf Departmenl of Botany,
Univers.ity of Calicut
drew up an alternate M.Sc. Semester
Cgurg:e 1n plant Seleno:sThe Post-graduate Board of stuclies
ln Botany approved the
Course content, tlme schecluj_e, pattern
and ,:y1labus, during
the deliberatj-ors tf its meetlng
held on 28_l_93 and \g_2-L994.
The detalls of. the prclpr sed
c.urse are given unde:l for the
kitd c,c,n#ldefations
epproval of the Faculty cf seience.
_-ro
\
\
'1i
..
'r
1:\
ri_
C
l
-
iiiI
COURSE S-0RUCTURE
/,..rr
SCHIIME OF
E)Lli"IIN'iTlONS
Semester I
J-
Course I: Algologry, Mycology, Plant Pathclcgy and General Mlore-
blology.
(theory z .125. hourP;; Praeticale z t25
MarL:.
i)
11)
rLl-,
Theory Paper - I
Practlcal Paper - I
50
50
Viva-Voee
10
Suhmi-ssLons:
Reoor<lsl
20
Tour/F1e1d Strrdy Repor'Herbarluml Specimens, preserved
Speclmensl sll-des
10
fnternal
40
10
Assessment
Iotal:
190
Course II: Bryophytes, Pterldoph-;tes and tlrmnosperms.
('Iheory z lZ5 hours; Practlcals z 125 horrs)
Marke. Drrrati,on rf
i) Iheory Paper
11) Practleal
i11) Vlva-Voee
II
50
3
hours
rr
50
3
haure
10
Submissi-ons:
Records
20
tour/fLeli
10
studjr Report
SubmlssLor of herbarla, specl-mes,
rlides
10
10 eaeh
.
fnternal
--:
40
Agsessment
Totar
:
Iotal ior Semester_I = 190 +
190
19O
=
380
Exam..
I
-i*,')
Semester-II
Cou;:se -l- '-I
^'1
MarlE Duratj-on of Examinatlons
50
3 hours
3 hours
50
Theory Paper-i- [
i)
..\
l_l- l
..
-'r..r -:oi.e'gy, 'Iaxonor.; and r'eonomic Botaly
'::;i. sI-,,:.r.r'i
(Thec,ry; 14'-lnt.r,r--s ; Prac1--icals : 140 hours )
I
:i
{
Prl:ct.ica1
viva-voce
r\
l-l-a /
'rt
'--Dape-r
r.
-
10
Su5misslons;
Record
Tour/fiel-4 study '(ep.r.rri-lerbar'lr1n1 Specimens
InternaL,-ssessrnerl'L
Total
Corr.l-se
-
lwi
-ourgl
20
IO
10
4A
l-90
osperm anat,:ny, Embryology, Ivllcro-techniques
and Environrrentel Blolcgy.
(ther,ry: l--i) hci.trs,. Practicals
..\
l_ l_
,)
a
-- IV
50
3 hours
.)react.j-ca l- Papc r'-Iri
50
J^ nours
Viva-Voce
10
-r! Lreory
Pape-i:
I)
l-l-l-,
'
iv)
14C hours
e.
uuDm.l_s
s
)
i4arks Duration of Examlnatlons
:
'\
L)
(1
l-ons :
Record
2C
sf ides (zo
lJos )
10
tourr/fdel-d Study Report
Internal Assessment
Total
40
190
--
Total for II semesLer
10
.=
380
at-
Semester-IfI
Course V: Cytol-ogy, Genetics r Evd1utlon ano Plant Breeding
( Theory:
130 hours: Practicafs: 120 hours)
Itarks Duration of E>Gminptlons
i)
ii)
Thecry Paper - V
Practical Paper :V
50
r-r_r-, vl-va-voce
.
10
!.\
lv)
3 hours
3 hours
50
Submisslons:
Record
20
tour/Field study Report
Internaf .\ssessment
10
Total
Course VI:
:
'40
180
=-----, .---
Plant Physiology, Blochemistryl Blophysl-cs
and
Biometry.
( Iheory: 130 hours, Practicafs:
i"larlE
i)
ii)
iii)
lv)
12O hours)
Du.:-atj-on
of Examinatlons
Theory Paper - VI
Practl-cal Paper - VI
50
3 hours
50
3-.
Viva-Voce
10
Submisslons:
- Records
Tour,/Fle1d Study Repart
..:. Internal Assessment
IotalTotal for III
20
10
40
: 180
=====--:====
Semester =
360
======
-
hours
a
Semester - IV (Execlusively fr.r Specialisation)
Course Vi,- : Specialisatj-cn l;bject:
(theory : 14Cl hours i Practicals : 140 hours
)
., Marks Duration of Examinations
f)__.
ii)
ifi)
lv)
ll"o..Il
Paper
- vIr:F,
3 hours
3 hours
so'-
Practical''Paper - vII
50
viva-Voce
10
Submisslons:
Reeords
20
€xpeir€ric€ Rgpor-FInternaf assessment
20
WOrn
40
,)"
190
Marks
C^urse VIII:
Dlssertaticn in the Subject of Specialisation
Viva-Voce on the Di-ssertati-on
frternal-,:!ssessment
la
150
=20
=20
--
Total
Total for Semester IV
=
=
190
=======
380
GRAI'{D IOTAIJ M.-RKS FOR FOUR SEI\iESTERS= _154q__
'r The course works of the r te rrr semesters will be on core
subjects.
* In the fV Semester, Students can select anyone of the followlng:
1. Flowerl-ng Plant Systenratics
2. Pterldology
3. I'lyeo1oEy
4. P1ant Morphogenesis and tissue culture
5. Wood Sclence
6. Seed Technology
7. Plantati.on Botany
* Stud.ent lntake : t2 * 72
* The number of students al.l-owed tc opt for any partleular fleld
of specialJ-satlon wl.11 be restrj-cted to 2.
s+
(vi.i)
The field of speciallsaticn shalL be mentioned along wlth
the course name 1n the degree certi-ficate and mark rists
€g: rM.Sc. plant Sciences with Specl_allsation .........
,,.
The I and the If semesters may commenee in the first week of
'July and the classes may preferably be completed by 3oth of
November- There may be 15 days of study leave. Examin.ations
on subJects of theory and practicsls, and vlva-voce rflcrf becond,ucted between Deeember 16-20 after which there may be
10 days of X-6as hoIldays.
The rr and the rv semesters may commende ln 1st wEek of
JanuarT.
elasses may be comi:1eted by 31st of I,ray, after
whieh there may be study.leave cf L5 days. semester examlnations (fneory and practica ls and Vlva-Voce) may be held between
Thq,"
15th to 20th of .rune. There may be.r horiday of 1o days
after the Semsster Examinatlons.
r'leere sh.:11 be no provlsic r for improveme.rt of the resurts
except once at the end of the course, along with the sub-
sequent regular batch of Semester students.
Pass mlnlmum - 40% separate for each of the Theory rnoi the
*
*
*
*
Practical Papers. vlva-voce and submlssions except dlssertatj-on shall not have seper:ite pass minimum.
Third class
4O% - 54% of Grand total
Second elass
55% - 59% of Grand total
Flrst class
60% - 7A% cf Grand total_
Distinction
80% and above Grand total
Examlners: Two interna.l and two externals examlners may be
appolnted for each semester. chairman wlr-1 be
the senlor of the internaL. The intern:I examiners
of eaeh semester shaIl be frorn among the teachers
who actually ;nipsrted instrrrctions in the partlcuLar
Semester.,
n;-
(v
FfELD STUf.:Y,iNi
1-
irl
)
I^vOIIK-EXPERIE\ICE
For each of the semeste.rs I, II and IfI, there shall be r-ive
days fjeld study prog,ramrnes to gai-n l:rs.!;ht lnt.. the rctual
habttat and hablt of the t,txa- Vlslts to rese-rch insti--
tutes related to the subject area of study m.ry )€, comb'i-nc.l
durlng these field-study programmes. The students arc to
subrnit reports of elther or both of the same :rr, +.h... ti-rne:
examl-nations. jhe trtal- instructionar hours gi-,,--r: earli-e,
include these five days also.
2. Under the aree bf speclalisation, the student s:-..1_1 grj_n
practlcal experience in the re14ted field statj-..ns/rc.se .reh
stationsr/instltrrtions/farrns for a period of I5 i:^ 30 da.;sB
and submit a report .:.1c g with a certi., i-cate of +-he off ice:
who has lmparted the prlctl-caI tralnlng.
ihe err,:-l-uatj-,-:n
report shoul-d trr* cLe,r.LL! state the Level of richievemcnt
of practj-cal ski1l by ti -. student. .Thc expendirure for ti':e.,
tralning prograrnme shourd. be borne by the student con.je'-neo
However the teacher-ln-charge of the special subjects, unct.r
the direction of the Head of the Department, shafl inaKe :rfr
.
arrangements for the tr.rining,
ln advance.
viva-Voce: At the end of each pr ctical paper \.'ivl.-voce wi] r
be condueted for the course-concerped by the same. tcams of
ex,:.mlners.
Periodic Evaluatlon: r.trring the course of a serTlus*er periodie
lnternal evaluation may be carrled out based on -, i least two
of the following methods. su:mlnarsl written tests. rractical
tests, Viva-Voce and Ouiz programmes. -the marks m,ey be
displ: yed on the notice-b.rard after the spproval of the
Departmental Council.
,ar t
- l-x-
Grievanc.: redressal -orocedq 'e:
I^
'-' .iD'y crmpl-aint sbout the award of marks in such perinrdic
evaluation may be brought tc the notlce of the te,:cher concerned
first,
and if no satj-sfactory solutlon is found, the matter may
be brought to th,.'notice
of the Head of the Department- Itre
Head of the Department, if
necessarlr may :.ilrpoint a smal1 commi+-tee
consj-stj-ng of the pC SecreE,iry, the concerned teacher ano the
student for redressal me3.sures. Ihe decl-sion of the committee
will
preval_I
fII
Flcurs and Crcdits for each branch.
1dt Semester - Course f
(totaI hours, cf instruction - 25 (t : l25i pr
I
3
One credlt
.
is .'qual to. 5 hrs. cf iastructions
Practj_ca1s together)
(Iheory and
.
Theory hrs.
t
IZ5)
Prac!.iggl hrs, Iotal hrs Credlts
A.1gae
35
35
Mycology
35
35
Pl-ant Pathology
20
20
General Mlcrobiology
35
35
70
70
4vB
90
74
74
t1
-\
I
-xCourse II:
25O (f z t25i i) z L25)
Total l^orrrs of instruction
One credit = 5 hours of lnstruction (fheory & Practical tagether)
Theory hrs. Practical
hrs.
1
rJ-
Bryophytes
35
35
Pterldophytes
45
45
Gymnosperms
45
45*
Tot.:I z
125
1'otal hrs. Credits
1l
70
90
90
\4
18
18
250
125
50
II Sernester - uourse 11-L:
Iotal hours of instruution
One
credit =
5
280 (t : t4Oi tr : 140)
hours of insl-mction (theory & Practjcals together)
Iheorv hrs. Practical hrs. Total hrs. Credits
Angiosperm l"lorphology
AnqiosDerm 'laxcnomy
Economj-e Botany
..^
To'ta1
30
60
1.2
l0
BO
160
32
30
30
_60
12
"3o
i,
L4O
74O
280
s6
eourse IV
?otaI
One
h<-.urs
credlt
ot instructlon
= 5
280 hours (t : 140, p : 140)
hours tf instruction
(fheory & praeticaLs together)
o
Theory Lrrs. Practical hrs. Total hrs. Credlts
Anatomy
Embryology
Mlcrotechnlque
40
30
40
30
BO
60
12
25
25
50
10
Envlronmental- Blology
45
45
90
13
740
28O
55
.1!.ngiosperm
Total-
740
16
-xl--
Course V
Semestcr - IfI
:
250 ('I : L3O; P : 120)
hours of instruction
One credit = 5 hours of inr:tructlorr (Theo.,-!' ..< Praccicel toEathur)
To+-a1
Cl.:ld.!!s
-br-.. trractical- hrs. Tot.il-flrs '
18
9C
45
45
T6
BD
40
4a
2
10
o
10
'70
L4
35
35
Theory
Genetics
Cytology
Evolutlon
i>l-ant Breed.lng
Total
25)
L20
130
- = = = = = = = = = -= - = = = = = = = == == ='-= : =' - = = ;
:
=======
==
50
='- = ==
Coursc - VI
25O ('r z L25i P z t25)
Total hours of lrrstruetion
One eredlt - 5 lrours of j-nsi-.ruetion (Theory & Practic,el together\
Iheory !-fs-. Practlcdl hls. Iotal hrs - Crcldllg3l
100
50
50
Plant Physiology
Blochemistry
5O
50
Biophyslcs
20
0
Biomc-try
30
0
Tot.il
:
One c;edit
204
30
250
100
15 0
Semester IV - Course VII i
Tot,rl hours of instruction
100
TeO (r:
Z)
6
50
74O; P- 14C)
= 5 hours of instruction
iheory hrs. B-gliggl-hfE.
Spec.-al-i-zation
Total
sub
:
j ect
Tgt 1-l--Lrgs.
14O
740
2S0
140
L40
280
-Cg.e-dit,:,6
6
6
f
"/
-_'a
I
.l^
-
- V_ II
Iota1 hours for di-ffertation wo::-k - 2AO
one credit = 5 hours of instru;ticn:
Tota] credlt:5:
iirand total hou.rs cf instruction) Theory
Coursc-.
:
95i
)
Excluding Dissert,rtj-on hours
I' tractlcaJ-s
including hrs.
1,L7
O
for dissertation)
==._:.'??==-==
crand total
credits at the ri*.c.-:f
5 hours per er;.:dlt
424
-: -==i-
Grand lotel Marks
15 C0
,-
-t
,.:i:.rtr.{r!9r}jj_!tr,
"-,,.,
_
-x-1 .i 1-
UI'IIVERSITI- OE C,TLICUf
PLAN OF CUR.R.ICULU}1 M.SC.
Objectives
)
ion
(understanding)
Comprehens
Applicaticn
iru:aIys
is
Synthes
is
trvaluation
SEI,IESTER COURSE
Percentage uontent requirements in
respectlve areas of
of
curriculum.
we igirta 3e
10
i\{emory
(rnowledge
IN PLTiNI SCItrECES
.
.
Statements
bescri-pticns Historicalreviews
ComParisons corelations
^^
ZV
crlmiriatl ons
. .30 -."..,.
' ""i'. ,..Dr3wing, skl1l-s, I'echiieaf,
:i('il'I3I'"'trxberimentat'"yv(tl"Isf':**'
problem solving skil-1s and
application in new situations.
iinalysis of Datar concePtual
20
merits & defects, problems etc.
Synthesis oi apparently unlike
10
of varient facts ideas, concepts,
evidence etc.
,3y using well accepted standards,
10
ev:lueting certaln theories,
conclus ions, evidence.s etc.
Dis
-
WEf GIlrziGEl
No!e: Currj-cul-urn j-s to'be exp,rnded in Units of vlable topics of
elther one hour - Lecture or L,wo-hour-Lecture class dur;etion on the Sasis of. the abov-- objectives and welghtage.
2. For practj-cal-s af so the units mry bc= given in de+-ails .
with two-hour duratron or in certain cases one-houf
durati-cn.
-xl-v-
PL^iN OIr
UNI-VERSI i'Y O!' C'rL]CUI
QUESTICN e).'tiER i r-HEORY - l4'SC'
SEI'IES f
i'R
SCIEi\iCES
COURSuS
l4aximum
Tirne s 3 hours
objectiv;;--
Il{ i']Ld'lT
marks : 50 mdrks
I4arks rype of questior & quest'ionwise
marks
t
MemorY
(Knowledge)
I
Comprele'ns
ion
(Unclerstanding)
9t
.j
5
11
!r
5 short ansbler question of 1 mark
out of six.
each
of 1 mark each
5 short rnswer questi-ons
out of sj-x; "n-a 3 snort dflswu-f question
of 2 marks eaeh vrithout choice'
.\pplication 1s s :l:il";t":;'=?:;":i3':":t"? t'IX?*"
choi-ce
"vithout
'
- t\
nnafysLs\
.9
o
chnrt answer
ans
questions of 2 m'rrks
2 short
.ynthesis
5
1 essay type question of 5 msrks
without choice'
Iota]
out of
50 24 questions to be answered'
50'
mari(s
total
)g snd
\.
;:Eli.!X'.?','II?[! i?t":li :;:i'""-
Nq
l.lmark.Cuestionsofthe:-2outofwhichl0tobe
answered'
above gl*r.n objectives
.
2. Z mar]<s Guestions of the !2 out of which 10 to be
'answered
above glven objectives
of which 4 to be
3. 5 mar)<s + Questions of the 5 out
answered'
above gfven objectives
-xvUNIVERSI'.T'Y OF C..LICUI
fL^N CF (.lUl,S-tION P,.PER s PRiCTICTiLS - ivl.Sc. IN PL,.N''
SEPIES
i'r-R
IIOURSE
ilnre t 4 hours
Obj ec
tives
l'tsximum
)
Ccmprehens
ion
m'irks s
50
I,larks Nature cf oracticrif skil-1 exPCCted
as cutcome of. qucstions
l4t:mlry
(r.nowleriEe
SCiEi'lUE
5
(UncJerstrnding)
10
Spplication
30
,n.rlys is
5
r'ctaI
50
SpcL-at-si<;ht, identlfication r:f known
s-lid,:s, deicriptions cf charts f igures
experiment::l setups etc' knovrn earl-ier'
Correlation, ccmparlsons, distincticrn
diserimination relationshj-ps ctc.
smearing,
Sectioning skiI1s, staining
I
s,
e'xperimentil
skj-I
other tecfrnical
set-up ilrawing, Pr:obrem solving,
ai)plying known PrinciPles in new
s itu rtions .
