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. -
UTSTVERSETY GF'C&LICUT
(Abstract)
.
B.Sc. & M.Sc. Plant Science degree Courses
',vith effect from2008-2OO9
-
Orders issued
-
Revise,i Syllabus
GENERAL AND ACADEMIC BI1ANCH
'
No.GAI/J1
l7178l08
-
Implemenr,:ci
- I J Section
Dated, CalicutUniversity.P.O.,L2.05.2Lr0B.
Read: 1. Minutes of meeting of Board of Studies in Plant Science held on
10.03.2008
2. Minutes of the meeting of tJ.e Facuity of Science hetd on 26.03.20C8.
3. The Minutes of the meeting of the Academic Council held on
05.04.2008 item No.II A-19.
ORDT.:R
As per reference cited frrst the Board of Studies in Plant Science resolvecl
to revise the syllabus for B.Sc. and M.Sc. Plant Science course from 20OE-200q
admission onwards.
The Faculty of Science at its meeting held on 26.03.2008 approved, tiic
minutes of Board of Studies in P1ant Science held on 10.03.2008.
As per reference cited 3rd above the Academic Council has approveci ti:i:
minutes of the Board of Studies in Plant Science as approved by the Facuit3r oi
Science on 26.03.2008.
Sanction has therefore been accorded to implement the revised syllabi-rs;
fbr-B.Sc. and M.Sc. Plant Science Courses from 2OO8-2OO9 admission on-*,ards.
Orders are issued accordingl}r a16 copy of the Syllabi appended.
sc/ DEPUTY REGI$T'RAR {G&,r-tl
For RtrGISTRAR.
To
of ali afliiiated coiieges Offerir-rg B.Sc. and M.Sc. Piant
Science Course.
2. Head of the Department of Botany, University of Calicut.
1. The Principals
Copy
to:
CE/All Information Centres/EX illTOn. B.Sc.1D.R. PG./Public
Relations Officer/ GAIII / GAIT"Sn/ GAI'A'Sn. / Lib rary
sF/DF/FC.
I
Forwarded/By Crder
SECI-IOH OFi'ECrIi..
v
Remani:D:\RAMANI\GAI\J\J
I
\order\l I 78-08 (l 5.0:1.2008)-2.doc
Lncl,olul-
4 4** o3'oB
\o-
UNIVERSITY OF CALICUT
M.Sc. Plant Science
Working Hours and
Distributionof
Course Structure,
(2008 Admission onwards)
L
()
o
Course
Sabjects for paper
No.
Tbeory/practical
()Jl
AZ
T.P.l.l
I
P.P.
l.l
Phycology, BryologY and
Mycology, MicrobiologY and
P.P.1.2
Plant Pathology.
T.P.l
Gymnosperms, .AnatomY
Angiosperms and
P.P.l .3
Internal
Marks
Total
80
20
200
3
80
20
5
80
20
J
80
20
5
80
20
J
80
20
Per
Sem.
Per
90
5
Pte.ridology.
T.P.l.2
.3
External
marks
Working hours
of
90
90
Week
200
200
Microtechnique
Viva voce
2
50
50
5
80
20
J
80
20
Plant physiology, Biochemistry, 90
Ecology and Evolution
5
80
20
5
80
20
90
5
80
20
3
80
20
T.P.2.l
Embryology of AngiosPerms,
P.P.2.l
Plant tissue culture and
90
650
200
Biometry.
T.P.2.2
P.P.2.2
T.P.2.3
P.P.2,3
Cell biology. Biophysics,
Immunotechniques
J
iJr*
TP.3.l
Morphology of
P.P.3.I
Angiosperms, TaxonomY
Angiosperms, and
Ethnobotany
T.P.3.2
Genetics, Plant breeding and
P.P.3.2
T.P.3.3
P.P.3,3
90
of
5
80
20
3
80
20
5
80
20
Horticulture
J
80
20
90
Molecular biology, Genetic
engineering and Bioinformatics
5
80
20
J
80
20
90
4
T.P.4.l
Specialization subject and
P.P4.I
Research Methodology
Dissertation
90
180
5
80
20
J
80
20
l6
160
40
200
200
200
650
200
50
Viva voce
650
50
50
Viva voce
200
50
50
Viva voce
200
Grand total
T.P.: Theory Paper; P.P.: Practical Paper Practical Exam: 60 marks Record: 20 marks
(including other submissions if any)
Chairrnan, BoS Plant Science
200
'
250
2400
fI
Mark distribution for Internal Assessment
Theory/Practicals
a
b
c
Attendance
Performance in
class/lab/class tests etc.
Semi nar/Qu izlAssi gnment
Total
Dissertation
6
l2
t0
20
4
8
20
40
Marks for Attendance
95o/o and above
6
90-94.99 %
5
%
%
%
%
4
8s-89.99
80-84.99
75-79.99
70-74.99
J
2
I
XI. Specialisation:
l.
Environment Science
Viva Voce
In each semester, on the next day after the last practical examination, there shall be a
comprehensive viva voce of about 30 minutes duration for each student. One full day (9
am to 5pm) shall be utilized for this.
Study Tour
Theri shall be a study tour of five days duration, for freld study or visit to research
institutes, in the first and third semesters. At the time of the practical examination each
student should submit a tour report certified by the head of the department.
{
Periodic Evaluation
During the course of the semester, continuous internal evaluation may be carried out
basedln seminars, written tests, practical tests. viva voce, submissions and quiz. The
marks may be intimated to the students and the mark list and answer papers kept by the
teacher concerned. The student should be given a chance to see their answer scripts after
valuation. The marks should be submitted to the Departmental Council for finalising the
internal marks. Finalized and approved internal assessment marks should be exhibited on
the departmental notice board.
Grievance Redressal
Any complaint about the award of marks in the continuous evaluations may be brought to
the notice of the teacher concerned. If not settled, the matter may be brought to the notice
of the head of the department. The head of the department if necessary, may appoint a
committee consisting of the Head of the Department, Departmental Council Secretary,
the concerned teacher, and the student for redressal measures. The decision of the
committee will prevail. The Head of the Department will be the Chairman of the
Committee.
Grading
Pass minimum:4AYo of the total marks for each theory and practical papers separately.
There shall be no minimum marks for internal assessment, records, viva voce and
dissertation.
Third class;40-49%; Second class: 50-59%; First class: 600lo and above.
Students who fail in any paper in any semester can reappear for that paper along with
students of that particular semester of the next batch as per the studied syllabus. For
improvement of marks in any paper there will be one chance after the completion of the
course and within one year after the completion of the course as per the studied syllabus.
Examiners
The Examinations will be conducted by the Board of Examiners constituted by the
University
Plan of Question Papers
Theora:
Part A: Two essay-type questions of l0 marks each out of three questions
(2x10:
20 marks).
Part B: Six short answer questions of 5 marks each out of eight questions
(6x5 = 30 marks).
Part C: Ten short answer questions of 3 marks each out of twelve questions
(10x3:30 marks).
Practicals:
The Board of Examiners for practical examinations of I to III semesters shall decide the
plan of question papers.
SYLLABUS
T.P. 1.1 PHYCOLOGY, BRYOLOGY AND PTERIDOLOGY
PHYCOLOGY
1.
General considerations: Criteria
for algal classifications and modern
trends.
Comparison of systems of classification of F.E. Fritsch and F.F. Round, on the
basis of phylogenetic consideration.
2.
Reproduction: different types of reproduction, life history patterns, parallelism in
evolution, origin of higher plant groups from algae.
3. General characteristics of Cyanophya, Chlorophya,
Xanthophyta,
Bacillariophyta, Phaeophyta, Rhodophyta, Euglenophyta, Dinophyes,
Chrysophyta and Cryptophyta.
4.
Ecology: Ecology of fresh water forms and marine forms.
5.
Technological applications of algae: use of algae as food, for production of useful
compounds, as biofilters to remove nutrients and other pollutants from
wastewaters, to assay water quality, as indicators of environmental change, in
space technology, and as laboratory research systems. Brief account of genetic
engineering and gene "knock-out" methods that are applied to algae.
6.
Fossil algae: A general account.
Practical
l.
Collection and study of Algae mentioned below. Identification up to generic level.
2. Collection, preservation and preparation of algal herbarium (10 specimens).
3. Staining Techniques for permanent mounts.
Genera for the Practicals
Cyanophyta z Gloeocdpsa, Oscillatoria, Microcoleus, Anabaena, Nostoc, Scytonema,
Stigonema.
Chlorophyta
:
Enteromorpha,
Chlamydomonas, Volvox, Chlorello, Hydrodictyon, Scenedesmus,
ulva,
cladophora, Pithophora, Bulbochaete, cephaleurous,
choetophora, Draparnaldiopsis, strigeoclonium, Trentepohlia, oedogonium,
Acetabularia, Bryopsis, Codium, Caulerpa, Halimeda, Desmids (Closterium,
Cosmarium), Mougetia, Zygnema, Chara and Nitella.
f
Xanthophyta z Botrydium, Vaucheris.
Bacillariophyta
P adi
;
na, Sargassum,
Coscinodiscus, Pinnulario. Phaeophyta
P
:
Ectocarpus, Dictyota,
orphyra.
Phodophyta : Gracilaria, Polysiphonio, Gelidiun, Amphiroa
References
l.
:
Fritsch, F.E. 1945. The structure and Reproduction of Algae. Vol.
I
and III.
Cambridge University Press.
2. Smith, G.M. 1950. Manual of Phycology. Chronica Botanica Co.
3. Round, F.E. 1965. The biology of Algae. Edward Arnold.
4. Pold and Wayne. 1978. Introduction of Algae. Prentice-Hall.
5. Graham and Wilcox. 2000. Algae. Benjamin Cummings.
6. van den Hoek, C., Mann, D.G. and Jahns, H.M. 1996. Algae: An Introduction
to
Phycology. Cambridge University Press.
7
.
Barsanti, L. and Gualtieri, P.2OO7 . Algae: Anatomy, Biochemistry, and
B
iotechnology. CRC Publishers.
BRYOLOGY
Theory
l.
General characters and systems of classification
of bryophytes. Contribution of
lndian bryologists.
2. A general account of the anatomy,
reproduction, life history and phylogeny of
Spherocarpales, Marchantiales, Jungermanniales, Anthocerotales, Funariales,
-
Polytrichales.
3. Origin and evolution of Bryophytes.
4. A general account of fossil Bryophyes and their affinities.
Practicals
Morphological and structural study
of
representation members
of
following
groups using cleared wholemount preparations, dissections and sections: Riccia,
Targionia, Fimbriaria, Cyathodium, Marchantial, Riccardia, Fossombronia, Porella,
Anthoceros, Sphagnum, Funaria and Polytrichum.
