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Pl.rnt .- ============= issuliri.
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ui{-L;/.i:.,.ii =.y OI. Ci.Lr;iJI
(.:ibstract )
fmpl.rmc;ntatii:n of Schemc .:n,:i Syrl-;rbus t;f MSC Pl.rnt Sclance (Sem*ster
Course) with Sp+cialj_s.ari_ion wj-th effc,ct ti,lrn 1997 .rcimissi,.rn
t-lovrilr-c.s--
Sanctianc.' .- ordr.,'rs issuliri.
=============
G'JNERI\L AND
Giri
:_--======_
lic;iDEMrC]-/JSECTTON
r/JL/67 33i96 .
ilead:
lJ:rt;:d, C,3Iicut Univi:rsj.ty p.O. 13-B_9./.
..;
1. I'linutes .of meeting of Br:aru r;f Stuuies in Bct.rny(pc) h.:lrl
r g.t.
on 2B-L-t
93, 1g-22. Minutes uf meeting of Faculty of Science h.,.Id c.n 24-B-r)4
and
a
2?-10-t 95.
Minutes of rncetj-ng clf ,'icademic Council hclui .,n Z5-4-t g7 ,
ORDI:-rR
The l4i-..:ti,ng Boaril of Stu,Jie-q in B:,tanyipO) hl,I--r i.,p 2g-1-,93
ieclded tc intri:cuci: irll alternate ccurse iqsc. plant sci irci: (scr,r-;str:r
coursc) with speclalj-satj.on 1n arl:ritir-,n tc/.'*tuttifi6 nru" Bctany (onnuaC'-)urs,- ) totl:winq the Univcrsity Grlnts cr.,mriissior: guiui:Iines.
Th<,: Board af Studils.lt
its encthi;-tr ivlu-,tj.ng h,='I.i on LB-z-t94
apprcvcci th':r Scheme ancl Syllabus r:f MSC Plant Science(S:mest,::r Cc:urs<'.
The F:icUIty r---.f Sci.:nc.: ,rr :ts inectings held on Z4-B-9ri an,f ll.i-.l ')
27-10-95 apf)rDve(j th- Schcmc and Syllsbus of MSC plant Science (s,i-,.-,cr,ter Cr>urse ) witii s1:e cialisatic.r.
The rl,cadeniic C:uncj.l .rt its mc--ti gt helci c:n 25-t;-.9'].
the Schcme rncl. Syllabus of
I',ISC
Plant
aporovc:c1
-sci-e:nce.
Sanction -ts thrcrefi)rc acccrG;.J to i-mplement tirc Eehern,j anil
-SyIIa'.bus; of M.SC Pl-:nt Scisnce (Si.rmesr-er Ctrursc) ivith $pu.cielisatinn
witir effect frrrm !997. .-:-lmissi:n .:,n.,.;.rrds.
The Echcrt-i ;tDd Syllabus is appcnded.
'
sd/DEPUT]T REGI iT:I;:if (CAA
For REGI5T:l.J,il ,
To
, The HeaC cf Department of tsot.rny,
' Univcrsity of Calicut.
CsEv to:
-,r-Cc-rntrr:Ilcr of Examinat j-c:ns/
, ni versity library/lnf. rmati--rn Crntre:./
GA I rFr 9ccti,:-,n/ Sv / E=.
i.P;,it
Ts.t4/'8r
FOP-Td.i\iif,ED BY Oi?DF
i-&_
r?
.JECTIC}I O5'FI'IEi1.
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JVI.
SC. IN .PLANT SCIENCES
(SiII"TUSTNR COURSII )
UNIVERSITY OF C;\LICUT
Course Schedrrle, s tr-uctu.re, examin.rtions, curricul.am pJ-an,
questl-rn p3per plan, periodic evaluation,
Examinarg, criterie
Examination ani
of pass, class and distinction;
and
detai-Led sy11:bu:.me.Cif j-ecl and approved by P.G. llo:ird of
Stucjies (eotgny) .rs tB-2-i994
Ihe Utiversity
Grants Uornmission ha{' forward : curricularn
d.:veloprnent plan in itlant sciences in !991.
fhis is in the
form cf G report of the currlcu.Ium development centre (UGC) in
Ihe report poi-nts out th:t 'there is an
lmmediate need to create grcups r'f ycr:n.J students, right frnm
pJ-ant sciences.
Schcal- up to University
l-evelr who have the aptltu<1e to study
the Plant Sciences'
'rIhe laboretary course is totally
inadequate t+ match the Fttri€S=icrve?e/d in theory, p:rtieularly
in the more receat ."rhhp$#
'The Masters programrne
h.
t
,
-shouJd be desiqned t-o'1r.,.-r,1.g l,otu,:qsters to thiuk orlglnally
cl,rlrl. to promcte plant scienEes.
Ihstruction and evafuation
ci-roul-d be so inplemented-.rs to disci,urdge learning by rote
withcut conprehens j-on'.
FclLcwing these IIGC sugqestlnlsr
the I-aculty of Dep.:.rtmen3 cf Botrny, University of Calicut
drew up an alternate M.Sc.'Semester Course fu, plant Scieno:s.
The Pest-gr.rduate Board of Sturlies in lotany approved the
Course content, tlrne sched.ule, pattern and cyll;rblrs,
,i
during
the .deliberaticrs of 1ts .meetlnq held on 28-1,-93 and L8-2-7994.
The detaif s of the propr se<f course 3.i :- giwen under for tne
kiic con? j-deratj-ons and :poroval ,of t:e Faculty'cf Science.
D
-ii_
r- 't
I. i'lme Sehedule for rinstractions, examinations and pre'
post-examinatlon hollda.
and
a
1. Ceurse perlod:
' 2.
Semester f & fII
.3 Preferably.,-fuly to _recember
Semester II & fV
: Preferab.ly January ta Jrine
Instructfonaf Scheduie:
a
a) rst and rrrrd semesters: From 1st week of July to the
last week of November' Expected hours of ins cructio.:;
F00 in eaeh Semesrer.
irne and rV the'semesters: nrtm 1st week of Januar-r i_r\
', last week of uai- Expected hours of instructions
a,
560, in elqh.,semeste,r.
::
f,
].\
3. Examlnat l-oor, 'a*:d. Pre- ;rd post_Examln-.cion hol j_days:
" ir;
,
a)' rst and rrrrd,peresters: *trere shaI1 be 15
days of
'"iJ,l:.!,iln
''r
r.
"tudy leave in t-lJ8oriib"r:prlr-r to examination. Theory
.
& practleal- examinatiohs ano viva-vace- may
be eondrrcted
from 16th to 2oth December. .rostrExerrinatlbn
horid-ys may be for 10 ddys-.
'b) rrnd and rvth semegters: rhere
sharl_be 15 0-ays of
study leave ln 1st half of .Tund, Theory, practic.:Is
7:
and Vi_va_voee examinati-ons m.iy be conductccl
from
16th to,20th of June. post-exami_nltioir hc:lidays
\
ff .
be for 10 days for fIn{ .qemester..c.
tt
Caurse St:rrcture and Scheme of;-Examlnations:
,r.1
\_
may
t
Y,
-
raL-
a
I
COUR.SE SIRUCTURE r-'-.D SCH]JME OF E)L.rYINr+TIONS
SemeEter I
J
Course I3 Algology, Mycolc.tgy, Plant Pathalogy and. General Mloroblelogry
(theory: 125..trourn; Praaticals z 125 hours)
Duratlon of
MarLs.
.1). Theory Paper - I
rl) Praetlial Paper - I
lli)
3 haurc
3 hours
5C
50
Vi-va-\'oee
Exqm.
10
Suhmissiens:
.\(
I
Reoord.s'
20
Tour/FieLd Strrdy Reporl
Herbarlumr Speclmens, preserrred
Speclmens, slidee
10
Internal
40
10
Assessment
Total:
190
Ccurse II: Bryophytes, Pterldoph-;tes and \rmnosperms.
('theory z 125 hours; Practlcals z L25 hours
I.rEi.
f) *reary Paper - II
11) Practlcal
If
f11) Vlva-Voee
Submissione
3
hours
50
3
haurs
s
Reeords
20
tour/fLell
10
alides
10
10 each
40
Agsessment
,Internal
Tota1
Total lcr Semester-I
= 1r0 +
190
s
190
=
Duratlon of
50
10
study Report
Submlsslor of herbarla, specimes,
)
380
Exams.
I
--Q\l
v
'i
q
t\
Semester-II
j{'tjl-. si;-:j:rt i,i^-... -ro)-ogy, 'Iaxonor.^1' and flieonomic Botary
Course:i--Ii
.
i)
(thecry :, L|)tr-;Lrr:s ; Practicals : 140 hours
,r
t
f
I,larks iJuration of Examinatlons
50
' 3 hours
50
3 hours
"
Theory -D.rper-i-Practj-cal P.oaper -i:-:
viva-voce
ii)
iii)
)
10
Submiss'16ris:
20
Tour/fi-eld Study (epr,rt
He-rbarl.l:sl Specimens
InternaL ..ssessmer] t
Total
10
10
40
z
1-9O
=-=:======
corrr-s,e rv;Angic,sper-m anat-::,y, Embryology, l,Iicrc-technj-ques
and Envir^nments-j Biology.
(tnecryz L,!0 hc,r,rs,. practj-ca1s : 14C hours)
Marks Duration of $xaminatldns
i)
ii)
'
ii
j-
iv)
)
'heory Paper - fv
50
3 hours
i)reactica..l
5C
3 hours
pape
r-f-u
Viva-Voce
10
Submissions:
Record
2C
st-ides (zo rrros )
tour/riield study Repert
Internal Assessment
Total
:
Total for II semester
10
1O
40
19C
=
3gO
.-======
o
,.
i
!
-v9emestcr-IfI
Course V: Cytoi-ogy, Genetics r Ev61ut1on and Pl-ant Breeding
(theory: 130 hours: Practic'al-s: 120 hours )
natlons
I,larks
1) Iheery Paper - V
il) Practical Paper :V
...\ V1Va-VoCe
l-l-l-/
1v) submlssions:
50
10
Record
20
tour/rieId Study Report
Internal .tssessment'
10
Total
3 hours
3 hours
50
40
:
180
=---+-.----
Course Vf :
Plant Physlology, Blochemistry,
B1-ophysl-cs and
Biometry.
( fheory: 130 hours, Practicals:
120 hours)
!4arks Du.::atj-on of Examj-natlons
1) Theory Paper - Vf
j.i) Practl-cal Paper - VI
iii)
Viva-Voee
lv) Submiss ions : -.
50
3 hours
50
3 hours
10
Records
20
tour,/Plel&' study Repa::t
Internal Assessment
10
-iotal
4A
:
180
=====-:====
'..-.
Tota} for IIf
Semester
=
360
======
B
F
\,
-viSemester - IV (Exec.=usively for Specialis.rtion)
Cor-rrse Vi
,- :
cialis ation : :b j ect:
(theory : 140 hours,. Pr:ctlcals : 140 hours)
Spe
Marks Duration of Examinatlons
, i)
ii)
th"ory Paper '- vrrx
.Practical Paper - VII
3 hours
3 hours
50.
50
fii)
liya-Voce
1v) Subrnissl-ons:
10
Records
20
iisportassessment
WOrn @xpe.rr€oce
20
Internal
40
190
Marks
Caurse VIII:
Dlssertaticn in the Subject of Specj-alisation =
Viva-Voce on the Di-sst rtati-on
=
Trternal:),ssessment
=
o (1 Total
Total for Semester IV
=
150
20
20
10n
380
GRA\ID TOTAI M.-RKS FOR FOUR SEI\.IESTEI1S= _150Q__
* The course works of the r to rrr semesters
wilr be on core
subjects,
* fn the rV Semester, Students can select anyone of the fol1ow1ng:
1. Flowerl-ng Plant Systematics
2, Pterldology
3. I'IycoloEy
4. Plant Morphogenesis and tissue culture
5- Wood Science
6. Seed Teehnolbgy
7. Plantation Botany
* Student lntake
= 72 * lz
* Ihe number of students all-owed tr- opt for any partlcular fleld
of speciall-satlon w1lL be restricted to 2.
i
{ al,
\vLr-
)
The fiel'd of speciallsatlcn shalr be mentioned along wlr-tr
the course name In the degree certj-ficate and mark lists
€g: frM.Sc, P1ant Sciences with Spec1_alisation
.
-..,,.
The r and the rr semesters may commence in the fi_rst week of
.Tu1y and the classes may preferably be gompleted by 3oth of
Novemlcer. There may be 15 days of study Ie.rve. ,Ix.rminations
on subjects of theory and practicals, and viva-voe-- may Lre
conducted between December 16-20 after which there
10 days of X-m;rs ho11days.
m.:.y be
The rr and the rv semesters may commence 1n 1st w.ek of
January. The classes may be comi:Ieted by 31st of l4ay, after
which there may be study.l-eave tf 15 days. semest:3r exarnlna-
tlons
15th
after
rhere
(fheory and Practi-c-.s and Vlva-Voce ) may be held between
to 20th of .fune. There may be a horiday of 10 days
the Semsster Examinatlons.
sh::11 be no provj-sio..r for improveme--t of the resul-ts
except once at the end-of the course, arong with the sub-
sequent regrular bateh of Semester students.
Pass minimum - 40/ separate for each of the Theory enc the
Practicar Papers. vlva-voce and submissions exce.ot dlssertation shal1 no+, have seperate pass minimum,
* Third class
- 40% - 54% of Grand total
* Second class
- 55% - 59% of Grand total
* First clnss
60'/" - 70% of Grand total
Distinction
80% and .rbove Grand total
Examiners: Two interna.l and two externals examlners may be
'
appolnted for each semester. Chairman wiLl be
the senior of the internal. The intern.:r ex:.miners
of each semest.:r shal-r be frcm among the teachers
who actu.rj-I, irnpsrted instructions in the, partlcular
Jr
Semester.
(vl-j-j-)
FIELD STUITYi'Ni,
1.
WCI{K-EXPERIEI'ICE
Fc:: each of the semesters I, II and III, there sti-:ll- be ilve
days fi.eid study prograrilrnes to gain i::s'qht lrrt.' the ;ctu.rl
habltat and hablt of the t'rxa-
Vl-sits to rese:,rch inst-i-
tutes rel-ated to +-he subje-ct area of study m,ry:-:r' c','mi-..irc'i
durlng these f ield-study
progrernmes. The students: arc to
sutcmit reports of either or both of thr: same::.1- h,- tiriie
exarninations .
ihe trt el i-nstructi-on.rI hours gi',,'n
e
l
ir:Ii.
-
include these flve days also.
Z.
Under the area of specj-=rlisation, the student s; n' tl- g l j r
practical experience 1n the ::el,i:tecr f j=ld stat-i'.'nsr/retse- :cit
stations /instltrrtionsT'farr^ns ':,)r r period cf. 15 r-' 30 Cr. s,B
=rnd submit a report .:1o q with a certi, j-cate of t--he or'fir:-::'
I'he ,:.",',r-r-u:ti',n
who has lmparted the prrc+-ical trainlng.
report shoul-d n.e'* cic,-rir/ sr-.rte the Ievel of
of pr:actical ski1l by tl : :;tudent.
training
achi€v,-=m.rnt
'Ihc expendiEuri: f,:r-
cltr:
prcgrdrrrrne shoulC be borne by the studcnl- conc:c-::led
Ho',r'--ver
the t=.:cher-in-charge of the spe.cial
the directi-on of the
Hea+d
su--,j':ctsr r"ili'.:
of the Department, sh:rll-
arrcrngements for the traini.g,
,-ii,)Ke
,.iI
in advance.
Viva-Voee: At the end oi: e ach pr ctical paper Vi-vi'-voce will
'be conductc.d for the course-concerned by the sc.trir- ';:.lms of
ex.rmlners.
internal
,a:ring the ccurse oi :r
si-er periocr r-c,
evalu.ation may be carried out besed on ^: li--ast two
-Periodic Evaluatlon:
setnr
of the foll-owino methods. Serninars, w.ritten testr
tests,
Viva-Voce ano
Q:uJ-z
-11';-16+;i63f
programmes. r'he marks rr,.ry bc
displ.7ed on the notice-b ,ard after the rpproval c! the
DepJrtmentaL Council.
-a
-Lx-
,
Griewance redressal pjocedu- e:
*o(,
Any crmplalnt about the award of marks in such peri^dic
evaluation may be brought to the notj-ce of the te.:eher concerned
first, and if no satj-sfactory solution i-s found, the matter may
be brought to the notice of the Head of the Department- 'rhe
Head of the Department, if necessary, may appolnt a Small comml+,tee
consistlng of the ilC Secretary, the concerned teacher and the
student fbr redressal me3sures. Itre decl-sion of the committee
wil-l prevall
fII
-
Flours an.l Crcdits for each branch.
1dt Semester - Course f
(rotal hours of instructi-on - 25 (f t t25i pr 125)
one credlt j-s equal to 5 hrs. sf lnstruct j-ons (Theory and
Practicals together).