I'nalysing a compfex problem, ex-cerl- of
ment.--at s5t-up ,=na results, g:Lven facts
a research finding, tabl-es, gr tphsr sehemes'
plant groups or sPecimen.
lJumber of questions may be suitably
decide-d by practicel examinaticn
;30ard,
/
-
--.-\
M.SC. IN PLiNT SCIENCIIS
\,/
SEI'IESTER COURSE
SYL-ABUS
- I
Ccurse-I : AIgolo9V, i,lycology, Plant Pethology
Mlcrobiclcgy.
Sc-rnc5ber
anc-r
Gunerrl
..aGgL99X
1. General considerations:
Criteria fcr a1gal class-if ic rtions antl rnoclerrn trcn' .s, c()mparison of systems of classif ic1ticn of I-. Emith anr nouncl,
F. E. on thc' b3sis of phyl,ogenc'tic consi-derations "
Ccntributlons of- InCian .,1gcl-ogists: 'l general 1c91,t+!I
2. Iefphqlory:
IndiCe;ion of renqe in 3' (- '.r, nc *1L -- t .gy, StruCture, parall-cl isn'
end dlvergence found in norphclcgy of different ':-lEaI grcups'
3" Reproduction:
Different type of reprocluc:icn, Life hist-ry patte rns, r-'-'.r311,llism in evolution, origin of hiEher pI.ent groups frcm
a19 t'- '
4.
5
-
o.
7
-
General characteristics of Uyanophyta, ChlorophYta, Xanthophyta
BacillariophYta, Phaeophyt.r, RhodcphyEa, Euglenopi'yt ll i-rinr:l:>hyt
Chr:ysophyta and CryPtoPhyt-o-
'
r-'
Ec'onology:
Ecclogy cf fresh water forms, Ecology of m:rine f'-rrrns, 3J-c--'
logical- lmportance of pl.rnktons-.
iilgrL cytol-ogy anti gene9ics:
Basic ideas of ceII featurcs unCer cytolorly and 3n iniic-:tion
of eppro3ch to genetic stut-ly in alg,re. Electron microscopic
stucy of cel-1 wa11, f1agei1a, chloroplasts. pyremoics i:itrr'd eyepc+-s end thej-r intportencc 1n trxcnomy.
Fcs s l-l rl-g.:.e
:
,i
Q€ne
r:]1 i:.-cr:rtnt '
i'r.rct ical- s_
1. Collecticn ancl study of .'I.gae mcntioned below.
upto ge- 'ric l-eve1'
Icle rtification
2,. Co]-1ection, LrrcSe rva+-icn ani prep,l.rsLiOn of a1g:1 herbari.rm..
( t- o a peciniens )
3.
Staining techiques for pcrm'Jnent mounts'
-2Genera' { >r the prsc_!._c-g*1s
t
Qranophyta: Chroococcus, Mierocystis, Glceocepsar iphanotheqs
Oscl]..la'EqEia, I,licrcc:leus, Lyngby.-ir,.nabaena, Nostoc, Scytongma,
GLeotriclio, Stj-sonema.
Uhlrrophyta : thlamydomonas, Pando::ina, Eudorina, pleodorinar'
Volvox, Chlorellar ftydrocli6;yon, Pediastrurn, Klrchneriella,
Sceneoesmus, Protosiphon, Entercmorpha, U1va, "ladophora, pithophora,
Rirn:f arie,
alphanchaete, Bul-bochaete, Ul-othri-x, Cephaleuros, -haetophora,
co1eochaetal Draparnaldiar rraparnalllopsi-s, rritschielra,
stfgeoclonium, frentepohlla, Oedogonium, Sphaeroplea, Val_onia, Acetabularia,
Bryopsis, codium, caulerpa, Halimeda, udotea, Desmlds (spiroteenia,
closterium, cosmarium, Desmedium) Mougetia, Zygnema -hu... and
Nitel-1a.
Xanthophyceoet tsotrydium, Vaucheri.:.
Bacil-lariophyta-: Biddulphla, Coscinodiscus, Cumbe11a, pinnularia
Phaegphvta: Ectocarpus, Doctyota, padina, Lam.inaria, Sargassum
lurbinaria.
Compscpogon, B.er-rachospermum, Gracillarj-a, Polysiphonia.,
GeIi-cliumr' Champi.t, -'imphiroa.
R(:-gerences
s
Books:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Frj-tsch, F.E. 1,945. Ihre structure anc1. Repooduction of
fol-. f :nd III,
Smith G.M. 1950. Manua,,l of Phycolcgy.
Round F.E. Lg65. Th.-- bioJ-ogy of A1gae.
BoId and Wyane. 7978. Inlroduction of ..1gae-structure
A1gae7
and
reproCuct j_on.
Journal-s
1.
.Tou5nal of Indj-an Botanical Society.
2.
3.
Proceedings of Indi.:n Acadamy of Science.
Acta Botcnica Indica.
MYCCLOGY
-ih""ry
1.
2.
Clessi.fication of fungi: i'lajor systems i-f fungal elassifl-eation.
Prineiples and criteria empioyedi moCern trends.
Comparative study of the followinE sub-divislon: i'lyxomycotlne.
mastlgomycoti-na, Zygomycotina, Asmcomycotina.
.:.
,/
-3,Sasidiomyc:,tina and Deuteromycotina:
3. Physiology of -ungi : Nut:sltlgn, factors affecting growth;
spo::? dis.p€rsaf ana disseminStioni fletors a.ffeeting spore
4. Mechaml-sm of i-nheritance : heterokarycsj-s ancl ParasexgSl cycIe.
5. Ecology of fungl : Soil tr'ungi, Competetion and interactiohs,
substrate .colonlzation, 'sugar fungi', cel-lul-ose and lignin
degrading fungi-, corprophilious fungir' pred.aceous fungi,
entemogenous fungi.
5. Origin and.evolution of fungi : Itodern views.
7: Role of fungi in induslry: prcduction of alcohol, organic aclds
and antibiotics, food processing, food and fooder yeas ts,
mushroom cu1t1v:tion.
:
Pr.acticals
Study of the morphologieal characters :nd reproductive structures
of the following genera3
stemonltes, Physarum, syrichytrium, saprolegnia, phytcphthora,
Albugo, Pilobolus, Taphrina, pezl-zt, Morchella, puccinia, ustilago,
Agarlcus, Ganoderma, $rathus, rycoperdon, r\:s:rium, Cercosporar.
cunn:Iaria1'reebdlera, phoma, ?rlternaria, pestal-otia, seccharomyceg,
Ge.rsLrum, Geastrum, Dictyophora, Neurospor3r U].-:vj-ceps.
R.EFERENCES:
G.c, et e.l_. (eds. ) f gOS- 1973. The Fungi.
Treatise. Vols L-4. .+cademic pre-ss-
,r^l-nsworth
Alexopoulose C.,:. & Mims,
C.!.J.
1989'. fntroductory
.in advanced
Mycology. Wlley:
E.W. 1988. Introduction to Mcdern uycolojy. BLackwellMoore-Landacker E. 797O. Fund:nre.ntal-s of Fungi. Prentice Hall-.
Webster J- 1980r Introduction to l-ungi" Cambridge Univ. Press.
Burnett .f.H. \976. Fundamentals of Myco1o9y. E. .rrnold.
Deacon
!
!-$1,,'{!!!rr.*-",i,,li&_
:,* +1gpa"1.rt
/
fl=egrl:
t',
Thi: conceot of disease J-rr pl.rrrt_s; ilrrlJ(rrtarrce
of p1:nt (i.iseis.=,s,.
d-.rynosis of p1,-nt d.iseas,__s: Koch, spostul_ates.
2,
Ces:,ef aQenl:s of plant
c'r
j.s,.ases s !'ungi, ,l_rr_.t_r.ri,:,
Mv._.-,i, 1 :errr,1q.
vj.i-'. ies.. nemetccles, protc:.ct"
Fdraa.r-itic lrirlir,_.r F j. _ltLs, fnC
eIr\'l-IOjr.nr6,Iri--tl f actForl;. j r,r,i-r rr3,^rr i c J j
Sr. f .Se-S
P.t-::,;;-iti sn and ptathco€Der--ii,r,. s*cirEesj in
the develr).;: ,.,e-_.lr_s
cf ii.sease,. infectioD prOt.-ssi;_rnech.enir:.rI an., phys
i-_. lcgieal;
'r-o-r '. of etr'1t'n'-:'s' toxins
.r..rt^ grr,rvth regulatcrs in p-l ,,nt Jiser.r.se,.
c1 ,'.':t of p:'chogen ci-t plh,;t:)si:nrhc,si
s an6 resplrabio:r.
L
Sji-.licuu:l-.._l lnd biochernir::r.l ,_iefence mt:ch,rlism
of th;, hnqi-
:i.
Gcnr--t--ic's
of virulence in p,r,-hoEens and of resfstance in host
,c-L .ats brcecling frtr cr-s_._-._
!.sistaree.
Role c''! E11z'i5enrir'-rtal f acr rs in pJant ci
rase epic;:rmics,.
r'rrlai-her enc fo-rc:sting cf ;;r,,nt disciase
epici-rmics,
' cont-rcI 'cf
ploo-u ii sef ses b.y physica-r, ch:mica'l an -Dlcrcqic
il
1
rnetlrods
r-+:-rAI!:'.
-
t
"L-q
Detai]-si raboratory st,-rdy of the following ciiseases:
ucffee :"ust, bl-ast of padoy,
r'eci.-rct of sug.rrcane, tikK.t.irJtlse of qroundnut, powdery mi.l-derr cf rubber,
.rst cf whe=ri_
bl-ls'-er blight
of tea, peach lc:f
curl_, l.rte blight rlf ,:talc
whip sir.::t- of sug3rcane , ring rot ilf potatc, soft rot .-;,
vegetab l-es. bunchy top cf ban;rna, katte d.-sease
of clr(;crro,.
3fSS]V.r
nOS:.iC.
REFEEE-]\rCtrS
l:,C::iCll
G.
iV.
1978.
PIant petno_Logy, 2nd editlon. ^cjCenie pr-.s::
The prlncl,-Ies df pI:nt p._rhology. ljlnches Ler
"
n.-. *tJ-L.t
C
U.:i-U.
1,912 "
pr€SS
Irloocl
R.f.s-
r
1967. physiologi-c,r1 plant pathoLogy. BI.rckwelI.
/
./
tr
wheeir:r: I--
!9'is." i:rlnclple: * c.,f plant infectlcn.
l{leee1le : H.. 1,9'75. plant pa-:hogenesis - Springe::-VerI :gv:n der -Prrnk -r"8. 1975, prlnci_ples of plant lnfecticn.
.:cademic Press
llchroth.re rr",s..
-
Tata-McGraw IJill_.
" plant ;:rthology.
Smith K.i'I. !g73s rL test Book of plant virus dise:se s 3:d edition,
.icademic Press
IJ:'r'sf :11 .f"G. & limond iri,-. (scis. ) . 1960. ?lant pathoicgy, -in ,rcl-.
varced treatiser 3 ..vo1s " .,e-:.Cemic press.
1980
Horsfal..l- t["c " & cowling ii"B. (eis " '1,97a. plant disease
ireaci_se, 2 -ro]-s. ,rcfdL:,-. c r).re ss.
Rlngs1'.;a.m:-
G. 1988- I;ise.rses t- f
i):--enL--ce
cr-c,-c
in advanc--d
p1:nts c! rnciir, 3r(,. cdition
i{sfI of fn,ni .v--,.:.1
__
_-ROBTOLOGY
necrv
-.B.:.ct.rri-a : Yo:phcfcgy anc uj-trastrrrct,ure,
nutri_tion,
.-iuf.-iv;r-
t'' c'i,. grcwth, Ea.netics, n.l. :.smi<ls ,-Lrrc]. thcir eharactcr-isti-cs,
cI:ss:'-fic.ition :inrl g.enerrr ch:.ractcrs of' each groul .z grlner.r.1
rcccuntb itf n-ct:-ncmycetes ..nci mycoplasrTl-.us.
,)
Vj-r'u'.es: Structure]
componen+-s
and .:rchitecture
cf plrnt- viruses
tcith special reference ,to ;i{V :nd TBS,V, isolation,
v'i::al- Ossa)2.. infection
rrll-u scs
a:til replicrtion,
nomenc-Lalure ancl el-.: ss if ication
.)u,ri+-ic:ti,:-,rr,
trlnsmissi';n
of pI:nt
v
oi pI rnt
iruses,
.]
li:n,-r1I lcCount of b1c-uer Lc2hlges.
i'l:,t-i:,cls of microbiology;
-r'fre cult-ure technigues, ccnstmation
,:f cu,.lture nedi-,-r, methods c€ steril-lzatlon
tnrc:'ol^
A
Lur,noc,.a
s,
ilnp,,,ri-:.ncc ,flr-1 ippl-'-: - ,.,-crobLss in .rgriculture r inclu,stry,
fooC p.r:oduction a;:d genc=ti-c :rl,gineering.
PF.,CJ
1"
i.rl-
estimetion of
i'ICALS
Strj-ning of bacteria
:
Simple, negative, grsm-f1aqe11:, c:ipsulee,
spore -t and ccid fact st rining.
ill>
-5Z.
Demonstration of bacterj-:l motility
par.:ti_on.
: h-.nglng drcp pre-
4.
j-cn of Mlcro-organisms from soil.by dilution piete method.
Isolction of Pure cul-ture of bacterie by streak plate methcd.
5.
fs-:I.Li,.;,rr.
3
.
{s ol et
REFER.ENCES
Brock, r. u. 1990 ' Bio.Iogy cf mlcroorganisms . Prentlce HaII.
stanler R.Y. Bt. 41. 1990. ^he microbial wor1d, 5th edition.
Pfentice Hal1.
GOODfellow M.
et ai, (eds).
1959.
Ihe blology of :ctlnomycetes.
,icademic press.
Birre t'4.F. et. al. (eds). 1979. The r\coplesmas, vofs. 1_3.
zl^c3demi_c press.
.
Methews R-E.F- 1981. Plant vlrology, 2nd, edition.
-cademic press.
Douglss. J. 7975. B.r-cteri-ophtgtes. C:pm:n & HiIl-.
SEMtrS.TER-I
Course II:
Bryophytes Pteridophytes :nd Gymnosperms
,3RYOPI{Y.IES
Theory
L- General eharacters ancl systems cf classificetions of Bryophyt:s.
2. 1.. General account of the ,,,fl3tomy, Reproduction, Life history
and Phylogeney of Sphaerocarpales, March:nttreles, Jungerm:nniales,
Funarials, polytrlchales.
3.
4.
Origln and evolution of Bryophytes.
- general account of fossiJ- bryophytes
,
.rnd
their affinlties.
lr
-1PRI.CTTC,;LS
1'lorphologrical and structural study cf representative
rnembers
of the following groups uslng cfe:rerd wholemount preparations,
c,issecti.rtns tnd sectlons: Rlcci.i, T:rgionla, Elm,:rl:ri-r, Cy:thodium,
Lunularj-:, March:ntia, iilccercria, pslr:vicinl r, Fossombronia,
porerla,
.rnthoeeros, Notothylas, Sphagnum, ],unaria
end polytrlchum.
REFERENCES:
1.
2.
?
4.
5.
wetson E-v-
rhe sr-rueture and life of Brycphytes, Hutchinson
Uni. press, London
cavers F- rhe rnterrelationship of Bryophyibs, New phytologist.
Kashyap, s-R- The r,lverworths of !,Iss1ern Humaraya and
the
Punjab Plalns, VoI. I & II. Chronice Botenica.
Smith G.M. Cryptogsmic Bot-rny VoI. .UI.
McGraw HiIl tlook Co. N.y.
Perihar N.S. .\n introduction to Emta-ycphyta, Bryophyta, .General
Bcoil .'{ouser,lfI3.h.l6.a6.
6'
verdoon, F, t'ranual of ilryology.
:'ishor & co.
.i}4srERDr,rr{'
PI-ERIDOPiiYIES
T*
1' Dlverslty of.forms imong pteridophytes: elu', mossess,
-. gu11-1- worts, mosquitc ferns, rnocnworts, /idderts tongue ferns,
rilmly ferns, br:.cken ferns, bir<iis nest fernsr rrrdiden
hair
ferns and tree ferns-gener:.rl- mcrphology wich special
reference
bouth
to
Indlan speci,::s.
2' H.bltat ecorogy of pteridophytes : epi-phytes, lithophytes
climbers, halophytr=s, sciophytes, xerophytes, rheophytes
and hydrophyteS.
-B-
a
3. Histc)-ogy i-n re1ition tc t,,cology of pteriCophytes stel'r
e.rcL'.rt-on; Prctostele, si1.-ronostef e, sole-lostef e', Cictyost=-i
e.nc1
speci_al stel-^r types.
Vesse
Is
1-n
pteridcphyt'.s
'
"
of ferns, n:ture of f':;:n
in fc:rn popul-iti'n.: cytcfrecOlrrg syStems: genetic vi.rbility
<;etic-tic lrrslys is of species olmplexes, a,; rmispory ,, -,r-r-eLll ' f
4.