Reference
4:
l.
Watson E.V.
l97l.The structure and life of Bryophytes, Hutchinson Univ. Press
London.
2. Cavers F. l9l l. The interrelationship of Bryophytes. New Phytologist.
3. Kashyap, S.R. l92l.The Liverworts of Western Himalaya and the Punjab Plains,
Vol. I & II. Chronica Botanica.
4.
5.
Smith G.M. Cryptogamic Botany Vol. Il. McGraw Hill. Book Co. N.Y.
Parihar N.S. 1965.
An introduction of Embryophyt: Bryophyta, General Book
House, Allahabad.
6. Verdoon, F.M. 1932. Manual of Bryology. Ashor & Co. Amsterdam.
7. Shaw, A. J. and Goffinet, B. 2000. Bryophyte Biotogy. Cambridge University
Press.
PTERIDOLOGY
Theory
l.
General characters, Classification and life cycle of Pteridophyes, Contribution of
Indian Pteridologists.
2.
Diversity of forms among Pteridophytes
-
club mosses, quill worts., mosquito
ferns, braken ferns, bird's nest fern, maiden hair fern and tree ferns general
morphology with special reference to South Indian species.
3. Fossil Pteridophytes,
Primofilicales
4. Habitat
-
Psitophytales, Lepidodendrales Calamitales,
and
morpho anatomical features.
ecology of Pteridophytes, epiphytes, lithophytes, Climbers, halophytes,
Sciophytes, Xerophytes, rheophyes, hydrophytes.
5. History in relation to ecology of Pteridophytes, Structure and evolution of stele in
Pteridophytes vessels in Pteridophytes.
6. Origin and evolution of sporangium - Heterospory and seed habit.
7. The fern gametophytes, types of development, morphology of
gametophytes, ultra structure
aspects
of
mature
gametophytes, Biochemical and physiological
of gametophyte development. Photomorphogenesis. Development of
organs, antheridiogen, gametangium and fertilization.
6
.{
sex
Pteridophytes, Chromosome number' polyploidy' origin of
and
polyploids., apospory, apogamy, agamospory, vegetative reproduction
8. Cytology of
hybridization.
9.
Applied Pteridology, Biofertilizer production from Azolla, Azolla Anabaena
symbiosis-Biochemistryofnitrogenfixation-nifgenes'
- Salvinia (Aquatic) Pteridium (Terrestrial) weed
problem, weed control - impact and management- Biological control.
Pteridophytes as weeds
Ornamental and medicinal Pteridophytes'
Pteridophytes as ecological indicators'
Practicals
l.
Morphological anatomical
and reproductive features of
Ophioglossum'
Asplenium,
Angiopteris, osmunda, Lygodium, ceratopteris, Pteris, Blechnum,
Trichomanes, Pteridium, Acrostichum, Salvinia and Azolla'
2. Fossils - Rhynia, Lepidodendron, Calamites' Botryopteris'
3. Spore germination and development of prothallus in knop's agar medium'
4. Habitat study of Lycopodium, Gleiechenia, Actiniopteris, Pyrrosia, Drynaria'
Acrostichum, Salvi nia.
5.
Submission of field study report
of l0 herbarium of common local Pteridophytes'
Reference
L
Bierhost, D.W. 1971. Morphology
of Vascular Plants, Mac' Millan Co', New
York.
2. Dyer, A.C. 1979. The experimental Biology of F6rns. Academic Press, London'
3. Jermy, A.C. 1973 (Ed.). The Phylogeny and classification of Ferns.
4. Kramer, K.U. & Green, P.S. 1991. The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants,
Narosa, New Delhi.
5. Sporne, K. R. 1966. The Morphology of Pteridophytes:
and
6.
The Structure of Ferns
Allied Plants. Hutchinson.
Chandra, S. and Srivastava, M. 2003. Pteridology in the New Millennium. Kluwer
Academic Publishers.
i
i
T.P. 1.2 MYCOLOGY, MICROBIOLOGY AND PLANT PATHOLOGY
MYCOLOGY
Theory
l.
General characteristics of fungi: thallus organization, modes of nutrition, cell-wall
and hyphal
tip growth, fungal organelles, reproduction and
spores, vegetative
incompatibility and sexual compatibility, parasexuality.
2. Classification of fungi: traditional
and modern systems of fungal classifications
with a special reference to Ainsworth and Bisby (1983) and Alexopoulos et al
(1996). Characters used in fungal classification.
3.
Modern views on phylogeny of fungi based on ultrastructural and molecular
characters.
4.
Biology, general characteristics and classification
of the following phyla:-
Myxomycota, Oomycota, Chiteridiomycota, Zygomycota, Ascomycota
and
Basidiomycota.
5.
Asexual fungi (Deuteriomycetes): General characters, habit and importance of
asexual fungi, somatic structures, structures associated with asexual reproduction,
conidomata, conida and conidium ontogeny, other asexual propagules, teliomorph
- anamorph
connections, nomenclature and classification.
6.
Fun gi as sym bionts : mycorrh izae, endophytes, i nsect-sym bionts
7.
Role of fungi in decomposition of cellulose and lignin.
8.
Lichens: thallus structure, nutrition, reproduction, mutualistic interaction,
ecological and economic signifi cance.
9
Fungal technology: role of fungi in fermenting soybeans products
-
soy sauce,
tempeh, sufu; role of fungi in cheese preparation; cultivation of fungi for food mushrooms and other macro fungi, edible biomass from yeasts and moulds
single cell proteins; fungi and production
of alcoholic
-
beverages: wine,'beer,
distilled spirits; fungal enzymes of commercial importance; production of primary
metabolites
of economic
production
of
importance by fungi
secondary metabolites
of
-
industrial ethanol, citric acid;
economic importance
antibiotics, ergot alkaloids; fungi and biotransformation
applications of gene cloning in fungi.
of useful
by
fungi
metabolites;
Practicals
Using appropriate mycological methods and techniques the students shall
collect/isolate and study the morphology and anatomy of the reproductive structures of
the fotlowing genera of fungi : Stemonites, Synchytrium, Saprolegnia, Pythium, Albugo,
Pilobolus, Mucor, Saccharomyces, Taphrina Ascobolus, Xylaria, Geoglossum,
Phomopsis, Drechslera, Aspergillus, Alternario, Cercospora, Fusarium, Tremella,
Auricularia, Puccinia, (Jstilago, Ganoderma, Lycoperdon, Geastrum, Dictyophora,
Cyathus, Parmelia and Usnea.
References
l.
Alexopoulose, c.J. et. al. 1996. Introductory Mycology,46 Edition, wiley.
2. Carlile, M. J. and Watkinson, S. C.2001. The Fungi. Academic Press.
3. Deacon, J.W. 2005. Introduction to Modern mycology, Blackwell.
4. Jennings, D. H. and Lysek, G. 1999. Fungal Biology. Bios Scientific Publishers.
5. Kavanagh, K. (ed.) 2005. Fungi - Biology and Applications. Wiley.
6. Moore-Landecker. 1996. Fundamentals of Fungi. Cambridge University Press.
7. Nash, T. H. 1996. Lichen Biology. Cambridge University Press.
8. Webster, J. and Weber, R. 2007. Introduction to Fungi. Cambridge University
Press.
MICROBIOLOGY
Theory
l. Bacteria
Classification based
on Bergey's
manual, Archaebacteria and
Eubacteria. Morphology and ultra structure, nutrition, genetics, plasmids and their
-
characterisation. Cyanobacteria
-
salient features, and biological importance,
General account of actinomycetes and mycoplasmas.
2.
Viruses
-
general account of plant and animal viruses and bacteriophages and
their classification. Isolation , purification, infection, replication and transmission
of plant viruses. Detailed study of TMV, HlV, T4 Phage.
3.
Microbial ecology: Role of microbes in ecosystem, microbiology of rhizosphere,
phylloplane, sewage disposal, bioremediation and water purification detection of
microbes in air and water.
9
4. Agricultural
and
microbiology: Management of agricultural soils, biofertilizers
biopesticides.
5.
of
Food microbiology:- Food spoilage and preservation methods- microbiology
products'
fermented food - dairy products - bread and other fermented food
Microorganisms as source
of food -
Single cell protein
-
production and
application.
6.
and
Microbiat Technology: industrial microorganisms and products, primary
vitamins,
secondary metabolites, production of alcohol, vinegar, antibiotics,
steroids, vaccines, organic acids, enzymes, fermentation technology
- fermentor
design and operation, upstream and downstream processes, solid substrate
fermentation.
Practicals
l.
Test for the presence of coliform bacteria in contaminated water.
2. Isolation
3. Isolation
of bacteria from soil by dilution plate method.
of pure bacterial culture by streak plate method.
4.
Staining of bacteria and their spores.
5.
Demonstration of bacterial motility by hanging drop method.
References
1. Madigan, M. T. et al. 2008. Brock Biology of
Microorganisms. Benjamin
Cummings
2. R.Y. Stanier et. al. (1990). The Microbial world. Prentice Hall.
3. R.E.F. Mathew (1991). Plant Virology,3'd ed. Academic Press.
4. M. Goodfellow et. al (1983). The Biology of Actinomycetes. Academic Press.
5. Pelzar, M.G., Chan E.C.S. and Krieg N.R. (1986) Microbiology, Tata McGraw
Hill.
6. Prescott, L. M. et al. 2005. Microbiology. McGraw Hill
7. Singleton, P.2OO4.Bacteria in Biology, Biotechnology and Medicine. Wiley.
PLANT PATHOLOGY
Theory
l.
Causal agents of plant diseases: fungi, bacteria, viruses, mycoplasmas, viroids,
nematodes, parasitic higher plants and abiotic factors.
l0
"i
2. Symptoms of Plant diseases..
3. Disease development: infection' progress of disease, role of enzymes and toxins
4. Defense mechanisms: structural and chemical
5. Effect of environment on plant disease development'
6.
plant disease management: control measures that exclude or eradicate pathogen,
direct protection of plants ftom pathogens by biological control and chemical
control, types of chemicals used for plant disease control, regulatory methods'
control through use of transgenic plants, integrated control of plant diseases.
Practicals
in the
Study of the following diseases with reference to signs and symptoms
phyllody'
laboratory: cassava mosaic, bunchy top of banana, soft rot of carrot, sesamum
mildew
tikka disease of groundnut, wheat rust, coffee rust, blister blight of tea, powdery
of rubber, grey leaf spot of coconut.