3
'
Pr:cti-cal hrs, Iotal hrs Credl-ts
e.1gae
35
35
70
T4
Mycology
35
35
70
74
Pl-ant Pathology
20
20
4U
8
35
35
90
71
125
125
250
50
General Mlcrobiology
Total:
(
I
-xCourse fI:
Total t.orrrs of inst::uction _ 25O (f z L25i i) : 725)
One credit = 5 hours of lnstruct.ion (rheory & Prictical tegether)
tfreory trrs.- Practical hrs. .r'ota1 hrs. Credits
Bryophytes
35
35
70
t&
'45
45
90
18
45
45
90
18
125
L25
250
50
J..L_
Pterldophytes
Gymnosperms
Total
z
J-I Semeater - uourse l-lJ-3
Tota1 hours of instru-tion
280 (t z l4Or F : 140)
One credit = 5 hours of lnstruction (theory & Practical-s together)
' Theory_hrs. Practical hrs. Total hrs. Credits
Angiosperm Morphology
30
30
60
t2
/rngiospe::m 'laxcnomy
l0
BO
160
32
Eeonomj-e Botany
30
30
60
12
140
74O
2BO
56
Total
s
Course IV :
Total- hours of instructlon
280 hours (T : 140; p : 140)
One cred.lt = 5 hours rf instruct--ion (theory & Practicals together)
Practical hrs. Total hrs, gr"df!"
/)ingl-osperm Anatomy
40
40
BO
76
Embryology
30
30
60
t2
Mlcrotechnique
25
25
50
10
Envlronmental Blology
45
45
90
13
140
2BO
55
Total-
740
-x1Course V
Semester - fII
:
Total hours of instructi-on 25O (f :130; P t 72O)
One credit = 5 hours of instructlorr (theo.)' ; Praccie.rl together)
Theory
-E-. Praetlcal hrs. tglsl^ hls- Credits
-?
Genetics
45
45
9)
_Ld
cytoJ_ogy
4a
40
8i)
16
Evolution
10
o
i)
Z
i>l-ant Breedlng
35
35
70
1_4
130
720
ac r\
50
Total
:
tloursc - VI
Toi-af hours of. lnstruction
25O ('f : 125,
p t 125)
One creoi-t- = 5 hiours of ins --:-r:cticn (Theory & Praetieal
together\
rbgqly hf=. Practical hrs. Iotal- hrs. Crcld:lts
Plant Physiology
50
50
100
zU
Blochemistry
5L
50
100
20
Biophyslcs
ZO
0
20
Blometry
30
0
30
A
25O
!, i)
Totsl
-
Semester IV - Course VII
1(A
100
:
Total hours of instruction
zeo (t: l4O; p:
One credit = 5 hours of insr.ructlon
14C)
'lheo5y hrs. Practical hrs-
Specialization
Tota1
subject
3
4
fc.I-_
f Lgs.
'r4t)
740
rs0
140
740
280
:=:'_".i11
?
6
\
---.ii-.
Iota1 hours for di6*e,r-tation vrcrl-. _ zEO
one credit = 5 hours of instmction : Total
credlt :
ilrand tot.rl hcurs of instruction) Theory
rjxcludlng Dissertaticn hours
5
,,-r5C
)
- .I\7(:
]' rrractical_s
including hrs.
for oissertation)
2t2 J
i=
==:j':=t-i==
Grand total
credlts at the r.rte of
G.rand lotll_ Marks
5
hours per cre-dlt
4,24
::====
I5Crl
_-:-
-xiii-
A.
UNIVERSIT:1 OF C,+LICU-t
PLAN OF CURRICULUM M.SC.
Obj
ectives
Ilemorv
(xnowiedqe
IN
10
)
20
Applicaticn
30
Synthes
Ev
is
eluation
SEI''lES'ie;R COURSE
reguirementE
respectiv.-: arelas of
curri-cu1um.
o
Latements
Lescripticns Historical
reviews
ion
(understending)
is
vontent
Percentage
of
we j-girta ;e
Comprehens
i-u:a1ys
PLTTNI SCItrECiiS
20
10
10
Comparisons correletions
Discrlminations
Dr:viing, skiLls, Iechrli-cal
skilLs, Experimental skilIs,
probLem solving skil-trs anC .
application in new situations.
analysis of Data, concePtual
merits & defects, probl-ems etc;
Synthesis oi a.pparently unlike
of v.rri-ent facts ideas, coneePts,
evidence etc.
3y using well --rr--cepted standards,
ev-rluating certaful theori-es,
conclusions, evidences etc.
WEIGI{r;r^GE
Note: Curriculurr is to l:e exPanded in Units of viable topics of
elther one hour - Lecturc' or two-hour-Lecture class dur.etion on the lcasis ol the above objectlves and weightage.
2. For practicel-s also the unj-ts m:y be given in de+-ai1s'
with two-hour duratron or in cert-ain cases one-hour
duraticn.
I
.-rr-
t
a
-xlv-
a
LfNIV.0RSII'Y Oir C,.LICUI
PL;:rN OIr QUESTION r)..rrER i -IHEORY - M.SC.
SEI4ES 1'tiR COURSUS
I
IN PLaiiT SCIEi'ICES
l/tr
D
':
Time s 3 hours
Obj
I.laximum
ectives
Comprelension
(Understanding)
11
;\pplication
15
r
9
\
g.t
yncnes r.s
EvaJ-uatlon
Iotal
shctrt ans\^rer question of I mark
out of six.
55
I
-t\
,:I)atys
LS\
Type of questior & questionwise marks
Merks
Memory
(Knowledge )
50
2.
niark : Questions of the
above glven objectives
z marks
above
3.
5
rnarks
above
OUES
I.IUNS
72 out of which 10 to be
anrwered.
Questlons of the t2 out of which 10 to be
given objectives
answered
- -Questlons of the 5 out of whlch 4 to be
glven objectives
each
short answer questions of 1 mark each
out o;: six; 3nd 3 snort answer questj.on
of 2 marks eaeh vrithout cholce.
Short 3.osrr'€r gu€istions ol= 2 marks
each odt of six; and one of 5 marks
rvithout choice.
sirort answer questi.ons of 2 marks
each. out of threei and one essay
qr:estion of 5 rrr:rks wi-thout cholce.
essay type question of 5 merks
wlthout choice.
1 esssy type question of 5 marks wttn
a ehoice.
24 questions to be answered" out of,
29 and total mafks 50.
p,.f,I,ERN .,I.ID NUMBdR OIr
1.
marks 3 50 marks
answered.
-xv-
UNIVERSIi':' OF C..LICUI
-)L^N Cl' QUES.IION .P,^PER 3
SEI'IES
r-R.
^CIIC.iLS -
r';il
l4.rximum
Marks Nature cf prectic.ll skil1
as outcome of gucstions
ObJectives
(Knowledge
)
5
ion
(underst.:nding)
10
Sppllcation
30
fotal
ffirrks : 5i
e7i;)!:ctc-(i
!'
Ccmprehens
inclys
SC. IIJ PL-,N^' Sr-.Lri'i-.rl
uOURSii
i-ime i 4 hours
l4emory
i'I .
1s
50
Spct-at-sight, identificaticn c-rf kno";n
s1icl,rs, descriptions of charts -f igure s
experirnental setups etc. kncwn earl-ier'
Correlation, Ccmparisons , diq --inctir:n
diserimin=tion re'1ationships -tc.
Sectj-oning skiIIs, staining smeiring,
other tectrnical skilr s, experirnentrl
set-up,:jr.rwin9, Probrem solvinE,
applying known PrinciPles in new
s itu:tions ,
:inrlysing a ccmplex problem, experimental set-up sna resuLts, g-Lven facts ';'f
a research finding, tables t gt ii:hs, 5s[;.:1e
plant groups or specj-men.
Ilumber of questions may be suitably
decidt--d by practical examinat icn
tsoard,
I
..-AdF\
*
I
M.SC. rN
PL^r^IVT SCIETICIS
SEi4ES?ER COURSE
SYL.,AtsUS
Semester
r
Ccurse-.f :
A1go1c9M, Mycology, plant pathology
an(. .ri-ncrr_l_
Mlcroblclogy..LGOLOGY
General conside_rations
1.
-l-
:
criterla fcr a1gal c,assifications
rison of systems of classificrtion and mocr.e-arn reo,r-sr coi,DrF.E. on the basis of phyJ_ogenetic of F. Smith an _ _<ound,
consideratio s.
9glL
ists: .= ---.---......-'''"*-.qeneraL ,rcC,--runt
Morphor_oqv:
rndlcecion of range
-tn .:-r1r rl- mc:phr10gyr structure/
parallelisn
and dlvergence found
in morphclcgy of different ,a.ge1
grlups.
2.
3.
Bs.psoduction:
Different type of reprocluc;ion,
Life hist.,,ry patte rns, :.,rr3_
j-n evolutionr
orisin or hisher pranr srroups rroro
li;ll:..
t
Gene-ra] characteri'stics
of
Baeillariophyta, phaeophyta,$ranophyta, chr.orophyt.r, Xenthophy*-a,
Rhodophyta, Euglenopl,ryt.l, i_iinophyt:,
chrysophyta
and Crlptophyt.r.
K
Eccnol_qgry:
Ecology cf fresh water
fi:::ms, Ecology of m:rine fci-ns,
3ic_
logics1 lmport.-rnce of pl,rnktons.
6.
tics:
Basic ideas of ce1l features
under cytolor;y ,rnct ln indic.:tion
of approach to genetic stu,jy
in alg.te. El-ectron .n_.r(rscoL,ic
study of ce-r1 war-r-r flagei1a,
chI0rop1.:.stsr plrefioii:rs .;rnd cye_
pots :ncl their importance
1n +_-lxonomy.
7.
Fos s 1-l-
algae B ri geher;r1 l-i\_cou.nt
-
Pr.ectico.l_s_
1.
Colleeticn anc stuciy ;,lf -.Ig.re
m<-_ntj.oned below.
fcie rtifieation
upto gej .rj.c feve1.
?'- Ccllection, pre serva.L
cn an. pre::,r.ration of a1g.l1
herbar'-rm
(fO apecirnens)
3
fr
'
stalninqr techigues fcr p-rm.r.nent
m()unts.
/
-2Genc.ra tlr
the prsc_!.":il=,
Cy.rnophyta: Ch,roococcus, MiorocvlE",
Gl_ceoccps:r,:iphanotheca
Osc_t_]fSto5la, I"licroe :l_eus, I,yn,lbyar ..nabaenar Nostoc, Scyton_er1e,
Rivt!I..ag!1, GLeotrichia,
Stigong3.
Vhl-roophyta : uhlamydomonss, l>andor:ina, Eudorina, pleodorina,
volvox, chlorel-l-a, Hydroclio3yon, pediastrurn, Klrchneiiella.
Scenedesmus, Protosiphon, r,ntercmorpha, Ulva, -ladophora, plthophora,
. alphanchaete, Bulbochaete, ulothrixr, cephaleuros, whaetophora, r
Col-ecchaeta, Draparnald j-a, ,r3p:rrnall1ops is, ! ritschiella,
Stigeoclonium, Irentepbhll_a, Oedoqonium, Sphareroplea, Val_onia, Acet.rbularia,
Bryop-s is, Codium, C-ru1erpa, Halimeda, Udctea, Desmids (Spiroteenia,
closterium, cosmarium, De-smcdium). Mougetia, Zygnema -h-.o
and
Nitel- 1a.
)(dnthophyceae: tsotrydium, Vaucheri-a.
Bacillariophyta:
Biddulphj-a, Coscincdiscus, Cumbel]a, pinnularia
Pheeophrzta: Ectocarpus, Doctyota, paclina, Laminaria, s,ergassum
lurbinaria.
Rhodophyta: uompsopogon, B-etrachospermum, Gracillaria,
pofysiphonia,
Champl-a,
Geliclium,
-rimphiroaRc-gerences
s
Books:
'
1'
2.
3.
4.
Fritsch, F-E- !945. rhe structure ancl Repooduction of A]gae,
Vol-. f anrf fII.
Smith c.M. 1950. Manual cf phycolcgy.
Round F.E. j_965. The biology of Alg:e.
Bol-d and wyane. 7978. rni:roducticn of ,.fqae-structure and
reproduction.
e
Journals
1.
2.
3.
Journal of Indi-an Bctanic:l Society.
Prcc,.edi-ngs of Inclian Ac.:d-my of Science-acta Bot-rniccr f nd ica.
}lYCOLOGY
rheorv
1'
2'
Classification
of fungi: i'lajor systems c'f fungal elassj-fl-eatl-on.
Principles and criteria empioyedi modern trends.
Comparative study of thc' followrn.; sub-clivlsicn: i"lyxomycotlna,
mastigomycotina, Zyqomycotins.2 Asmcomycotina.
-3tsas iC
3.
4.
5.
i-onycotina and Deuteromycoti-na:
r'hysiology of
growth;
_un9i : r\trut::itlon, factcrs affr:cting
ispore cllspersal and disseminationi factcrs .rffecti-ng spore
germination.
i)
Mechamism cf inheritance : hc=te.rokarycsis and Prrasexy3l
rcycle;
Ecology of fungi : Soil tr'un9i., Competetion 'SnC interactions,
substrate cclonizati-on, 'sugar fungi.', cel-lul-ose and ligni-n
degrading fungi, corprophilious fungi, predaceous fungri,
5. ::[[':::":":;"3r""
7.
or runsi :
n
nooJrn vis.ws.
'
Role of fungi j-n industry: producticn of al-coho1, organj-c acids
anC antibioti-cs, focC precessing, food and fooder yeasts,
mushroom cultlv:ti_on .
PractiqaLs
Study of .the morphclogic.rl ch"racters and reproductive s+.ructures
of the followingt genera:
Stemonltes, Physarum, Synchytrium, Saprolegnia, Phytcphthora,
Al bugo, Pilobolus, Taphrina , PilZl-zt, l.Icrche11a, Puccinia, Ustilago,
/igaricus, G,lnoderma, $rathus, r.ycoperdon, Fus,rium, Cercosporap
Curvularia, lreebdler:a, Phoma, l,lternaria,
Pestalotla, SeccharomyceS,
Gesstrum, Geastrum, Dictyophoro, Neurcspor3r el.-rviceps.
.
REFERENCES:
l{insworth G.C, et el-. (eds. ) f 965-1973. The Fungi. 4n advanced
Treatise. Vols 7-4. ,rcadernic press.
1;lexopoulose C.J. & Mims., Cr!,i. 198;. Intioductory Myeology. wi1ey.
Deacon E.W. l-98'8. Introcuction
to Modern Mycology; Blackwel-l-.
Moore-Landacker E. 197O. Fund:rriontal-s of fungi.
Prentice. Hall-.
Webster J- 1980. IntroCuction to I'ungi. Cambridge Univ. Press.
Burnett J.H. 7976. Fundamentals of Mycology. E. .rrnold.
t
I
E
Al,
'Fho,rv! ^, \
lJr!
--dL
1.
The concept of disease ln pj..irrt-s;
j.rrryr,-,,a
t,arrce of pi ,r.t d-ist-_3s :,',.
dis,yrios -, s 3f p1:nt Cisea.ses: Koch, spostulates.
2
c'tsua'l -jgents of plant dise;ises : !'ung j.r l:f rjFeri,-,,, Mr.-.;.sir.r :: qr,
rrirLt:j.,'s, nemato<1r's, protl):1 cl.. parastf f i; rri qlrr- r
i-)r .r ts, .:ni
'
'
en-.'t-IOnnre:lrt-,ril fae lots;
Jrr.tr,,3r..rrie
e.l
jSt_1
l.seS.
Par,rsitr sn and pdthoqenec 1--;r,. s.L,-^gcs in t_i-re, dt-.veI.: . . a:l ._.of rtise,esei infection prccicss -mech.enicar .rnc phys i -_3ice.
ro]e of :rrzymesr. toxins rncl ejio\r,?th regulat-ors 1n :ipt
r,_
ef fect cf prthogen cn phrJi_i.;sTnthcsi.-s ;rrd resplrati.l:t.
r-1
.,-r
.
. ..s.:;
structr-rr-r.l- and biochemrca-1. icfence rnech,lr,ism of t-]...: h:)sr.
Genet-ics cf viru]ence in p,:thooens and of reslstan ..: in ; _r.,t-_
pllnts breedi-ng for cisg.:-,; -_,sisttnce.
A
q
6-
Rorr: cf en\rironriientel f act rs in plant di:-:ase
eD:_<1errr:ics;
vre.';t,'rer and forcasti-ng of pJ-:nt <liscase epidi.rmics
'i
contrcl- cf pJ-;-,nt diseases by ,chysica.L, chemic:l
"
\
ar, _ b;-ol og j r--.-
rne-th,tds.
PIL,Cf Ii.l.:LS
Det,iilsi l.aboratory' study of the f,ollowing clise3.ses:
ccffee rrrst, bl-a.st of padoy, i=c-rot of sugarcane, tika..1
q
j-scs1s6-.
brister
whip
cf groundnut, powderlz nrildew of rubber, rust c- whc-:t
blight of tea, peach Le:f curI, l,rte blight ..;r -...:tato
sug3rcane, rj-ng -z-ot ,of potatc, soft rot .-j
Veqetables, br:nchy top cf banina.. katte drsease of crlr(.n(ln,
cr.ss3vl nosaic.
stnur.t c:',
R.EI'ERENCtrS
N.
I:-rr S.,..J.
,',9::i-cs
C
"
1978 .
P1.:nt- prtlro.L oly r 2nC eCitlon.