Geric-:t-i-cs -rn<l
reprocuctive.bology
o:ilrploi_os; geographical clis trlbution
of polyploi,':;
hyi)r j-di:z ,€
cion.
.
..pplieo Ptericlol-ogy:
Biofertil-izer
prociucticn f r n
,':zoL
'i
,,::C'il-.r -n-rbe.ena Symbios is; bir-:chemis.l:ry :ncl ecc-): )n-Lj cs of
nrLlrog6n f ix,ltio1 ,- nifge.:-cs, Pteridophytes .ls wi -('' j;
Fl* r:n!l (.,n.uitic ind Pt,-,r j-c;uum (+-errestrial, ) w:,c':.i problems i
.,.',-:ul- contrcl-irnpact
1nd .n:qel1L.1ltr' biological contrcl.
Orn, tre-:t-:l- ,rncl med j-c j-n-'-L ,:er-i rlophyt--ss - 'Pteridophytes ' 3s
eer;
-:.)g
j-cel- irrdicetors
L
.
l:iL-,C
f iC .LS
7,
M':r---,hoiogicel :na';ornic-ri 5i: ,itures cf :
&s.,-.iigrn, Cpiticgl-:ssulnr .;:glopterl.s, 9s*""g-L, ger' -t--ig--ijlls'
rteris, Bf echnrim' 1\9ig!-!'-1n, .'.splenium, [email protected]=,
PlS.fi{iufq, Mrr;il-es7 -rcrr)stichurflr Satvini.a, 4}-,-'
'r:g iI'
2.. Gglrlr\.in.itlon of spore s :ncl i-lr:cthalli.rl develOpment in
anc'l iil--t:o"g!t'!
medium (1n:ltro) of Cgt'11op-!ef-ls, u!+.=tqlI:
3
study of Lycopoi j--m, ,'.thyri-amr. GIeicheni l.' ,--q!l!:.-9j:!-r:9'
selyiniu'
Py5::osli, Qrlrn-iri'l ,
- Htbitat
-croE:'je.i:m =nd
,". f ield stuiy report mey j:e submitted on these cb-'-:rv3tiolls'
RtrLEBEi.'JCES
t971. Morphr:l.rgy of V.rscula:r plants. ihe l/l.:'c
Mlll-ian Lo. I\ew Y.orKDyer .,t,., l-. 1-g7g. The l-:ii--rt - -,.1, .,- 'rclogy cf trerns "c:'Jemic Pr-'ss;
3ierhr;::.st
D.
".
Lcndon.
J=rmy , .C.
,
1,973 (pe).
Ihe Phylogeny rnd Clessification
Bot., J. Lj-nn. SPc- Vol . 67.
of ferns
-9,ir.rmer i(.U & Green ir.S.
V,tsculer Plants-
1,991
. The tr:ml.]-j-es aDd Geni.r,, :f
Narosct New Delhir
GYMNOSPERMS
fnstructicnalra
1" Generaf chsrrcters,' Phyl''-genyi Cl-assif ication'
general .l.ccount ir-rcluding
2, Geo't-oglc-r1 horisons, distributlon.
m.,rrpho1ogy, enatomy, phylcgenSr ,end lnterrelatlonship
of th,:
follr;wing orders with S;.reci11 emphasis on thc- gen(-]] i spccif ie rJ.
Pteridospermales : LyEinopteris, Heteranglum, S'--'henopter j-s ,
J. .
pf.rlmerostoma, Lrgenc-.t-crn3r Mecullesa, Trigonoc .-rpus, Prchytest.:., Ccdonoth€cl r
b-
Gl-,-)ssopterid:rles : GIc ;sopteris '
C" CaYtoniales.
C. Cyc:Cr'oid:.1-es ; Wi1li-rrnsonie
e
-.
r
PentoxYl -r1es : PentoxY-on
f.
Cyc:C:les : CY:sr Zami'i
q"
Ginkgoafes : Ginkgo.
h.
Cord ritales.
I.
Conlfer:rles.
,
-raucaria,
Pints, eedrusl Cryrllemeria,
Ag,:trl-tis
Cupre
sstls,
, i:')Clcarpus
j. '-l:xcles : T:.xcs
k. cpherlrales : EPhedra
1- "'el-witschi.rl-es : welwitschi.r
il . Gnct-ales: Gnetum.
3
-
4.
5.
iivol ution of gymnosperms
-
of living :ncl fcssil- gynmosperms in InCi:'
Economre im.:o11:lnae (-€ ti''-a':"5^n'' r-::s '
lis,ributicn
r)R*,CT ICl-tL,q
t"
fd.enti-j-clticn
slic-ls of fossiI
2.
of petrif., -tions, ccmpres-ions, impressions,
types inctLl'r,cd in groups mentj-onecl rbove'
Com:reretive study cf vcget:.tive and repr..-rdr:ctive structures of
all living genera mentioned rbove.
- 10-
Pfu:'CTICiTLS
REFERETiCES
1961. Studies in PaleobotrnYr Wiley'
vvsdsworth'
B.:nks, H.if . tglc- Evoluticn lnd t)f :nts of the Prst'
Macmill-ian'
Bierhost D.w. 1g77. Morpholcqy of vaseulrr pI'lnts'
Bower F.O. 1935. Primitive pl.ints ' I'I'cmil]irn '
Evolution'
chomberl-ain c.J. ' 1935. Gymir-rosperms strrrcture and
Uni. of Chicago Prc-ss.
Fcster ..,.S. & E.tI. Gif +':rd . 1g14. Comparative'mcrphotogy of
..nCrews H.N-
cular Pl an ts ' tr'reem:n '
Maheshwarl P. & V. Vrsil' Gnetum' CSIR'
end sp'lce '
Ramanrj ar c.G.K. 7976. fnd j- ln gyrnncsperm in time
todaY & a'cmorrow'
vas
Seward ,,- C.
1B9B-
Lg77.
Foss
iI ./l rnts - 4 vof s . CambriCge Uni '
, res s/t'tacmi}l i an/Hrf rer'
Scott D'H. tg2o-23. Studies cn Fossil '3oteny' 2 vols'
h & C'
B1:ck/H.rfner.
sporne K.R. 1g14. Thc. morphclcgy of Gymnospcrms' Ihe structure
2nd. Edn' HUtChlnson
and evclution of prl-mitive seed plants.
Univ. Ll-br:rrY.
plants'
Stewart EIrN. 1983i Pa.Ieobotirty rnd the evoluticn of
Cambridge Univ. l?ress '
stockey R.s. 1981. Some corn-rnents cn the origin ancl evoJution
of conlfers.
C.in:di,en J. Bct. 59: 75-82'
Taylor, T.N. L982. Iteproductive biology ir e:rly seed plants,
tsioscience 32r 23'28'
Plants'
walton, 1953. -,rr intrcducticn tc the stucy of fcssl-1
'"
- 11-
- If
.'nqlosperm Mepphology, .,,ngiospu:rm Taxonomy
Economj-c Botany.
SEI./iEST,TR
Course fII:
1^I,IG
IOSPERM
Mu
,and
jIPHOLOGY
theory
1' General concepts of mcrph: logy, crlEin e.nr,r evolution of fl-ower;
co-evorution of fIow.rs vis-:vi's pclllnators.
2. Orlgln and evolution of rgon6gel ,:.ncl dicct flowers.
3. Stems: Origln ,ind evoiution in structure :nd mcrphology;
necteri_es and nectar,i
4- E'volutlon of c:rpelst Different types of crrpels, concepts
of foliar oriqin of ceri:e 1s :rl_ternltive concepts.o,5nql,
fppro.eches specialised c.irpcls - pc.;1y rnc syncsrpy _ superj_or,
semi-lnfericr- rlDd inferior Dv:ry .- appendicular +nd recept.rcul:r
concepts evcluti_on of p1:tcentation typi:s.
5' Rolc- of flcr:rl .rn':tomy in interpretlng the origin :no evoLution
of flcwer ancr flor:1 parts flor:r_ .r.n.:ltomy in rer_atj_on tc
texonomy.
PR.,CTI.CI.LS
'
1. Prepar.:ticn of cle,rred wh,:,.le mounts of f lcral parts to show
vasculature.
2- with the herp of dissections enc hand secti_ons, examine
(a) .'Ir.rnsmlttlng tissue,/eon:ls in style ancl stigma
(U) Diffqpent types of ov,rriesi
(c) Dj-f f erent jypes of pIrcc.nt.rticn
(a) Vsseulature lf ,rndroecium anrl gynoecium
i-n speci:r1
types of flowers.
REFEREI'ICES
t. [larnes, ,,. J. Morpholo gy cf ,ngicsperrns .
2' Barnarnard c- the intrepret:ti-on
'f ;,neiosperm frower.
..1rst. J. Sci_.24:64_72 SgOt)
I
1.)
--,LL-
A
Mnnl1a,- I<.S, V:sculariset
3.
! compc'sit:e J:)ur'
.;n cf coroll':
Ind. Bob, Scc. 50; i7g-196 0glt).
4.Maeuse....D..I.Scmefuncj.'tt3ot'alrrinciplcs.:fintL=rpret..rt:-ve
Bj-oscl. Publ. Hiss :r O-97 4) .
f loral mcrphclogy. Intl.
I.ta]1,-il1e K..:'. New theory ct angiosperm f lcwer - II r turr.', 168 :
5.
74-78 (rgOO).
ovary. Phytomcrpholt-'gy 2' L22 (1!r52) '
',- u, Sporne K.R.
.''ngj-osperms. Hu*-chj-nscn
Ihe'MorphcIcOy of
.the
un ir'. 'Press. Lcndon ( 19'71 ) .
(:.
Prri- v.
Infericr
'
iINGIOSPEP]'I
T,1i}aCNOI'IY
The,c:-v
L- -Iaxon.Jnii/ : ItS ObieCtjr,'e.s jc.-r- .nd i-moortrance.
'2. iiisi-.,--r::icnl- developrnen+- of clrt-c.ries and concepts cf bio' lcorcal cl-:.ssific:ticn
.sn:] cI-.ssif.icftoryE
systems.
3. faXcnOrnrc Strueture: T::<.r--.,n',iC hier.erchy and concrpts
of i,'rxonomic c:tegories, s]n'rcies, genus, f :mil y and inf r]sPecrfic cetegories
4.
.
Concept cf char.:cterr charjcter
end therr taxo-
variatlons
of taxcnc':mic chars'Cte"rs m-^rphc:fogy, 3Detcmy embryolcgy' peiynology, cytology rnd ohyt')-
nOmic implieetions.'c',-,.e'=s
chemistrY.
1.- I.iodern f-rxonomy: ConceP+-u:I rncl metho.lologic:1 prr:biems '
6. prectj-c.:I identif icttion cl pl,tnts: Diffcrent.typcr' of k:y:: '
construction of dichotomous kclrs enc] t:xr>nomic lite r:itur(-"
7
"
Pl lnt nomencl:tture 3 '; det-ril':d study ':f the msjor
prgvisions
of the Internet-i ln'r1 code of
Bc
tanical
cr.:ture_Effective.andv.rlicpublicatj.on,rankoftl]]x.j.
rnu ir-: ,- '-'-*:ions, typificatlon.'
rule of priority
eit-rtion,
.
re;ection
anc ret.:ntion of nanes
'y,lh:t is there in a ntme ?
nuhy
change
?
c-.)f
'd)r:len-
:uthbr.
hybr-r)s'
-13B. itlethods cf p1=nt exploret-icn, ccllectj-on
prcporation.
Importrnce of Herbarie.
end herb:rium
v
trii,.CTIC.J^LS:
1.
L\:ring the ccurse af this stuciy) the stuients sh :f I get f lmiil.lr
tne lccal flora.
2- The students shcul-<l get f :mil-i-ar with the 'nethod ';f dissectrng
:lll--'] studylng pl.ants i-h the labcratcry.
describln.; them in techn-ica1 terms, preplrlng
artiflci.rl
sclentlfic
keys lnd identifylng
H,:oker ' s system of clas s if ic-rt
cjnstructj-ng
ilfustr::tlons,
them brsed on Ber:th.rm
j-c;n
.
For this
purp,-,s
i,
.-lnr1
e .l.ch
student shal-l wcrk out -rt- Ie-''rst 3 mernbers of e-rch ,f the
fcllowlng 25 famil-ies of .rrgiosperms rvail:bl-e in the rrer.
i'{enisirermicere, ear*yErtx*x Polygalacese.. C:ryophylI.iceae, Iilirce.te,
Rhiz(lpnorfce -"re, Metastom:t3cc--re, p.rssi-
Families :
,,izo:ce:e,
f 1o::ac::ac,
Gent i-anoce
ee,
Bub - lcele,
Bcr,eElin 3ce
Oleacee , AsclcpirclL )ce --re
;.e, Lentlbul.tri ace:e,
Pe<' -r1
7
i lce :e,
,-.::inthace3.e, Laure.ceae, L:r,-.nth.rce.re, Euf,horbiace:e, Urticlce.l.r,
OrchidJce3e, C6n[nell-n:ee -re, i.rece,re, Cyper.rceie ,rnd Gr:.mine re.
3- Dur:lng the ccurse of this study, e:ch student shall undertaii,.: L field
study tour fcr at least ten drys, unuer the
gu1-donce end supervlsi-on of r teaeher, eta placc :ccnoflc:11y
and flcrlstlcelly
oi regular study.
different
cf t-hcir
from the locrlity
Each one shal-l- rlso ccllect
rncnts for herberium prep.lrrtion
iclentified
hero.rrium
boc.k :ncJ tour rep:rt
ev-:1u--'tion ouring the cour-,e of their practicel
Sugges*-ec1
rnt sp-;ei-
and sh=11 submit- rt lc'-lst
cne hundred, rrel1 preperea, ccrrectly
si-,,rci-mens along with the:-r field
pJ-
p1 :ce
f,-',r
exlrninaticn.
Reaiings:
D-rvis, F.H" & V.H. I{eywcod,
1-963,
Princlples
cf -^ngiosperm
SgIg!r!By_, New York-
Burkil1, LH.
l-relh1.
1865. uh:pters ln the history_g_f Eg!_ely-g_ rlrci r.
-13Heywoodz 'v'.H. (SO. )
1958.
l,-cdern
London.
street, H-s- (go-) 797g. Ess:ys_!n pr-ant t.r{o.norryr London.
Heywocd, v-H- & u-M. Mcore (Eds. ) rcg+. current concepts 1n
Plant taxoncmy. London.
/ogeI, E. F. (EC- )D 1987. lvlanuel- of herbarium t,Lxonotny, Leiclen.
styles, B-T. (tlc. ) 1985. rnfraspecifie cl-sss_iflcaticn of wild
and cul_tivated plants, Oxford.
stebbins., G.L-
- Flowerlng pl.rnts: ovo-r_i&_]_on._ebove the
speci-es IeveI, Cambri-Cge, Msss,
Mayr, E. 797 6. Ev_olution .inQ Arve* _ily_€l!;Le-_uambri<1qe .
Jeffrey, c. 1968. .tr^n introduc!_1"" t" pr""t ta""""*y, r,ondon.
siv.rrajan v.v- 1991. rntrcduction tc principl-es of plant
Tgxonomv, Delhi & "rmbridge,
Stuessy, T. F. 1990. F1:nt t.txenomy, Cof umbi e
Nlalk, V.N. 1,984. Taxonomy cf .\:giosperms, New De1h1.
r974
EConomic Bctanv
Theory:
.', study of the origin, rlistribution,
and
utilisatlcn
1.
Oryza s-:tiva (cereal,
2.
Pi;per niorum (spice)
3;
icine )
lacch.rrum of f icln.:rum (sug:r) , ancl
RauwoLf
4-
history cf cultj_v.rtion
of ti'ie following:
,
1e serpentln.r
(t'ted
Eeyea -brasiliens is (rubber)
FRAar-eals
fdentification
t_:,f the species mentlonecl ab:ve l5 well_
importont wild ref ::,tive s.
.
1s
RE}-EI].E}TCES:
, -..L. &conomic Betany. I,IcGr:w llil-L Book co. New york. (f952).
'Co.lby,
L.S. 'Tl i-ntroduction to iire Bt:trny ,-,f lrcpic-r1 Crcps,
Hr-11
Longman G..---n & Cc. Llndon.
l)6a-
\
t,
-t
-
'4C.S.I.R.
Wealth of Indj.a.
C-S.I.F..
Nr:w
j-,,elhi.
1,948.
Ghose, R.L.M. M.B. Ghatge & V. Subrem:ny3m. Rice in India
f.C.L.R. New uel-hi. 1960.
SEI{DS.IER
Course IV : .'\ngios
fTIl
-rrll
- IT
4mbrycJ-o
Lt
anC Environment:I BiolcAty:
-.'NG
IOSPEiUvl
ltN,
^
IOMy
Theorv
1' Differentletion: conceptr its signiflc:lnce in deveJ-opmentdl
studiesr totipotency, Phylcgenetlc,3nd ontogenetic perspectives
of dlfferenti-:tionr geoer;.-1 ide: .of entropy
2' Meristems: he'cent the'cries cn lrgianis:tion
of root a.d shoot
'rnd shoot aplcal meristems, origin of l.eter.r-r_ rcot le.f ,rnd btd
Cevelopment of Ieaf, plastochrcnic
o9e, e,.xperimental studies
on meristems. veget]tive to reprcclucti_ve
apex, rev:rsion from
reproductive to vegetativr. Jpex.