References
l.
Agrios G.N. 2005. Plant pathology, 5th ed. Academic Press.
2. Lucas, J. A. 1998. Plant Pathology and Plant Pathogens, 3'd ed. Blackwell'
3. Mehrothra R.S. 1980. Plant Pathology' Tata-Mcgraw Hill
4. Smith K.M. 1973. A text book of plant virus diseases, 3'd ed. Academic Press.
5. Rangaswami G. 1988. Diseases of crop plant of India, 3'd ed. Prentise Hall, India.
6. Scheffer, .R. p. ZOO7. The Nature of Disease in Plants. Cambridge University
Press.
7. Waller, J.M.,
Lenne J.
M. and Waller S. J. (Ed.) 2001. Plant Pathologists'
Pocketbook. CABI.
T.P.I.3GYMNOSPERMS,ANATOMYoFANGIOSPERMSAND
MICROTECIINIQUE
GYMNOSPERMS
Theory
l.
General characters: Phylogeny, Classification'
1l
-.
morphology'
Geological horizons, distribution, general account including
orders with special
anatomy, phylogeny and interrelationship of the following
emphasis on the genera sPecified.
a) Pteridospermales: Lyginopteris, Heterangium'
Sphenopteris'
Pachytesta,
Sphaerostoma, Lagenostoma, Medullosa, Trigonocarpus,
Codonotheca.
b)
Glossopteridales : Glossopteris
c) Caytoniales: CaYtonia
d) Cycadoideales: Williamsonia
e) Pentoxylales: PentoxYlon
0
Cycadales: CYcas, Zamia
g) Ginkgoales:Ginkgo
h) coniferales: cedrus,
cryptomeria, cupressus, Agathis, Podocarpus.
i)
j)
Taxales: Taxus
k)
Welwitschiales: Welwitschia
l)
Gnetales: Gnetum
Ephedrales : EPhedra
3. Evolution of GYmnosPerms
4. Distribution of living and fossil gymnosperms
5. Economic importance of Gymnosperms.
in India'
Practicals
l.
-
tdentification of petrifications, compressions, impressions, slides of fossil types
include in groups mentioned above.
2.
Comparative study of vegetative and reproductive structures of all living genera
mentioned above.
3.
Morphological and anatomical studies of above mentioned taxa.
Reference
l.
Andrews, H.N. 1961. Studies in Paleobotany, Wiley, N'Y'
2. Banks, H.P. 1970 Evolution and plants of the past. Wadsworth.
3. Bierhost, D.w. l97l . Morphology of vascular plants, Macmillan.
4. Bower F.O. 1935. Primitive plants. Macmillan
.
l2
5.
c.J.
Chamberlain,
1935. Gymnosperms structure and Evolution' Univ' of
Chicago Press.
6. Foster, A.S. & E.M. Gifford.
1974. Comparative morphology
of vascular plants'
Freeman.
7.
Maheshwari, P & V. Vasil. Gnetum' CSIR, New Delhi'
8.
Ramanujam,
c.G.K. 1976. lndian Gymnosperms in time and
Space. Today
&
Tomorrow, Dehra Dun.
9.
Cambridge Univ'
Sewart, W.N. 1983. Paleobotany and the Evolution of Plants'
Press.
10. Stockey,
R.s. 1981. Some comments on the origin and evolution of conifers'
Canadian J. Bot.
I
l. Taylor,T.N.
59 75'82.
23-28'
lg82.Reproductive biology in early seed plants' Bioscience 32
12. Walton, 1951.
An introduction to the Study of Fossil Plants.
ANATOMY OF ANGIOSPERMS
Theory
l.
totipotency,
Differentiation: concept, its significance in developmental studies,
phylogenetic perspectives of differentiation - general idea of entropy.
2. Meristems: Recent theories
on organization of root and shoot apical meristems'
origin of lateral root. Leaf and bud
development. Plastochronic stage,
Reversion
experimental studies on meristems, vegetative to reproductive apex'
from reproductive to vegetative apex'
3.
'
4.
such as
Tissue systems: Differentiation and functions of different tissue systems
glands, transfer
epidermis, parenchyma, chlorenchyma, sclerenchyma, laticifers,
tissue
cells. Environmental factors influencing differentiation of the divergent
systems, experimental studies, their economic importance'
of cambium,
Secondaly cambium: Concept, classification, origin and constitution
influencing
cambial activity, cambium in wound healing and gafting, factors
and
cambial differentiation and activity, cork-cambium, different types, origin
function.
5.
Abnormal Cambium: Classification, origin and function, experimental studies'
l3
v
6.
Seedling and nodal anatomy, rootcot vascular connection, pattern
of
nodal
anatomy, controversies on phylogenetic trends in nodel anatomy'
of fibres, fibre trachieds,
vessel elements, xylem parenchyma, the trends of specialization,
7. Xylem: Origin,
trachieds,
Structural features and function
taxonomic significance, factors affecting xylem differentiation, elements of wood
anatomy.
8.
phloem: Origin, structure and function of sieve cells, sieve tubes companion cells
and fibres, trends of specialization, taxonomic significance, factors affecting
phloem differentiation.
9.
10.
Leaf: Origin and development of lamina -general pattern.
Fruit and seeds: general anatomy of fleshy and dry fruits-anatomy of seeds in
general, development dormancy and drought resistance from anatomical point of
view.
I
l.
12.
Roots: lnitiation and development of specialized roots.
Anatomy in relation to ecology and taxonomy.
Practicals
l.
Diversity in cells and tissue in a monocot and dicot plant with respect to position,
distribution, structure and function'
2. Epidermis - Trichomes, stomatal types, stomatal index.
3. Clearing shoot apical meristems - different patterns.
4. Clearing and staining of leaf, young twigs, roots, floral parts etc.
5.
Nodal anatomy.
6. Vascular cambium and cork cambium.
7. Xylem and its constituents by sectioning and macerating the tissues.
. 8. Phloem and its components.
9. Abnormal secondary growth different patterns : Dracaena, Bignonia,
Aristolochia, Amaranthus, Nyctanthes, Aerva, Beetroot, Mirabilis, Pisonia,
Bougainvillea
10. Submission of slides
-
30 Nos.
Reference
1.
Easu,
K. 1983. Plant Anatomy
-
Wiley Eastern Limited.
t4
?a
2. Fahn, A. 1977.Plant Anatomy Pergamon Press'
3. Cutter, E.G. & Edward, E. 1978. Plant Anatomy
Part I and
: Experiment and lnterpretations
Il.
4. Mauseth, J.D. 1988. Plant Anatomy - The Nenjamin cumming Publishing co'
5. Forester, A.S. 1960 Practical Plant Anatomy - D. Van Nostrand Company' Inc'
6. Roberts, L.W. 1976. Cytodifferentiation in Plants - Cambridge University Press'
Cambridge.
MICROTECHNIQUE
Theory
l.
Basic instruments and equipments used
in
Microtechnique, their uses and
principles involved.
a)
electron
Microscopes; bright-field, dark-field, phase contrast, transmission
microscope, scanning electron microscope'
b) MicroscoPicmeasurements'
c) Use of camera lucida.
d) Microtomes: Rotary and sledge
2. Killing,
and their uses'
fixing and staining plant tissues'
a) PrinciPles and PurPoses'
b) Important chemicals and reagents used in the preparation of fixatives
and
their ProPerties.
c) Common chemical
fixatives, their composition, preparation, specific uses-
FAA, Carnoy',s fluid, chrome acetic, Nawaschin's Fluid. craf, Zircles's
fluid, Fleming's fluid.
3. lmportant dehydrating
'
4.
agents. Clearing agents and mounting media used in
glycerin,
microtechnique and their properties: Ethyle alcohol, chloroform,
isopropyle alcohol, butyle alcohol'
Staines used in microtechnique:
a) Principles and purpose of staining'
b) Classification of important biological stains'
i) Natural dyes - Hematoxylin, Carmine, Orcein'
ii)
Coal tar dYes
l5
6i\
Basic dyes: Safranin, Crystal violet, basic Fuchsin, cotton blue
Acid dyes: Fast green, Light green, Orange-G, Erythrosin, Eosin.
c)
5.
Technique of staining.
Preparation of whole mounts, macerations and smears;
a) Glycerin - xylene method for whole mounts.
b) Tertiary butyl alcohol method for whole mounts.
c) Maceration fluid, preparation of maceration slides of plant tissues.
6.
Methods of double staining of free hand sections sing the following combinations:
a) Safranin - Fast green, Safranin - aniline blue
b) Crystal violet - Orange G.
7.
Methods of embedding plant materials in paraffin wax using:
8.
a) Alcohol- xylene method
b) Tertiary butyl alcohol method
c) Alcohol- chloroform method.
Technique of sectioning materials embedded in paraffin wax using rotary
microtome and fixing paraffin ribbons on slides:
a) Fixing blocks on microtome
b) Cutting sections
c) Adhesives and their preparation.
d) Mounting and spreading ribbons on slides
9.
Methods of staining paraffin sections using the following combinations
a)
lron alum-hematoxylin
-
Safranin/fast green.
b) Safranin - Fast green/aniline blue
c) Crystal violet - Orange G/Erythrosin
10. Technique
I
of mounting, clearing labeling and storing permanent preparations.
l. Vital staining: Methods and significance.
12. Histochemistry
- A general
introduction.
Practicals
l.
Students are expected to familiarise with preparation
of the following.
t6
of stained permanent slides
Whole mounts, free hand sections, maceration and serial microtome sections
following double and triple staining procedure. At least twenty permanent slides
representing whole mounts, free hand sections and serial sections should be
submitted for evaluation.
References
l.
Johansen
D.A. 1940. Plant Microtechnique. McGraw Hill, New York.
2. Sass J.E. 1958. Botanical Microtechnique (Ed.) Constable & Co. Ltd. London.
3. Lacker J.R. 1966. Cytological techniques. Chapman & Hall, London.
4. Berlyn G.P. and Mikshe J.P. 1976. Botanical Microtechnique and cytochemistry,
Iowa State University Press. Iowa.
5.
Gray P. 1964. Handbook of Basic Microtechnique (Ed.3) Edward Arnold Ltd.
London.
6. Gahan P.B. 1984. Plant Histochemistry and Cyochemistry - An Introduction,
Academic Press.
7.
Dwivedi J.N., and Singh R.B. 1990. Essentials of Plant techniques, 2nd Edn.
Scientific Publ. Jodhpur.
8.