L972.
Ti-re
prlnclr-Ies
^c:clem.ic press.
6f plent p.-:hology.
i,,Jinchestr.,;
press.
ir'occ-r. R.
r - s.
1967 .
Phys
iclog-i-611 plant p:r+-hclogy.
511.rckwel
l
.
Wlrcc,l-li-.r i-,.
l'vhcclIe.':' H"
!9'/5.
1'9r5
-
rfr-inciplc -, c;f- p1;rnt i-nfectl"cn.
pra,t pa,--hogernesis. springe-r:-ver1
v:a 'ier )1.rnli J,,E. 7915. prir-cii:les
..cedemic press,
:gt-
cf pr:rnt lnfectlon.
Mchroth;'r Fl^S- 193C" p',ant ;:.-lthology- Talca_McGr:w l{il1.
smith K 'il. i973r 11 test Bool-' of plant wirus diseases. 3rd ecli-tlr,n,
.\cademic press.
LI-.-sf rl-I J-C.- & uimond .ir,-.
cis. ) .
1960. ?f rnt pathoiogy, :in
3 vois.. _.C-tcrr:mie press.
vanced treati.se,
(e
,tci_
.
i --i:.ir-;-ise., 2 -rol_s, -^rc3cl;:.-! C .,resS Rangsw.rrnl- G- 19.J8- i-risefses r_;f errJrl-r p1
ints cf InCi_;r, 3rc; td.1tic.n
ij::.:nL_cc He]I of Jn,-li .
h
;'
Carrv
tsectt'rria :: )lorphofcgy ani ui-t.restructure, nutrition,
t'on '
gr
cwth, genetics ,
-... -.i ti ^
ur
^l
ir'j r-r]-c'ition
p 1 rsmi<ls rnr--l
rult1v.1-
thcir charactc::-istics ,
generri ehrracters of eoch
_lcc-uncs cif ,lctinomycetes rnc.i mycoplasmes.
.tnc1
grou;'r
,
qene r-:1
.).,. Vjr,-;, ,--s: Structr-.:-ral compcnents and .architecture cf plent viruses
tvi'c,-r speci-a1 referenee tc -rMV :nd TBsv, isol-.ition. ..-;u::-lfic-:tir--,n,
v-r::al ass3)r, infection
anj reol-ic.rtion,
vi]-r-sos. nomenclature ancl ci-.issification
ecilr ,-:':1-
3
:eccunt of bectericlh-rges
-i-ir:€-
uf cr'.]-+-ure ::redi,:,
c,r s teririzatlon.
,lrC::hi:1
4.
thr-rcrs
of pl.rnt viruses,
cult-ure techni-ques, ccnstruoti-on
estlmatic;n of
tUrirJr.IS
rt:nc:
iil,1 -lppJ-l _. -:1.
-nicrobes in agriculture,
fooC p-:ociuction ar:d. qc=net-i: cngi_neering.
1ir^Ir,:
.r.
-
I'li,--;.-;45 cf ;nic.robi-ology;
rne
trrnsmissi._,1 c: p1 rn+-
indr:.stry,
Pi.l.C i.f C,;LS
1" Strininq
of bacteria
: Simple. negatj-ve, gram-flage i1-t, c.i;osulee,
I
i
-62. Demons:ration of bacteria- motility : h:nglng drcp prepar.:tion.
3. Isol-ation of Mlcro-orgsnlsms from soil by Cilution plate method.
4. Iscl-ation of Pure culture of bacterir by streak plate methcd.
5,
Is.lI.Ei,;,Fr.
REFERENCES
Brock, I.t.
1990. Biology cr microorganisms.
St.rnler R.Y. Bt. A1. 1990. 'he miirobi:l-
Prentice Hafl.
wor1d, 5th edition.
Pfentice HaI1.
GOODfellow M. et a1, (eds).
1859. i'he blolcgy of :ctlnomycetes.
.icademic pres s .
Barle
t4.
F. et. a1. ieds ) .
7979
.
The r\coplasmas, VoIs. 1-3.
.r:.cademic Press.
Mathews n.n.f.
1981. Plant r/iroIogy,
Douglas. J. 7975. Bacteriophlges.
2nC
C-apm:n
edition.
-cademic Press.
& Hi1I.
SEMtrS -T.OR.I
Course II:
Bryophytes Pteridophytes and
Gymnosperms
,3RYOPI{Y.IES
IheorX
7. General eharacters and systems cf cl,:.ssific.--rtions of Bryophytes.
2. ],. Generaf account of the ;rr:tomy, Reproduction, Irife history
and Phylogeney of Sphaerocarpales, l,larchlntlales, Jungermsnniafes,
Funarials, Polytrlchales,
3. Origln and evolution of Bryophytes.
4. ^ general account cf fossil bryophytes -rnd their affinj-ties.
!
PR,?.CTIC,.LS
Morphological and structural stud)a cf representative
members
of the fol-lowlng groups uslng c.l-e.:red wholemount prep,:rrations, di-
ssections end seetlons: Rlccis, T:rgionla, Flmcrlaria, cyathodium,
Lunularl-e, March:ntia, Rlccarcia, P:rl1-rviein1.r, Fossombroniar porerlaz
.rnthoeeros, Notothylas, Sphagnum, I'unlria end polytrlchum.
REFERENCES:
1- wetson E-v. Jhe sr-ructure anc r-ife cf tsrycphytes, Hutchinson
Uni. press, London.
2. Cavers F. Ihe fnterrel:tionship of BryophyBbs, New phytologist.
3' Krshyap, s-R- The Llverworths of r,lestern I{umrl3ya and the
Punjab Pl-:lns, vo]. r & rr. chronlce Bot:nica.
4. Smith G.M. Cryptogsmic Bot.rny Vol-. UI. McGraw Hill Bcok Co. N.1,.
5. Parlhar N.S. .\n j_ntroduction to Emn;ycphyta, Bryophyta, General
Bcci: i{ouser
,'.f 1ah:b.ed.
6' verdoon, E, r'Ianuar of tsryology. r'ishor & co.
.\I4s'rERD,.rr4'
PI-ERIDOPHYTES
fheorv
-?....r_
l-- Dlverslty
-
of forms rmong pteridophytes:
clui, mossess,
quilr-wortsr
mosqulto ferns, mocnworts, /idderts tongue ferns,
filmly ferns, bracken ferns, birdts nest fernsr r.Jiden hair
ferns end tree ferns-geD€.r:r.l- morphology with special reference
to Douth Indien species.
2- H.bltat
e.eorogy of pteridophytes
: epiphytes, lithophytes
climbers, hal_ophytes, sciophytes, xerophytes, rheophytes
and hydrophytes.
\..
\.
I
3. Hrs:olcqy in re-l l+-iep lr-: Lc,.)--ogy ,)f pte::idophytes stcl,,:r
a
e'vo,
ut-on: Protostele,
si-i .ronosteler soIr. -rosteIe, i1i-ctyosi--.. it'-
and special stel-er L.ypes. Vessels in pterid,cphytcs.
4" Genei.ics and renroductivt: bclogy of f,crns, n.rturr: ..1' fcrn
fre ecring systems; genetic virbj-Iity
in fern popul.iticni
cYt( -'
.-,ri-;:.ri i i-.
analysis of spec:'-es ,-i)mplexes/ ag rmisporv
polyploj-,ts i geographical o j-strlbution of polyploirls," hlror i c.: :-.r€
gen:tic
t-icn.
6
,.ppl-1eo Pterii.oLcgy:
;\zol-l ,
Biofertili-zt-.r
proriuction fr-,::. .,2,--'. -;
;.nlbaene syrnbiosis,' -olcchcrnis1-::y :nC ecc
inj
cs c,:
s,, Pte ridcphytes rs rr: -i1s i
(.'qr:etic ind P-9:r j-t-lil.um (terrcstrial-)
w,-t-,:1 i-.rcb'1,' ()Sr'
nit-logen f ix-ition;
nJ-fgr:r-e
E=].,twecc contrcf -imp.:ct 3nd rnt.Jel-c:r:nti biological cc,nt::--L"
Og,iment-:l and mect j_e j_n .: I i,:eri C:lhirl 3.sr - pteridc p. r.r::S. lS
ecol cgical
lndlcators.
I)R..CJ.'IC..LS
1"
Mc
r.ohologic:.1 lnetomic,rl fe.:.tures of :
!s i I :'-urn, C;:iricgl-cssurn, -nql9E!9rls,
Qsmurrd", Ce-r' -r-:-.ri-rl'.:-ris,
I'r:chom3nes /
,:is, B1echn,.rm, |91gg!.!F,
=splenaugr,
g5:f_f$U, M:r; iles, .rcrr)stichum, Ssl-'+rini.r, ;t=o1l
trte
.
2- Ger:nin-rtion of spores rnd prothaIlia1 development- in lgir'
medlum (1n-1t.ro) cf cer:r-op-leriri, uhri-steII-r an<.i r'i_ls:cgeri:I!"
'.
F;rbit.rt study of Lycopori i -m, l.thyriam._G}_eichren:LJ, ,S:t-1glt-l:rris
Fvr::os1.r, Drvn.rrie,,.--C.TOSricum :nC Srl-vini.l.
;'^
field
study ,:eport mey be submitted on these obs':,:v:tions.
RtrlE,lPNCgs
:-jier?hrJrst Il, ",
197!.
Morpho] ';gy of Vascula: plents.
ihe
l/tac
Mill-ien uo. New York"
Dyu-r ir. F.
1,979
" The l,c;:,t:: r-,r-,L:l- -iclogy cf Ferns ,-c;demic Pr-':rs
Lc;rdcn.
Jermrz .-,.C. 1,973 (ee).
Ihe i,hylogeny ,rnd Cl-assification
Bot. J. Linn. Spc. VcI. 67.
of ferns
'
9-
,(rrmer .i(.U & Green P.S.
V.esculer Plants-
1991
The l-amll-ies and Gener.i ,->i
Narcs.r. New De]hi.
GYMI\IOSPERMS
I-jr_s
1.
z.
tlucticnalrn
ral ch:r.rcters ,' Phylu'gc-ny; Clas s i f ic ation .
gieneral :ccount inciudinq;
Geologlc.rl- horisons, distribution.
Gcrie
rncrpholi-:gy, rnatomy, phylogenSr .end lnterreJ-atlonship,-rf
the
foJ.ir;wing orders viith s;rcci:1 emphasis on the gen.,'r, specified.
-1. i-:teridospermales : LyEinopteris, Hete ::engium, Sphe n:pcerls ,
pplmer:cstoma, L.rgenr:stcm:r Mcdul-l-ese, Irigionoc rpus, P-rchy-
uest:, Ccdonntheef.
b,
Gl- ssopterid:rles
3
Gi.r
,,sooteris.
C" Ciavtcni:1es.
"
er
Cyc:Ceoid:-l-cs ; r,.Ji11i-rmscllir
f.
Cycacrfes : Cy.rst
g.
Ginkgoales : Cinkgo.
h.
Co-rd,ritales.
I.
Con'iferales. Pinus, eecirus, CrlzctcmeriaT CuprcsSrl-s,
cl
Peirtoxyl rles : Pentoxy r()n
,.r3ucarie,, ig,:this,
Z:1'rt\:
.i,)Cocarpus
j. '-I:xaf es : T:.xus
k. rJphedr rles : Ephedra
f- ielwitschi.rl-es : weirvi-tschi.r
m. Gnetales : Gnetum.
3. Evolution of gymnosperms.
4. listribution of living end f:ssil
5.
Economic lm,co: t, lne? (-t (rrzr,r'c:h-
Eiynmosperms
in lnrji-.:.
-rr.9
tlR..CTICz.LS
,(
2.
ICentiiicaticn
of petrif.r,:tions,
sl-i<ls of fossil
types incfud,ed in groups mentioner,r .rbofe-
compres-ions, imprc-ssions,
Con--.r.rrative study of veget.-itive end reprodr:ctive structures
all
living
genera mentj-oned :bove.
of
-'10-
PR.I:'CTICIrLS
R.EFEREIiCES
-.ndrews H.N- Lg5I. Studies in PaleobotlnYr Wiley'
Banks, H.P. 7g7C. Evoluticn :ncl Pf :.nts ';f the plst'
l'tadsworth'
Bierhost D.W. 1977. Morphofcqy crf v3seulrr pI-Lnts' I'lacmill-ian'
Bower F.O. 1935. Frimitive pl.-rnts ' M:cmil-lirn '
Chrmberlaln C.J. 1935. Gynnosperms Structure :fFId Evolution'
Uni. cf Uhicago Press.
Fostcr :.,S. & E.lul. Giffcrcl . 1g74. Comparative me'r.bhology of
vas
cu13r PI:n ts '
Maheshwarl P. & V. V:sil'
tr'reemen
'
Gnetum' CSIR'
Ramanrjs[ c.G.K. 1976. Indi]n gymncsperm in time rnd sp:Lce"
'odaY & r'omorrow'
CambriCge Uni '
Sewrrd ,,- C. 1B9B- tg77. Foss iI '/1 rnts . 4 vols '
. res s/uacmiIl i an/Hifrer'
Scott D,H. t92O-23. Studies on Fossil '3otrny' 2 vols' A & C'
BIackr/Hafner-
sporne K.R. :.9't4. The morphclcgy of Gymncsperms, The structure
and evolution of pri-mitive seed plants. 2nd. Edn' HUtChlnson
Univ. Ll-brarY'
Stew-ert f,I.N. 1983- Paleobot'rny 'rnd the ev.;lution of plants'
Cambridge Univ. Press'
stoc.J<ey R.S. 1981. Some comments on the origin ancl evolution
of conifers. Can:di;:.n J. Bct. 59: 75-82.
Taylor, T.N. 7ga2. Reproductive biology ir e':r1y seed plants.
Bioscience 32' 23-28'
walton, 1953r r{r. intrcduction to the study of fcssil Plants'
\_
- 11sEi'/tEsI.oR
course rrr:
_ rr
-.nglosperm Morphclogy, /,ngicsperm Trxcncmy .rnd
l,iconornic Bot:ny.
,
^I']GIOSPERM I'"IUI1PHOLOGY
theorv
1. General eoncepts of morphclogy, orlgln lnci evol-ution of flower;
co-evolution of flowers visqrlnvis polllnetors.
2- orlgln and evolution of ruonocot and cicot flowers.
3- stems: origln and evorution in structure and morphology;
necteries :lnd necter.
4. Evolutlon of carpels: Dlfferent types of carpels, concepts
of foliar orlgin of cerpels a.l_ternative concepts End.,
aPproaches speciallsed carpels - poly enc_i syncarpy - superior.
semi-lnfericr. and inferior ovary -.appendicular
=ld receptacular
concepts evclution of plrcentation types.
Role of fl-crrl anatomy in interpretlng the origln and evolution
1:
of flcwer ani frorar- parts frorar- :rn.:tomy in reration tc
taxonomy.
PR,"CTICz'^LS
1'
.
Prepareticn of cle rrecl whl:le: m,lunts cf f Icra.l- parts to
vasculature,
2'
i{ith the help of dj-ssections and hrnd sectlons, examj-ne
(a) 'Iransmlttlng tissue,/e.:.n.:Is i.n style and
stigm.:
(U) Differe,nt types of ov,:ries;
(c) Dif f erent "tlBes of pl _rcc,nt.r
tir>n
(a)
.
vaseu]ature --rf rncrroecium rnd gynoeclum in speci::1
typbs of flowers.
REFEIiEI'ICES
1.
2'
r .,- J. Morphology cf .ngiosperms .
Bsrndrnard c- the intrepret:.ti,:-rn ,-:L j,ngiosperm fr_ower.
.,uFt. J. Sci. 24: 64-72 (tgOl-)
tsjarnes
show
-1,2
)
K"S. Vrscul-aris.t )r1 Cf coroI1.: r- !
rnd. Bot" Scc- 5C: i?9-t96 (fgZL)'
Maeuse ri.D_J" scrne fund.,'rtentLl rrinciplcs.lt
a.
l,{en11.e-'t
4.
compos
j-t-re Jr:ur'
,.
rlft,:l]lrll.(: t.:trvc
lora1 morphclogy. IntI . Bios ci . PubI . His s -:r (197 4) '
K.,\. Netr theory cf angiosperm f lower. lT- r--':-r'-', 138:
Maf vi]Ie
14-18 (rg0o).
purj- V- Infericr ovary. i:hytomorphology 2' 722 (1t,52)'
f
5.
6.
7
Ii-';:hinscn
" Sporne K.R- Ihe Morpholc-;gy :>f the .ingiospefrrls o
Univ., ,lress. Lcndon ( tgl+) "
riNG IOSP
ERM 1lii,\CiilO}[Y
Theorlr
1.
2.
3.
jeetjves - 'lc'1':-'1 'nd i-mpcrtance'
I{istcrj-cal- development of thecr j-es and concepts cf
lcgical c1.iss j_f ic_rtion anc cI:ssif icatoryx srrsterrs
Iaxonomy : Its
ob
of [-sxonomic c:tegories,
4.
-
'I';inn,'"r1iC hier rrChy and ConCcpts
faxCnOmIC strUCture;
specrf ic c-rtegc'ries
cJ-c--
.sr).]cies. genus, f emil y 3n. infrr-
.