3: rissues systems: Differen;tt,,ition rnd functicns
of different
tissue systems such .rs epiclermis, perenchyft3r
.
chlorenchymar-
solerenchyma, Leticifers,
transfer ceJ_1s, environmental_
factors i'nfluencing clifferentlrtion of the
cilvergent tissue
systems, experi.ment,rr. studies, their
eccncmi_c lmportance.
4'
secondrry carnbium: concept, cr,essif i
cation, origin and constitutj-on of cabium, csmbi:1 -ictivity, cembium
in wourd heallng
and grefting, flctors inf-ruencing cambial
cifferentiatlon anc
activitye cork-c'rmbium. dlfferent types, crigl-n
.rnd function5' ''bnorma-r- cambium: cr.rssificat-ion,
origin .rn.d functlon, experl_
mental studies.
.
5. Seecl]i-ng ancl nod:1 enatomy: rcot.,acot
v:scu'::r connection,
'
petterns of ntrdar :nrtbmy, ccntrcversitiJs
,-,n phylogenetic
trends j_n nocl:]l_ rn:ltomy91..rnds,
-i6_
7
-
8.
Xylem: orj-gln, structur:r featureg en<-i
f,,ncti_cn cf fibres,
flbre tr.rcheids, traeheiCs, vessel elements,
xylem perenchyhdr
thc' trencs ':f speci-alisation, trxonomic signif
ic.nce, f:ctors
af fecting xylem dif ferent_i:ti,orrn el-ements
cf wcocl anatomy.
Phloem: orlgln, structurr: :ncr functicn of service
ce1rs,
sieve tubes. camp:nion ceils ,and flbres, trends cf
specla_
lls.rticn,
taxonomic signific:nee,
flct,:rs aflectlng phlcem
differentiati_cn,
9'
trends of speci.rlizrt_ion.
Leaf :
urr.gln anc, cevercpment r;f l:min.r
er:rr€ral pattern.
10- Fruits adci seeds: Gener,..l rnatomy cf fleshy
anc dry frults,
a.netcmy of. seeds in gener:1, or.:vel0pment, iormancy
:ncl drought
res istance f r:om ::n-ttomic_1 point of vievr.
11- Roots: rnltirtion
rno cevelopment cf specirlisec roots.
Pneumotophores, hlustorir,
ccrinperison cf :netcmy of normrl
.
:nd mcdif iei rcerts.
L2. rrnaton - in reletlon to
ecr.
Iogy and ttxoni
ny.
PILTC,IIC,TLS
7.
riversj-ty
5.
NoCt.l- f,natomy
Vascular uambium
in cel]s ancr tissues irrio mcnc_.rcot .rncl a dicot pl.rnt
wich respect to posiiicn, cistributicn,
st:rrcture and functlon.
2. Epidermis
trichomes, stom.rtel typss, stomltrl incex
3- clearlng and shoot :picel ina,r-istems. Different pstterns.
4. ule:ring lncl steining c:f le:rf, young tvri_gs, rootl
flors1 parts
etc.
6.
,1
and ccrk c:-:mblum.
Xyrem ancl its ccnstituents by selectlng anc mece..ti.rg.
the tissues.
B.
9.
and ips eomponents.
lJcnormal seconclery grov,ithTci+ferent p:tterns i types
dr.lcanna,
Phl-oem
'Bignonie. . ir1s
tol-ochla, mar rnthus , I.tryctanthus , ;.erv;j., Beet
root, Mirabilis, plsonii, Bougainwil-1ea.
[-
-lrl-'
10.
submission ::f sl-ides (gO Nos. )
R.EFER.ENCES
1.
2.
3'
4'
Plent ..natomy K. Easu - hriley Eestern Linche<l 19g3.
P1 ,.nt Anatomy -,.
Fi[n
r:er,Eamon press - Lg77.
Plrnt dn,tomy : dxperlments :nd lnterpret.".tions, p:.rt r
II E.G. uutter Edwarcl ;rirnl-ocj. 1978,
&
Plrnt Anetomy J.D- Mausel:h - Thc Benjamln/cumming publishing
company, Inc. 1989.
Practical- Plant ,hatcmy .r.S. Forster _ D. Ven Nostrand
Company fnc.
1960.
6. Cytoclifferentieti-on ln piants, Ftoberts, L.W. 1,g76
C.:mbridge Un j_versity pre-ss, C:mbridge.
5.
EMBRYOLOGY
Theorv
1' H'story ancr development of rngiosperm embryology.
2' Microsporogenesis structure and function cf
w.rl-l- l.ryers;
ultra structur:.r- changes in t.rpetum end meiocytes
curing
develr:pment - rore of c:rIose, rcr-e of tepetum
in po11en
cevelopment.
3'
MaJ-e gametophyte
- Microspr:re/po11en raitosis; divislon of
qenetative ce1Is,. hetercgecity in sperms, pc;11en
fertilj_ty,
and sterillty,. pollen stcrage, vl:bility
._rncr germin.etion.
4' ovule ont-cgeny, types ene evolution,
reduction, nutritlon.
Megssporogenesis subcellul-rr features cf archesporal
ancl
:'
meg-'spore mother celLs,' megespore terad.
rlyad :nc cocencmegsspore, sterm'naticn of functlcnrr_ meg3spore.
5. Emb,ryosac Classif icatlon ancl typesr
ul-trtstructure of eompone'nts' slmergic and antipoci:1 haustorie, nutrition
of embryosae.
L
a
-1.77
'
pcl-Iination - ultrastructur:l- histocnemic:1 cletail-s
of style
and stigm:, seif :nri interspecific impar:bi1ity. Signifi.cance
of poIlen-pist11 inter:cti.--n, r;Ie crf pol]en wel] proteins
end
stigma-surf -:'ce proteins, i: ,..rriers tc f ertir-iz l-'.-ion,
methcds of
cvercoming j-ncompatibilitl', intr:-cv.,iri-rn pcllinrticn
and in
vitro fertil_ization.
Ferti--r-iz rticn
BRote of syner,;ids , f i1e f crm lpp rr _rtus
, heterospermy, diffu,rentisl i:ehrviour of ma.l_e g,rmetes,
Cisch,rrge and
rncvement of sperirr-s, syngsmy ..ni_n triple fusicn,
post fertili_
z,eticn met.:bol-ic
9'
structur,:l_ changes in embryosac.
Enrlosperm - elassificrtion :-lnd
types, ultrastructure, ce11u1arlsrtion 1n nucle:r end,:sperm; endosperm,. heusteri-:.,
their
extensi-on :ncl pers j-stance, functicn st:rege metrborities.
-rnc_,t
10- Embryo - porlrity
in reration to clevelopment. &rrx*
L.:ws end fornruloc c1:ssific-.rtion __,nd types. Histo
:nd organo_
g.rr.=i" of mono end Cicotembryosi organle ss ernbrycs;
delayed
oifferentlation of embryc,,. structure, cytology .rnd function
of supensor,' physiorogic:I -rq mcrphogenetic relr.tionship
of endosperrr) enoi embryc.
11.
1'2ft3'
14'
r-olyembyyony - c.l_.rssification :ncl .rype,s-.
r-rpomixis - diplospcry - rp()splry, p:rthenogenesis
cf embryos
I'ruit :nd S:'ed Parthennocarpy incucti;n
c-,f seecless fruj-ts.
lmbryology j-n relition to taxoncmy
ci.:gncstic embryologic.rJchareetersi primitive,litc adv:.nce.C ch-rr:cters, ccmparative
embryology encr f-nter- -,ric intr:specifil,
f,rmilial_ rel_ationships .
-;
inter- and int.ra-
15. lbte of embyolcgy in plant breedi_ng, ernbryol:gy of
hybrlcs disfunction of encosperm, errested developmeht of
embryo"
i
,.!
?
.-1-_- t.-' PR/ICTfC,'L
j
1. Preprr:ticn of clisected wnclc mounts of 3ndothecium, tapetum,
ovu1c., endosperm, embryo :nc-t hrusruori-1 . Squ.rsh preparations
of t,apetum, mj-crcsp.re mother c=11s, dy-eis tetr-:.C.s. po11inia,
manul-ae.
2. study f rom perminent pretr),rr:ticns. Deve]opnrent :nd structure
cf another, pc11e4 cvufe, me.gfsporogenesis, embryosac, endosperm
-rnci embryo. Ihe comperatlve study of the typical monocot and
grase embryo.
3. Pollen germj-natlon - viebility tests
4. Study cf electron microgrrphs cietail-e-d in the theory syIlabus,
Experiments of. intra-ev:lrirn po11ination .
5.
REFEiiENCT-S:
1.
Bouman
F. L91A. Ovul-e initi^.tion,
coat structure
1n angiosperms.
ovul-e rlevelopment and seed
Toc-1ay 3na't
tomo.ror'= publicat-
ion, New. De1hi.
2.
Bhojwsnl S.S & tshatn.rgar, S.S. 1974. Ihe embryology of engj-osperms Vikes publicrtion,
N,-.w ,efhi.
3.
Davis C.L.
1955. Sfstemltic
embryclogy of. angicsperms.
John Wiley, New York.
4.
F.smes
.1.J.
1960. t4orphology of .rnglosperms. trtcqraw-H11l
ftx New York.
. 5.
Jc-hansen D...'.
1950
.
t,lant embryoJ-ogy,
i',1.r1-tham,
MJssadhugetts.
5.
Johrl B.D, (ed. )
Verlag. Berlin,
7-
M.rheswari P.
1950. An 1ntroductl,.;n to the embryology of
,flglosperms.
IlcGrew-Hill,
8.
9.
10-
1,984.
Embryo.J-ogy
New
of rnglosperms, Sprlnger
York.
,
(eC) 1963. Recent :dwences 1n the embryology of
l\nglosp=rms. X Intl. Soc. Hlant "lorphologists,
New Delhi.
Reghavan V. L97f, Experirnentel embrycgenesis ln PIants,
Academic Press., New Ycrk.
WercLaw C.W. 7glO. Emrbyogenesis in pltnts,
Methugen, London.
iii
I,1I CR.O
Ci
Ii\T
rQUE
Jle!ry
1.
Slsic instruments ,lnrl equi:menr's used in rnicrctr-.chnique,
lheir us.is :nc1 principles
:r.
Mi-cr,osccpe
invol-vecl.
s: Orclin.-..ry L.yl. ph:se ccntr:st,
El_ectron-
r\4icroscope.
b.
Microscoplc m€3surements.
C. Use cf c:.mert lucidt.
II.
d.
Microtcmes: rot:ry
e.
EmbeddJ-ng oven.
f.
Coupfin jars.
KiIling,
enci sledge end their
ixinq :n,:l strining
3.. Principles :rn.i purposes.
uses.
pl=nt tissues.
f
b.
rmport:nt chemicrls anc re,:gents used in the prepar3tion
f i--r:til,res rn.l their pr .pertic.s,
c.
Common chernj_ce1 f
ion
ix rtives,
fn* specific
their
composition, prep:r:t-
F. ^,,'^.. C.lrnoyrs f ludd,
icetlc Naweschln's fl-uiC t cr^.if , Zlrclets f luld
Flemming's f luic1.
d.
III
uses
Chrome
Te.chnique ,:f fixatlon.
Importent dehycr:tlnE ogentsr cle-rring .rgents :lnd mounting
medi.r used j-n microtechnique rnci their pr():)erties:
Ilthyl,,r1cohol-,
"il.=,.oform,
Glycerine, Isopropyle, i^lcohol-
Butyl :lcchol.
IV. St:ins useC in mj-crotechniques:
Princlple an.l purpose cf stainl-ng.
b. CJ-assiflc.:ticn of impcr-Lant biolcgi-c:I stalis i) IVatural dyes - Hemqtoxylln, Carmlnee Orcein.
il) Coal t.:r clyes:t
Sasic dyes: Sefreninr Grystal violet,
cotton B1ue.
i.cirL dyes: F:st
Eos
ir-.
Greep,
Basj.c Fuchsln,
Light green, Or:nge Erythrosl-n,
' za- At
C. Iechnigue cf staj-ning.
V. Preparatlon
i:f whc,,le nncunts, m._rceretlins and smears.
Glycerine-xylene methocl f,:r whcle mounts-
a.
b.
'i'ertlary butyl .rIclh,:l_ inettrr.,d f:..rr whr-rl-e mounts.
Maceratir..rn fluidr prep.lr:ltirtn ,_,rf maceration slides ,:f
plant tissues.
c.
Vr.
Ivtethods of dcubl-e staininE
free hand sections using the
fullcwlngr ccmbinetlons r
a- safranin-fast green/safranin
anir_ine bfue.
b'
vrr'
Crystal viclet _ Orange G.
Methcds of embedding plant materials in paraffln
a.;,,1 coho.L_xylene meth.;cl .
wax uslng
b. Tertiary butyl al-cohol method
C. .ilcohol-chl_l-,rofr:rm methr.rd.
vrrf
rechnique of secticninq materi-al-s embeded in paraffin
wex
using rl)tary microtome an<f -fixing paraffin rlbbons on
s
l_
ided .
d. Flxlng blocks on microt;me.
b. Cutting sectl-ons.
c.
r-rdhesives and their
preparati-on,
d. Mounting rlbbcns cn sfides.
rx- l'reth.ds i>f stainlng paraffin secti;ns using the follc_:wi.ng
ccmbinaticns:
a' rro'n
ar-um
b. Safranin
X.
- h:fmat.;xy1in safran in/fast
fast green/aniline blue.
c, Crystal viol-et _ Orange G/Erythrt_,sin.
Iechnique of mcuntlng, cle.,ning, 1,.ibe1]lng
' permanent preparations.
Xf . Vital
green.
and storing
sta'j.nirg: Methods and si_gnifJ_cance.
PR,iC.TICALS
Students are expectecl to fami_Ilarlse with preparatii,n
rf stained
permanent .sli-Ces cf the f.__11tiwing:_
i'rltrcle mounts, free hsnd sections, m3cer.ltion
and,seri.er_ rnicrc_
tcme secticns at _.1-:r_-s,: -t-h_rl_.:-.Llr permanent slj-des
representlng
a''
whrle
. mr)t+nl s.r f ree
..ir:: '( .:.: r tl-.').:.
evaluatlcn.
"- ..: i:'r :; 1.-:i , l_i I' i-,, .j
REFEIIEI.ICT:S s
.
,l
j
. --
1. Jchansan.
!t
:.
''"iltE#
2.
'j"
jt /
:iF.
-: 1"\:t':
Y:;'iIi.
",
Sass, J.E,
:t,gchi-r$ie;s
L,.-tndon..
2.
Herlyn, G.P. and t4ikshee J.r) !
3.
4.
.
P.
7964.
l. r. ..;i.j l
19'76. Bc,tanicol
I-Ianbr;,:k
Jrrnes, Ruth i,lcClrrng (oa. ) .,1960. l4c. Clung'9 handbo,tk of
Micrbsccpical- Techniques (Ed. 3 ) Hafner trublishing Co.
New
Yurk.
5.' Pea;ccck; il-vi.
EdwarC .,i.,
1,'
.."",r:,1
Oc-,sys"t'em
,1d
. .:.
1966.' '' 'au*.ntary Micr:tebnntque -(da.'
'g)' '.
Etd. L':nd:)n.
.' s tructu'ra1"
c
:-rrnp'.,rrur.ts,'re.1.rti,-,hshi-p hetwee!n
structiie and function; tr:pic str,uctures.
2." Prc<lucilvity' and'Energy fI :rv:'C,:ncepts, limlts, and process':
:;f prlmiry produetic,n; meth:c1s :f pr,;.:uctivity heo"ur"mentsi
g1-rbaI trencJs in i>rimary :r--.Cuctivity, energy ficw m:rclele;
effieiency with regard t; erergy capture and tr.tnsferS.
3.' aiogeochemical cycling-basic'types; the gllrbsl water, carbon
-lnd nitr-gen cycles.
.
5r.a-f
.(d[cU$Str-I-h, r &-
)
5.
s
Pcpution characterlstics -
pe'ol,es i : cl.i.inasi'ci:niet
d
7-
iS ,)It
9.
,' : - .,i,,i .'",..) :,':,.'.
Bfief .'rsc;unt of Ehi f ,lf 1 wing 3 : af,f r-''rest .ti11..;, :"t;.c"i;t"]--.r,,
f ;IeStryr ?grcfc,restfy, wind ureaks, envir -nmenta] impqct
?.
(C"rn*er^vition). .ect a (1980) ind, UNEP (1ir-rit'ea,i$?ti'ral 'dnY+rqn-
I
deplet,i'.rn,i{,*gn.,ey tray<;r.,
i
r
PR..CTIC,ILS
----
'r t
(
t,'.)-
L." Bvsluati.,n ,::f bl,-;tic anc abioti-c c)mp rnents ':f any tw?'
imporlant ecosYstems
. ?.,. letqrmi,?.dti,x of tc,ta ch.iin in -tire eclsysteins in f,
3. '' De,qermln'jti)n ','f the j.mpbrtance value lnc1ex (fVf ) ,;f P.,]'.a'nt'
community by eu;rQp.1, linc- -ancl belt transeet
.
.
t:;''-i....
.1,
.,
. methuds.
4.. 3:mparalive study <-f p;.11uted zni.l non-p:llute.d lqfuatic
:)
ec()s 7s Eems .