Krishnamoorthy
K.V.
1988. Methods
in Plant Histochemistry. Viswanath
Publishers, Trichi.
9.
Sanderson J.B. 1994. Biological Microtechnique, Scientific Publishers, U.K.
T.P.2.1 EMBRYOLOGY OF ANGIOSPERMS, PLANT TISSUE CULTURE
AND BIOMETRY
EMBRYOLOGY OF ANGIOSPERMS
Theory
l.
History and development of angiosperm embryology.
2.
Microsporogenesis.
- Structure and function of wall layers, ultrastrutural changes
in tapetum in pollen development.
3. Male gametophyte
-
microspore/pollen mitosis, division
of
generative cells,
heterogenicity in sperms, pollen fertility and sterility, pollen storage, viability and
germination.
4.
Ovule
-
ontogeny, types and evolution, reduction, nutrition.
17
.a+
e,
mother
subcellular features of archesporial and megaspore
tread, dyad and coenomegaspore, termination of functional
5. Megasporogenesis cells, megaspore
megaspore.
6.
Embryosac
-
and
Classification and types, ultrastructure of components; synergid
antipodal haustoria, nutrition of embryosac'
7.
and stigma' significance
Pollination: Ultrastructural histochemical details of style
of pollen-pistil interaction, role of pollen wall proteins and stigma surface
proteins, intra-ovarian pollination and in vitro fertilization.
8.
Fertilization: Role
of synergids, filiform
apparatus, heterospermy, differential
post fertilization metabolic
behavior of male gametes, syngamy and triple fusion,
and structural change in embryosac'
g.
Classification and types, ultrastructure, cellularisation in nuclear
function'
endosperm, endosperm haustoria, their extension and persistence,
Endosperm
-
storage metabolites.
and
Polarity in relation to development, classification and types, Histoof embryo
organogenesis of mono- and dicot embryos, delayed differentiation
10. Embryo
-
and morphogenetic
structure, cytology and function of suspensor, physiological
relationship of endosperm and embryo'
I
l.
Polyembryony
-
Classification and types'
l2.Apomixis_diplospory_apospory,parthenogenesisofembryos.
13. Fruit and seed - parthenocarpy - induction of seedless fruits.
14. Experimental embryology
-
embryology in relation to taxonomy, embryo culture'
anther culture, ovary culture.
Practicals
l.
Preparation
of
dissected whole mounts
of
endothecium, tapetum, ovule,
endosperm, embryo and haustoria. Squash preparations of tapetum, microspore
mother cells, dyadi, tetrads, pollinia and massulae'
2.
Study from permanent preparations
-
Development and structure
of
anther,
pollen, ovule, megasporogenesis, embryosac, endosperm and embryo.
comparative study of typical monocot and grass embryos'
3.
Pollen germination
- viability tests.
l8
The
:2
4.
Intra-ovarian pollination.
References
l.
Bouman F. 1978. Ovule initiation, ovule development and seed coat structure in
angiosperms. Today and Tomorrow publishers, New Delhi'
S.S. and Bhatnagar S.S. 1974. The embryology of angiosperms. Vikas
Z. Bhojwani
publication, New Delhi.
Davis C.L. 1965. Systematic embryology of angiosperms. John Wiley, New York'
3.
4. Eames A.J. 1960. Morphology of angiosperms. McGraw Hill. New York.
D. 1950. Plant embryology, Waltham, Massachusetts'
5.
Johanson
6.
Johri B.D. (ed) 1984. Embryology of angiosperms. Springer verlag, Berlin.
7.
Maheswari P. 1950. An introduction to the embryology of angiosperms. McGraw
Hill, New York.
8.
Raghavan
V.
1976. Experimental embryogenesis in plants, Academic Press, New
York.
9.
Wardlaw C.W. l gT6.Embryogenesis in plants. Methusen, London.
PLANT TISSUE CULTURE
I
.
Basic concepts of plant morphogenesis and its importance'
2. Comparative
morphology and plant morphogenesis: experimental works on root,
leaf and flower.
3.
Plant tissue culture: History; Definition; basic aspects; Different
media,
components, growth regulators; explants, sterilization, inoculation, subculturing
etc. Totipotency.
4.
Different types of cultures: Callus and Organ cultures, Cell culture; Suspension
culture
-
different types- application. Significance of ovary' ovule, endosperm
and embryo culture.
5.
In vitro
morphogenesis: Organogenesis; Factors affecting. Different stages
Micropropagation applications. Somaclonal variation and
improvement. Somatic embyogenesis: Factors affecting
-
applications.
19
of
it significance in crop
- significance. Synseeds
'1
Production of pathogen free plants
6.
-
Shoot
Meristem culture and its application;
and root tiP culture of orchids'
7. Protoplasts:
and fusion
Hybridization' Different types
Isolation and culture methods. Somatic
methods; application in crop improvement'
_
affecting, significance in crop
Anther and pollen culture; Factors
8'
Haploids
g.
its significance'
improvement. In vitro fertilization and
and short term' cryopreservation and
account of germplasm storage : long
Brief
its aPPlications.
production in vitro Biosensors' Biochips
Brief account of secondary metabolites;
10.
Brief account.
11.
culture with special reference to Kerala
Brief account of applied aspects of tissue
crops'
Spices, Medicinal Plants and fruit
-
Practicals
1.
media'
Preparation of stock solutions: Different
2. Preparation of solid and liquid media'
3. Inoculation technique: Culture of different explants
4. Introduction of callus and organogenesis
5. Anther and ovary, embryo culture; Meristem culture'
Reference
l.Bhojwani,S.S.andRazdan,M.K.lg83.PlantTissueCulture:Theoryand
Practice' Elsevier, Amsterdam'
2,Doods,J.H.andRobertsL.w.l985Experimentsinplanttissueculture
Cambridge Press.
3.George,E.F.l993196.PlantpropagationByTissueCulture-2vols.Exegetics
Ltd.
4. Narayanaswamy. S. 1994. Plant cell and tissue culture'
5. Pierrik, R'L.M' In Vitro Culture of Higher Plants'
Tata McGraw Hill Ltd'
BIOMETRY
Theory
l.
Statistical methods
2.
SamPling
- TheorY
their graphical
- Numerical distribution and
and methods'
20
e
representation'
3. Measures of central tendency - mean, median, mode, ogive, skewness, kurtosis.
4. Measures of dispersion - range quartile deviation, mean deviation, variance and
standard deviation.
5. Frequency distribution - normal, binomial and position distribution.
6. Test of significance and Chi square test and estimation of linkage.
7. Design of experiments - randomized blocks, latin square and factorial.
8. Analysis of variance.
9. Theories of probabilities, correlation and regression.
Practicals
Practical skills to solve problems in biometry.
References
l.
Panse V.G. and Sukhatme,
P.V. 1985. Statistical methods for
agricultural
workers,ICAR.
2. Mather, K. 1951. The measurement of linkage in heredity. Methuen.
3. Kempthorne, O. 1957. Introduction to Genetic statistics. John Wiley & Sons.
4. Steel K.G.G. and Torjue, J.H.1960. Principles and procedures of statistics with
special reference to the biological science. McGraw-Hill
T.P. 2.2 PLANT PHYSIOLOGY, BIOCHEMISTRY, ECOLOGY AND
EVOLUTION
PLANT PHYSIOLOGY
l.
Water relations in plants
:
Physical and chemical properties
potential of water - concept and terminology
-
of water chemical
Gibb's free energy concept
-
water
movement in cells and tissues through cell membranes -water absorption by root
- Apoplast and symplast pathway - The ascent of water through xylem - water
relations of the whole plant - soil water atmosphere continuum (SPAC) Transpiration _ Stomatal regulation of transpiration.
2. Mineral nutrition :
Microelements, beneficial elements
-
requirements and
deficiency sympt<ims in plants. Calcium and metabolic regulation in plants
by roots -
- Absorption of minerals
Diffitsion and facilitated diffusion - Apparent free space - radial path of ion
nutrient culture techniques for plant growth
2t
4-
- root microbe interations - bacteria and micorrhiza- Transport of
ions across biological membrane - passive and active transport - Transport
proteins or carrier proteins channel proteins Nernst's equation,
electrochemical gradient and ion distribution across the membrane - Active
transport and electrogenetic pumps - patch and clump studies - role of ATPase -
through roots
Apoplast and symplast pathways and active pumps'
-
Trancellular transport
phloem transport : Transport in phloem
a
J.
pattern of translocation
sink
sink
-
pathways of transport of organic solutes
source relationship
-
phloem loading, phloem
- source transport - passive, active and pressure flow models
unloading and sink
-
-
-
source association and assimilate allocation and partitioning between
-
different parts and plants.
4.
-
activation and regulation
syndrome
5.
-
C4 photosynthetic carbon assimilation cycle
C2 photorespiratory carbon oxidation cycle
-
:
Respiration
Energetics
system- Regulation
carbon reduction cycle
- C3 photosynthetic
Photosynthesis : Carbon metabolism
-
-
C4
CAM metabolism.
of glycolysis - Kreb,s cycle and
electron transport
of respiration by energy demand and concentration of key
metabolites Alternate electron pathways in plants External NADPH
dehydrogenase
- Rotenone insensitive NADH
dehydrogenase
-
Cyanide resistant
respiration.
6.
Nitrogen Metabolism
Fixation
:
- Dinitrogenase
amino acids
-
Nitration assimilate pathway
activity
transamination
Nitrogen nutrition
-
-
- Nitrogen cycling - Nitrogen
8.
-
Agricultural and ecological aspects.
s
-
and their effect on growth
-
phytochrome.
Physiology of flowing : Physiological and Biochemical changes associated with
flowering
-
theories
of flowering - controlling
vernalization.
9.
incorporation into
export forms of nitrogen amides and ureides
7. Growth and morphogenesis : Growth regulations
photomorphogenesi
Biological Nitrogen
-
Physiology of fruit development and ripening.
10. Physiology
of seed development and germination-
22
factors
-
photoperiodism and
I
l. Growth and differentiation : Pattern of growth, Growth kinetica, principles of
differentiation.
12. Biological clock : Measuring time, Rhythmic phenomena.
13. Stress
physiology : Physiology of plant under stress
environmental pollution
-
-
water temperature, salt,
heavy metals and air pollution.
14. Plant movements: Phototropism, Gravitropism, nastic movements.
References
l.
Hopkins, W.G. 1995. Introduction to Plant Physiology, John Wiley & Sons Inc.
2.
Salisbury F.B. and Ross C.W. lgg2.Plantphysiology.4th Edn. Wordsworth Publ.