Ccncept cf char,:cter, char,-'cter v;1riatlons .lnd thejr r--lxonomic impli-cetlons" 'ora.a" :>f taxcnomic characters - morphi>logy.. ,tf)ttcmy embryclogy, pelynology. cytolo3y .rnd :hlztccherni-strY.
a6-
7.
r:r f:xonomy: Conceptu rl lnd methc.1o]ogical prlbi3rns '
of pl,rnts: Diffcrent typc- "" keys,
Prectic,-rl identific:tion
construction of ilichctomous keys encl taxrlnomi-c ljtcr--ture'
i,locle
PI:nt nomencl-rture: ,, detril:-.d study of. the msjor
prsvisions of the Internatj -)n:rf coie of Bctenic:l IJ':m€nc].,rture - Effectlve and viiic publicatj-on, rank of t'ex:
-:.uthbr
rulc of pr-iority .1nr 1.,-: -.--i -rtlons. typificatlon
rejection :nc rct--:ntion of nfmes of hybrids.
cit:tio:,
v'lh
rt is there in a
n3.me
? "hY change
?
_13_
B.
Methccrs of pI:nt
explor-rticnr
collection
lnd herb:.rium
Import,:nce lrf He-rbaria.
preparrticn.
Pi.{i-CTICi;LS:
1.
Du-r:ing the ccurse of this
get frmillar
studlt, the students sh:li
the Local flora.
a
wiEh the inethod :-f dissecting
and studylng plants in the labcratory. descrlblng Lh.:rr, in techc.-rnstructing
nical terms, prep3rlng sclentifi-c llfustrations,
artiflci-.r1 keys ,encl identifylng them based on Benth:m rnd
The students shcul<1 get f :mlIlar
Ilo'tkerts system of class;ifj-c.ttionr
student shrll
fcilowlng
work out rt-
25 families of
I'emi1j-es :
For this purpcs,j, erch
3 members of e.lch cf thngl-osperms :.v:ilabfe iIr the 3rea.
f e rst
I'tenisi)erln3C€Je7 Pe*yry*x*x PolygaffceJe, C,rryophy-
Rhrz,-'pnorace].e, Metastomj't3ct::e, p'-rssi1l.rceee, Iittrcefe,
f]o::ac:ae, j"izo;lce:ee Liub -fc(i'fe, Oleace.e' , i-rsclcpi-',cl' tee:e,
Gentianage3e, Bcr,:ginsce:rj, Lentibulariace3er
Pecl:.f
i rcere,
,\c.rnthaceae., l-.,auraeeaer L:r,-rnthoce3e, Euf hornitace lc. Urtlc rce ]6l r
Orchid.rceSe, Comme11n3ce3e, ;-iraceler Cyper.rce-ie ericl Gramine re '
!
the ccurse of this study, eaeh student shall undertlke .l field study tour for at least ten daysr uncler thc'
guI-dance -:ncl Supervlsion of .L teecherr 3tB place cccnolic-rIIl
Dur:-j-ng
' and flcrlstlcally
from the J.oc,311.ty of cheir p1 :cc
of regular study. llach one sha1l ,1lso ccllect pl -nt spsciments for herbsrium prep'"rLtion and sha11 submlt it Ieast:
different
Cne hundredr well prep:lred, correctly
specimens along wi-bh thei-r fiel{
ev.Jluation during th.o
Suggested Readinqs
cOUr..:u=
icjentified
herblrlurn
book :nd tour reprrt
of their practic:I
for
exrminlticn'
3
t 1-963 - Princlplg.s cf '^ngiosperm
ISI9""Ey. New York'
Burkj-IJ-, LH. 1865. uh3pters ln the history-?-f-Is!31Y-ig--IgCi-f
D:wis, P.H, & v.H.
r-rel-h1.
i{eywcod
.-a
-t3-
Heywocd, 'I.rt. (ird. )
1968.
t:^q-de.rn
LonCon.
street' H's' (ec') 7g7g- [email protected],
London.
Heywcod, v-H- & j-r.M- Mcore (Eds. tga+. currgnt
)
concept,s 1n
Plant t.a5onrmy, Londcn.
.E
E'3' (Ec-) 7gg7- Manu:r- of herbarium
t+xoncrny, Le iden.
styles, B.T. (rc. ) 1986. fnfraspecific
classi flc etion of wil-d
r'oge1,
e.
stebbins, G.L- 7g74. Fl0werlng pl.rnts: cvo_lutiop
_above the
species Ievel, Cambridqe, l,lass,
Mqyr,8.. 7976. Ev-olutj.on enQ dj-versitv
of lrlfe, _uambri<lge.
.Jef frey, C. 1968. jr^n lntrorluet
Siv.rraj
, London.
V.
1,99L. Intro,.tuctio
Taxonomv, Delhi & -rmbridge,
an V.
l=nt
Stuessy, T.F.
1990. .p1rnt tlxonomy, Columbie
Nslk, V.N. 1,984. Taxonomy of .\egiosperms,
Ne\+ Del-h1.
EConomic Bctany
Theorv:
study of tne ,:riqin, ctistributicn, history
:f cultlvatj_on
and uti_lisation of the fcllcwing:
1. Oryza sativa (ceretl,
2. Piper nisrum (spice),
3.
Rauwolf l e serpentln,r (n:d icine )
4. !:cche rum of f icl.n:rgT (sug:r) . .rnc1
5. Beyea br:siliens 1_s (rubber)
,1'
pnaer-eals
rdenti-f-ication oi the species mentionecr
abcve as well
lmpqrtant wil_i rcl-=.tive s.
:
as
REFE.I.E}ICES:
, '....8. Economlc tsotany. McGra.w H11I Book Co.
New York. (1952).
Colby, L.S. .h introduction to the Botany ,:rf lroplc.rl
Crcps.
Longman G;:-n & Co. Lcrrdon.
796:.
H{.11
,-
.t\
"4r,'Jeal-th
C.S.I.R.
of India.
C.S.f.ii.
New
!e,hi.
,1,948.
Ghose, R-L-M- M.B. Ghrtg,= & v. subremenyam. Rice in rncia
.C./..R. New r-,elhi. 1,96A
SEi\iliS 1'ER
course
* If
rv, @Egry
anC Envircnmentrl riiolcgy:
"
,,A]G IOS PEIiIVI,I,]\J,
^.IOrYY
Theorv
1.
2.
3.
Differentiation:
Conceptr its signiflclnce
in developmental
stud.ies, totipotency, phylcgenetlc .end ontogenetic perspectives
of dlfferentiation,
gener...1 idei of entropy.
Meristems: kecent the.cries cn crganisation of ro<;t apcl shoot
:nd shoot eplcaf meristems, origin r-,f lsteral rcot. l-eaf- ,rncl brild
cevelopment of r-eaf, plastochrcnic a9e, experimentar_ studies
on rneristems. veget:tive to reprccluctive Jpex, rev,-rsj_on from
reproductive to vege-Lative Jpex.
rissues systc-ms: Differen;ttst:lon
:ncr functicns of different
tissue systems such 3sj epiclermis, p,rrenchyrrf,z chlorenchyryre,
solerenchyma, laticifcrs,
91.rnds, transfer cel1s, errvironmentrl_
factors
4.
5-
ilifferentj-rrion
of the ciivergent tissue
eccncmic importance.
systems, c'xperimentr.l. stuclies, their
secondrry crlmbium: conr:ept, cr-rss_ification,
origin and consti_
tution of cabium, c,mbi:l :ctivity,
cembium in would hesling , ,
ond grafting, f:ctors infr-uencingi cambiel cifferentj_ation,
anc
activity,
ccrk-c.rmblum, different types, crigin .rnd funeticn.
^bnorma-l- cambium: cI.:ssific:ti-on,
origrin .:nd functlcn, experl_
menta.]-
5.
influencing
studies.
a,
Seedl-lnq ancl nod:l anatcmy. rcct,:fcot v:scul-ar
ccnnection,
petterns of n.-rd:r enetomy, ccntroversities .-,n phylogenetic
, trends ln noclsl :n.rtomy.
r:
7.
Xylem: origin,
structur,-r, fe rtures
en<-t
f,rrrction cf fibres,
flbre tr:chelds,
tr,reheiCs,,. v,.-sse1 elements, xylem pirenchyh3,
the trends :f. specialisaticn.
t:xonornic signif j-cance, fsctors
xylem different-1 ,+-i:rn, elemen'ts of wcocl anatomy.
Phloem: Orlgin, structure :ncl function of service ee1Is,
affecting
8.
sieve tubes, campanion ceils ,and fibres,
llsaticn,
taxonomic signific.:nce,
differentj-aticn,
9.
10.
11.
factu:rs affectlng
phlcem
trends cf. speci:i1iz:tion.
urLgln anc cevelopment of 1:min: - general pattern.
Fruits arid seecls: Gener,ri en.atcmy cf fleshy and dry fruits,
anitcmy of seeds in gener:Ir d.evelopment, iorrn,rncy tnd drought
Leaf:
resistance from .:n.-rtc,mic:l_ point cf view.
Roots: Initiltion
eno Cevelopment cf speciilisecl
Pneumatophores, heustori:.,
.
trend.s cf specla-
and mcdifiei
roots.
comparison of :netcmy of normtl
rcots.
1-2. rfiatonii in reletion
to ec:rtogy and taxonr
iny.
PILTC,IIC,ILS
f.
2.
3,
T
i-'iversity
in ce1ls ani tissues in 1o mcncrcot rncl a dicot plant
with respect to positi.:n, Cistrj-buticn, strueture and funetion.
Epidermis
trichomes, stom.ltrl- types, stomat,er index
uleeri-ng and shoot apicel mer-istems. Different patterns.
4.
u1e:ring ancl st:inintT ot Ie.rf, young tvrigs, root, floral
etc.
5.
Nod
6.
Vascular uambiurn end ccrk c::mbium.
7.
Xylem and its constituents
parts
el- snatomy
by selectlng and. macerating.
the tissues.
B.
Phloem and ils
9.
lJcnormal secondery grov.rthTd,ifferent patternsr
components-
tslgnonl-.ar,rristol-ochla,
root, Mi.rabilis,
t11pes dracanna,
mar-rnthusl l.tryctanthus, ...erva, Beet
pisoni.r, Boug:inwj-1lea.
_l\ l__
10. submission :>f sl-ides (:O lr]os.)
REFEITENCES
1- P1:nt ..natomy K. Easu - ivrl-cy Eestern Lincheci 1983.
2. P1:nt Anatomy .' tr'ihn r--ergamon press - L977 .
3' Pl:nt in.tomy : dxperiments -nd interpret:rtions, part r &
f I E. G. uutter Edwarcl Arnl-od . 1 g7B.
4' Plent An:tomY ,J.D- Mauseth rhe Benjamln/cummlng pubJ-ishing
ccmpany, fnc. 198S.
5- Practicar Prant 'yratomy ,r.s. Forster D. v:rn Nostrand
Company Tnc. 1960.
6. Cytoclifferentiation' 1n plantsr Robertsr L.i^I. 1_976
C.:mbridge Univers j-ty press, Cambridge.
EI,ItsRYOLOGY
Theory
1, Hlstory and <levelopment of angiosperm embryology.
2- Microsporogenesis structure and function cf wal-l
r.ryers;
u]tra structurer- changes in t.rpetum :nd meiocytes
cluring
cevelopment - rore of csl]cse,, rcre of tepetum
in pollen
clevelopment.
gametophyte Microsp ore/porlen mitosis,. divls
ion of
genetative cer-r-si heterogeclty in sperms, po]1en
fertility,
and sterility;
poI1en stcrtge, vi:bility
rncr germination.
4. ovu]-e ont-cgeny, types end evolutlon,
reduction, nutritlon.
tr
Meg=sporogenesis subcellur-.ir features cf archesporel
ancl
megaspore mother ce1fs,. megespore ters.d.
dyad and cocencme_
gsspore, sterminlticn of functi-cnrl megfspore.
6. Emb.ryosac Cl-ass j_f ication :ncl typesr
ultrastructure of components' slmergic 'rncl lntipodrl haustorla, nutrition
of embryosse.
3.
\-
MaJe
J-
-1..97
'
pol-lination - ul-trastructural- histochemic:1 cletails of style
and stigms, sej_f .lnri interspeclfic imparability. Significance
of pollen-pistil inter-rcti:n, rcfe of porl-en wel_I protelns and
stlgma-surf ]ce proteinsl b:.rriers to fertil-iz.:tion,
overcoming lncompatiblllty,
methods of
intrg-cveri.:n porrin,rtion and 1n
vitro fertilization.
B- Ferti-llzrtion - Role of synergids, filefcrm lpparrtus, heterospermy, differentlsl beh.aviour .if mal-e g,rmetes, Ci.sch.rrge .and
rncvement of sperr:rrs, syngamy enc triple fusi_cn, post fertirization metaboli-c anc structur:r1 changes in embryosac.
g. En'iosperm - ul:ssificlt.ion u.rO typ"", ultrastructure,
cel-lularlsrtion ln nucle:r endosperm; enflosperm,. h=rusteri_:, their
extension and persj-stance, function storege metabol-ities.
10- Embryo - pol-rrity in reletion to development. krrx,N
Laws and formulae classificrtion
_rnd types. Histo and organo_
qrenesls of mono anc dicctembryos; organless embryos; delsyed
oj-fferentiatj-cn of embryo; structure, cytology anc function
of supensor,' physlologi.cel end morphogenetic relr.tionship
of endosperm and embryo.
11. Polyembyyony - classification ,:nd .types,
L2- ...-pomixis dlplospory - 3pospcryr parthenogenesis of embryos
1t3- Fnrlt end seed - Parthennocarpy = lnducticn of seedLess frults.
t4. smbryology in relation to taxonomy - <iiagnr-rstic emkiryologj-c.r1
charscters, primitive .enc adv:ncec chaiacters, comparative
embryology and inter- and intraspbcificr- inter- and intraf.rmi1ic1 relationships .
15- Rote of embyolcgy in pltnt
'j.
hybrlds disfunction
embryo.
breedj_ng, embryoJ_cgy of
of endosperm, rrrestecl developmeht of
!
'
t\
I
i l-
tiPfuiCTIC.'LIJ
i'repariticn of cliseCted
4
I.
r^;tx--,1c
rnounts of sndothecium, tapetUml
l;vulc., endosperm, embryo .-;tc-l hrustori-r. Squash prep3retions
cf t:petum, micrcspcre ,-nother c::11s, dy:Cs tetr-ids, pollinia,
manulse.
2.
Study from perm..nent prep,,r:itions. Developntent end structure
cf another, pcl-1en ovu1e, rnegssporogc'nesi-s, embryosac. endosperm
lnd embryo. ihe comparative stuciy cf the typic.rl monocot and
grese embryo.
3.
4.
5.
Pol-Ien germination
vitbilj-ty tests.
Study of electron microgr:phs cletail=-d in the thecry sylIabus.
pollinaticn.
Experiments of intr:-ev:ri:n
REFEiiENCT,S:
1.
Bouman
F. L978. Ovu1e j-nitlation,
coat structure 1n angicrsperrfis r
j-on, New. De lhi- .
ovule development and seed
Tc<1ey
a
i:.nc1
tomorrow..
s publicct-
2.
Bhojwanl S.S & tshatn.egar, S.S. .L974. ihe embryology of angiosperms Vikas publicetion, New Delh1.
3.
Davis C.L.
1,955. SYstem-rtic embryclogy of angicsperms.'
John Wil-ey, New York.
4.
,E,
' 56.
E.rmes
New
-
8.
1960. l4orpholcgy of englosperms. Mcqraw-Hlll'
York.
Johanse D
1950. ?lant embryology, i'i.rltham, Messaehusetts.
D..r.
Johrl B.D. (ed. )
Verl
7
i,.J.
ag
.
Berl- in
1984. Embryology of englosperms, Springer
,
Maheswari P.
1950. An introductlon
,{ngi-osperms .
}lcGraw-Hj-l-1,
to the embryology of
Ne-w Yc-:rk.
(ed)' 7963- Recent tdvences 1n thu- embryology of
l\rrgiosperms. il; Intl-. Soc. sf ant "lorpholcgists.
New Del-hi.
1,975, Experii"nental embrytgenesis ln Plants,
Academic Pressr New Ycrk.
10. Ialerdlaw c.w. L976. EmrbyoEenesis in plents, Methusen, London.
9.
R.rgh:van V.
/--
f,b-b_
, ,,,,,
IheorY
l.Besicinstrumentsan<lequi;:mentsusedinnicro*'echnique'
th,=ir uses ancl principles invofvecl'
ccntrast' Electron3. l'ticrosccpes: Crclin'rry L'14' Ph.ise
l4icroscope '
b. MicroscoPic me3surements'
C. Use cf c:mere lucide'
uses'
d. Microtcmes: rot'rry ancl sleclge 'end their
€. Embedding oven'
f. CouPIin jars'
11. KiIf ing, fixing :nt-1 strining plant tissues'
r. Pri-nciples and PurPoses'
preparftlon
b. Import:nt chemic-rls and. re,-rgents usecl in the
their pr 'pcrties'
prep=rltChemicel f ix.rtivi'-s, th:'ir compcsition'
f i-:,,.:tivi:s .tnrl
c.