5. Vi-sits to g mqter,-rloglc:1 st,:ti'.:n, t{i}d Iife sanctuaryr
Naticnal Park, ,Sew,rr;e treetment unlt' lrlrr maj -;r c()nstructi.-n.
,a
.|
!
r
"
5.
Jurgen Schulz
Schaf fc,r. 1985 .
Cyto$ene tic P].rnts,
..reimals Humans ; 8pringer-Yerlag6
.
-Icxt ts,.',k of uytr:genetics.
Brr;\trn, i',i.lI. t97 ?.
C.
V.
Mosby
n;
UJ.
7
.
7962. Dis",r55irD in Uytcgenetics of Polyploids.
,3urnham, C.R.
tsleckwel-l Publishing C':.
B. Dawson, G.W.D. i962. Intr l<luctir-,n tl; the Cytcgenetics of
Polyplcicls.
9.
Dranasagar,
Blackwe1l Publ-ishing
V.
Co.
R.. 1986. Cyt:1r-,gy .rnd Genetics, Tat-r l{cGraw
;qilI Pub. Co. New Delhi.
10. Grun p. 1,976. Cytcpl.tsmic genc.tics and evcluti.in.
tlniversity.
Columbia
r)r. \r.Y.
11. Lewin, B. (1983) Gones. Jrhn -diley & sr-;ns, Inc. N.Y. L2,
H:L1,.rend,-,r ;r... :nd J. SctIcns. 1983. Eds. Genetic Engine=ring.
:fnd Meth,--'cls, \/cl-. VI- Plenum Press. N'Y'
12. IhorpoT T.ii. 1,974. (eas) elant Tissue Cul-ture I'lethcds and
Appli_crticn i-n lrgricultufr- r ;ipplicetic;n i1 .rgriculture,
Prlnciples
..cad, Press, New Y--rk.
Reinharc, E. ancl J.inks, H-H. ]-971- Plant tissue
Springer
Culture and its bi.:technoJ-..,gicsI .rpplicati:,n
14.]raz,
.!,,,'.
Ver1.rg,3er1in.
CY.TOGENg.'ICS
Ther:ry
l
1,. t{ist-.rry and pr.tgre ss ':',f cytology2- The structure ancl (rrEnnisatir;n ,,rf prrkaryotic
and eukaryotic
Orlgln end ev.:futi:--n ,:f r-he ce.l-1. Cel-l- ccncept.
Det;:i-led stucly '->f ceII ult.restructur=, structure. fuction
The:,ries jn ''rigj-n of celL
and ;rganisaticn pf cells.
ce1ls.
3.
organelles.
4.
The interph.ese nucl-eous, the c'-:ncept if eell cyc]e. Mr-'rphorc]aniseti, n of interphlse
logy, bi:-.rchenist.ry .rnd spatial
nucl-eus, chromos)me and nuclear membrenes.
tr
Chromr.rsr.;mes: General lcc,-'r.rnt enri clet;ri-l-ed mcrpholcgy, consti-
tuents :f chr,,mcslmCS: he,-ercchromatln a;i-1 euchrom':.tin, DN.' structure 3nd compcsitir-.n.. S;f.teIlite DN;., Evolutiln of species
prc-rtein lhe hlstunes, Pr:ct:mines (sperm- specif ic prc:teins )
Nr;n-hi-stcne chrom'.rsr:ml1 or::tein and their
Molecular lnteractions
mi-;Cifications.
of chromos,Jmsl proteins - General
account.
bancling and
6-
Karyctype anrJ karyotype .=ro1plir,nr
7.
techniques of banding chr')mc,s-imes.
Special types cf chrr)m.:s,-i[tr:'s : Structure gnc significant
ehrom<;sr-,me
functions of polytene chrc.,moscmes, Lamp-brush
B
Chromlsomes,/access3ry chrc;mcsomes, detail-eo .:nalysis
of sex chromoscmes and their
B.
chromrJsomes,
Crorncs rme mechanisrns
of significanc€
l4j-tosis : Mitotic
1ole j.n.sex deterrnination-
in mitosls . and mei-,.;sis, their. ccmparison
3
chromos,--)mes, cent--romere, metaphrse chrclmo-
scmesl changes in chromos'fmes Curing mitosis,
interchrcmo-
somaL fibres.
ine r-,f me ios is , synaps i-s ancl the syn.tptonomal
c(.lmplex, Cross ing 'over ancl chiasma f srmation. The,tretical-
l4e i,..rs
is e
Outl-
bic.rchemical aspects
mr-.del cf rec,:mbinaticn ultr.rstructure,
and rcLe of synaptonemal complex i-n crcssing over,
RN,;
synthesis during meiotic prr-;phase. changes, in chromatln
()rgln j-satic.ns, Kinetochr:re in ineios is .
o
I{umerical :.nd structurel- v:riaticns
t-,f chromcsomes
Haploldy, polypl,-,idy, ancuplcldy and their consequences,
deletj-on, duplic:tilrn,
tr:rnsl-oc,:tion,
meir:ti-c consequences and significances.
lnverticn
and their
Induction of
polypJ-oidy by colchicine.
PR,'CTI9,ttS
l.
- fietrertment cf r,)ot tips Df onion/chlcrophytum
ma i ze with c r>1 ch i c ine-/3 -hy<l roxygu ino 1 ine/p ar -rd ichl robens ene
Mitisi-,
and ,.-:f study of stagc-s o.f mit,,-'sj-s by acet,)clrmj-ne st:iningr/
aceto orcein s l-:.i::in9*
..
5.
Hybridizatiirn:
Genetic ,rn() breccing c(.nseqrlence cf hybri-
dizati,-rn and selection.
hybrid sterility
anrl
h.:ndling segregating
cti..rn
,
me
Systems ::f lnccmpatibility
and
th .cls cf werclr,minq. l,lethr:ds ::f
p,l-pu-l
t+-i-.n for superii--r str:in
sel-e-
Bul-k meth';j, per.ligrce methods and Interspeeific
and intergenetic hybridiz-:tir,,n in cr,:p improvements. 3,:6k
'Ihe-;ry and Practice, but cri,ssing, inbreeding,
crussing
inbreeding depru-ssi-on, het:rosis
('f cxploitatln
rnd heterobel-tiosis,
Methods
of heterosis or hybrid vigc;r thrr:uEh male
steriles.
6.
Irolyploitly in p13nt breealing.
'l
Mutaticn breccling
.
I,Iajr;r achievement in fndia onci cther
countries in Cifferent
B.
crops.
Recent aivances i-n genetlc manipul:.tions cf crcp plants
through in vitro
j-nduced mut ition,
s,.),rrr1tic
tissue culture and genetic tr.rnsfcrmaticn,
hybriCization,
micr--.prop.rgaticn
theory rnd Practice.
PR,,CTICAI.,S
1r Study etf floral biology an,.l fl,;wer structure ln crop plants
available (rlce, c,tshew, pulses. Solanum, Capsicum).
2. Prrctice of hybridizaticn technlques in self anLr.,oross
pollinate<1 crops eva11:b1e. (S.:me plants :rs :b,:ve under
l_Eem
3.
-\
1J.
Practlce of vegetative prop,rgtrtic-.rn technigues like }:.yering,
buddi.g, graftlng.
;a'
,,_r'
4. Submission cf certifled repcrt of vislts
breeding institutes in the ccun+-ry.
tc_;
two plant
REFERENCES:
7.
chaucharl H.K. 1,904. Elementlry Principles cf Pl-ant Breeding,
OxfUrd.
2.
3.
Chaudharl R-C. 7902- InEr rcluction to PI -rt Breedingr Oxfcrd.
Kenneth., J. I'rey. 1980. Pl :nt BreeCi.g, It-.w.r, St.tte Univ. press.
2.
Camer-r lucida dr.rwj-ngs ilf. karycrype f ;r preparing Icliogrems.
3.
Study -f mcj-i.,sis j-n r-ratura /Nt,_teo/Chlorophytum by smear
prei)aration of
pMCs.
R.EFERENCES
1' Bhadhuri E.M. 7975. Instructure ancl funetlon cf ehromatin.
Clb: Fcundaticn Symp. 2Bz L-4.
2. Ch:rEaft B. (fgOe) essays.n nuclei_c acicis, Elsevier,
,-',msterdam.
3.
Dupr3w, E.J. (797O) OU;) ind Chr,;mosf,mes, Ho1t, Ronehart
and l,'ilinston fnt. New york.
4.
swansonr c-P. (tgsl) cyt,rloqiy anrr cytogenetlcs, prentice
Ha11, Englewoocl CLif f s lJ. J.
c
Beermann lrrl-
(tglz)
rn Deve-1.pment,i1 stucies cn Giant
chrcmoscmes (W. Beerm.ann. E,l, ) pp1-33, springer verlag,
tserti.n.
6.
CaI1.enr H.G. (rcAg ) gn Hanc-::ok of M.Iecul_:r cytology.
(.. Lima, de-Fari.e, ed. ) pp. 540-552 North Ho11ano,
.il.msterdam-
7.
ohnc- s (tgol ) sex chrcmcse,mes .rnd sex r-inked genes.
Sprlnger-Ver1ag, Berlin.
n. ,'i.K. Sharma .rnd ,rrchana Sharma (
9.
)
Chromosome bandlng
in PI:nts, C:hlr-:, G. yog3.
v.L, uhroprar et. al. (f gg:) . Geneti_cs: New Frontiers
Vol_. I Oxftrd f 3H pub. New i_rel_hi.
.PL.-Ni' BREEDING
Ihecrv
1- History of plent l3reec-lingr ancl Breeding systems in pr_ants.
2' Flor.rl blology ancl its slgnificance ln hycridiz:tlon.
3' Pl3n'u introducti.on, Genetic resou.r'ces conservatlon anrj urtiliz,aticn ln plant breeding.
4'
se]-eetion technigues pure ri-ne serecti,:n, prlnci.ples
and
spplicatlcn lf selection, genetic basls r.,f se-Iectlon, dib_
ruptive selection, recurrent s=l_ectir_-,n.
I
-#
4.
Sneep, J. et. aI.
l./ag.Ln
5.
,
J
.C. 198C. Crop Gene.ti-c
e1, IBPGR,
6.
Troc. Int.
l.
Blf oit,
I{i]l
pudoc
inqen.
,'lawkes
Ilanu
Lg6g. p]:rnt tsrceCing perspectives,
Publ_
Res
-.urces.
F1AIC ccll-ectlcn
ic.
rtice Genetics
Symitc,s
ium, IitRI,
F.C- 1958. Plant Breecilngt
a,ncj
1985 .
Cytogenctics,
McGraw
Bock Co., Ipc. New yr rk.
8-
Rai. B. 1,977. Heterosis tsreec_-ling. Ir;c1:y.rnrj fcmorrow
Publicaticn, New Del_hi.
9.
Heys
, 71.K., Immer F.R, :ncl p.C. Smith, 1956. Methods of
l>l.rnt Breeding McGr:w H111.
1C' Wil11-rm
L.rwsre
nce.
19'/1. il:nt
3re:-c1ing, Fjclw.rrd ^roold pub.
EVOi,Ui'IOItr
Princi-ples and thecries ct evll-utj:rn.
Lamarckism, Darwinlsm, :nc,j ltreo_Darwj-nism.
Dynamic processes cf evc,,l-u+-icn Mutati,ons, reccmbinaticn,
sectiln, j.solati:n, Mechanisms.
1.
2-
3" Evr]uticn
spq-c
4-
:-'f species rnc subspeciation, ev,:iutiun above
ies l_eveI .
Orlgin ancl ev,rluticn rf l1fe..
Variati -ln enC i:vc,l_ut j-r-_rn:
Hybridlzaticn
,a
:nc evcluticn,
muto,tir'ns and evoluti:)osr
pL:iypl;ic1y :ncr evolutions
heredi-ty, environment .rnd evolution.
RXFEREI{CES:
1.
Leyantin, R, -. (197 4A. The Genetic b:s ic
change, Columbia Unj_v. press.
2'
Bersol' J'D' L967. rhe rtrigin of ]ife. cfevef and vy,rrld publ-.
Grant 7911,- ui-versity in plrnt speciation.
corumbi:.
Uni. press.
._rf ev<_.]-utionsry
A. Wooley tr. 1983. Mclecuf ar thecry cf ev,tl-utj_,:_:n. Springer
Verlag.
5' 'rtrccley I). 1983. Molecul.rr thu.r;ry of ev.jluti(jn.
Springer
VerIag.
5. Gaun, P. 1976. Cytoplasmj_c genes antl evolutj_,on, Columbia,
Univ. pressA
_.i
I_
6. Savage J.llr 7969. Evcluticn.. Oxf,ord.
7.
Si-mpsot' 1953. Ihe m;j cr :eatures of. ev,rlutir:n.
Ccumbla.
Uni-v. Press.
B. Stabbins, G.L. 1950. Variaticn ancl evofutic',n in plants:
Col-umbi..r Unl. Press .
9. driggs, D- & Walters, SmIr{, 1904. Pl-ant vrriatlon and Evol-ution (ZnO Ed.) uambridgc' University Press.
SElvl.iiSTER
COURSE
VI : PL..NT PiIYSIOLOGY,
PLANT
III
BIOCHEMISI'F{Y r^ND
3fOPHYSICS.
i
PHYSIOLOGY
Theory
Water relttj-cns
1.
in plants
water, water potenti:1
r:hysicochemical properties
of
termin,tlogy, chemic.ll- pc-,tentia1
Gibbs free. energy conceptr wrter in rel-ation to plant
ce1fs, ce11 membrances lni' their
capaciLy fcr transport,
water upteke and movement thrcugh pl.rnts, s,-ri1-pIant etmosphere-continuem, Ff ::nt r,v:Ler l-r;ss, stomatil regulaticn of
transpir.rticn,
l{;rmonel
Incrganlc nutriticn
2.
and facll-ltated
/,ctive tr:nsport,
carrler
.-..nr.,
cnergy clepenclent hyp,;thesis.
I.-rn trensport
diffuslon,
and reguJ-atii-,n, diffusicn
memberanes ,en.l transport
Domants pr-:tenti:1,
;f iors.
Nc.rnst I s equation ,
mechanism of icn tr:nsp:- rl , rof E c,f ATP as a c:rrier
Patch-clamplng t , Co-tr.:nsoJrt (sympcrt ) , ccunter transport
(.,ntlport)r Ion channels, Chel-otes, Ir,)n uptake oy roots,
I
.
i
Transpcrt in xyIem, Rec,iistribution r>i ions, salt relations
3lC grcwth-
3.
Phctosynthesis
.
reduction cycle anci asscciateci i;r,;cess, C4 mechanism and
CO'r asslirllation.
Light re-Lcti(ln of green plants,
C3 carbcn
j
- )/''
4.
5.
oi -sugers t) coz, seccnd:ry
oxicloti:n mech:nism in p1ar.ts, r:hctorespi_riticn.
Nitrrgen met:rbrrl-i-sm - utlri-ati;n
of -:tm,-;spheric nitrcgen,
Despiratlon
reEul.-iti:n
.rerrblc ;:xidrtic,n
f nitr=-,te-- assimir.ltl,;n,
rnt{rrmeijiete -met:bclism
of amino. acirl :ncl rel-:ti,.;nsnip with rninerel nutritlon
c-rrb,:rn metsbol ism, Ef f ici_cncy ->f nitrcgen us f ge.
5.
Gr:;wth
effects
7
-
B.
9.
an,.:]
Morphcgenesis
C:rr>wth
regulrtic,ns
.rnct-
incl
thc.ir
on grc-.wth, ph,:t.)m,.-rpncgenesis, R,:re of phytcchrome
in pI=nt m';vements .:ncl fI;vrering.
?hy.si',1ogy c f flc,vr:r:j-nE physicJ--rgic.i1
,:n,-r bl.rchernic:r-
ch.rnges,lSSr)ci-:tecl with fl-,-,wering, theories anri f-:ctors
effecting fltwering phc,topcri_,:-,lism .lnrl verual_isetion.
Fruit Cevelopm.ent rni,_-r ri_penlng.
Physiol--gy of seed 9,--rminrtilii' - Sr:eel,,viability, Dormlncy
inil reserve mcbil_isati,.rn uuring germination.
10. Senescence
11
. Biolcglcal
anci. .absclssi.cn.
cloci.:s .
1'2. Stress Physiology - Stress c,r,_.ncept, temperattrrgr
stress,
Redi:ti_r:n Stress, w:ter stres,s, iiu,_rie nt stress, Me tal_
toxicity and respcnse rf p1=nts t,o stressPR iCTfCI.LS
1'
Preprration ,>f mclrf , mc]:r, DOrm:l :nd percentaqe
solUtions
and their diLuti_ons.
2'
Dry weight/m:isture
3'
4.
content cietermin:tion r,f plant materj-als
Demcnstr=tl'-'n ':f principle
-t osrn:sis thrcugh 1iv1ng membranes.
Determin.rtlcn of t.,smoti-c potenti-:I
(:) Plesrnolytic meth:,<1
(f ) Gevimetric methoil.
5'
Demonstr:tic;n :f cffeci- r>f tcmpcreture :ncr chc.mic.rrs
cell_s permeability.
I
t
:
-r*:iEilIl-\
,:i..4
on
-
:r _1-
Demonstrsticn.of antagonisti-c effect
6.
rlf j-ons on permeability
of rnembr'lnes
7.
Determinati.rn cf rate of photcsynthesis under cifferent
concl
B.
itions
Separation of pJant pigmenr-s by plper chrornetogrtp.Y/thin
pigment
1aye.r chrometcgr,ephy anci eltsorption spectr':. of each
sePar.sted
g.