Co.
3. Bidwell R.G.S. lgTg.PlantPhysiology.2nd Edn. Macmillan Publ. Co. Inc.
4. Anderson J.W. and Boardall J. 1991. Molecular activation of plant cells -
An
introduction to Plant Biochemistry. Blackwell Scientifi c Publications.
5. Devlin R.M. and Witham
F.H. 1986. Plant Physiology. 4'h Edn. CBS Publishers &
Distributors, New Delhi.
6.
Karp G. 1996. Cell and Molecular Biology
-
Concepts and Experiments. Jhon
Wiley & Sons, Inc.
7.
Noggle G.R. and Fritz G.J. 1992.lntroductory Plant Physiology, Prentice Hall of
India Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi.
8. Steward F.C. Plant Physiology - A treatise Vol. I to X. Acad. Press.
9. TaizL. and Zeiger E. 1991. Plant Physiology. The Benjamin Cummings Publ. Co.
Inc.
10.
Wilkins M.B. 1984. Advanced Plant Physiology, Longman Scientific &
Technical.
Practicals
l.
Preparation of molal, molar, normal and percentage solutions and their dilutions.
2. Dry Weight/moisture content determination of plant materials.
3. Factors affecting membrane permeability.
4. Measurement of water potential of plant tissues.
5. Solute potential of sap by density gradient method.
6. Plasmolysis - Deplasmolysis method.
23
€:
I
t
t
:
I
I
.iI
7.
Histochemical localization
cond itions
of
potassium
in the guard cells under
different
of transpiration.
8. Pottassium uptake by excised roots chloride.
9. Separation of plant pigments by paper
chromatographyl
thin
layer
chromatography and absorption spectre of each pigment separated.
10. Quantitative estimation
I
of chlorophyll content using spectrophotometry.
l. Light compensation points pertaining to photosynthesis - anatomical study.
12.
pH changes in root surfaces.
13. Role of phytochrome in the germination
14. Measurement
15. Amylase
of light sensitive seeds.
of growth rate using various parameters.
activity and gibberellic acid effect in germinating cereal seeds.
References
l.
Green N.P.O et.al. 1990. Biological Science,2nd Edn. Vol.
I & II Cambridge
University Press, New York.
2. Meidner H.
1984. Class Experiments
in Plant Physiology, George Allen
and
Unwin, London.
3.
Moore T.C. 1981. Research Experience
in Plant Physiology - A
laboratory
Mannual. 2nd Edn. Springer Verlag.
BIOCHEMISTRY
Theory
l.
Introduction
- History, Scope and significance
of Biochemistry - The molecular
logic of life.
2.
Biomolecules: Micromolecules and Macrornolecules.
a)
Carbohydrates: Classification, structure and function of simple sugar and
compound carbohydrates, starch and sucrose synthesis, Metabolism
of
carbohydrates.
b) Amino acids and proteins -
Classification and structure
secondary, tertiary, and quafternary structure
of
-
Primary,
proteins Amino acid
metabolism, Biosynthesis of Proteins, general functions of proteins.
c)
Lipids: Classifications, Storage and structural lipids, lipids in membranes
Lipid metabolism.
24
6-:\
--j)
d)
Nucleotides and nucleic acids: Chemistry, Structure of nucleotides, other
functions
-
Biosynthesis of purines and pyramidines'
Classification and nomenclature, Mechanism of enzyme action, Co'
and
enzymes, Michaelis Merton equation and its significance. Enzyme inhibition
types. Allosteric inhibition and regulations. Various factors affecting enzyme
3. Enzymes:
action.
4.
Secondary metabolites.
A
brief survey of secondary metabolites physiological roles. Significance
ecological and phylogenetic importance.
Practicals
l.
and
General qualitative colour reaction for carbohydrates, amino-acids, protein
lipids.
2. Quantitative
estimation
of reducing sugar from plant tissue by any suitable
method.
3. Estimation of protein by Biuret method/Lowry et al. method.
4. Quantitative estimation of amino acids.
5. euantitative estimation of DNA and RNA. Colorimetric/spectro
6. Quantitative estimation of total phenotics.
7. Extraction of enzyme: Any enzyme.
8.
photometric-
Effect of substrate on enzyme and determination of it's Km value.
References
L
Stryer. (1995). Biochemistry : Toppas Company Ltd', Japan'
2. David L., Nelson and Michael M Cox
(2004). Lehninger Principles of
Biochemistry. 4th edition' Macmillan U.K.
3.
Zubay,G. 1988. Biochemistry. Macmillan Publishing Company, New York.
4.
Sadasivam
S. and Manickam,
A.
1996. Biochemical methods. New Age
International Publishers. New Delhi.
5.
Plummer, D.T. 1988. An Introduction to Practical Biochemistry. Tata McGraw
Hilt.
6.
Voet, D., Voet, J.G. and Pratt, C.W. 2005. Fundamentals of Biochemistry: Life at
the Molecular Level. WileY.
25
v
ECOLOGY AND EVOLUTION
Theory
l.
Ecosystem
-
Structural components, relationship between structural and function
trophic structures
-
;
Ecological awareness'
2. Productivity and energy flow production; methods
concept, limits and processes
of primary
of productivity measurement; efficiency with
regard to
energy capture and transfer.
basic types; the global water, Carbon and Nitrogen
3. Biogeochemical cycling cycles.
4.
Succession, climax and stability
-
concepts, characteristics of pioneer and climax
species; climax concept and stability.
5.
Population characteristics
-
density, diversity indices, alpha, beta and gamma
diversity, natality, mortality, age distribution, biotic potential, carrying capacity,
aggregation, dispersal, ecotone and edge effect'
6. Genecology - basic concepts, ecotype, ecophenes, ecads'
7. Mechanisms and processes of evolution of biological organisms. Discussion of
evolutionary principles from Darwinism to motecular evolution' Selection,
adaptation, and speciation. Extinctions: mass and not so massive.
8.
Environmental pollution
-
types
: Land, air, and water : Minamata
and Love
Canal episode; pesticides, radiation, noise and automobile pollution; effect on
plant; control with emphasis on biological methods, cumulative effect on global
environment
- El nino, La nina, green house effbct, Ozone depletion,
Ozone day.
Practicals
I.
Evaluation of biotic and abiotic components of any two important ecosystems'
2. Evolution of food chain in the ecosystems mentioned in I'
3. Determination of the importance value Index (lVI) of plant
species
in
the
community by quadrats, line and belt transect methods-
4. Comparative study of polluted and non-polluted aquatic ecosystems.
5. Visit to a meteorological station, Wildlife Sanctuary, National Park, sewage
treatment unit and major construction areas.
References
26
.ea\
s
L
Co' Pvt' Ltd'
Agarwal, V.P., 1988. Forests in India. Oxford & IBH Publishing
2.Clarks,G.L.lg54.ElementsofEcology.JohnWiley&Sons.
3.
4.
Cox. G.W. 1969. Readings in conservation Ecology. Appleton-century-crofts'
Sons.
Dasman,.R.F. 1968. Environmental conservation. John wiley and
5.Lucas,G.&Synge,H.,1936.IUCNPlantRedDatabook'IUCN
6. Misra, R., 1968. Ecology workbook. oxfordJBH Publishing co.
7.
Indian Plants'
Nayar, M.P. & Sastry, A.R.K. 1987, 1989, 1990, Red Data Book of
3 Vols. Botanical SurveY of India.
8.
9.
Odum, E.P., 1976. Fundamentals of Ecology' W' B' Sanders'
Odum, E.P. 1983. Basic Ecology. W'B' Saunders
10. Puri, G. Indian Forest Ecology.
oxford-lBH Publishing co.
T.P. 2.3 CELL BIOLOGY, BIOPHYSICS, IMMUNOTECHNIQUES
CELL BIOLOGY
and
Detailed study of ultra structure, function and organization of cell, cell membrane
and
cell organelles, export and import into cetl organelles, microbodies - different types
l.
functions, theories of origin of cell organelles'
2. Cell Nucleus: Ultra structure of nuclear
membranes, nuclear pore complex, nucleolus,
nucleoplasm, nuclear import and export, nuclear transfer
& transplantation'
3. Specialtypes of Chromosomes: Polytene chromosomes and lamp brush chromosomes;
and
structure and significance of giant chromosomes in plants, B-chromosomes, minute
mega chromosomes.
in mitosis and meiosis. Comparison and their
significance, Ultrastructure of spindle apparatus and synaptonemal complex, cell cycle
4.- Chromosomes mechanism and events
and its regulation.
Karyotype and Karyomorphometry, Karyotype analysis, Role in evolution.
Chromosome banding and various banding techniques - G, C, T, N, R, Pr, Q and
5.
Flurochrome banding.
6. Numerical and structural variations of chromosomes and their consequences, Breakage
- Fusion -
Bridge cycle; Mobile genetic elements; Translocation heterozygotes; Renner
complex. lnduction of polyploidy by colchicines
27
7. Radiation cytology, Isotopes and their applications. Biological, Physiological
and
chromosomal effects of radiations. Radiation hazards.
8. On cogenes. Cytology of cancer, chromosome rearrangement and cancer, radiation and
DNA repair in carcinogenesis and future prospects, Cancer gene therapy.
9. Modern techniques in cytogenetic charaterization : in situ hybridization technique
DIRVISH. FISH; electrophoretic karyotyping, spectral karyotyping,
-
chromosome
painting; flow cytometry, chromosome uptake, chromosome engineering and cell fusion.
Practicals
l.
Study of mitotic index of the specimen supplied.
2. Camera Lucida drawings of Karyotype from a permanent slide.
3. Study of meiosis in Datura/Rhoeo/Chlorophytum by smear preparation of PMCs.
4. Study of giant chromosomes in Drosophila.
Reference
l.
Sharma, A. (1990). The Chromosomes, Oxford
2. Celis, E.J. (1994) Cell Biology
-
& IBH. Delhi.
A Laboratory Hand Book. Vol. I & III, Academic
Press.
3. Darnell.J, Lodish, H. and Baltimore, D. (1991) Molecular Cell Biology, Scientific
American Books.
4. De Reobertis E.D.P. and Robertis E.M.F. (1991) Cell and Molecular Biology,
Washington ; Lea
&
Febiger.
5. Gunning, B.E.S. and Steer, M.W. (1996). Plant Cell Biology- Structure and function.
Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Sudbury, Massachusetts.
6. Hall. J.L., Flowers, T.J. and Roberts, R.M. (1981). Plant cell structure and Metabolisrn,
Longman, London and New York.