Common
ionfrr*specificuSeSF.',/,.Carnoylsf].udc,Chrome
,cetlc Nawaschln's fluigr C,-'.tf t Zlrcfe's fluld
Flemming's fluid '
Teehnique ':f f ixaticn'
d.
Illlmportantdehycr:tinEogents,clerringa.gentslnc]mountlng
medi:1 us€d in micrctechnique rn''r their properties:
Bthyl ;e].cohof, chlcroform, Glycerine, isopropyle, i.^lcohoI
ButYl al'cchoI.
IV. Stains used in microteclrniques:
o.. Princlple ancl purpose c'f stainlng'
'
b.Classificationofimpcrtantbiologic:Istalns.
i) Natural dyes - Hemqtoxylin; Carmine, Orcein.'
il)
Coal ter
3:s ic rJyes :
cotton
:
-
S:
f
clyes
il
-t
r:nin,
CrYs
tal vi,:lete Besic Fuchslni
B1ue.
;.cirl. dyes: Fast Grecn, Light green, Orlnge ErYthrosin,
\
uos l-ri .
')-
Chromr:sr:mes: General :icc(-ruot and detail-ed mcrphology, consti-'
euehrclm':tin' DN" tuents cf chr;rnoscmes: heuercchrometin
5,
Evolutj-cn Of species
'.*..,
protein -.The hlstones, Prct:mines (sperm- specific prcrtej-ns)
Non-histcne chromcsomal prltej-n lnd their modifications'
structure
anc compositi.r-'nr satellj-te
Molecular lnteraetions
c;f
chromi])s,-rmo1
proteins - General
account.
5.
Karyotypeandkaryotypeevolutir-n,ehromoslmebandingand
7.
techniques of b-rnding "591;prls)mes'
Specia}ty.:escfchrom._..SljrTrC,S:Structureancsignific3nt
functions of pcrl-ytene chrc]mcsonesr -t.rmp-brush chromrJsomes,
B Ch.rom)somesr/accesslry chromosolrlcls I deteiled'rnalys is
6.
of sex chromcsc)mes antl their rcIe. in sex determinatj-cn''
Cromcs-rrne mechanisms in mitorsts ani] meicsis' their comparison
cf signiflcance:
I4itosiS : Mitotic chrom':somes, centromere, met'rphase chromoscmes, changes in chromos':mes clurlng mitosis, interchrcfloscmal fibres.
Mel-r:sis: outl-Ine of meicsis, synapsis and the synaptonomal
' The'>retj'ca1
formation'
chiasma
and
over
ccrmplexT crossing
model of recombination ultrastructure, biochemical aspects
end role of synaptonemal c.omplex in. crossing ov€I., RN'i
synthesis durlng meictic prophase' changes' in ehromatin
c.,rganisatlons r Kl-netoch(rre in mel-osis '
9.
titumerical and strr:ctural variations cf chromcsomes Haploldy, pclyplcidy, aneuplol-Cy and thej-r consequenees'
de}etlon, clupllcaticn, transloc.ltion, invertion and. their
melotic consequences and significances' Induction of
potyPloidY bY colchicine'
PR-'CTICT.IIS
1.
\
Mitcsi:; -' Pretre :tment -rf r')ot tips r>f onion/ctrlcrophytum
i nol' ine/par :dichl robens ene
ma ize with c :1 ch i c ine,/S -fryci roxygu
st:inlng'/
and ,ti study of stagc-s og mifr-rsis by acet':c:rmine
aceto orcein si:ilj'ng'
,
5
.
'rlybridizati-on:
Genetic rnci bieeding- c(,.nsequence rf hybri-
and
Systems :f inccmpatil:ility
n and selecti.n.
hybrid -sterif j-ty ani,r meth:cls cf vvercoming. l4ethr-'ds ,--'f
dizrti,
hsndling segregatj-ng pr-puI-.ti-.n for superi.r
sefe-
strain
Bulk meth rf , pec-ligree methoCs and Interspecific
and inter.;enetic hybrioiz.:tir,,n iR crvp imprcvements.
cti..,n
crossing
13adk
lhe,-,ry and Proctj-ce, but cr.;ssing, inbreecling,
lnbreeding depr'ession, hetercsis
r.'f exploitatln
enC hetercbeltiosis.
Methods
of heterosis or hybrid vig,:r t.hrough male
sterl1es.
.
6.
Pclyp1cir1y in plant breecting.
7.
l'futaticn breedi-ng - I4ajr;r achievement in India
countrles in different crops -
B.
Recent aivrnces in genetic manipul:tirtns ,:f crcp olants
through in vitro
.rnc1
cther
inducecl mut'ition, sc,m:,ti-c hybridization,
tj-ssue cufture and genetic trc.nsf,.-:rm.rtir-in.micrlpEopilgatic,n
theory :nd Practlce.
PR,TC,ITCALS
1.
StuCy of flora1 biology rn,.l fl,twer structure
available
2.
Prrctice
pollinated
item 'r) .
3.
(rice,
c
ishew, pulses, ScI.rnum,
Caps
lcum),.
techniques in sel-f rntl oros
of hybridizatiun
crops :vail-:ble.
(S.ime
plants rs ,rb,tve under
Practice cf veEetative prr:prg.-ltion tcchniques like 1:yering,
buddirg, grafting.
4.
in crop plants
.;l
Submission cf certifieci
breeding instj-tutes
repc;rt of vlsits
+,(-,
two plant
in the cr;untry.
REFERENCES:
it
L.
Chaudharl t{.K. t904.
Oxford.
2.
Chaudh rl
3.
Element-:ry .u'rinciples ,)f Plant Breedlng,
R-C. 7902. InLr:cluction t,.) P1', .t tsreeding, Oxfcrd.
Kenneth, J. tr'rey. 19E0, P1 :nt Bree Cing, Il-.w.i, St rte Univ.. Press.
-' .:-'
2. Camera lucida dr.rwings cf karlzctype fcr preparing I<liogrems. \,
3' study '','f m^i." '= in r-reture,/Rh:;ec/chrorophytum by smed.r
preparatj_on of pMCs. '
Rif I.EREIVCES
1' Bhaohuri E.M- 7975. rnstructure -:nr-l functlon cf chromatin.
Clb: Icundaticn Syrnp . 28 t 1-'4
2' ch rrEaft E- (rgo:) ossays (,n nucleic acics, Elsevier,
,t',msterdam-
3. Duprrw, E.J. (tglO) ou;) :nd chr()mcsJrnes, Hr:r1t, Ronehart
and lVinston Int. New york.
4'
swanson, c-p. (tgsl ) cyt.,r,r9y inc cytogenetics, prentice
Ha11, Enq1ewc,:od Clif f s |,t. J.
5' Beermann Id- (tglz) rn jjevc'lr,pmenc,:l stucles cn Gient
Chrcmcs.)mes (w. Beerm.,rnn. EC. ) pp1_33, Springer Verlag,
tseriiin.
6. C.I1,n, i{.G. (fgOg) gn .,{anc,_r:ok of Mr.,l_ecur_,r cytology.
(" Lima, ce-F-rrla, ea. ) pp. 540-552 lJi,.rth Holr-and,
Amsterdam7- ohno- s (rcu ) sex chrcmosi,\mes :rni sex r_inked genes.
Springer-Verlag, tser1i.n.
n. ,i.K. Shermr :rnd ,lrchana Sharma (
) Chromosome banding
9.
in P]ents, C:ni',, G. yc_-gao
V.IJ. ufrc-,pra, et. ..ri. (f ggs ) .
t
Genetics : New Frontiers
Vr-,f . I Oxford fBH pub. New Del-hi.
.PL,.Ni- BREEDING
Ihecry
1'
2.
3'
4
'
History .f prant i3reec-ling ancl Breedlnq systerrts
in plants.
Floral blr:leg, ancl its significance in hy_rridiz:ticn.
Plent i-ntroduction, Genetic rescurces ccnservatlon
anrl urtil-izaticn in plant breeding.
selection technioues
Pure line selecti,-:rr, Principres and
pplieation :f sel-ecticn, geneti-c bes is ,..,f
se_l-ectil_.nr dis_
ruptive selection, recurrent sel_ectic,n.
a
.
.
+
Sncep, J. et. el-. 7969. P]:nt 3reeoing perspc.ctive-sr..DuCr)c
Ili
5.
1q
ln inqen.
i{awkes
i'I,'inu
t J.C. 1980. Crop
Ge
Field ccll-ectlcn
n.:tic Res,-.urces.
eI, IBPGR., Pubf ic.
6.
Trcc. Int.
.1
B11oit, F.C. 1958. Plant Breecilng rlnd Cytcgenetics,
I{iIl
A.
Rice Genetics
ium, IRiLI,
1985 .
McGraw
Bcrck Co.1 Inc. New Yr-'rk.
Raj-. B. 7977. Hetercsis tsreeCing. r'ocl.:y,enc fomcrrcw
Publication,
9.
Symltt,,s
Heys,
If
New De1hi.
.K., Tmmer F.R. :nrl p.C. Smi-th, !956.
I,lethcds cf
r:1:nt Breedlng McGr:vr Hi11.
10. Wil1i.rm Lawire nce.
1971,
.:lant Sreedingr
.
Edr,,,';rc"
,,rnold Pub.
EVOLU"IO}I
1.
Principles
encl thecries
cf €-,vo1ution,
Lam,3rckism, Darwj-nlsm, :nd Neo-Darwinlsm.
2.
Dynamlc. processes of evolul ,icn
sectj-on, isolaticn,
3.
Mut.tti'ons, reccmbin,atic:n,
Mech=nisms
Evrl-ution :rf species :ncl subspeciation, evolution above
species leve1.
4-
Orlgin
an<-r
ev,:,lution cf. 11fe.
Variatii-ln end r-vr-,,1utir-,n
Hybridlzatii,n
:
:nC evi;1uti:n,
muteti-r,ns and evoluti,rns,
pr,lyplcioy
hcredity,
:nil evolutions
environment and evolution.
REFER.ENCES:
1.
Leyantin, R.-. (1914A. The Genetic b:sic
change, Columbia iJniv. Press.
2.
Berscl-. J.D. L967" fhe r:rigln of l-ife. Cl-evel-and worlcl Pub1.
Columbl:.
Grant 1,911,. t-riversity in pl.rnt speciation.
-,f ev<-,lutionsry
Uni. Press.
a.
Wooley P.
1983.
Mcl-ecul-ar theory ,sf ev,:lution.
Springer Verlag.
e.
Wooley P.
1983.
Molecullr ther:ry of evrlutirn.
Springer
5
-
VerIag.
Gaun , P. 1-97 6. Cytopl.rsmic genes ant-l evolutitrn,
Univ. Press"
Cr-r1umbia,
;
--:-'16.
Savege J.IuI. 7969. Evoluuicn. Oxfr-'ril.
7.
Simpsol 1953. Ihe mrjrr
r,eatures of evr-iuti-cn.
Coumbla.
Univ. Press.
B.
Stabbins, G.L. 1950. Variation :nd evolutic',n in pl.rnts.
Columbia Unl. Press.
9.
tion
(ZnA Ed. )
eambriclgc university
SE|I;,STER
COURSE
VI : PL..NT Pi{YSICLOGY,
PL,rI{T
.
and Evolu-
driggs, D. & Walters, SmM. 1,904. Plsnt v:riation
IIi
Press.
t
BIOCHEMIS-tRY aND 3fOPHYSICS.
PTTYSIOLUGY
Theory
1.
ldeter rel-:ticns
in plants
water, water potentiel
r)hysicochemical pi-r::pertles
.,:f
terminology, chemical- pc,tenti.:.I
Gibbs free' energy conceptr w:ter in rer-ation to p],:nt
ceIfs, ee11 membrances ln(' thelr capacity fcr tr:nsport,
water uptake and movement through pl.rnts, sr-riI-pIant atmos-
2'
phere-ccntj-nuem, F1:nt w:ter Ir)ss, stomatrl regulaticn cf
transplr'rticn,
I{crmonel .rn,: energy clependent hyp.;thesis.
rnorganic nutrition
ri:n transport and regulati,:rn, dj-ffusicn
anc] f acil-itated
clif fus ion, mc.mberanes ,ln.l trensport -tf ic,rs.
r.ct j-ve tr:.nspc:rt, Dcm,:.n , s potenti.r1, Nernstrs equation,
carrler
mechanlsm of icn trlnspl,rt,
rofe ,)f ,.'.Tp as a carrier
(symp:rt) , ccunter trensport
Patch-clamplng r, co-tr:nso,-,rt
("ntlport),
ron channelsn Cheletes, rrcn uptake by roots,
Transpcrt in xyIem, RerJistribution r>f ions, salt rel-aticns
and grcwth.
3-
Phot:synthes j-s
Light reactir:n of green plants , c3 carbcn
recuction cycle ancl asscciateci process, C4 mechanism and
CO,r asslfrllati_on.
/
\-
-
4.
'.
I
.-rercblc ,txj-rl.atir,n ,rf, sug,lrs t) CO2. Secondary
Despiration
oxiclcti->n mech-rnism in t:Iar.ts, Phctorespirtticn.
5.
Nitrogen met..rbrlism - Utilinsti-;n
:;f ltm.;spheric nitrcgen,
regulaticn,f
ni-tr..ite rssimilati'rn,
Intermedirte metabcli-sm
ctf eminc aciri :n,;l ref atic,nship with mincral nutrition
:ncl
cerbon metabclisrn, Eff icie ncy ->f nitrogen uslgc.
6.
Gr,;wth
.enc-l
Grr:wth regulatic,ns
Morphcgenesis
,rncr.
their
effects cn growth, Phct.)fitrrr!)n,)genesis, It,:lc cf phytcchrome
in plant m','vements and f1-:vrering.
1.
Phy.si.rlogy c.f flc,vrerinq - i:hysicl--,qicrI .rn,-l bi;chemic:lchanges .fss()ci.:ted with f1,'rrve-ring, the,:ric-s ancl f3ctors
B.
effect-,ing flowering phctopcri_:,:-lism .ln,,t veruel-is eti_c,n.
Fruit developm.ent rncl ripqning.
9-
Physicl:gy cf seecl gc-'rmina&iln
anci reserve mcbilisatitn
10. Senescence and absclss
11
s5-'ec
viabi-1ity,
Dormency
i:uring gerrninat.ir:n.
j_cn.
. Bii:1ogl.ca1 clr:6i1s .
1'2. stress Physiology - stress concept, temperatur.. stress,
r?.edi:rtion Stress, w:.ter stress, l.iur+_rient stress, Metal
toxicity and response of plints to stressPR TCTICi.LS
1-
Prep=r31i3n ,;f
and their
2.
3.
4.
rf
mol-:.f
, mcIar, norm-ll rncl percent;rge soluticns
i_Iutir:ns.
Dry weight/r'n:j-stur.- ccntent cletermin:tion ;f plant materials
Demcnstrati-r.:n ()f principle .,f osm:si-s thrcugh J.ivlng membranes.
Determinatlcn cf ,..rsmotic p.)tential
(e) ?1:smoj-ytic meth-:cl
(n) Gevimetric methc,-].
5
-
Demonstration cf ef f ect of tempareture ancl
cells permeability.
chemj_cof
s .n
'l ')
permeabllity
6. Demonstration of an+-agonistic effect )f ions on
"
of membranes,
'.
7. Determinatj-.x cf rate of phctcsynthesls under 'lifferent
conciitlons.
8. Separ.tlon of plant pigments by p-rper chrr:rnetogrephy,/thin
layer chrometcgr,ephy and .abs':rptic-'n spec+-rr: of each pigment
seParated
-
g. Quentitative estimation C,f chlcrophyll content using spe'ctrcph:rtometrY.
_.
Reference Books.
Plant Physiclogy, '\' 'Ire:tlse '
VoI. 1-10. -\ca'Jemic Press, New Ycrk'
F.B. & Rddsnt r:Lry:il1:gy Pub' Co' New York'
1,. p.C. Stewari
2.
3.
Salisbury,
Ross C.W. 1985 Biclwell- R.G.S.
4.
Ncggle G-R- &
Fritz G.J.
5.
Encylopeclj-a of
6.
Pl-ant PhYsiologY
f . Levltt (rggo)
Plant i>hysiclogy' Macmill-ian Pub' Co'
IrTew York.
Introductory Pl-'snt Physicloglr
prentice Hill, New De1hi.
Springer - Verlag.
New Series
Berl-Iin'
nesponses .rf plants to envlronmentsl',/
stressessTVi'''I&fI'
7.
Anderson T.w. &
M'.>Iecul-sr -'Lctl-Vlties of Plant cell-s
Bearda].].I(1991).BIackwellPub'oxforri.
BIOCiIEi'1IS IifY
Theorv
7.
occurrence structure and
functions of moni)sec<)hari<.les, oligcs.icchrorides end pclysacchsrldes j-ncl-uclng starch, ce. lluloser hemicellulose 'lnd
j-de diphospl'ite
pectln.
Synthes is cf glycos icl ic bcncs, nucleos
sugr.rs; starch and sucrosc: synthesis. ilydrolysis ''f qfJyccsidie
cerbohydrates: classificaticn,
bcndS: amylases, invert.rses lnr-:'l-uher import3ntglycosidaseS'
-34.
Glycolysl-s, fermentation,
glucon.- genesis
:;-,c.1
pentose phcsphate
pathway.