-
-
Quantitative
estimation ,l:f chlorophyll
cr-,ntent using spe'ctro-
phctometry.
I{eference
L.
Books -
p.C. Steward
Plant Physiolr'-'9Yr '\' Ire-itise'
Vol-. 1-10. ,-'ca"-l.emic Press ' New Ycrk'
2.Sa1isbury,F-ts-&R'dBsntPhy:i:}:'gy'i'rub'Co'NewYork'
Iloss C.W. 1986Pl-ent t)hysf clogy' l4'acmiJ-tiln Pu-b' Cc'
3. tsicl.welI R.G.S.
IrIew Ycrk'
4.Ncgg}eG.R.&Intrc-cuctoryPlantPhysicloglr
prentice Hil-I, New Delhi.
Frit.z G.J.
Springer - Verlag'
New Series
5. dncylope6ia of
P1ant PhYsiologY Berllin'
nesponses ,lf plants to environrnentaf'/
6. I. Levltt (tggo)
stressess' V;" I & fI'
7./.ndersonT.W.&M,oleculsr.lctivl.tlesofPlantcells
Beardsll-' f (1991) ' BI-rckwe11 Pub ' oxfor<'o''
B
IOCi{sMIS
-tR'Y
Theorf
T.CarbohydrateslClassj-fication,oCcurrencestructureancl
pclysafunctionS l)f monosac.;haricles, ;Iigcs.icclrarices and
ccharldesincluclng.starch,cellu}.:serhemicellu}oseand
diphcspf ite
pectln.
Synthes j-s of glycosicic bcncs, nucleosicle
Hydrolysis ''f gJyc'osidic
sugsrs; starch and sucrose spthesis.
bcnds: amyl3ses, invertases enc,: cther impcrtsntglycosid'ases'
:)i
G1ycclysis, fermentation,
glucone genesis
:n,.1
pentose phcsphate
pathw.ry.
2. ,-minc; ,.ci-ils, Peptides and
-t-r
,teins: Cl_assific_rtion and Structure
',f :mino -rcicl s; gren:rr3I orc.,perties l.'f amin,r -rclds, .lmphoteric
pri-.perty; gener.rl re.ectii_.ns i;f ,:-ffiint_, rcic-s; ni_nhytrrin reaction.
,'mj-no rci::s met,:bol j-sm.,' -Irlns:mineti;n
and GOG;;'I p:thwey.
smi
n.ttion, c)orninltiun
Pri:te- j-ns:
inclassif icati,:n lf prcteins .icccrding Lo sc;Iubilt_ty
:nci structure.
Ccnformaticrn anr-1 structure ,-f pr:,tei-ns including :nd configur:ticn,
j.<:.m.:chandr_rn's pI,,ti we:k j-nter:cticnsi
stebj-lj-zrtir:n
r:f structure,
hydrcgen br,nc1s. Function
prote ins,' structurcl- prcceins,
rnc] their
3
- Lipics ;
c:n jugatecl prcteins,
importence. Proteclytic
Cl-s.ss
cxidlticn
enzymes cnii their
if iceti-rn cf 1:-plcis . Synthc-s is of f :tty
ancl -oxld.rtj_on .;f fatty acir-rs.
.>f
l_ectins
actlonrcid.
4- Itrucl-elc aci-ds: rhe puri-ne .1n,, pyrlmidine blses :nc their
structuresThree dimensicnal structure :;f DNr,. Different
types of RNi, enc their functi:rnin protein bic-synthesis.
Brief ecccunt r:f purlne ani pyrimi,Jine biosynthesis.
5. Biologic.rl
oxi<lrtion:
Kreb-s cyc1e,. mitochonclriilI el_ectron
trensport systemi cyanicie resist-:nt
p:thw.ry.
respir:tlon.
Grycxylete
6. Enzfrnes: C]-assif icati-c,in anc-t roumenclature. Mech.:nlsm .;f enz]rmes
rl-c,ck anrl key' .rnc incucec
ecti'rn
6
fir hypothesis. Enery
of actlvation of [email protected] c:telysed rc-:ctir>ns, Factors affecting
enzyme activity.
clerlvation-
Michac,,l_is _ mentic;,n constant (<rn) and l_ts
-l-rosr-eric a:nzymes. rJnzyrnes inhi_biti.:n an<l
types.I!:1ecfmembersofB-vitamins]SCoenzymCs.
PR,.c-lic.,Ls
l.
General qualitative
acidq an,,; prcteins,
c,f
l-r,r reactir)rls
f ,:_,r c arbohycir:tes, .rminc
:-^croleitr test f:rr f rts.
BL-)uDdouin , S
test for sesame ol1 in DalC-r (test for edulter:ticn cf genuine
ghee ) .
-,tr
2.
3,
4
.
vuantit.ftive
determin.rtj-on rf recucing sugars from a pl:nt
tissue t ')Y 3ny suitabl3 metl --rr'lgxtracticn anrl estimation ,.-tt st-Lrch by Pucherrs rnethud.
Extr-rctlcn and esti-m:ti:-:n :f solubie .:mino aei.ls (tct:.1i
by ninhydrin methcd...
5.
Estim:tion cf protein by Biuret meth'.;t] end by LcwrY et.:1.
methcC (r'olin uiocaltc.y rc-gent) .
6.
Extr:ction
tissues.
7.
end cleterminaticn ,-.f ,rmy-llse acti-vity
frcm plent
and amgtlase PII optimum cjetermlnatir;o.
Infl-uence cf enzyme concentr:.tion,
.)n enzyme activity.
centretiln
Km
time rnri substrate crnvafue ceterminatl:n
clouble reciprocal plot (Lineweever Burk mcthr:C).
A- Flst.lm:ticn of RN,:\ i.nc-l DN,^ by cc>forimetric meth:c'ls
by
orcinel
3nd c1j-phenyl eminc methc.cls.
9.
'
Estimrtion cf lnorganic phosphrte by the Fiske-Subb-rrao
methocl.
10. Estlmc.tion :;f tc+--rl tj-trable
:cirlity
in pl:nt
ti-ssues.
REFEi<ENCES:
fest =]co,s - Theorv
1.
Biochemistry 3 by ,\.L. Lehrningcr.
2nct
and 3rd ecliti,lns.
r/lorth
publications, New York.
2. rext bcok of biochemistryi tsy E.q . Wsstl w.R. rocc, N.s.
Manscn ancl J.T. Van Bruggen. I"lscmiLlon company.
3.
Prlnclples
of Biochemistrys by r'". lVhiter !. Nancllerl R.L. Hill
and I.R- Lehman. McGraw Hill
_
Additional
Botk
Company.
Books:
1.
Outlines of Siochernistry 3 by E.E. Conn anrl P.K. Stumpf .
2.
Plant Bioehemistry : Ed J. Bonner and J.E. V:rnerPress Publication.
3.
Enzymes : by M. Dixon and E.C. Webb. Longhann publicstions.
4.
Intermediary ineteboiism .rnci its regulatj-on:
Prentice Hall Inc. New Jersy-
ircademic
by J. Lerner
t
^\
-15
5.
-the bi-cchemistry r>f
-
Pl-:nts
I ccmprehensive treatise.
Eclitec.,-y :).^(. stam.pf .rnd .J.r-. conn (a11 v-]umes ) iricaclemj-c
Press.
Jrfurnal-s rnd
1.
2.
Annual
Revi-ews
cf Biochemis+-ry
.'innurl- Review of Plent physirtlogy
R.evi-ew
4.
( .l. ,u.rn -r l_ )
ogy
tlournal rf pl-ant phys iolcgy (,;ourn-r1)
5.
Phyt,cchemistry (.lournal_
6.
P1:nt.r
.
3
7
-
Pl-
ln
?hys
t i:hys
i
o1
( Jrrurnal )
-tclogic e plant-irum
,IEST BOOKS
)
(Journal-
)
+ i)R,CTIC,iLS
1- H:wk's Physiolc..rgic.:1 uhemistry : by D.L. os=-r, McGraw HilI
Puh.
2.
r.n intrcduction to prectic;1 Bi:ohemistry : by D.'. plumer
3.
Flill_ pub.
Labor:tlry I'I.rnu-l1 i-n tsir;chemistry :'by J. Jey:rrem. wiley
Eastern Ltd. Delhi, . B t lcre, 3:-,mbryr Cef o.rtta.
MeGraw
Bf
OTjHYS
ICS
Thecrv
1. ,,toms and molecules
struoture - energy level_s .lnd orbitaJs;
Electron trensi_tions, prlarlty of mcl-ecu1es, Dynamde concept
of u-qui-librium.
2, Buf fers : thei-r " functicns in bi.rrcgieal systems i uses of
,i
buffers in biolcgi-caI rese:.rch. Derlvetlon of Henderson
Hasselbalch equeticn.
3.
4.
Chromatography
e'lectrcphorcsis : Prlnclples and technique.
Basic ccncept of light energy. photometry: colorimetry aod
spectrcphctometry; thej-r f,ppl j-c:tion ln bicl_o gicallbLcchemics]
research
ancJ.
--:a
,\r,
5.
Principles
Centrlf lg3ticn:
1nc1
technique {nd the j-r appIl-
c.:t irn in biol,';gy
6.
J
.
Mj-cn.,sccpy : Prlnciples
wiLh refL-rence to 1ight, pclarizing
phase contrast :.nc-l efectrr,n micri;scop!. X-ray Clffeactlcn.
Free energ)' -rnd entrophy; high energy
B j-oenergetics:
phosphorylated
compouncls
i synthes is of ,:\TP.
Ph<>sphagens,
8.
Itadiobiology" tsrief -rccount cf its .rpplicrticn
in blology.
9.
fmmunochemistry: technj-que- :nt-r its lppliceti-cn
in research.
10. Cryobicl Dgy. Freeze <irylng (lyophillzation
) its applicatir:n.
PR.,C-lICi.LS
I
1. Preoar-rtion .,f buf fers an,--i me(lsurement .,f PH - pH meter.
2. P.:.per chromatcgraphy cf sugars separation :>f sug3rs rnC
i,leritif ic:.rti-on,
3. Thin layer chromatogr.rphy - amino acj-d mixtures.
4. ,'Jcsr,rption spect--rd c;f chtbri-rphyl1s and s3rr-r lgp3ids; estimsticn of ch1::rophyJ-i a .enC p. in l-eeves.
5. Separ:ticn of subcel-lular particles -by differential centrifugation. Density gr:dient centrifugstion j-n sucr.se.
grad ients .
6.
Determination of iscel-ectric
PH-
|
REFERENCES
1.
Physlc-r1 Bicchemistry : by D. Fr,,..,ifc1der. Pub. V[.H. Freeman
ocmpany, Ssn Fr:nsisco (1916).
2.
Bi'.:phys
ics : by
3- 'Biophysics
D- C.
S. lvhite
.
c,xcepts and rnechinics: by 8.,J. Casey. pub.
Van Nostrancl Reinh,ol-cl Company.
:38-.d_iiticn ll Refe.rences
:
1- tsiophyslcs : Ell ri.rltr:r Hc:ppe (rgg: ) irub. Dpri-nger vsrf 19.
2- optic r1 meth:-,cls in Bio],.:gy by E.i"I. 51:yter (lgZO) pub.
Wiley Intersciences.
'
3.
itrcii-:ti_,;n tr:cer
methr;dcl:,9y in g1a_rphysicel science:
by C.H. Wong and D.L. Wi1lis (fgCS) prentj_ee Hill Rub,
4.
Cryobiolcgy Ed. by H,T, Merrymen (
5-
Techrnigues of ,rutcr.lclicgrrphy:
Elsevie-r i.,ub.
,.clctemic press.
)
by d.w. iiegers (1969)
C.;mp.rny.
BTOI,,IEIii.Y
1.
Numerieal clistributicn
2.
Measure of lr_,c.rtii.,n.
-
3
:n.l thr.ir graphic.:,I representation.
i'leesures of veri,-lti.rn r3.nge .rnrl creviati..;n, st:nql "rcl
rlevi_ati,-;n .:nci st_rncl.lrc] err.r.
4.
Frequency trble,
5-
Popurrtj-on arcr sampllng paireci
n;rm:I,
bln:mlaL:nd
:n<1
polsscn distrlbutic,n.
unpaired tests enc
chlsqu.trr test-s.
6.
7
.
8.
Design .-:f experiments, rrnd:misecl
factorisl.
elys is
f vlri -lncL> .
lheories ,,,f .prob-rbllities,
,1rr
bl_r_,cks
_ L.itin Square
and
o
cOrre I:r_i_on inc regressi<:n.
9-
Link:ge :nd Link:rge .rnelysi-s in i-iipI..,id ,rrglnisms.
10. ietracl an.-r1ys is tc; stu,:jy inciepenclent assortment :nC
' .,
linkage an:lysis
in heploiri
r--rgianism.
i)i...,CIIC.TLS
Practic,rl
skil_ls tc s..ve :nrl w,JrK i_:ut pr;blems in Biometry.
REEEKEN€86:
1.
Stetistical
meth,:;cls
,uf .igricultur.il-
w::rkers I.C.:r..R. panse
&
Sukhetme.
2.
Measurement .f
3-
fntroclucticn
4.
.rrineiples
to
link:ge
in hericlity,
Gu=ne-ti-cs
Mr.thcr.
st:tistics,
procedurcs :rf stltistics
to the Biclogic,rl Science
enc)
Kempthorne.
with .spcci,rI r,3frlrcnce
-39-
'4. r)ri-nc-p1es ,rncl pr,-cedures of st.:l'tistics with special reference
tc the 3iologicrl Sciencer Stee.I itGD & .['lrrie J;H.
iVI.SC. IN i)L.^N1' SCIENCES
SEMESI-'ER.
IV :'COUiISE VIII
FIJOV,lEii.IIitrG
; Si,:,CI,''LIS,'TION
SUtsJECT
?L,,'NL' SYS i81"r.'-tICS .
Ther-iry
. ir Det.rile<1 anrl critical study of the conceptual oevelopment of biolcgical cl.assif icati-,:n 'Ihecrj-es :f classif icstlon
cf .-;rg.-nisrns
2. Evclution rry tlxonomy - problems rn,i prcspe8ts.
I
r critictl an-rlysis.
Species problem in bi:Iogy
4. Chrr:cter vrriatii;n, :il.rpt:tii:,n, reprocluctive isol:tion .-rnc
speci,ticn - bir-:diversity anci their import,rncc=.
5. Cl:ssicel snd experlment:I (biosystemirtic) app"r,rach tc
f
:
tsxoncmy r critical
6.
7.
sturly
stucles in Inr,ri-r - .r brief outli-ne.
Fl-oras, revisicn :rnrl M,lnogr.rphs'
Taxonomic lite.rsture
Floristic
PIL.CTIC,1i,S
1.
Excerclses on preparaticn of .rnalytic:I Cescriptlons of
a
cf 25 lcca1 p}:rnts using t.:xonomic termj-nologyi
uxcercises on preparetj.on of sync;ptic encl :nrlytieal keys
Excerci-ses on prepareticn .rf botenical illustrrtlons.
minimum
2.
3-
-tr
a
-F
a
fi-EFEii-E1'iCES:
1. Davls, P.H. & Heyw,)odr V.H. 1953. Princ1.ples of .^n9€icsperm
I.l.x,in()my, New York.
2. Heywoocl, V.H.
(Eri.
) 1958. i,I)Cc.rn meth.-cls in plant
t.:.xoncmy,
Lonclcn.
3. Heywoocl, V,H. & D,M. I{o,rre (er1s. ) lgg+. Current concepts
in p}:nt -D:xonomy, Lon.lon.
4. Burkl1L, I.H. L955. Chlpter in thc history 'rf Bi>tany in Indio,
De1hl.
5. Strc.et FI.E. (ea. ) 1978. Essays ln pl-ant ,raxonomy, Lcnclon.
6 . Vl,gel, E. !-. (tr,". I 798'7. M-irru;11 lf Herbar j-um Tixc,rncfry,
j rk erta .
't
. Hes1,:p Herriscn, J. 1958. i{ew c,-)ncepts in fl-r-,wering plrnt
t.rx-rnomy, Ncw Delh1.
8. Jeffrey, C. 7968. ,,o intre,clucticn to pl.rnt t-r.xr,n,orr1y, Lonclon.
9. crcnquist -', 1981. .,n 1p1';.gr-rtec system -,f classific-ition
r:f f l cwering pl -rn ts, Ncw y;rl<.
LO. r(ubitskl, K. (pO. ) L977. irl-:werlng p1:nts:r Evol-uticn 3nd
clessific.rti,'-n of Hiqher u_rteg:ric-s, Wien.
11' Ruriford ,\.8. 1986. run<,1 :.m:nta1s r''f irl-:nt system:tics.
New Yc,rk.
12. Stuessy, T. F. 1990. 'plr.nt T':x.nomy, New ycrk.
13. Sivar.ej.:n. V.V. 1gg1, Introductj-cn t,) principles of Pl,-:nt
tlxoncmy, Crmbridge & Dclhl (f f ,:;ditlq:n)
74. L,rtest Intern.r.tic:n:1 Ccrle )f. tsotenical Nomenclature.
\
v
i'ER IV
SE}IdS
I,1.SC. (SEUEStrlir rN i)L.,NT SCrrri.ices)
COUi{SE
VII
SPECI.iLIZ,^i'IOI{
SUBJOCT
.PTEiTIjJOLOGY
Theory
1.
of f:>rms among pteridophytes : Club mosses, qui1l
wortsr rflr.)sgpito ferns, m .on worts, filmy ferns, Braqken
ferns, ,3irclrs nest ferns, Maiden hair ferns lnLl tree ferns
Dlversity
qener:I morphclc:gy anr1 ec,:J-ogy, with specitr1 rcference to
2.