7. Lewin, B. (1997) Gene VI, London : Oxford University Press.
8. Sharma, A.K. and Sharma, A. (1980) Chromosome Techniques: Theory and practice,
Aditya Books; New Delhi: Butterworths. London.
BIOPHYSICS
Theory
l.
Buffers: Derivation of Henderson Hasselbatch equation of the buffers. Function
of buffers in biological system; uses in biological research.
lf
2.
Photometry : Colorimerty and spectrophotometry; their applications in biological/
biochemical studies.
3. Principles and application of chromatography.
4. principles and application of electrophoresis.
5. A brief account of centrifugation as a separation technique.
6. Bioenergetics : Free energy and entropy. Standard free energy change in
equilibrium reaction. High energy phosphorylated compounds; Energy hydrolysis
of ATP.
Practicals
l.
Preparation of buffers and measurement of pH using pH meter.
2. Determination of isoelectric pH of casein.
3. Paper chromatographic separation of sugars.
4. Thin layer of Chromatography of amino acids
5. Separation of subcellular particles by sucrose density gradient
centrifugation.
References
l.
Physical Biochemistry. Application to biochemistry and molecular biology. By
David Freifelder.
2. Biophysics by D.C.S. White.
3. Biophysics: Concepts and Mechanics: by E.J. Casey. Pub. VanNostrand Rein.
4. Biophysics : Ed. Walter Hoppe (ed.). Pub. Springer Verlag. (1983).
5. Optical methods in biology : by E.M. Slayeter. Pub. Wiley Interscience.
IMMUNOTECHNIQUES
Theory
1. General account
on lymphocytes, types of immunity, concept of antigen and antibody,
cellular and humoral immunity, theories involved
in
antibody formation,
immunoglobulins, complements dependent immunity, antigen presentation, MHC and
gene shuffling and antibody polymorphism HLA, hypersensitivity, opsonisation,
monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies, immunological memory, precipitation, reaction,
immunodiffusion, immuno-electrophoresis, electro-immunodiffusion,
radio-
immunoassay, Immunoflurescence, immunoblotting, enzyme-linked immunosorbent
assay.
29
f.
Practicals
l.
Blood group testing, for the determination of ABo antigens in man.
2.
Immunodifftrsion studies on agar gel.
Reference
l.
Abbas A.K. and Lichtman, A.H.2006. Basic Immunology. Saunders.
2. J. Darnell,
H. Loddish, D.Baltimore (1994) Molecular Cell Biology : Scientific
American Books Inc, USA.
3. Cochet, O. et al. 1998. ImmunologicalTechniques Made Easy. Wiley.
4. Grange, J.M. et al. 1991. Immunological Techniques in Microbiology.
Wiley-
Blackwell.
T.P.3.1 MORPHOLOGY OF ANGIOSPERMS, TAXONOMY OF
ANGIOSPERMS, AND ETHANOBOTANY
MORPHOLOGY OF ANGIOSPERMS
Theory
l.
General concepts of morphology, origin and evolution of flower, co-evolution of
lowers vis-a- vis pollinators.
2. Origin and evolution of monocot and dicot flowers.
3. Evolution of carpels: Different types of carpels, concepts of foliar origin of
carpels
4.
-
alternative concepts and approaches.
Specialized carpels
-
poly and syncarpy
-
superior, semi-inferior and inferior
ovary- appendicular and receptacular concepts
5. Role of floral anatomy
-
evolution of placentation types.
in interpreting the origin and evolution of flower and floral
parts.
Practicals
l.
Preparation of cleared whole mounts of floral parts to show vasculature.
2.
With the help of dissections and hand sections, examine
a) Transmitting tissue/canals
b) Different types of ovaries.
in style and stigma.
c) Different types of placentation.
d) Vasculature of androecium and gynoecium in special types of flowers.
tu,
References
l.
Eames A.J. Morphology of Angiosperms.
2.
Barnard C. The interpretation
of Angiosperrn flower. Aust. J. Sci. 24;
64-72
(leol)
3.
Manilal K.S. Vascularisation of corolla of Compositae. J. Ind. Bot. Soc. 50: 189re6. (1981).
4.
Meeuse A.D.J. Some fundamental principles
of interpreting floral morphology.
Intl. Biosci. Publ., Hissar (1974).
5. Melville R.A. New theory of angiosperm flower, Nature : 188 (14418) (1960).
6. Puri V. Inferior Ovary. Phfiomorphology, 2:122 (1952).
7. Sporne K.R. The morphology of the Angiosperms. Hutchinson Univ. Press.
London (1974).
TAXONOMY OF ANGIOSPERMS
Theory
L
Taxonomy
2. Historical
-
Its objectives, scope and importance.
development of theories and concepts of biological classification and
classificatory systems
-
with special emphasis on the conceptual basis of
the
classification of the following : Bentham & Hooker, Engler & Prentl, Hutchinson,
Cronquist and Takhtajan.
3.
Taxonomic structure. Taxonomic hierarchy and concepts
of
Taxonomic
categories, species, genus, family and infraspecific categories.
4.
-
Concept of character, character variations and their taxonomic implementations.
Sources
of
taxonomic
characters
morphology, anatomy, embryology,
palynology, cytology, and phytochemistry
5. Modern trends in
B
6.
Taxonomy Conceptual and methodological problems;
isystematics, N umerical Taxonomy, Clad istics, Chemotaxonomy.
Practical identification
of
plants; Different types
of
keys; construction of
dichotomous keys; various kinds of taxonomic Iiterature.
7. Plant nomenclature - A detailed study of the major provisions
Code of Botanical Nomenclature
-
of the International
Effective and valid publication, rank of taxa,
3l
4-.
s
rule of priority and its limitations, typification, author citation, rejection
and
retention of names of hYbrids.
8.
preparation, importance
Methods of plant exploration, collection and herbarium
of Herbaria, Botanical Gardens'
Practicals
with the local
During the course of this study, the students shall get familiarity
l.
flora.
2.
and studying plants
The students should get familiar with the method of dissecting
describing them in technical terms, preparing scientific
in the laboratory,
based on Bentham
illustrations, constructing artificial keys and identifying them
each student shall work
and Hooker's system of classification. For this purpose,
of Angiosperms available in
out at least 3 members of each the following families
the area.
Tiliaceae,
Menispermaceae, Polygalaceae, Caryophyllaceae,
Rubiaceae'
Rhizophoraceae, Melastomataceae, Passifloraceae, AiZoaceae,
Families
:
Lentibulariaceae'
Oleaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Gentianaceae, Borangninaceae,
Euphorbiasceae' Utricaceae'
Pedaliaceae, Acanthaceae, Lauraceae, Loranthaceae,
3.
cyperaceae and Poaceae'
orchidaceae, commelinaceae, z\ngiberaceae, Araceae,
a field study tour for
During the course of this study, each student shalt undertake
at a place
at least ten days, under the guidance and supervision of a teacher,
study' Each one
ecologically and floristically different of their place of regular
and shall submit at
shall also collect plant specimens for herbarium preparation
course of their
least fifty, well prepared, correctly identification during the
-
practical examination.
References
l.
Taxonomy, New
Davis, P.H. & v.H. Heywood. 1963. Principles of Angiosperm
York.
2. Burkill I.H. 1865. Chapters in the history of botany in India. Delhi'
3. Heywood v.H. (Edn) 1968. Modern methods in Plant Taxonomy, London'
4.Street.H.S.(Ed.).lgT8.EssaysinPlantTaxonomy.Leiden.
32
5.
Heywood,V.H.&.D.M.Moore(Edn).lgs4.CurrentconceptsinPlant
Taxonomy, London.
Leiden'
Vogel E.F. (Ed.) 1987. Manual of Herbarium Taxonomy'
of wild and cultivated plants'
7. Styles B.T. (Ed.) 1986. Infraspecific classification
6.
Oxford.
8. Stebbins, G.L. 1974. Flowering plants,
Evolution above the species level'
Cambridge, Mass.
g. Mayr. E.lgT|.Evolution
10. Jeffrey.
c.
I I . Sivarajan
and diversity of
life' Cambridge'
An introduction to principles of Plant Taxonomy, London'
Delhi'
1991. Introduction to Principles of plant Taxonomy,
1968.
v.v.
T.F. 1990. Plant Taxonomy, Columbia'
New Delhi'
13. Naik. V'V. 1984. Taxonomy of Angiosperms'
12. Stuessy.
(latest).
14. International Code of Botanical Nomenclature
ETHNOBOTANY
l. History and development of Ethnobotany:
Development of Ethnobotany in Asia with
special reference to that in India, Ethnobotany outside Asia'
(lTK): lndigenous
2. Traditional Scientific knowledge: Indigenous technical knowledge
(TEK), Rural people's
Agricultural knowledge (lAK), Traditional ecological knowledge
Integrated knowledge system
knowledge (RPK), Traditionalbotanical knowledge (TBK),
(rKS).
of
Traditional Botanical Knowledge: Basic
- Utilitarian, cognitive, and
approaches to the study of Traditional Botanical Knowledge
3.
Documentation and interpretation
Ecological.
traditional
4. Collecting Ethnobotanical Evidence: The dynamics and distribution of
botanical knowledge.
origins of participatory
5. Traditional Botanical Knowledge in Rural Development: The
research. Partnership in practice.
6. Ethnobotany and sustainable utilization of plant resources.
7. Protection of Traditional Botanical Knowledge'
8. Major subdisciplines of Ethnobotany'
9. Major tribes of Kerala and their dependence on plants'
33
References
Jain, S.K. 1991. Dictionary of Indian Folkmedicine and Ethnobotany. Deep Publications.
Martin,G. 1995. Ethnobotany: A Methods Manual. Chapman & Hall.
Paye, G.D. 2000. Cultural Uses
of Plants: A Guide to Learning about Ethnobotany. The
New York Botanical Garden Press.
Schultes R.E. and von Reis, S. Ethnobotany - Evolution of a Discipline. Springer.
T.P.3.2 GENETICS, PLANT BREEDING AND HORTICULTURE
GENETICS
Theory
l.
Evolution of genetics and modern advances: Mendelism: the basic principles of
inheritance; Modified Mendelian ratios: Genetic interaction: Multiple alleles;
Statistical applications in genetics.
2.
Linkage
-
crossing over and gene mapping : Classical experiments of Bateson and
Punnett, Morgan, Bridges, two point and three point crosses, models of crossing
over, Trisomics and translocation in Linkage analysis, Linkage and recombination
in Neurospora, Bacteria and Bacteiophages; sex-linked, sex-influenced and sex
-
limited inheritance. Extra chromosomal inheritance.