2. r'rnincr ,^ci<-ls, Feptides and Pr'.-.,teins: Classific:tion
and Structure
r-,f amino :cicls; gien:-re1 Droperties ttf amlnc ecids, JmphoLeric
property; generel re:ctions
of ,rrninL, _rciris; ninhycrrin reacticn.
,'mino rcicls met:boJ-ism,' -lrlns:minlti;n
and GOGA'I p:thw:y.
-Pri,rte-ins : inclass
amj-n.rtion, clornj-n:tiun
if icati-on '>f prcteins
-icc:rdi-ng to sc.lubiltty
an<-l structure.
Ccnformatic;n anci srLructure ,-f pr:teins including .ind configur,rtionl R-:.m:chandr:n,s pI ,t; weak j_nter:ctionsi
st:bil_iz etir:n ,>f structure,
hy,lr,_rgen brl,ncrrS, Functii;n -;f
proteins,' structural- prcteins,
:nd their
ccnjugatecl prcteins,
import:nce. Proteolytic
l-ecti-ns
enzymes .rncl the-ir rctlon-
3. LipiCs' Cl-assifi-cati-rn cf J-rplcis. SynthL-sis i.f fitty
cxirjeticn and -oxid:tion r.>f fatty acirts.
4. IJucl-elc r..:lds: the purine.rn"
pyrlmidine brses:nd
structures.
Three dimensirnal structure
types of
Jnc thelr
RN,r'
rcid.
thei_r
;f DNu'^. Different
functi:rnin prr;tein bic-syn+-hesis.
Brief acccunt r:f purine antl pyrimiriine biosynthesis.
5.' Biologic.rl oxir)rticn: Krebs cycle; mltochondriill electron
transport systemi cyanicle resistant
respir:ti:rn.
Glyoxylete
p rthwsy.
G. Enzl.mes: Cl-assif icetj-,rn .:nr.l rr.-:me'nc.l-ature. llech-rnism .;r enzlrmesF
actic-,n I l-ock anri key' ancl lnclucecr f ir hyl,,:-,thes j-s. Enery
of tctlvation cf enzymL5 c:ttlysed re_rcti:)ns. Factcrs affecting
enzyme activity.
Michaclis - ma.ntir-,n const:nt (rm) anc 1ts
ctrterlvation. A11r--,stefic enzymes. dnzymes j_nhibi_tion ancl
types -
P-.:le cf members of B-vitamins :s cijc-nzymcs.
PFI.C-liC,,LS
I.
General qualit.rtive
acids :nr.i proteins,
CDfi;r reactions f,t,r cerboiryclrstes, .:mino
,:;crolei.n test ftt f ets . Bounclouin , s
test fcr sesame :>i1 in Da1:r-r (tcst f:;r :cul-ter:ticn
ghee ) .
cf genuine
-352.
3.
4.
,letermi-natlon )f reclucing sugars from a pI:nt
luantitrtive
tissue t 1y :ny suitable me-ch,,<1 .
r,xtr:.cticn ancl estlmation of star:ch by Pucher's metht d.
Extr-:ctlcn and estim:ti:;n :-,f soluble :min:: aci.ls (totrI)
by ninhydrin methcd..
5,
Esti-m-.ticn of protein by Biu::et meth'rd :nd by LcwrY et al.
methcC (o'o1in uir:caltey rcrgi3n+-) .
6.
Extraction
and determin:tir-.n ,-rf .rmylese activity
ti-ssues. 3nd amglase
7
.
Pil Dptimum cletermlnatir:n.
Inffuence cf enzyme conCs-Dtr:.ti-on, time ,rni.l substrate cfncentr-rtic,n on enzyme activity.
clr:ubl-e reciprocal
A- r:st,im.rticn of
plot
i.lm
vafue ceterminatl:n
by
(Lineweav.er Burk methr:d).
RN,:t tn.J DN,.
3n(' cliphenyl,rmine
9.
fr:m plrnt
by cc..forimetric meth'-cls orci-nel
met-hc.cls.
Estlmrtion cf inorganic phosphcte by the Fiske-Subb-rr:c
method.
10
, Estim.rtiorr tf tc trl
titrable
.rclrlity in pllnt tissues.
REtr'8i<ENCES:
r-.!_!-c"}ts- - Theory
1.
Biochemistry 3 by .'!.L. l,etrninger.
2nc:. -lncl.
3rd eclltir>ns.
vl/orth
publications, New Ycrk.
2. ,. Iext bcok of blochemistry: By
hi.K. Ic.tCC, N.S.
"...',t/gstl
..Manson and.J.T. Van Bruggen. i'4ecmi 11on ccmpany.
3. Prlnclples of Biochemistry: by .',. lvhite, P. Idancller, R. L. Hill
and I.R. Lehman, rYcGraw Hill Bo:k Company.
-
Additional
Books:
L.
Outlines of ,liochcrnistry 3 by B.E. C':nn anc'l P.K.
2.
Plant Biochemistry : Ed J. Bc,nner ancl J.E. VrrnerPress Publication.
3-
Enzymes : by Ivi- Di-xon anrl E-c. webb. Longtnaren pubricatj-ons.
4.
fntermedi:ry
met:bclism -rnd its regulatic,n:
Prentice Ha1f Inc. New Jc-rsy-
S'uurnpf .
,:cedemic
oy J" L,erner
- 35-
-r.
Ihe bicchemi-stry ,.)f PI.3nts I comprehensive. treatise.
Ec.lited r1z P.i(. Stampf ancl E.r,. Conn (all- volumes) iicaclemie
Pres s .
J,)U.rnaIs and Rev-lews
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
,\nnua1 R.eview cf Biochemistry
.'rnnu:I Il.eview of Pl:nt Physiology
P1:nt
iology
tlournal- rf Plant
( ;,-,urn:1)
Phys iolcqy (;ournal )
Phytochemistry (Journal)
Pl.rntr ( Jr-rurnal )
Phys lclogic r Pl-ant.rrum (.rourn.rl- )
TEST
1.
Phys
tsOOTCS
I
I)iL.CTIC".LS
H-iwk's Physi,:1.-rgicrl- uhemistry : by D.L. Oser, McGraw Hill
.ruh.
2.
I^n introduction
to Practic.;.l Bicohemistry : by D.', Plumer
McGraw FIJ-II .oub.
3.
Labor.:tory Menurl in tsicchemi-stry I by J. Jay:ram. Wiley
E:stern Ltcl. DeIh1, B,1one, Bombey, C:1o.:tt.a.
B
IOHHYS ICS
Thecry
7.
..toms and molecufes
El-ectron trf.nsitionsr
stru,>ture - energy levels 'lnd orbitals;
p!lrrity
of molecules, Dynamdc concept
of c-quilibri-um.
2.
fers : their functicns in bi:--,1cgic,-i1 systems i uses of
buffers in bi-ol-,:gica1 rese:.rch. Derlv-rtlcn r:f !{enderson
Buf
Hasselbalch
equ
ltir:n.
3-
Chromatography :ni electrtphor,-.,sis : Princlples
4-
Basic concept :f light
spectrcph.:tometryi their
research
energy.
and technique.
Ph:trrmetry: colorimetry
rppfic-rtii,n
and
1n bicl-ogj-c.allbicchernlcs]
5.
Centrif g3ticn:
Principlcr-r rncl technique ?ncl their .epp1i-
c.eticn in biology.
6.
Micrr:sccpy : Prlnciples
with ref-:rencc= tc ligh!,
pel,rrizJ-ng
phase ccntrast and efectr'-,n micri:scopy. X-ray Clffeactj-crn.
7
.
Bioenergetics:
energy
entrophy; high energy
phcsphorylated ccmpouncls i synthesis :.:f r:'iTp. phcsphagens,
Fre-.e
_rncl_
8-
Radiobi,:r1ogy. tsrir:f .:.ccount i)f its .rppf ic:tiln
9.
fmmunoehemistry: technlque rnci its :pplicaticn
10. Cryobiclcgy: Freeze cirying (Iycphiliz,ation)
in bi91ogy.
j-n research.
its applicetion.
PEc-TCIIC,,LS
123.
4
.
5'
Preoar:tion cf buf fers an,.1 me.:surement ,.,f pH - pH meter.
P'lper chromatcgr,:phy of sug.Lrs { separatlon .;>f sugers end^
iclentif ication I
a
Thln layer chrcm:rtography - amino acid mixtures.
,';lcsi,.rptl rn spectra -;f chtrirr.rphylls and s 3rt)ten.-:ics; estimaticn of chlorophyll^ .a anli b in leeves.
Separrtion of subcell-u1ar p:r.tlcles 'by differential centri-
fugatlcn.
graC
ients
Density gradient ce-ntrifugation in sucrcse.
.
6. Determination cf iscelectric
pH.
REFEIlENCES
1.
Physic:l- Blochemistry : Dy D. Froifolder.
oomp.tny, S,en Fr:.nsisco (tgl0) .
2.
niophys ics : by D. C. S. tvhi-ue.
3'- Biophysics
pub. !.,i.H.
Ereeman
concepts and mechanics I by E.J. Casey. pub.
Van Nostrand Rej_nh,:rLcl Company.
-
fc
.) <)'-
1. Bi.ophysics: Ed t.iaI+-er Hoppe (rgga) puu. bpringer vsrflg.
2. Optic'rl methrds in Biology by E.i'I. S].ryter (f gZO) pub.
W1ley Intersciences
3. R.rdietion tracer methodclogy in Blophysical seiences
by C.H. Wong and D.r.r. w1l1is (f qOS) ?rentice Hl1l Rub,
4. cryobiolcgy Ed. by H,T. Merrymrn (
) ,.c.:.demic press.
5. Techniques of ;'.utcracliography: by a.Iri. Ilegers (rgog)
Elsevler pub. Company,
BIOi,lE LR.Y
1.
2
.
3.
Numerical Cistributicn
Me.ssure <if
1c2c
:nC their graphic:I
:.tii..n,
l,leasures of vari.rti-rrn r3nge drtrj cieviati.;n,
tlevilti,-;n
representation
st_rnc]rrcl
.:nci strnd.rrc_] err:;r.
4.
Frequency t:ble,
5-
Popul:ti;n
ncrm:1, blncmial :ncl poisson tlistrlbution.
arc,l sampllng pairecl anii. unpeired tests anc
chlsqu.lrr tests.
Design .tf experiments, rrncl:mj-secl bIc-,cks - Letin Square anc
f:ctorial.
6.
7
'
.
,1n
alys is
<-,
f vari
-tnce .
rheories ,..rf prob-rb1lities,
8.
correl:tion
rnc.r
regressicn.
9-
Linklge :nd Link.rge snrlysi_s in clj_p1r:id crg:nisms.
10. Ietra,.l an.-rlysis tc stucly inc-lepenclent .rssortment 3nr.r
linkage analysis in haplcici crganism.
.)R .C-lIC..LS
Praetic,rl skj-l-l-s to s!)ve :ni: w,lrK i;ut prcblems in Biometry.
REEEEENGEE:
t.
St-rtistical
meth,:cls uf .igriculturlI
wcrkers I.C.:r.ri.
Panse
&
Sukhrtme.
2.
Measurement of linkrge
3-
fntroducticn
4.
,)rinciples
in hericlity,
M:rthcr.
tc) G,--netics stetistics,
snd prccedurcs :f st.ltistics
to the Biclogical
Scienc.=
Kempthorn€.
witJr spcci:1 rsfttrcnce
)-)
4, r)rinc*p1es tncl pr.'cecl,ures cf strcistj-cs ,."'ith spccial .ur..u.r"I
to the 3io1ogic,r1 Sciencc, Steel ifcD & Icrrie J.H.
.iVJ.SC.
.SEMESL'ER.
IV :
IN
COUI(SE
iJL.^N.T SCIENCES
VIII
FLOVJEIi.II{G
: SPr;CI..\LIS,,TION
t,L..NI
SYS
SUtsJECT
iIIlVL,l'ICS .
Ihec-rry
1. ., Det-:.i1ed 3nrjt critj_c-rI study of the conceptual c'levelop_
ment of biol-cgic:I classificrtion
Ihecries :f classific:tion
of irg,-n j_srns.
2. Evcl-ution rry t:xonomy - prcblems enr-l. prcspercts.
3. spc'cies problem in biology .-) critic:l an,lysis.
4. Ctr:r.rcte F V,lriijtiun, :iiapt.rti,-:,n, reproctuctive isc,1:tj_on -rnd
speci rtion - biodiversity enrJ their impor-tance.
5 - cl-ssical
.anc experlment -r1 (bir-',systemati-c) rppro,rch tc
. toxon,)my : critical sturiy.
6- Flcristic stucies in rnriir - e brief outr-in.:
7T:xrncmlc li-terature
Fl-ores , revis icn :rnc Monogrcphs .
!'iL^CTIC,..LS
1- Exeercises on preprr;rtir-,n of .enrlytical_ cescriptlcns of
minlmum of 25 1cc:J pJ:rnts using t.rxonomic terminclogy.
a
^i,
-xcerc.l-ses on preparstion of synr,ptic :ncl .:.nrlytiear keys
z3- Excercises on preparlti-:n cf bct-:nical ilrustr,rticns.
REFEIIEI'ICES:
1
Davj-r, P.H. & Heyry,)cd, V.H. 1963. prlnciples of
.,D9e
iosperm
Tax,jnorny, New York.
2.
Hc.ywc,oc,r,
V.H. (Ed.) 19S8,
i4_rdcrn meth,..cs 1n
plant t;xoncmy,
Lonclcn.
V,H. & D.M. l,loore. (eds.) fgg+. Current
3.
Heywoocl,
4.
in plent .l:xonomy, Lrn.lonBurkill, r-H. 1965. cnepter in thc his+-ory .:f Bctany in rndi:,
concept.s
DeIhl.
Street
E. (nO . ) 7978. .Essays in Pl-ant .Iexonomy, Lcnclon.
6. Vi;9e1, E. F'. (e ,, . I 1997. M:nuel i.,f Herbarium T.rxoncmy,
j ek rrt:.
7.
Heslop Hariscn, J. 195g. l{ew c,_:,ncepts in flowering plrnt
5.
FI.
t3x-rnomy, New De1hi.
B- Jeffrey, c- 7968. ,.o in--r,-c-'ucti,-n to pllnt trxr,n.rmy, Lon<lon.
9. cr:nqui.it -" 1981r .^n int:gr-rtec system tf aressif ic-.,tion
rlf flcwerinq plrnts, New y;r]-,
10. Kubitskl, K. (e4.1 \977. f'1.:werlng plents: Evoluti;n and
cl rss if ic.:.tir-,n :f Highc.r .:ce glric-s r , Wien.
11. Rerjforcl ,\.8. '1986- "un(l:mcntals ,:f trl:nt system.eticsr
New
York.
- Stuessy, T. F. 1990. p1r.nt T:xcnomy, New ycrk.
13. slvar: j :n. v. v. r-99 r. . fhtrocructicn fr: principl,es of plant
taxiincmy, Crmbridge & De1hl (ff $ditlc.n)
74. Lrtest Intern.:tlc-,n:I C,ode cf ts.rtrnicel Nomenel_fture.
L2
I
--l
SEttlJS
.4 1
I -
\7
r'{Ft IV
t
I.4.sc.
CQUR,SE
(SEtu.ESlEii
VII -
ri'j
?I^'NT SCIEi'iCES
)
S
.a
.t)TEiTI;OLOGY
Theory
1.
2.
3.
Diversity :;f f ,.rms among pteridophytes : CIub. mosSeS, qulfl
sorts, m.lsquito ferns, m'cn worts, filmy ferns, Br:rcken
ferns, tsj-rdts nest ferns, M3icien heir fqrns lnd tree ferns
qenerrl m)rphoLogy .lnrl ec':1cgy, with speci:1 ..in."t"" to
Scuth Indi,-rn sPecies Classj-fic,:ticn ,tf ptericlophytes - brief history; Chrlstensen,
Ccpel:nc,', Ching, I{o1ttum, pichi-Sermo1li ' ComP lrison
)f clrssif ic;ti-,ns.
!'css iL pterieir,ptrytes Ps lcphytales r Lel,idcrlendrules,
?leurcm$.rIes, C jl.-r-mitales ,
Sphen
;phyI1-rl-es ancl Primof ilic'el-es '
Gener.:1 mcrpholcgy :ncl ge.;1 )gic timel Maj:,r frlssil ferns of
Iniiia
4.
Spore mcrpholcgy djf South Incjii:n ptericicphytes, ,icetclysis
methoci spore Cescripti,:,n -:nd mL-3surements' Spcre m'"'rphc-
Iogy in rel:ti,rir t<-; fern t:xon-rmy.
5. Sora1 evoluticn lmong pterii]',,phytes, strcbilusr tessels,
rnergin:1 :ffici superf ici,il s:.,ri, :cr::rStichoiC soril Sp)f,Ocarps i
phyletic sLide, sporlngirl evoluticn. Phyletic swlng.
6. Heterospory 3mong pteri<lophytes; f:-'ssi1 .:ncl extant,' Development
of seed.
7. Ccntributj-on by Inclian pte riciol;gists a I'rlcrlham 'enc N1n''rn,
I{ay.-lr B.t(., Bir, SSr ,':,. Devi, ,inc1 S. KJur'
Uytclcay cf ptericlcphytes,' P,rlyploidy fnd naturll hybrids;
ff .
cyt')t r.XoflotTl}z .,)f fei'ns.