Scuth Inclian species
Classificaticn
,>f pte-rlclophytes - brj-ef hlstory,' ChrlstenSellr
Ccpel:ncJ, Chi-ng, llc1ttum, P j-chi-Sermo1li. CcmP erison
cf classif icati,'rns
3.
r
!'cssil- ptericiophytes
Ps
-lcphytalesr
lrepidcdendr.:1esj
pleuromil.:Ies, C3l.rmitale s, Sphen')phyll-el-cs rnd Primof ilic.rf es.
General mLrrpholcgy :nd ge.;1')gic ti-me1 l4sjor fossil ferns cf
fnills
4.
Sp3re msrphol<.-:gy df South fn,.,jian ptericlophytesr .iCetclySis
metLroci sp()re descrlpti,:,n ,-jnd mL-.lsurements. spcre marphc-
logy in ref:ti,.rn
5.
La fern t:lx')nrmy.
Soral-. evoluti-on irrlt)r1g pterirr;phytes i strobilus,
margin:J, anci superf ici,i1
sl-icle, sporlngirl
phyletic
s
rriT icr )stich.;iC sorl,
evcluticn,
tessels ,
sporocsFps
r'
Fhyletic swlng..
6. Heterospr>ry 3mong pteri<lcphytes; f':,ssiI ancl extant; -Development
of seed.
7
.
Ccntribution
by lndian pt.--ridolr'lgists:
,\brrhem anri Nlnan,
, Bir, SS, .'i. Devj-, anil S - K3ur.
B. Uytclcgy of pterj-clcphytes,' p,rlyplr>idy rncl naturrl hybridsr
I{ay-lr
B. K.
cytct.rxonomy of fs-rns.
_t,2-
9.
-nesis in Pteridrph tes,' studies or W-rrd1-rw rnd Steeves:
f :ctors cf spcre qermlnatJ-on -,nc'l proEh:l-L1,i1 c-leve1c,pment;
inCucti.-;n cf ,lpogrmy, cnthcri,ii:1 form-rti'-)n, incluction cf
sporr:phylls on int.rct pl rnts.
Morphog.
?IiL.CTIC;iLS:
1.
I"lcrphological and anatcmictf observ:tions
on: Isoetes,
Bctrychium, Azo11a, Mecoc'lium, Pteri-dum, \splenlum, .tdi-lntum
2.
and ^lscphi1e.
Habitrt stur.ry ,;I g:rmetophytes tn'.l spcrophytes of ; Lycopodi-um
Se1-rglne11a, Lthyrium. Schizof cm.--r, Gf eicheni:, Pyrrcs ia,
,ryniri:,
.'.ngii-.'pteris :nrl o rlvi-ni,l .
., Fiel-C study r!.port inly be submitted on this '-rbs'ervatlons.
3.
Fcsslls:
4.
,,-rDnuI:ifi.l, Cel::mitets ancl B.t,tropteris.
Study of spore germin:.tion inr-l prothalli:1
Lepidcclemdrt-:n, Lepldocrrpon, Lepiclc;phyIJ-oiclesl
Cevelr.:pment in
exenic culture cf:
..crostichum. Pteris,
Dryn:ri:.
Azoll- e.
REFER.ENCES:
-ndrews2 H.N. 1961. stu:-lies in Palebbotfnyr wieLy N.y.
2. , ,-fno1d C.,'. 7947. .'rrl in-rroducti,ln of p.:.1eobr-.,t:ny
1,
McGr:w Hifl,
3.
tsierhurst,
M:rcmi-f
D.r'.
N.Y.
1,97L. Mr:rph,:f,;9y,;f V,:scular PLants
lan,
4.
Bcwer F.o.
5.
Campbel1.H.D, 1939. Ilv:lutj-:n
L923-ZB. The ferns vol.I
Icmorrows. B,--:ck Pub1i. Nevr ,elhi.
rII
r'r.;day and
rtf Lrnc1 Plents, St.rnriercl
Uni. irress.
6.
7.
Dyer .-r.P. (nci. ) L9'79. I'he Expe-rimental Biol-,,rgy i,-f !'erns.
Eamnes ii.J.
1936. M,-;rphclogy :f Vrscular lrlants Lower Group.
'i
i;j
-'tJ-
8.
i. S. & Gif fr- rc-], E.Iv.
Foster,
7962. Compar tive- M''-'rphclogy
,:rf Vescul-rr Pl'ants, Freemln,
S
]n Frans j-ses '
rt
7962. M::rsi1e:, cslii I'1c-:nogr:ph, New j-relliri.
10. Holttuml R.E. 1968. Flor',,:f i'Ia1e.ya Vo. II. Ferns of i'Ia13'y3'
11. .l Reviser] Cf essificeti-r:n ,.'f lepti,spor:ngi rte ferns. J'
Linn. Soc. Bot" Vol' 53'
L2. Lumpkin, T.-'. & Plucknett. D-L. 1980. '\z':11r Botany Physio-
g.
Gupta, K.M.
use 3"s a gr'-ren manure, EC' Bct' Vc-:l' 34'
13. N,'ryar B.K. & S. Kaur. 7977. Companion to R.H. Beddomets
Ferhs of British Inr-.lil. Chronic.l Botanicl.
logy
-ind.
Gemetophytes lf
L4.
h(-;ITleSp'
rrcus ferns Bct' t(ev'
Vo1. 37.
Nay,er, B.i<. 1959. Meriicin 11 'erns of Inc--ri: EBG Bul1 No'
76. Pichi-SermrrlIi, ^. E.G. \977. ^ixc'n';my of ptericlophyte
gener: webbi r 31 Q) 3L3-512.
77. R.rshic r. Lg76r .,rI intrc..:uctj-on to Pteridrphyta Vikas
15.
29
Pub. Co. New lelhi.
1g. Dcctt. D.H. 1962. Stuclies cn Fossil Botany 2 Vclsi Hanner N.Y.
uambridge Unir Press '
19. Sewarcl i'r.C. 1917. Fossl-1 pI rnts 4 Vols.
10. Sprone, K.R. 7976. 'fhe Morphclogy cf Pteri-'3ophytes, HutchinsCn
Bcok Co. Lcn'ion
7956. Indian F;ssi1 PteridoPhytes' csff( monograph'
W-g1. (ecl. ) 1963. vist ls in B,rtenyr Perg rm()n Press,
2L. Surehge K-R.
22. 'I\rrri1,
Irondon.
23. Wllsonr C.L. 1953.
4ee i'elome Thecry Bot. Rev. VoI, 19'
4L7-437.
24. W,rrdlf ewr c-w. 1952. Phylogeny and M().rph,lgenesis'
Macmillion & Company.
25. irr'.rtanlbe I. 1977 - i,zc11i: Util-i='':ticn in rice culture
RRI News ]etter Vo. 2 '
I
-1.tSEMES Itr
M.SC. IN
COURSE
VII :
j.
IV
.L)L,..I\JT SCIEidCES
SPECT.,LIS.,TION
SUtsJ.ECT
I"IYCOLUGY
Theorv
1.
I{istc;ry :f mycc1o9y.
2.
Princj-p1es cf fungel tlx,')n--my, nomenclature cf fungi, taxonomic
crlteria,
ncmencl-rture cf pleomLrrphic fungl ani concepts cf
anrmorph te.lecmcrph tncl n,,,1,>m:rphs.
3,
Myxomycotin: :
.r.f
phology -lnc cievel:pment
mccli
4.
r.vith prct,:zoa, cl.rssificationr
finrtics
l1 incomp.rtibility,
..-.f
pf :smodi=r mating systemsr plas-
spcrul::- ra()n .
Mastigomycotin: : clif fere-nt typers :tf zr)ospores and t
mc)rphologly ind ultrestrr:cture,
flage1-.-i, chytri,iiares
cl-rssi-flettion,
rnor-
:e
or
types anc ultr.-rstructure
t- al1us structur-,
Ocmycetes - cel-l-well
af
repro<luction
.rn<i
chernistry, th=.lLus
morphorcgy, veEet,ative :rnrl sexu:1 reprcducti,.>n, clessificrtion.
5.
Zygomycctina : Mucoral-es - nurrltion.
physiclcgy, cell_-we1J
chemistry asexual,nr_l sexu,el l:L-prcducticn, phototropism
of spor.engiophores,'tefem,:rphic zyqotrcpic eni thigmotropic
reections, morphol.-.rgy ln,'l ul-trastructure,rf
spora.ngiosporesr
Entomophthroral-es : gc-neral :cc,'runt,'Irichomycetes:
a general tccount.
6.
.\scomycotina : heterr:karyosis,
somati-c nuc.l-e er divis ion.
m
recombin.ltl-r,rn, nuolear migretion,
:ting beh.rviour, types af
develcpment of ,:sci and 3sc(fpores, ultrastructure
:.sccspore ilisch:rge, types ,:f ?sc()c.rrps rrncl their
as
ci,
of asccsiJores,
development xf :*B* xNdr recent trends in the cl.:ssificatlon
qf 3.scomycetes, urLrestructure cf saccharomycese ultra-
structurc- cf h,rustorir-rm, of rlrysipher gencr3] lceounts of
Heml-
fs comycetes , Irccul oes c omycetes, Plectcmycetes , Laboulbenlc-
myeetes.
tl
.^
T,r-1rrrr i,:l-irr,r,,
.l'., irli
''
'CJ.rrlus., 'lntlnrcphtiri.'r:r,
'L'. rrr\r'
Er.i j -ll'=,
-1,
Gylrinr'-'
'rscus, Sbr,rfar{':,
thaet
,
, i..r!
" Ctrrriyceps, Ge,.,rg1osSilm, RhytiSma,
-,scobofus / Tuber, Coprinus ; ii-iSroclbe, M.lr,rsmius, Entcl-rila,
Lentinus, Pleurot-us, -Bolet-rrs. Pcrlypr)rus , micr.Jp.Jrus, Phel-Iinusr.
DeICinia,
Hy.cCXyl,fn, ileCiri
-
Trernetes , schirzophytir:rn-' lii;1t""n, l'l'lm.:Lri l,
b,t.s
j
C
igm,
;rr-rl-
j-cul eri:2 rilli -i,r:rri..rsel'phf,, 'IiIletia,
Sp,rrr.lbo1.1)rrryces,
,ilrJ-elti-tCr
-reme11:, "eptoUa",iy"u"
Gectrichtrut, Cj-i'lium.. ,^ureobas iCi-urh, 'IhleJ-.rviops is,
erma, eladoSporiurn-.
CyJ, j-rr.! r,-,c
I;clium, .-rthr,.lbotrys,
HClirrirrFlr,,sp.rrJrrirr, P;rj,:rrl r-:.::,, S1--il,b, lrrr, Grapkrirrm, PhOntOpSiS,
,' rl'l --,.t-,rt-r j.-1rir.fh-
l-.. 'l rLi-;n of f,urgl. fr';,* s-_.ii s.mples :nC rhj,csphere.
3. S+.I .:cti-.ze- j-sol.ation cf fr.:..tgi f ri-,m Sci1.
4. Obsr..r'y3;i6ry-, cf phyl1cp1:i-lr. fungi
.)
observ.etlon af spore gerrrirr'l--i,,ri by tranging crop sl-icles
lncl sl_icle cu1ture.
tr
6.
;'^j_r s
r',p1ing for fungi_
i(EF!]i.ENCES:
r'^inswcrt-h, 6-c. et. .:L. (ecs - ) nas--lgl3.
Treatise.
Vcl_s l-4-
The fungir zin advanced
.,,i.ldemic press.
!\1exc-'pcrrl-cse c-J. & i4ims I c.v;. 1985- Intrcductcry
Mycclogy. Witey.
De.:con, J- i^I- 1988. Introcuc tion t': mode.rn mycology. ,31-ackwe11.
Mcore*Lini-Leker, E. 1990. Funcementals of
fungi. prentice Ha1l.
I
webster J. 1980- Intr<;ciucticn to fungi. cambridge uni. press,
Burnett' H.H- L976. Punclement,els cf l,lycoli>gy E.,irnold.
Bccth. C' L977- Methoc-ls j-n i.1:-c::obiology Vo.4 r'iea6emic press.
JOURN,TLS:
l
Mycolcgical I(esearch
Mycolcgi:
Ihe Mycc1ogist .Kavaka
SE]4ES
IJi.
Ui(Si, V- - : sljeqilll-lz'ilr'llt.-
fV
-'lrJil
MOi1PHOGENESIS',ii'iD
TISSUE
CU],,TUi1E
-j,-,fy
lc ci-,neepts, signif ic.rnee ]nij
PIant
ncepts :tn sh';c't 3n': T'')aL -'pitaf
c
vi:'rirus
of
Ev:Iu-rtion
orglnlzsti(lnsofhignerpl:'nt-srn'iexperiment:Iapprcscnes
tc relatecl Prc-'b1ems '
r.Iorp}rofiLnes i S
:
bas
plil}. 1.-,,,q r,-l atnr.r t'') v i.'Ul.l]
grcwth in
P1
ir-
j s.'l-'i.Jl,
illrl
primary
Scope.
..lnc Sec,')ndary
tnts '
}4rrpirogerrtjcpr,,lblernsrel:lte.3.tr:trensiticnfromvegetatlve
p1:nts; mospLtogenesis of
.l-'''wering
f
in
pil-"st:
to
,repr':<Juctivc:
rui--s
seeds
'
PIent tissue culture:
f
;;DC1
basic cr-''ncepts rnc techniques'
of callus'
methr'-rcls of prccLuctl;n' types
Callus cufture;
product-. n of sec'Jnr-ilry me+- -c-rlism'
organcgenesismertstem-shc:.;t/::i--cttipcultures,anther
culturerovary/cwulecultur-e'rhizt>genesis'cal-logenesls'
. Plant protopl-rsts 'rnd som:-rt.ic hybridization'
lnr't f ieI'::' trensfer'
. rtco+-- lnduction acclam'rtiz:t'-on
c'f diserse free plants'
3. Micrcpropagltion,' pr'-rllucti:n
scm-r-
c}onalv.rriability,procuctlcnr,fseconcerymetabclities,
of seeds
scmatic embry:genesis' enclpsulrtion
org3ns '
crycpreservati-on cf cel-1s ' -'is su'3s rn.1
1.
grc-'wth and Cevelcpment of
on
regul'etcrs
RoIe
cf
Srowth
2.
culturad celJs
3.Geneticengineeringinpl..-nts;conceptstechniquesancscope.
tsF*,CTICi.LS
-Plent tissue culture technigue'
I
-48. itiiFEirEIrICii
1.
S
Evan5 z\.D., Sharp, lrJ.i{..,.mirttc,
ir!V. enU tr'lmlcll, Y. (1983)
ce1l cul,ture techniques f:;c, pr i[>:geti'x
of plrnt
i:reecllng Vo1. I & 1I-
Hancl bc,.,k
inc-r
2.
ileinort,
J & Yeom.:rn,
MM ,r1
r I-rb
tnt Ce11 ,tnd ti-ssue cultur--
lll.:tIlU,l1.
3.
Gc.)rge E.t'. rnc", Sherrj.ntr'rv, .).D. (1984) r'l-fnt pr.)pjg it.ii)n
by tissue eulture..
4.
5
.
Bil.-rj Y.iJ.S. & "'einert, J. (1977) .
,-1sp{:cts of plant cel1, tissur}7 :nil
3h,-rgvl.rml S.
S.
.ti-r(-r'
iiazdan i{.K.
(
,.pp1iet'. rnd fun,J rmcnt:f
r-'rg,1p,
tggl ) .
Pl-
culture.
ent tissur-' euf ture
ry :rnd Prectice.
Dc,,--itis J.H, (1985). iixperinri:rts i-n plut
ti-ssue culture'.
Briz i'i. ireinh:rd, E. & Sienk, M.H, (1970) i)lant ti-ssue eulture
fhe.-
6.
7.
Lnc-'
its
bi-:-.,technr-,1
-,gic.:1 -Ftrf ic.;tions
.
SEivlESTbtt IV
COUTTSE
VII
: SPECI,.I.TIS..IIUN :
WOOD SCIEI{CO
The -.ry
cf wocr-i anatcmy. Hist:ry of wci-.<i :natomlr in Incl.i;r.
iiefev:nce r-f wrlor.l anrtcmic:l- studies in Kercl.: cl',ntent.
2. C,rmbium - Origi-nr n:ture, eonstituents, abn,-.rinll :ctivities,
f .ct'>rs , ef fecting u.ernbi :1 -rbil- ity.
3!',/,-,',ir ; h:rmogeneous ind hetercgene')us, sprlng & summcr, e.irly
1.
4.
5
.
Scr.'pc
3ni-r n rte,
,parous lnrl D,)D-I)r.;r(--,ltSr hg-:ft
Ircp..;r.+-ent
timber brees cf r(:rl1 r.,/'
Grlss f :atures growth ring,
c.-,1,-:ur, hestrel
311ouF1
,
le.xtri'se, gr llnr h.rrdness,
trsl-e, fi-gure.
specif ie grrvlty,
6.
')hys
7.
electrj-c r1 enC ti-,rm 11 pr)pril tics .