3.
Mutation : Spontaneous and induced mutations; physical and chemical mutagens,
sex
-
linked mutation, the mutator gene and paramutation, reverse mutation,
of mutation, mutation rate, molecular basis of mutation, site directed
mutagenesis, DNA repair, mutation and evolution, significance of mutagenesis,
detection
vitality mutation.
4.
Population genetics : Basic concepts, genetic equilibrium, genetic polymorphism,
genecology, gene flow and gene migration. Eugenics Euphenics and Euthenics.
5.
6.
Quantitative genetics : polygenes, Multiple gene concept, transgenic variation.
Organic evolution: Populational and molecular mechanisms. Origin of species.
Practicals
l.
Problems related to the theory parts have to be worked out.
2.
Recombination analysis and gene mapping in Neurospora/Sordaria.
34
References
l.
Brooker, R.J.2004. Genetics: Analysis and Principles. McGraw-Hiil.
2. EIrod,S. Schaum's Outline Of Genetics. McGraw-Hill.
3. Klug, W.S. Cummings, M.R. and Spencer, C. 2006. Essentials of Genetics.
Benjamin Cummings
4. Narain P. (1990). statistical Genetics, New Delhi, wiley Eastern Ltd.
5. Singer, M. and Berg. P. (1991). Genes and Genomes, Black Well Scientific
Publications.
6. snustad, D.P. and Simmons M.J. 2005. Principles of Genetics. wirey.
7. Weaver, R.E. and Hedrick, P.W. 1985. Basic genetics W.M.C. Brown Publishers.
8. Hartl D.L. and Clark, A.G. 1997. Principles of population genetics, III edition.
Sinauer Associates, Inc.
PLANT BREEDING
Theory
l.
Introduction, History of Plant Breeding and Breeding systems in plants.
2. Floral biology and its significance in hybridization.
3. Plant introduction, Genetic resources conservation and utilization in
breeding
-
National and International germplasm centers
-
plant
types of germplasm
collections.
4- Selection
technique
-
Principles and application of selection, genetic basis of
selection, pure line selection, disruptive selection, recurrent selection; selection
of
segregation populations, clonal selection.
5. Hybridization
Genetic and breeding consequence of hybridization
and
consequent selection. Systems of incompatibility and hybrid sterility and methods
of overcoming. Methods of handling segregating population for superior strain
selection - Bulk method and pedigree method. lnter specific and intergeneric
hybridization
in crop improvement. Back crossing -
Theory and practice;
inbreeding depression, Heterosis and heterobeltiosis; methods of exploitation
heterosis or hybrid vigor; use of male steriles.
6.
Polyploidy in plant breeding.
35
of
7.
Mutation breeding
- Major achievements
in India and other countries in different
crops
8. Breeding for pest, disease and stress resistance.
9. Recent advances in genetic manipulations of crop through in vitro induced
mutation, somatic hybridization, tissue culture and transgenesis.
Micropropagation
germplasm
-
theory and practice
- terminator
- In vitro storage and exchange of
seeds and suicidal plants.
Practicals
l.
Study of floral biology and flower structure in crop plants (rice, cashew, pulses,
solanum, capsicum).
2.
Practice of hybridization techniques in self and cross pollinated crops available
(same plants as mentioned above under item I).
HORTICULTURE
Theory
I
.
Concept and scope of horticulture.
2. Basic requirements practices
land, water, soil, landscape, propagules, implements and
- types of garden plants.
3. Classification of gardens garden, roof garden, bonsai
aesthetic garden, home garden, public parks, rock
-
vegetable garden, kitchen garden and orchids
-
medicinal gardens.
4. Propagation methods of garden plants.
5. Implements, tools and machineries for gardening.
6. Disease and pest control in gardening.
7. Fertilizers - types and application.
8. Problem of garden pollution - preservation.
9. Planning and management of gardens.
Practicals
l.
Grafting, budding, layering.
2.
Determination of soil pH, estimation of dissolved oxygen, and estimation ofNPK
ratio.
3.
Operation and use of garden implements.
36
rs
\)
T.P.3.3 MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, GENETIC ENGINEERING AND
BIOINFORMATICS
MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND GENETIC ENGINEERING
l.
Molecular biology of gene. Ultra structure and composition of DNA and RNA.
Forms of DNA (A, B, C, D, E,
H,Z,R, L), DNA triple helix
and RNA
-
different
types. Evidence of DNA as genetic material, satellite DNA and selfish DNA.
Different modes
of
replication
of DNA.
Chromosomal proteins and their
molecu lar i nteractions. Chondromes and pl astomes.
2.
of DNA. Experimental evidence.
Replication
Enzymology
of
replication.
Replication in Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes. Primosomes and replisomes.
3.
Gene action: one gene one enzyme hypothesis, one cistron one polypeptide
hypothesis, concept of Co-linearity. Genetic code
-
features, deciphering
of the
genetic code.
4. Regulation of gene expression - The operon concept.
gene regulation
prokaryotes
5.
-
in
eukaryote
-
Altemations in the operon
-
enhancers and silencers, gene regulation in
lac operon, trp operon, his operon, ara operon.
Molecular analysis of gene and gene product
Blot, Dot blots
-
Restriction maps
-
-
Southern, Northern and Western
RFLP, PCR and its application, RAPD.
Chromosome walking and jumping, DNA finger printing, DNA chips.
6.
DNA sequencing: Maxam & Gilbert method, Sanger's method, Messing's Shot
gun method
7.
-
Fluorescent detection and automation
Recombinant DNA technology
-
- The human genome project.
Enzymes, Vectors, Gene-coning strategies,
construction and screening of genomic and oDNA libraries. Expression of cloned
genes in bacteria and mammalian cells, prospects and achievements.
Transgenic organisms: Gene cloning strategies in plants
-
vector dependent and
vector independent methods. Identification and selection of transformed plants
the reporter enzyme technology-Objectives and achievements
-
engineering for
secondary metabolites, resistance against herbicides, insects, pathogens, stress
novel nutritional and qualitative changes
37
in
-
plants. Plants as bioreactors,
n
phytopolymers, biodegradable plastics, antisense RNA technology
-
Transgene
inactivation. Terminator and traitor technologies'
9.
- Objectives. Creation of dolly. Other developments in cloning. Human
cloning - Ethics of cloning; Patenting of genes and GMOs. Gene piracy. Ethics
Cloning
and biosafety aspects, rec. DNA safety, IPR, biosafety protocol.
Practicals
l.
Problem related to the theory parts have to be worked out.
2. Extraction and isolation of nucleic acid from leaf tissue.
3. Quantitative estimation of DNA and RNA calometric bar spectrophotometric.
References
l.
Singer,
M. and Berg. P. (1991). Genes and Genomes, Black Well Scientific
Publications.
2.
Watson, J.S. (1990). Molecular Biology of the Gene. Benjamin Sydney.
3.
Potry KUS<
I
and Spangenberg,
G.
1995. Gene transfer
to plants. Sprirrger
Verlag, Berlin.
4. Mahiga, P., Klessing,
D.F. Cashmore, A.R. Grinssen, W. and varner, J.E. 1995.
Methods in plant molecular biology
-
A laboratory course - manual. CSHL
Press,
New York.
5. Dodds, J.H. 1985. Plant Genetic Engineering, Panima Education Book Agency.
6. Maurten, J. Chrispeels and David, E. Sadava. 1994. Plant, genes and Agriculture,
Jones and Bartlett Publishers International, London.
7.
Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: J.M. Walker and R. Rapley. Panima
Publ
8.
i
sh
ing Corporation.
Molecular Biotechnology Principles and Applications
of
Recombinant DNA:
Bernard R. Glick and Jack J. Pasternack; ASM Press Washington.
9.
Gene cloning and
10.
Molecular Biotechnology, S.B. Primrose; Panima Publishing Corporation.
I
DNA Analysis : T.A. Brown; Blackwell Science Pub:
l. Plants, Genes and Agriculture. Maarten J. Chrispeels and D.E. Sadava. Jones and
Bartlett Publishers.
I.
BIOINFORMATICS
38
u
t
l. Major Bioinformatics
of various
Resources: NCBI, EBI, ExPASy; The knowledge
resources' the major content
databases and bioinformatics tools available at these
the databases, purpose and utility
in life sciences. Open
resources and literature databases: Basic concept
resources related
major content of
of
of
access bibliographic
open access bibliographic
to Life Sciences, the significance and need for such resources' the
with
the databases, how to search and use these resources/databases
of Sciences etc'
special reference to PubMed, PubMed Central; Public Library
with
2. Sequence and Structure Databases: Knowledge of the following databases
entries, retrieval
respect to: organization of data, contents and formats of database
data using text-based search tools, sources
of
of data (e'g' sequencing projects'
databases'
individual scientists, patent oflices etc.), method for deposition of data to
Nucleic acid sequence databases: GenBank, EMBL, DDBJ
Protein sequence databases: SWISS-PROT, TTEMBL, PIR-PSD
Genome Databases at NCBI, EBI, TIGR, SANGER
3. Derived Databases for bio-molecular sequences and structures: Knowledge of the
following databases with respect to: basic concept of derived databases, sources of
primary data and basic principles of the method for deriving the secondary data,
organization
of
data, contents and formats
of
database entries, identification of
patterns in given sequences and interpretation of the same: Prosite, PRODOM, Pfam,
PRINTS, CATH, SCOP, DSSP, FSSP, DALI.
4.