I
.,
-42-
A
9. Morphoq:nesis in trterldcph-'tes; stu<1ies of W3rdLsw rnd Steevess
f-rctors of spore germinaticn :nc1 proth.r111.,1 clevelopment;
induction of :pcgamy, .rntherj.clj-el f()rm-rt,irn, lnduction cf
sporophylls on int.rct plents.
.rRz^CTICTiLS:
1.
Morphological .:.nd enitcmictf
observ:tj-r)ns on: Isoetes,
Bctrych j-um, Azr:1f sr Mecocljum, Pte-riclum, , rsplenlum, .ldientum
2.
and ^lscphila.
Hebit,rt. s1p1-ly ,:fl g.rmetophytes tn,'l sporophytes of : Lycopodium
aglnel1a, .".thyrium, schizolcm.l, Gleichenirr
r-rryn-rris, .'.ngi<-.,pteris 3n.; o:lvini-e.
Sef
.i Fjsld study repcrt
3,
be submitted on this :rbserv.rtions.
Fcssils : Lepi-doclemdron. Lepidoc trpon, Lepiclophylloicles,
l'^nnu1
4.
rLrry
Pyrrcs ia,
:ri:t,
Ce1.:mites .:ncl Br,tropteris.
Study of spore germin.ti'-rn inci srrothalli:l
exenic cul-ture of :
^,crcstiehum. Pteris,
Dryn_..ri:.
Cevelopment 1n
.-r,2,:111.
REFER.ENCES:
2.
-ndrews, H.N. 1,961. Stu.=-,ies ln Palebbot.rily, Wiefy N.y.
.'rno1d C..... 7947. .'rn introiuctir,rfl cf P.iIeobot.:ny
3.
Hill,
tsierhc.,rst, D. !'.
1.
McGraw
N.Y.
797
L.
l"lorphl1,;gy i;f V.lscular P1ants
Macmi-f lan,,
4.
Bower F.O.
ferns Vo1.I
-[cmcrrcws Bock Pub]-i. New ,cIhi.
5.
Campbell H.D,
1923-2e,
ThC.
1939..llvrluti:n,tf
L,-rncl
III
'l'r,,day ancl
Pl.ents, Stanclerd
Uni. Press.
6.
'f
.
Dyer ,-,.P. (pe. ) 1979. 'Ih.- Expe-rJ-mental Bj-clcgy of !'erns.
Eamnes ii.J.
1936. Morpholc,gy ,if Vrscular Plants Irower Group.
\
:
_4,3_
r
8.
Fi:ster, .-r.S. & Giffr-',rcl, E.lv. Lg62. Compar,tive Ir{orphclogy
,of Vascul:.r Plants/ Freeman, S.:.n Fransises.
9.
Gupta2 K.M. \962. M:rsile r, CSIi{ l,tonog;3p6, New !el-}iri.
1968. Flor:,-,f
10. Holttumr R.E.
11.
.l Revised cf essif icati:-:n cf I,:,ptcspor tngi:te
Linn. Soc. Bot. VoI.53.
Ferns of I'IaI3!3r
f erns
.
J.
Lumpkin, T.-^. & Pl-ucknett. D-L. 1980. izo11: Botany Physio-
}2.
logy
13
Malaya Vo. II.
.
.:ncl.
use rs a grcen manure, EC, B,:rt. Vol. 34.
Nayar B.K. & S. Kaur .
797
1,
. Comp.rnion to R-H.
Ferns of Briti-sh Inilie.
Chronic: Botanice.
Gemetophytes rf hc;mc;sp,--.r,)us ferns Bct. tbv.
14.
Vul.
.
Bedciome t s
37
.
.
Nay.r:i, B.i(. 1959. Meciicin:1 rerns of Incji:
NBG Bu11
No.
L6.
Pichi-Serm.-r1li, ^.8.G. L977.'::.xc:,n,->my iif ptericiophyte
qener-r webbi.: 31 Q) 313-5L2.
t7.
Rrshi-cl -r.
18.
5cctt.
1g76. .:.rr intr:uuction
Pub. Cr>. Ne.w uefhi-.
D.H.
29
tc trteridophyta Vlkas
1,962- Studies .n Fcssil Btrt:ny 2 Ycls. Hanner N.Y.
,:r,C. 1,91,7. Fc-,ss1l- p1;nts 4 Vols. uambr-i-Cge Unl. Press.
10. Sprone, K.R. 7976. 'Ihe I,l.rrpholor;ry cf i'terirSophytes, "Hutehinscn
19.
Sewerc-'
Scok Co. Lcn,ic.n
21. Surenge K.R.
22.
rUrril,
7956. Indian FL.ssil Pterldophytes. CSfR monograph.
1963. Vistas in B,rtany, Perg3mon Press,
W-8. (ea. )
I-,cnCon
23. Irtrllson, C.L. 1953. 4re j'elome'Ihecry Bot. I€v. Vof, 79.
477-437.
?4. Wardl1ew1 C-W. 7952. Phylr)geny and
Macmillion &
rphcgenesis
,
Company.
25. l{rtanebe I. 1977. izofla
IR-Rf News letter
I
M,:
UtiJ-ixaticn
Vo.
2-
i.n rice eulture
I
-4/iSEMES
M.
,
COURSE
ItriI
SC. IN ]]L,:.I{T
VIi :
IV
SCIEI.ICES
SPECf-,LIS.,TICItr SUBJECT
IVIYCOLUGY
Ihec'ry
L. Histcry tI mycc1c9y.
2. 'Princlples cf fung-r1 tlx,)n'lmy, r,rcmenclature cf fungi, taxonomJ-c
criter15, nomenclrture of ple'omorphic fungl ani ccncepts of
' 3nlmorph te.leomcrph rncl h,:1,)m-.:rphs.
!
3
'
Myxomycotin.r : .rf f inities
with protozoa, class j-f icationr rlorphology and rievel,:pmen t it:-= p1 :srr-ir--cl i:, mating sys+uems, pl.rsmcdiel- incompe.tibility, spcrul.r:.rron.
4. Mastigomycotine ; clif ferent type.s of zoospores and t ieor
morphclogy and ultrastructure, types anc ultr.-rsL:rrcture of
f,1age1i- r, chytriciiares
t-r'.1rIus structure , reproduction .rnd
clessificationl oomycetes - ceI1-waIl, chemj-stry, thalLus
5
.
morphclcgy, veget,ative rnr,r sexu 11 reproduction, classifi_ertion.
Zygomycctina : Mucorales nutriticn,
phys icrcgy, cer-r--wellchemistry asexual :nr] sexu,:l ::eproducticn, phototropism
:f spor:ngi-ophores, telemr;rphic zygotropic enc thigmotropic
re.rctions, morphol,=rgy rn,'l ultrastructure,rf
sporangiospores,
Entomcphthror,ale-s : qeneral tcc,Junt, Irichomycetes;
a general eccount.
6.
.iSCcmycOtlna : heterc:rkary..-.sls, recombinati,rn, nuol_ear migfation,
somqtic nuc]err cllvision,
m:ting behaviour, types of :.scl,
Cevelcpment of asci anil 3sc()pores, uLtrrstructure
of 3sccspores,
asc,)spore clisch:,rge1 types ,:.f :-.sc()c.irps .rnd their
development sf rgxt rNdr recent .trenrls in the classifj_catlon
of oscomycetes, ultrrstructure
cf Saccharomycese u]trastructure of h-lustcrium, oj llrysipher geDCFal accounts of
Hemlf.scomycetes, Lcculocscomycetes, Plectcmyce.tes, Laboulbenlcmycetes.
\
1,C
'a J-
I)rrenomyr-r:tes, and .lJlscomyceL-es
.
7. Basldlomycctina : types, struc-uure lnd (levelopment ,>f besidia,
morph:.,Icgy erd fine structure of b.rsidiospcres, mechenism of
bssidiospore discherge, strrreture r;f mucel-ium -rnct fine structure
of septum, cell-v,reI1 chemistry, m.rtlng systems, oidia, nuc1e,:r
of brsiriiome,
migraticn, /.glric.r1es devo-'l ,rpment snd
,lnatomy
physiclogy rf basidlome devc'lcpment ancl explnsion, recent
tren,:ls in clesslfic:rtion.
..phy]1ophcrales - hyphsl systems,
recent trends classif ic:lticnr Her-L-rob-ls idiomycetes spcre
germinrtion petternsr recent trends in clessific.:tion, Septobesidd.nm ,rnd lnsect -:.ssr-rc1atic-'n, Grstercmycetes cl-:rssification
Ustilaginales and Ureoiniles - c1;ssification and relatlon ships 2 bas idicmycetcus ye -ls ts
.
8. Deuteromycotina : diff j-culties in the classificaticn .ani
nomenclature types c:f conicliaf Cevelopment, v:riation In
condial shape and colour, t"pes .:f ccnidj-a-' fructifications.
9. 'F\:ngl of the rhizcsphere -rncJ.phyIlcpIane. In goldl:n fungl,
marine fungi.
10. Mycoses, Mycctoxlns ancl mycctism.
7!. Fungal biotechnolcgy: I'ungiii protc,plasts :ts tcols for genetic
manj-pulation, pr,rtcplest
fusi:n
:nrl transformation;
bicmass as food, mucopr,:teirs, biotrrnsformation
me.t:bolities,'
fungal
and useful-
rcle of fungi in bi.,;1r;gica1 c,)ntroJ. of insects,
nematlCes :nC *""0 applicrticn
of mycorrhizas in -rgrieuJ-ture
and f<,restry.
72. Gener:1 mycolcgical methci'is,
PRiCiIC.TLS
1.
Study of the mcrpholcgical char:cters
structures of the fcllowing
,ireyrla,
an<l reprociuctive
genera.
Pl asmod.iophore, oJ-pi<l
ium, . rl Iomyces,
ll1-rs tocl-ad
ie1la.
La,;,..11
i rl-i rtitL, ^bs j 11 i -i7 'lir rlirrr i,:: i rrrtl, llTrr<:c:phrI-l.s t--r1lfil, Cunninghamell,r,
thaetOmium,
, ntcmophttrcrr, Erys i :he, Gymno:scus . Sordarie,
Daldinia, Hypcxylr:n, Itrectrj,-'., Currlyceps, Ge,:rrJlossum, Rhytj-sme,
'irlrcclb{,
M:r rsmius, Entclma,
-scobofus r Tuber, Q:;prinus ,
C,Icmus
r micr.Jpcrus, Phellinus,
Trametes, Schizophyllr:m, i{y-cinurn, ti'rmrril., rremell:, "eptoLentinus, Pleurotus,
Bof c='tus , P<-rlyor-rnrs
, basidium, ;-ruriculerio2,'il)l icr-rI-;,seyDh:r,'Ii11et-i-r, Uaaiyce"
Spcrobcl,-)myces, Geotrichum, Ciclium, , ^ureobes iC ium, 'Ihiel.rviops is,
-lriehi->i;erm3., cladosporium, (,y1indr',-re1;diumr,-^rthrobotrys,
HcLtriril-hosporium, Pyricrr.i.-,:-j;1, Stilbum, Graphium, Phomopsisr
i' -:l I n<,L,rFr i -lr,tm?
-
T,s,-,
Iltirn
:>f f rrngi f rcm s.,1i s:mples and rhlzcsphere.
3.
Se-:f
4.
Observati-cn of phy1lcpIar,rc. fungi.
5-
ectlv.-. isol- rLion .i fungi f ri-rm scil.
observatlon af spcre germlnrt-lori by hanging drop sricres
,tncl s 1i c1e culture .
6
" ;',ir
s,r-^rJl
ing
f
:>r funqi..
IiEFEIIENCES:
r;,insworth, 5. c. et- aI.
Treatise.
(sCs. ) ',g55-1913. The fungi ! ,irr advanced
Vcl_s L-4 - -ic.rc1emic ?ress
-
irilexopcul-'-'se C.J. & i,iims, C.W" 7985- Intrcductcry
'
Decrcon, J-W. 1988. Introcluction
to
MyccIogy. Wi1ey.
mcdern mycclogy; BLackwell.
Mcc;re-Lino.reker, E.
199O. Funclamentals of gungi, Prentice Ha11.
Webster .T. 1980. Intrc-rclucticn to fungi. Cambrirlge Uni. press.
l
Burnett. H.H. 1,916. Funcament,:ls cf I'IycoJ-ogy E.,+rhofd.
B:cth. C. 1971. I'{ethocls ln I'{j-c.r:obio}ogy Vo.4 rre.tdemic Press.
JOUR.ltr,rLS:
Mycolcgicel i<esearch
Mycologi_r
-the Mycclogi s t, K:.vaka
I
-+-lSET,ES
CUUiTSii
VII
I.Oii IV
Sr,irCi,^LiZ,iTIOr{: r,Lr,Iif yiOi(PHOGENt5SIS,.ND'IISSUE
CULTUIIE
Theory
1.
2.
Pfant MorphoQenesj-s : basjc clnce-.pts, signifieonce lnd scope.
Evtlurtj-on ,:f v,rri:lus Cr.;oC..)p+us .-.,n sh,t,:,,t :n, r,:,ct rpital
organizations cf higher pf lnts
Lit,-'l
experimental apprc3.ches
to related problr:ms.
3.
Prcrblems .rr=l:ated to v.Lscul ,L::isrti,.-,n lnrl prim.,rry :nC sec,-:ndary
y,owth in plints.
-
df.
4-
M';rphogentic prcblems rel-:rt.t,.-l to trrnsiticn
to repr:ductive phis,:, in f.l.r1ys;ing pI:nts;
fruits
fr,:m vegetative
mosphogenesis of
ancl seec,rs.
5
.
Pl-ant -'issue cu]ture :
5
-
Cll-fus culture: meth.:c1s cf prcciucti;n,
procluct. n of seci:,nr,,terv met :.,,1ism.
7
.
Organcgenesis mcris-Le-m shr; ;t/rlc L. tip cultures, enther
culture, ovary/cwrrt e cul_tu.rc , rhj.z()genes is, callogenes j-s,
Plant pnot<-.p1asts and somat.ic hybri<rlz-rtion.
racot induction acclamatiz.-rtir-,n :.nc fiel,: trensfer.
8.
9-
10. Micrcprop:qation,
c1ona1 variabllity,
b es ic
c;rncept-s incl techni-ques
pr,.rc,ructi-,':n r.>f
.
types of ca11us,
diserse free plants,
scma-
production r:f second:ry metabcl-ities,
scmetic embrycaenesi-s, encapsur,tiun of seeds.
11. Crycpresefvation cf ce11s, tissues rn.f org.ns.
12. &tl-e af growth regulatcrs c)n ErLrwth and Cevelcpment of
culturad cell-s.
13. Genetic engineering 1n plants; concepts techniques and scope.
'
BP.,(^CT]CALS
Plrnt tissue cul_ture technigue.
:l
r/
I
-,i8. rtii!-i]iiEl{Ci,
1.
S
Evans A.D., sharp, V\,.R.,.mir:t;,
H,rnrl bci-:k':-,f plrnt
?.V. anc k:mrcl.r, Y. (1983)
ceI1 cu,'lt-ure techniques f;:
pr.,.r.J1ti,.-,rr
-incl breeo-lng VcI. I & II.
1
ilei-n--rt, J & Yer-:rn.in, MM rr1 rnt Ce11 .:nC tissue cultur..
.i
1..r-r
n:rnu,t1.
.).1j. (f gga) r,1ant pr.rp
3.
Gc.Jrqe E.!'.
4.
by tissue culture.
BiJ:j Y..,r.S. & rtsi_nert, J. (7977).
rnc., Sherrintr,'r,,7,
..ppliet1 rnd
-iil
1;i,.ln
fr:ir_r imcnt:-r
.-rslrects of pllnt
cel1, tissl)c:r2 rncl -,rg'ln culture .
Bhr:gw.rml S.S. .1nt.-''l i(azdan iU.K. (fgSS). ?l-.rnt tissur: cuf tur,..
fhec-ry
6.
Dr:;r-lils
:lD(-l
Prrctice.
J.H. (1985). ixperim..rts
in p]:nt
tissu-- eul;i.rre
.
Brlz rv{. irei-nh:rd, E. & Sienk, },1.H. (f gZO) Pl.rnt tissue eultur..
rnc] its bir-rr-echnirl.,gical rppl ic-ti,;ns .
SEi.TESTijx
COUI\SE
IV
VIf : SPIiCI:.LIS,.IIUN I
WOOD SCIliirIC0
1.
of wocil onatomy. Histbry ,.)f wcc<i .:n,:tc,ny in Inilj;L.
iieLev:nc=. r:f wrod 3nttcmicfl studies j.n Keral.: e,-:nt-ent
2.
C,'lmblurn
Ser',pe
- Orlgin, nature, et,nstituents, ebncrm:l letj-vltic.s,
fectr;rs, effeetlng u:mbie1 :bility.
3- L'I,:-,(-rr'i= hr*og"neous rnd heterogene')us, spring & summ.cr, e.irly
Srlu-r n.rte7 pcrous 3ntl non-por()usr hr]:'rt woc,C ehcl'siprJi',.rr).