Mlnute structural fe:tures: p:,,res, Lrrcheids,
icrl
f e.-rtures
: hreight,
rlens
r.]ys l w,)r)ci p,:renchynar rlpple
gums.
I
w,f(-,C ancl S.:pw,-,.rt-i.
ity,
f ibrcs,
sLrength,
vessels,
m.jrKS, resin, UnCiI:g-- c rn:.1s,
49a
9.
Keys fr)r w,rod iilentific]ti]n.
ucfects in woci-ls I ittcts, c,)mpre ssic-,n 3nr1 tenslon. r,u. )t.),
cr')s s gr:in, ripples wrt,_.r, Sh rkes, fungrl rtE.rcks, :cti';n
inje'cts, borery etc.
10.
Seosoning ,lnC preserv.etj.:_,n
1_L,
!'1,:cr1
.)i-.CTIC,
1
-
Ftr,)clucts :
l>rimary
r
rnc.l secc,nd,rry prc-:ciucts.
^LS
r)rlctice
r.;f taking r'. D. , T.1,. s. &
r(.
L. s. .-rf wcr.;cJy st:-ms ,;f
the f ,;1I.::wlng.
i-'inus,
Cupr.]
ssus, .,g:this,
Ephe.r.li
rr'
Tc=ct.)n-], Ce11re11r, D11l-eni',-Xy1i.rr
2.
Gne
tum. Micheli ; .. D:l,berg
-rZ,--i(lir.rcht.i, Gi-nelin...,
submissi,;n
,.>f,,
their slides.
(b) .'{rcer,:ti:;n techni-qu.;sr. slicre preprr.rtions
'tf
.
-i,
vatic -r. H.lntl sections, . s1.;c1ge & Mici,,torne secti:,rns i
(r) D-rubIe st-rining t.echniq-,es rif the :br:ve menti:->nc,-l scctj-cns
'-rnr-r
3
j-
cl
1
eta
cc,mputrtic,n
r
ntif j-c:tion r",f wr:rtrl beser^, ,)n micri:sccpic f e etur+s m rking
use :f the rbove sections. Ilrrwing c;frTr€rl. - lucicl= i:-rgrim,
Tlle
i-.'
-tncl
trbul-atlng
11.1-
i;ther fe-ttures rel.rter.l t) esch :t thc
lb -,ve spec j_es.
4
- r'leth ,,ls ?f t-iking clnt;r thc phys,ic.il fcatures of w_ .-,<i :
(:c-nsity, specific gravity, ,weightr ntil-h.,lcling c-ip reity,
st etic bendlng, Implet, b-=n<i ing, eompress ion .:ara11e I ti;
5.
Submissi<.,n ,;i a set of Xyl l.iiums specimen cf 20
w.--,r
be1'--nJing tc hcmcxylcus, hct,::r.rxylcns rncl any lther
w,:c:c) spcaeimens
spec.lm.-.ns
I.L.S.
with key f,_;r their irlentificatiSn,
should hrve sup1,r;rting slidesr
I
g
ls .
s--rrnples
type ,.f
rhc
with their T.S.,
i(.L-S.
!
/
s-
./
-: tl-
6. ?rep.rrltion -rf KeY f:r.r w':l, ,-l irlentif
i-c
:rti.
n.
ItEFEitE}JCE:
1'
2
.
fn''1i:n
r-llnt
' K""
, tn-1lr)ITl}r K. Es :u
L'j'-;'-161
5
Ch,.>rvdhurj
Ec1
tnci
S.
S. Ghosh
VL;l
.
1.5
I
L
3.
i>I rnt ,.nlt2my -. ,.. Fehu
4.
Pr-rctical
5-
Ctrmp3r:rtivc. Plant
6.
Jch.rnscn D.,'\.
Plent ,in,rtomy - ,.r t
oS tc-
.l.n-ltomy
C-:
f
rlcru is
t
mic rctechnlque.
Pllnt
- fV
SCIENCES : COURSII VII.
SEI,IESTJ]i1
M.SC. ON PLr'rN'I
SPECIT-^I-,I2.'TION SUBJECT
S-ED
.TECHNOLOGY
Iheiry
1.
rntrcrlucti'on
their
2.
: History of see.l technclogy enc seed Testlng,
de-zelopment j-n rnfli.r ,r-nci lmpcrt,:.nee tf agrj-culture
Seerl testing
prccedures: Objectivesl
1i.;ns anc] reccmmend rtions,
ment intensity
s
rnd strr:qe
anllysi-s genetic purity
IST,.. iiules
Prescrlpt-
:mpling -type cf s _imp1es, equipi)hysicel purlty .:nd
s:er:L purity
anil cie=t-rmlniti,--,n- (t:bcrat:ry
an-i
gr:wing on t,rsts) seen Moj_sture content rnd :ff:cts,
methods
tc determlne me-lsture ccntent,' sccd gepm$nition - vi:rbj-lity
rnd germlnaticn testsr
sec-dling evaluati,>n:
See-cl
and seeflling
viguous.
3.
i>hysiclogy anci seecl/gr,rin r-levellpment - growth patterns
slgmoid :nc c]ouble sigmoid growth curves - ph.rses of growth
role r:f peric3rps (Hutl) seed coats ancl flag reaf in seed/
grain devel,:pment. Bicsyntht's is ,-rf pr:teins,
liplds ItN;r Curj_ng seed grain dcvelcpment-
carbohyclr,rtes,
.
,
-E=
i
-Jl-
4.
M:rph':Icrgy and ,:'nltrrnY of seerl: iix'fm()rphic ch.tr.rcter, Gross
lnte ::n ,I rn.,rpiri;1lEy, (-lcvei;pii^rent rnc; structure )f seed coat
in fl:r.iIt grcups of -rngi<-rsperms, class if ic atiOn ;>f Sec'ClS on
:nc] structure c.f se;d
S e.:d c,:.r€ char..rc ccrs , ir-1enti f ic-rtirrn
,,,f seet.l of imp.r1';at 1 f relr; cr.-)lfs
5.
Seer-l
irrc,juctir;n:
crcss*polinated
Principles,
Lnr-"
their
seer-l
s.
Seeil pr':c-lucti':n in self pollinated
ancl vegc,taive 1y prcp:ig:rted cr'lss, hybrids
secd.srpr,,<)uction, mej-nt:nanCe of inbrecL l-ines :ni br.eflers
seeds, germ pl.rsrn b.rnks lie sp-]n of verieties ancl factors
sep:r.rntion,
ieteriureticn.'l.1rvesting
cJ-eaning and upgrending :-,f. seej inclucing the equJ-pment used'
,incl meth:-,clS of s,,ife seed stc-rsge
S+-r=rl stor-rge: Principles
respc;DSible for their
6-
types i;f storsge structures,
Iife
:ffects
seecl f lct,.;rs effc-cting storage
cf stttrrge environmenbs on seetl lcngizity
in stor:ge .rncl its control.
i:hysiclogy .:ncl bicrchemistry of seccl germineticnr'
mlbill-z:tion
m.ri.iur:.t:-on fc,-,cJ reserves, inhibitic'n,
seed
cleterloreticn
7..
:lBX.ET:c
Seed
cf fo':d
revefseS, germln,rti-:-;n andl groWth f eCt,:,rS affeCting
g<=rminati:",n.
B.
Jhysir-;logy of seecl germineticn'
/rim:.ry/e t'rly biochemicel
"i:p':;'r:nce an' rc>Ie of pr':teases'
amylases anfl liprses in hy-rr':lysing str-'re:l fccd m.rteriala
in stcregc orgJns. Mobilis.rti.rn ,-'f hyclrolyseci prcllucts to
events c'f' germinlti:ln'
the grcwi-ng embrycn:1 :xls/sceiil-ing.
B.
SeeC dorm.rncy rn.,1 lcngevi-.y: Dr,rmrncy - signifiCdnce,
ty.-res.'
control durmancy lnd refc:se lf cl')rmrlrcy'
tife span r;f scetl, f =ctors :ffecting longe.Lcngevity
virry, biochemica]- r]Ild Cytollgicr} affects cf J-<-.ngivity.
lievelopment rtf seed certifiDeflnitions'
9. SeeC certificltion:
c:ti,;nCOncept.mlnimumseciccrtific.rtii-lns|-:nc]:.rr.]s
gener]landspecificcr,)pstrnirerclificlr]ins;-)ectlon,
fS,I..^
certif icetes.
)
.A
I
\..
\r
t'
JL_
(fgOe) r'vith
10. Thc seed rct ,rf India (1966) --tn<'l seed iiul-es
-'f ihe -''ct'
,llnendments i milit:ti';ns
11. I{,ttional seeds prcgr.l.mme, nitl:,na1 seed ci-rporeti'n, seed
intlustry in Intlie, "gencius responslb]e f';t rchleving si:lf
end supply of quality
reli.:nce in pro4,cti.n
Se€rll (S"ntc-
corporation Infl j-a, stef secc-'l s cr)rporaticn, id: ti'-''n -rlseccl L,evel,:prnent c,,uncif , Centrll sL-eC Committee) '
12. ';u.jrontine fcr seed3 Hi-s'E'.)ry rnrl impr>rt''rnce' Principles :f
gu.rrentine regulatiJns, qu:r-rntine regul:tii-;ns cn( the ir
f ,erms
:i-r!rlic ttion.
:f permiss ible toIer,-.rt.-'-s, ;jhytcpl,nt qulr'antine in India'
implic.rti:'is
s-rnit-rry certrficates
?K.^CTIC..LS
using mech:nj-ca1 see.l divicer.
Detcrmi-n-ition :f PhYsical the purity cf seed s3mplc in s.imPfes
i)rcp ir-rri-on of wlr:klng
f.
2.
s,;lloi- -e:
,rf 5 fielcl cr.Jps.
3.
Comp-,siti:-.rn cf pure crr)p Sc-:r-l rf sample'
4.
Mr--,isture content uf seed using even :ncl ilny other meth::il
5.
Vrability
,:f seed thr::ugh gcrminaticn, biochemic-il sni ex-
ci-se,J embryo methods.
Percent germlnirtic;n of cr,'Jp seE:ds using L;lcoretcry tneth-;r;s:
(i) Iop of p.iper (ii ) betwoen pepe r (lii) role t:'+eL mcch >ci
6.
anc,r
(iv) p<>t method.
rvaluation of seedlings ln th-. eb,-',ve germineticn tes Ls.
B. Determlnati,x ,-,f herd encl freshr ungermlnatec seeds in -]
suic.ible seeci samplc.
9. Dctc-.ctic:n of dorm::.ncY -rnd meth:ds t:; ,vercc:me the s-ime.
'i.
I
10.
Exc-.rnc, enccmprphlc features of seeds '.)f representetlve
cr(lps anci their weeos.
11
.
Iil r-.nti f ication
of
c:).Irutl'
:l
seed mrnnifs, seed etlrs
s.-
it-is us ing seed ph'otcgr:phs
.\
_i_
-"/
1,2. Detectrng of myccflora
cr,-.
stored seed semples by
StAT/pD;,
t
I
t
methc C.
13" Symptcm, lcss in seerl viebility
Scr=;r:-l
anc,. seer1.
vigour in st'--:reil
s.:mples .
74" Detection of efletexin
cont.rmi-n:ticn i-n st:red se.i,-i s,:rnplt:
by UV fl-uorescence 1ight.
15" Dctermination cf latering
c::ntents 1n effected sc.r(. l-: ts
by 1:hin layer chromatogr-iphy.
16.
C:rrnjl:riscn of seerl 1e-ichtt.-.s frcm ncrmal ,rnd infect-ecr sc',C
l- > ':s
1,7
" Visits t': r-llf f erent seeo prorlucti.:n f i-e1,'-is, seed te :;ting,
-st.ition, seed in,lustriesT seei.'stirage, NSC, SSc, Xllxit
Qu,rr.:n t in g cent::...; s .
iB,. Demi,.nstr--ttiirn c-tf ISTA :ncl Phyti-.,s.lnit.rry certif icatc's.
I).
Qurlitative
2).
rf s€sr(f s .
Determinati-r-.'n .,rf enzymatic :ctj-vity
21.
Secc-l
ccns
inr-i quantit-rtlv.,
rleterminatl'on :,f chemic-rl-
tituents
,adulterentsr identif i-c:ti;n
,->f --r<lulterents
ir-iring germin.:ti:,n.
of :Culterents,
''-:f
f ect-s
cn the fo,-'r1 vrlue-
i.iEI.El.ENCES
B-,rton
Seec-l
preservatlon
Bawley, J.D. & tsI1nk M.
:nc-l
1c-.,ngevity. 1951.
Physj-ologY :nc] biochc'mistry ' f sec ''s
in rel--:ti-,:n tc germlnatii-,n r,/cl. Ir'II
1983. Spr;-r,gur
Verl rgr Berl_ln
Bawel:y, J.D . & Bl-:ck 14; See<Ls
"hys
i:Iogy,
Dept
- rnc
gc
rmin -; tl';n
1985.. P1emum Press, New ,'ork.
Bewman
i'. Deppt.cfi:vule -rnd seed ccat structure
a'CClay tnfl 'Iomorrow, Delhi 1-979
Bry,rnt J.i'^. SeeC physiology,
1n ,'gii-'spcrns,
19d5, Edwarcl ,"rrlo -c]1 Lonc':n.
,
a
'
;
Yi
' td.f
*
{,
-5+-
.-
I
',J
.l
D.:nscc-nt J. Seed' Protelns,
Mcos: J'
! ;
Vanihm &-
194
3. -,clr1- ?ress-
itrew
York.
EC-
Fenner M- SeeC EcologY - 1985, CLraPm:n & Hill
Kozlowskl Sec=d BioIl:gY - 79'72, -!cld - Press. New Ycrk'
M:yb,-rr ''. Gt-:rminlti)n of seeds'' 1989
ltrybr. .,-r.M. & PoIj akc;ff
MacmllL":., Lontlcn'
L984'
Myrray, f).ri- Ed, seed Physiclcgy' VoI' I & II i''ctd. .rress'
(tr'.H) ea. Vj.ability cf seec's I972' Ch.rPm,tn & HaIl, London'
M.SC, IN PL,,IJT SCIENCBS'
COURSE
VII ! SPECIi.LIZi'TION
PI-r,iNL'.'TION BO'I.
SEMESTEi].
IV
SUBJECT
^NY
Import:nce of Plant-rtion crops in the ec.lnomy ''-f Ker'rla
'
1
st rtc.
Diagnosti-c fe:tures of the jrcp pIents Ilk:'z',r'=-c--Lnut'
'ltubberr' Ie-:k :nd
C:shew, Coc:) ir C'rccnut, Ccf f ee, Pepper,
1
other mejor sPice crops.
origin Dlstrlbutir;n, climatic anc si;11 requirements of the
.:bove crlPs.
3n d
4. Different vrrieties of the Cr'lps' Se'Iectl'on, Propag:tlon
3.
nurserY technigues.
5. Crop lmprovement progranrmes : Bree<1ing anc' Bibtechnology
6. Agrcnomtc prtctices such as: i:lanting teckrniques; mainten3nee
of plentations; manuri-ng -rncl cther operations'
7. Harvest j-nclex and post harvest technol':gies of the crcpr
8. Pest and <lisease men3gement'
9. Importance cf .tesearch ancr Devel-cpmental progrsmmes
and
marketlng.
tuggestecl Practical-s
1.
2.
:
Cttllectlon antl identificrticn cf the crop Plant sPeeimens.
L.rboratory tnvestigrtlons of the vegettti-ve :nC fl-creil
m.rrphoJ, ogY of the croP Plants.
,z-PL
-_) _ -
?
4.
Fruit rn.
I
mcrphototly _in._t germlnrtir.-n sturlies.
spe ciel techniques of prop-rg-:ti,:ns r-ike
buciding, graftlng
se_,e,j
lncl l ryering.
5.
Icrentif icati--rn of
pl.ints .
comm.rn
lii
pests ind iise..rses of the crcp
6.
ITEFET(ENCJ]S:
L' 'Chatt, E.M. f gSS. Cocoa Interscience .riub. Ltcl.
Lc'n.on.
2' Menonr. K.P-v & K.M. 1,969 !)an.lal-i. The
coconut palm 6 peyls-rgraph
fnclian Centrel Commlttee, -rn_tkul_rm.
3. T.C.A.R. 7969. - HanC. book ,_-:f ,:igrlculture,
New Delhi..
4. t>aulose. Tr?. :-g7Z. _ .;rec,j.nut & Spices .
.-i e.fow€fs Handbook.
Dlrectcrate
5.
of .,irecanut -rncl spices.
P.K. Natayen:n. 1.976 (ed. )
hubber lnct its cultivaticn.
.Rubber Boarcl.
6. Rec. E.V.V.B. & H.H. Kh-rn (er1) 1984. Cashew ]iese:rch
an<l
Development, (lrcc. Symp. C.rshew, Cr-,chin). fndian
Society
f or plcnt et j-r>n crops , i{as ,ir,agoc1 .
7-
Yhampan, p.
I,
Srlv:stava H.C.B. Slstry & K.K.C Men,on. 1986. _ pl-entation
crops . Vo1. I. Oxforcl . & New. De1hi.
1,9gLr _ Hrndb(.ok of coconut pa]m. Oxft_,rd &
IBH.
I{ew He1hi.
l1
JOUIIN,.LS:
J. Plant
Cr,->ps
C.esheri 8u11.
.',recrnut an,J spiees.
i
Fly UP