Sequence Analysis:Various
file formats for bio-molecular sequences: genbank,
fasta, gcg, msf, nbrf-pir etc. Basic concepts of sequence similarity, identity and
-homology,
definitions of homologues, orthologues, paralogues. Matrices for nucleic
acid and proteins sequences, PAM and BLOSUM series, principles based on which
these matrices are derived. Differences between distance
Sequence-based Database Searches:
&
similarity matrix,
what are sequence-based database
searches,
BLAST and FASTA algorithms, Various versions of basic BLAST and FASTA, Use
of these methods for sequence analysis including the on-line use of the tools and
interpretation of results. Pairwise sequence alignments: basic concepts of sequence
alignment, Needleman
alignments, use
& Wuncsh, Smith &
Waterman algorithms
for
pairwise
of pairwise alignments for analysis of Nucleic acid and protein
39
of results. Multiple sequence alignments (MSA): the
need for MSA, basic concepts of various approaches for MSA (e,g' progressive,
hierarchical etc.). Algorithm of CLUSTALW and Pileup and their application for
sequences and interpretation
sequence analysis (including interpretation
of results), concept of dendograms and its
interpretation.
the
6. prediction of protein structure: Secondary structure: Basic principles on which
prediction methods of first, second and third generation are based; Tertiary Structure:
Theoretical basis
of the
methods
for structure prediction
(sequence similarity I
principles of
identity of target protein with proteins of known structure, fundamental
principles
protein folding etc.) and choice of appropriate prediction approach; basic
of Homology Modeling; Databases of modets; Basic principles for fold
of ab initio
recognition, lD profiles and threading approaches, basic principles
and protocol
and
structure prediction and the broad approaches (what are the hierarchical
comparison and
enumerative approaches, their general outline), Protein structure
purpose of
classification: classes, folds; the concepts in 3D structure comparison,
structure comparison, algorithms such as FSSP, VAST and DALI'
7. Molecular modeling and simulations: Basic concepts in molecular modeling:,
of force fields:
different types of computer representations of molecules; Concepts
representation
representations of atoms and atomic interactions, potential energy
g. Genomics and proteomics: Prediction of Genes, Promoters, splice sites, regulatory
principles, application of methods to prokaryotic and eukaryotic
regions: basic
genomes and interpretation
of results.DNA
microarray, the databases and basic
database tools; Protein arrays: basic principles; Basic concepts
on identification of
of bioinformatics- OMIM database, reference genome Sequence,
of SNPs, SNPs
integrated genomic maps, gene expression profiling; identification
disease genes, role
databases (DbSNP).
References
zvelebil, M.J.
and
Baum, J. O. 2006. Understanding Bioinformatics- Garland
Publishing Inc.
Tisdall , J. 200l.Beginning Perl for Bioinformatics. O'Reilly Media, Inc'
40
:)
Baxevanis A.D. and Ouellettee, B.F.2001. Bioinformatics,
A Practical Guide to the
Analysis of Genes and Proteins.Wiley.
Mount, D.W. 2004. Bioinformatics: Sequence and Genome Analysis. Cold Spring
Harbor Laboratory Press.
Claverie, J. and Notredame, C.2006. Bioinformatics for Dummies. John Wiley &
Sons
Korf, I. Yandell, M. and Bedell, J.2003. Blast. O'Reilly Media, Inc
Lesk, A.M. 2005. An Introduction to Bioinformatics. Oxford University Press.
Xiong, J. 2006. Essential
B
ioinformatics. cambridge University press.
Practicals
1.
Acquisition of basic skills in Internet browsing.
2. Familiarization of web browsers and search engines.
3. Familiarisation of Major Bioinformatics Resources/databases.
4. Internet search and use use of these resources/databases with special reference to
PubMed, PubMed Central, Public Library of Sciences, GenBank, SWISS-pROT
etc
SPECIALIZATION SUBJECT - I
ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE
Theory
l.
Introduction: What
Ecosystem
-
development
2-
is
components
-
environmental Science? Interdisciplinary nature
-
population, community and biosphere
-
origin of life
-
Gaia hypothesis
integrative levels, continental drift
3. Physical
history and
natural history to ecological models.
Conditions for life: Climate: Solar radiation
environment
-
-
land
factors: Light: Solar radiation
-
-
-
origin of earth
-
evolution of
theory
of
Beer's Law and attenuation of light
-
levels of organization
-
bridge hypothesis.
adaptation. Temperature: Plant- temperature interactions
-
metabolic adaptation.
Temperature: Plant-temperature interactions-metabolic adaptations of plants-life
in extremes. Moisture Structure of water molecule-unique properties of water
water cycle
-
- tolerance towards floods, water scarcity, and salinity - phenology.
4t
Nutrients: Macro and micronutrients
microorganisma in nutrient cycle
cycles
-
-
-
geology, climate and nutrients
Leibig
-
-
role
of
Blackman theory. Biogeochemical
carbon, Nitrogen, sulfer and Phosphorous cycles
-
food chain, food web
and ecological pyramids. Soil: Soil formation
organisms
-
- soil horizons - soil types - Soil
- Soil mosaics - Cation exchange capacity - soil
Soil properties
erosion.
4.
Population : Unique feature
- dispersion of individuals - demography age structure - fertility and fecundity - natality and mortality - population
growth- growth rate - limiting factors - population interaction and regulation
interspecific competition Lotka volterra equation predation,
commensalisms, mutualism and parasitism - human interaction with natural
population
5.
-
-
density
Biological control.
Population genetics: Genetic variation and natural selection
-
genetic consequence of different
genetic variation
-
- source of variation
reproductive systems - cloning - patterns of
ecotones, ecotypes, ecophenes and ecoclines.
Communities : History and development of community concepts
-
concepts and
- strucfure and function - habitat and niches - succession (ecosystem
development) - causes and consequences of succession - dynamics and products
of succession - gause's competitive exclusion principle - fundamental and
definitions
realized niches
7.
-
recent developments in community ecology- wood wide web.
Energetics: Energy and entropy
and transfer-efficiency
8.
-
-
principles of thermodynamics
-
energy flow
primary productivity in aquatic and terrestrial habitats.
Ecosystems: Ecosystem pattern- tundra and taiga, grass lands and savannas,
shrubland and desert-temperate and tropical forests-lakes and ponds-fresh water
wetlands, lakes and ponds
-
rivers --oceans, intertidal zones and coral reefs-
estuaries, slot marshes and mangrove forests-phytogeographic zones of the world-
vegetation types of India-Gadgil-Mehr-Homiji's Classification
-Remote sensing,
satell ite imagery-Western Ghats-Himalayas.
9.
Conservation: Reasons for conservation
Impact of
- environmental hazards and disasters -
environmental modification-deforestation, urbanization,
industrialization, application of chemicals as fertilizers and pesticides
42
Biopesticles, Biofertilizers
- applied biological control. Sustainable
development
_ Rio Earth Summit _ IUCN, UNDP, Red Data Book, IBPGR, Global
conservation environmental - Facility conservation strategy - Biodiversity
Endangeredfloraandfauna-WildLifesanctuaries,NationalParksand
Elephant patents,
Bioreserves. Environmentalism. Project Tiger and Project
GATT, Biopiracy and Biosafety - EIA'
pollution: air, water, land noise thermal and radiation - cFCs
abatement'
and Ozone depletion. Global warming-Green House effect-Pollution
Environmental lawsPollution special reference to Kerala (chaliyar and Periyar),
10. Pollution: Kinds of
NGosandenvironmentmovement(SpecialreferencetoKeralaandlndia_Silent
Valley, Narmada).
Practicals
l.
for the analysis
Standardization of quadrat size using species- area curve method
of local vegetation.
2. Determination of
frequency
of l0
common species
in the local grassland
vegetation.
3. Determination of density of l0 dominant species in the local vegetation'
4. Determination of IVI (lmportance value Index) of 4 species of the local flora'
5. Soil analysis-physical characteristics - components - texture - humuns content'
chemical characteristics
- pH, salinity, chemical components.
6
Water Analysis - Technique
7
Sampling
-
colour and odour
coD (chemical 02
particles
-
-
Dissolved oxygen estimation
-
Estimation of
- N2 and p-Suspended
of pesticides of analysis -
demand)- Total organic carbon
Bacteriological methods-Extraction
Chromatographic analysis
-
specfiophotometric analysis'
References
1.
Chapman J.L. and Reiss, M.J. 1992. Ecology
-
Principle and Applications
Cambridge Univ. Press.
2.
Park
c.
1997. The Environment
-
London.
43
Principles and Applications Rontledge
-
t
3.
Smil, V. 1997.Cycles of life. Civilization and Biosphere W.H. Freeman and Co.
N.Y.
4.
Smith, R.L. and Smith T.M. 1998. Elements
of Ecology
Benjamin/Cunnings
Publishing Co. USA.
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Theory
1.
Introduction
-
(i) Need for research (ii) Stages of research
-
(a) Definition of
problem (b) Execution of work (c) Interpretation of research; (iii) Methods
Technical (b) Logical; (iv) Logical methods
Evolutionary (c) Determination
of
-
a
- (a)
(a)Description and classification (b)
casual function
-
Inductive ntethods
(l)
Method of difference (2) Method of concomitant variation (3) Method of residue
4) Method of agreement, Statistical methods, Deductive inductive method; (v)
Relevance and assumptions
2.
Review of literature
- (A) Library : (i) Structure of a scientific library - journals -
current and back volumes, Books
sources
-
reference and issues, periodicals and other
(ii) catalogue - what is a catalogue and how to use it?
catalogues
- card catalogue,
Types of
holdings, computerized catalogue (iii) Classification
of books Universal
decimal system; (B) Journal (a) Indexing journals (b)
Abstracting journals (c) Research journals (d) Reviews; (C) Other sources: (a)
Reprints
-
& Filing (b) CD Rom (c) Internet, world wide web (d)
(D) Preparations for review: (a) Outline of review (b)
Acquisition
INSDOC Services;
Selection of key words (c) Preparation of index cards
-
author index
&
Subject
index.
J.
Preparation of project proposal
Present status, (d) Location
-
(a) Title and abstract (b) aim and scope, (c)
of experiments (e) Materials and methodology, (f)
Date of commencement (g) Estimated date of completion, (h) Estimation cost.
4.
Preparation of a dissertation : (a) Consolidation and analysis of data, photographs,
illustration, tables and graphs, (b) Preparation of the outline, (c) preparation of
manuscript - introduction, review of literature, materials and methods, results,
discussion, summery, acknowledgements, references; (d) language text
-
tense,
capitalization, italics, punctuation, proof reading, abbreviation (e) Bibliography _
44
methods of citing references, arrangement of references
page, certificates, binding,
workshops
-
(f)
Presentation
- Title
(g) Presentation of research hndings in seminars and
OHP, Slides, Computer assisted (power point).
Practicals
l.
Prepare a project proposal.
2. Prepare an outline dissertation.
3. Prepare a list of references.
4. Present a small project in the class with the help of OHP.
Reference
Introduction and General Principles
l.
Riker, A.J.
& Riker
R.S. (1936) Introduction to research on plant diseases, John
Swift & Co, USA 177p.
Review of Literature:
2.
Krishnakumar,
K
(1981) An introduction to cataloguing practice, Vikas Publ.
House, New Delhi,298p.
3.
Parashar, R.G. (1989) Index and indexing systems, Medallion Press, New Delhi,
l96p
Preparation of Research Project Proposal.
4.
Bercy, R. (1994) The research project, how to write it, Rutledge, London, I I6p"
45
e..
i
,
Fly UP