,
+. Inp,:rtant timber brees of Xr=rr1:./'
Gr:ss feetures growth ring, Le.xtr(:.se, gr :ln, hrrdness,
e'-lIiur, hestre, od()ur, trs're, f igure.
6. r)hys ic.:1 f e.:.tures s \,^.reight, density, speeif l-c gr-rvi.ty7 strenllth,
el-ectrj-ce1 anC ti:'rmiI prcper-tics..
7 - Mtrnute struetural fe:tures: p..jrcs, trrchelds, f ibrc.sr vri.ssels,
raysr wr;,:;cl p,frenehyRer rlpp1e m.-rrKs, resin, unel.l-rge c.rnr1s,
Eums.
-19-
8. Keys for woo,:l iclentificrti.:,n.
9. ue feets in wr,:ds : -t<ni)ts, c, )flUtre ssir-_rn 3nr1 t.:n5,iOn
cr-)s s gr.ri_n. ripples w:ter, sh rkes, fung
"iI rtr:cks
i-njr,'cts, borery c.tc,
10.
Secscning cncl preserv:rti._,n
1,L.
[ri,36;fl
.pr :clugts :
prim]ry
.?iw
'CTIC,^LS
-
r>rrctice i>f taklng
the f ,;11:-:wing.
1
r,g.
,
1c)
i
-lcti
r;n
.
inL_r sr.,:cuDC
]Fy prcrciucts.
1'. 5 . ,
i-'i-nusr cuprcssusr '.g.rthis, Ephe-r]l r, Gnetum. MJ-che1i
,, D:.rbc.r1:ii r,
2'
Tect';n-:, cec)rell,r, Lr11leni:, Xyli;r, -rz.f.(-r5.r_reht.i, clner-in n,
vatj-c-,i. Hend sectionsr s1,,rc,!ge & Micr,:t<.:rlle _, secti:,ns,.
(e) D:ubl-e strining teehnic-.Les L,f the,:b.-.ve mentj-:,n:
- sc,ctir,.os
. -rnrl submission .of their slides
(b) '"{:cer:ti:--'n tachniqy.-rs, sr-ice prep:r.r:rti<-.ns
cc,mput,,tii,n
tf c-l:ta.
.1.
3.
of wr:r;rl b.:serl ,)n micri::secpic ferturcs m-iki-ng
use :>f the lbove sectlons. Dr.:wing c;lmer.l.
luci-c1 . ,:. i ::,e.r .ilTll
.tncl t.tbulatlng. 111 i:thdr fe_ttures reLaLed t:r
esch -:f thc
3b -,ve species.
4'
l'{eth::-'cs
fCentification
'f ts.king crlt;r the physic,rl featurc-.s of w_.;cr:
(,iensi!y, specific grevity, wej.ght, n.ai1_h..,1cling
e.rp reity,
steti'e bendlng, rmpaetr benc-ing, eompression' par.arrer tl gis.
5' submissl<jn ,'.1f a set.of xylrriu5ns speeimen'cf 20 w--.ri: s:rinple
s
beI:nging to hcmoxylousr. hctcr,rxylcns :nd f,ny r>thcr tylre ,,f
wc.r?ci.spg-.cimepg wlth key f,.-:r their
irl,entific,rtir.,n. thc
spqci.mehs shcul<i n'ave supp,:sting
I.L-s.
i_(.L-S.
slice.sr with their T.s..,
l'
a,
trr\
-Jv-
Aa
6. Prep:r.-iticn ..rf Key f:r
wor:C
identificrticn.
ItEFEItENCE:
Ed. K.,;. Chowrlhury enci S.S. Ghosh - V.;f. t16.
1.
In'.li:n Wc,-rrls
2.
Pl,rnt ,\niltcmy
3.
4.
i>lrnt ,.netcmy - ,1. Fehu
PreCtical Plant ,{n:tt3my - ;,
6.
Johrnsr:,n D.A.
K.- Es:u
i-'u,Ste-r
Plant microtechniqr:e
r
- IV
M.SC. Oi'I PL,rN'I SCIE}{CES : COUI{SEj VII.
SEi"lESTt.;R
SPECI;,LIZ..TION SUBJECT
S,:,Er-l
.
-IECIINOLOGY
rhe.rrv
1.
Introrluctlcn
: Hlstory of seecl technclc-;gy encl seed Testlng,
their clevelopment in Incli.: .nd lmpcrt.rnce tr .rgrj-culture
2.
Seerl testlng
prc-,cedures: Objectives;
IST,'. itules
Prescrlpt-
lcns ancl reccmmend:tic:ns, s-irnpling -type cf slmples, equipPhysicsl purlty cnd
ment intensity end st:,rag,: see:l purity
nelysis gienetic purity entl detcrmlnrti,^-.'n- (t:bcrat.:ry rnd
gr,twlng on trsts)
seeo Mtrlsture ci:ntent and :ff:cts2
methods
to cletermlne mol-sture ccntent,' seccl germ$n'ttion - vi:rbility
end germlnatir:n testsr sced-Iing evalu:rtitn: Seeo and seedling
-
viguous.
3.
l>hysiology snci see<lrlgr.rin c-ievel.-.pment - growth p:tterns
slgm(rld JnC c',cubl-e sigmcid grovrth curves - pheses of grcwth
role of peric3rps (Hut1) seed c;,-rts :nC fl:g leaf in seed,/
grain <ieve1,>pment. Biosynthe-si.s r:)f prrteins, c,,rrbohy<1retes,
Iipl<is IlN.r Curing seed grain <lcvelopment.
I
*a
--5
4.
1-
M:rpholcgy anrl r1nlt?my of seerl: Exom,:rphic charceter, Gross
intern ,,1- ITI .,rplir'11-;g1', r,le vel rpr:rent :ncl strue ture )f see.j coat
in msin groups i:f ,tngir:,sperms, cf assif ictti(rn r-,f seecls on
sg.d cr:.rt characters, i,:lentif icatirrn encl structure cf seed
cf
5.
of importent fiel-r: crr.)ps j-rr(l thej-r seer]s.
Seecl .L)rcduction: .arincj-pIes, Se.ed pr.:c-lueti-rn j-n self pollinated
cr.ss-polinatec and vcge;r-,:ivc1y prop-ig:ted crcss, hybricls
see<.]
seed.srpr,J(lucticn, m-rintrn.roCe of inbrecL llnes :nc1 br.rders
seeds, germ pl.rsm banks lie sr)ln cf verj-eties ancl fectors
respcnsible for thelr aetc-,.r'i:'rrticn. 11:rvesting sep:er,rtion,
-
-
6
cleaning and upgranriing :-,f. seec inclur)ing the equipment used.
Se-'crl storlge: Principles .,inr^ me thr.,cls of s-rfe sc'e6 storsge
types r,f storsge structures, seecl f lct,.)rs effc.cting stor-rge
life
.
terl<'.,riticn
xBEEE{x
germj_n
B-
cf stitr:ge environments
in storege
(-)n
seed 1._.,ngivi_ty seed
its control.
i:hysiclogy :-incl blcichc,mistry .:f seeci germinaticn:
mri'rur-rtl.crt for-r4 reserves, inhibiticrn, mrbillz3tion
de
'l
:ffects
.lnr--l
reversesr ge-rmin:rti-n
an<,'
Seed
cf
for-rd
grcwth f rct,yrs affecting
atic,n.
.)hysir,:Icgry of seecl germin::.tic,n.
bic;chemic-rI
"rimtry/e:rry
events i,f germlnlti,:_,n. ,']2pe;,rsnce anil r<>1e of pr>teases,
.rmylases and liprses in hy:rr,;lysing stc_rgs3 fccd materiala
in stcr-rge orgJns. Mobir-is::ti.,n ,-,f hy<frolysecr prc<ructs to
the growJ_ng embryen:1 rxis/sc.e<i1ing.
B.
9'
Sr:ed d,>rm.rncy and lcngevity:
Dormtncy _ significonce, ty,res,
control dormancy :rnrl rele:se r:f cl,:rrmlncy,
Lcngevity - life span rrf see., f ictors affeeting lonEe-
vi.rry, bicchemicaf .rnd cytologicrl affects cf longivity.
Seec certific:tion:
Definltlons, cle.velopment cf seed certlflc:iticn concept. mlnimum .seed certific,rt,i,.;n st:ndlr(-ls
gener:1 rnd speeific cr,)p st _rni.,rrcl,. f iel_rl :ins;_.resflsn,
IS'I.I, certif icates.
v
'
a
t
a2_
t'
The seed rct cf Inclia (1966) -rncl see'c] &ul-es (fg6g) with
10-
.lmendmcnts; mi11t-rti:-,ns - f che -'iet'
11. I,Itrticnal seeds prcgramme, n jtlonal seed ci''rpo;rtirn, seerj
inclustry in Inclia, "gencies responsibfe fr;r achievlng self
reI1.rnce in productic\n :nd *upp1y of quality seed (Stete
farms Corporation India, Strf seecls cr:rpcration, i'rsti'"'n11
seeal Pevelopment c:uneiL, central seeC Committee).
i.2. i;u.:rantine for seed: History .rncl import'rnce, Prlnciples r)f
qulrentrne regulatiJns, qu3rrntine regul:tions an/ tlreir
.rppf iceti<x, implic.rticns cf permiss j-b1e toleren::c.;, phyt';+
certific.rtes p1-rnt quer.intine in fndia'
s:nitrry
?ii.^CTfC.,LS
of rar:rklng S:lrrrpre using mech.lnicll 5g1lr l rlivicer.
Determinition .:f physical the puri-ty cf sced sampl': in srmpfes
i)rcprrrcion
f.
2.
.tf 5 f ie lcl cr.rps.
3-
Comp,,sition cf pure crr)p de-'(l 1f sample.
4.
Moisture content c-'f seed usj-ng even lnd any other rn':thoil
cf seed thr::ugh gcrminrticn, biochemic-r1 rnc exViability
5.
eise',r embryo meth,:Cs.
Percent germl-n'rtic;n of crop s'.e:ds using f,:,::retcry ineth.;r;S:
(f ) Iop of p.rper (if ) betwr.ren prpcr (i:-i) r,:1e t')r're1 me'th:C
anc-r (lv) Plt methl-'C.
6.
trv,:Iuation of seedlinqs ln th,., 3br-,ve germineticrn tes.-s.
B. Detcrml-nati,:n i',f hrrd :nr.i fresh ungerminate( SeeCS in
'i-
1l
suitrble
Detccti,:;n of clorm:ncy rnci meth:ds to .rvercc:me the s lmc'
g.
l-0.
11
I
seed samPIe.
.
endomprphlc featu.res c>f seecls 'Lf representntlve
crops and their weeos.
fi.rentif ic,rtion of c:)mrn -ti. ,'r,- -rLs using seed phctcgrephs
Exo-un<-1.
seed
m
rnn-rls, seed --rtIas
.
',
a.'
I .z -
53-
*Tt
1,2. Detectrng of mycoffora cf storecl seecl srmples by
Sl'IT/:.']D;,
rtethc,i.
13. Symptcm, lcss in seecl viability
sc
r-:rl
s emp
ancj seed
vigour in str)re''
Ie s .
14. Deteiticn of efl:texin contrmj-natirn in stlrec se-'.-i slmpl(r
by UV fluoreseence light.
15. Determinatl:;n of latering c'-;ntents ln ef fected sce rl f l;ts
by thin leYer chromatcar-rPhY76 . C:jrn-o:rls Cn of seet-l Ie.rch rtcs f rom ncrmaf ,lnd inf ect=cl s e -'C
1 ,r.l-UJ.
c
A'J
17
. Visits t,l if l=erent Seed prr.,c'.i.tcti:.,'n f iel':ls, see(l testingr
s r: -rtion, seeC inCustries, see i st';r'-rge, NSC, SSc' xxxlt
r--'l
Qu,rr.-rnting centr'3 s .
18. Dcmr.:nstr,rtion r-rf ISTA enrl -r:hyti;sanitary certif ic:tcs '
19. Qu-rlitative fnr-'l quantit-rtive cjetermin3tion :rf chemic:1
c'instituents of se u-ds2C. I-.re,termi-nstjcn of enzymatic :ctivity ciirlng germinrtir'n'
of :culter.rntsr e ffects
21,,, SecC edulterentsr identific:tion
)f 'lclulte::ants cn the fo:cl vllue'
iiEPEt.E\ICES
B=',r''Lon
Seec'l
preservation
-rncl
longevity'
1961'
Physi:I''rgy f,nc bicchc'mistry f seu-r-:s
tl germlnatl-i;'n V<>' I,' II 1983' Springer
B:..,vley, J.D. & B1-,nk M.
-Ln
relltj-':n
V: r1
:9, BerI
l-n .
ts.:rvrcl:y, J.D. & Bltck 14. se-er-is ?hysi:1';gy, Dept. lnc germinrtlr=rn
1985. Plemum Press, Nevr .,'ork'
Ecwrnan 11'. Deppt.?fi:vu]e -tnc]. secrj ccat structure ln ^glosp.'.=.,
,rnr,t:v enql 'Icmorrow, DeJ_hi 1,97e.
a v\,
J-I
Bry,rntJ.,'^.S-;eclphysiol-o9YrL9)5,Edw'erd'''rnr--c1'Lcnclcn'
,._a
'
O. rl
.
E/
J1-
Prctelns i 7933. .,cJC. ^)ress.
.
Ne=w
york.
Mcostr J.
E. Ed:
Fenner M. SeeC Ecoilogy - 1985, Ch.apm:n & Hill
Kozlowskl Sec=d Biology - L972, _lcld. press. New ycrk.
tiaybr. :,.M. & Poljakc,ff - Maybor -.. Ge-rminrticn cf seecs, 19g9
Vanjhm
Mecml1la, Lcndcn.
Myrray, D.ri- Ed. seed. Physiclr:gy, '/of . r & fr ;,ced. press. rgg4,
(r.H) Ec. viabl1lty cf seecrs 1972. chrpm,rn & Ha1r,. London.
M.sC. I\I .pL,,i{T
COUIISE
SCIENCES!, SEMESTE]i
VII ! SPECL;'.LIZi,TION
IV
SUtsJECT
PL,.NI.,TION BOT.^I{Y
1.
Import:nce of Plant.:tj-on cr,)ps in the ec:Jnomy cf Ker-r1a
st ltc.
),. Diegnos', ic feetur.s
.f the i:rop pI-tnts l_lk.: r.,rec_lnut.
C-rshew, CoCoar Coccnut, Ci-.ffet], pepper, Rubber, Ielk:nO
3.
other mtjor spice crop_s.
Origin Distrlbution,
cllmetic
anC soll_ reqruirements cf the
above crDps.
4. Different v:rietles of the Crops. Selecti,on, Propogation an d
nursery technique,s.
5- crop lmprovement prograrrurres: Breedj-ng :nrf Bictechnology
6- Agronomic pr:.ctices such as: i>lanting technlques; mainten3nee
cf plantations,. manurlng -rnd cther operations.
B.
Harwest i-nclex and post harvest technoLogies of the ercp.
irest and disease monagement.
9.
Importonce cf r<ese.rrch
7-
.-rnci
Develcpmental programmes
ancl
marketing.
Suggested pr.rcticals :
1. ct;llectlon :.ncl identificrtion cf the crop plant speclmens.
2- r-,.rboratory lnvestiq.rtions ,'af the vegctrtive rnc fl-cr.rl
mlrptrclr:gy ,:f the crop pl:nts.
o
-5 5-
4.
Fruit .:nlr sc'e,j mcrphology :n.-i ge rmln:ticn studies.
Speclal techniques cf proprg-rtixs l-i-ke buciding, graftlng
.incl 1 ryering
-.,
5.
uf
Icrentificati-:rn
pl.rnts
comm..rn
pests -intl Clse'.rses of the crcp
.
6.
T(E}-EI{ENCIIS:
1,
Chatt, E.M. 1953. Coc,ta
2.
Menon, K.P.V & K.M. 7969
Incliu
intersciL=ncet Pub. LtC. Lcndon.
r)anrrali. The ccconut palm 4
Centrrl Commlttee, "rn lkul-im.
m6nq--rgraph
l.
4.
I.C./r.R.. 1,969. - Han<-r. b:: ,:k:f .;griculture, New Delhi.rrecrnut & Spices ,i erowe rs Handbor:k.
traul-os.e. T.T. 1972.
5.
of .tre canut .'ncl spices.
Rubber rnci its cultivatj-cn.
P.K. Nabayenin. 1976 (eC. )
Directcrate
Rubber Br;ard.
6.
Rac, E.V.V.B. & H.H. Kh*n (..r1) 1984. Clshew iiese-irch
Developme=nt, (Frcc. Symp. C.:.sherv, C.rchin).
f
7-
cr plsnt:tir>n
Yhampen, i).
New
I,
cr?ps,
t99t.
-
ancl
fn,Ci.On
Society
ir,]s -.ragoc1 .
Hen<1b,'.,.tk
r:f ioconut palm. Oxford & IBH,
Helhi.
Srivastava H.C.B. S.rstry & r(.K.C Menr:n. 1985: - Pl-.:ntatj.on
crops. VoI. I. Oxf orc1. & New. Oelni.
JOUIIN,.LS:
J. Plant Cr,)ps
Cashew BuII.
.Ti.fecrnut an,:l spi-Ces .
Fly UP