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oLoqY YlruRoBt +T +ALI#UT rtft,
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{Abstracti
rtft,
t.clicrooioloqy i:surse .- rerrised rcheme atrd syllabus
I*t-'i-i aiirritt.\icn on+rai",ii * aFiirrY=il -:.Grtl=rs tssued.
GEt{
ills. GA. ilJ 1/B037lggi
E,P.
BL Att E} Aeg
trE-f4i
li
-
inrplernet:ted '*ith effeci front
tr ERAilCH*I'J'SEENOH
Daled, eafieut Unnerstty. P.S,,
:t -7.28il5
F{eacl t i 1 luliriutes of rne*tirrg oI Bria;-d of Studies irt ilriisruaiology heid ott I8.4.]t]CE
i2l Mtrutes of nt*elrng oi ra*uity of Science held on 18.5.2C05
i-.Ji ltenr l.ip.
ii A (=Ei Gi tha minuies of the n-reetitg of Aead*mic.Council held on
'l ),i l-r '.rl ll l]-r
OEBEB
The nieeiirig uf Board sI Studies in lklicrobiolog.y held'on 18.4.2C05. resolved io revise
scherne
and syllabus of M.Sc fuilcrobrolggr course unth effect from 2005 admrssion
the
on'*rards anel approved the same.
i2i The nreetirig oi Facutty of Seier*e held oti 1S.5.2005, vide item nunrber I (J4i,
appr'over3 the minutes of Bcard ei Gttirlies.
i3) The nreeting of Academic Council held on JB-ti.2005, vide itern number ll A {29),
approved the mtnutes of Board of Studies as approved by the Faculty of Science and aiso
tlre minutes of Faculty of Science.
(4i $anetion has tlrerefore been accorded for implementing the revised seheme and
sy.iiabus of M.Sc Microbiology course with efiect frorn 2005 admission onwards
{5) Orders are issued accordingly. Revised scheme and s1'llabus is appended.
$tljDEPUTY R=GISTRAR {GeA r!
For REGISTRAR
'tli lhe Principals olcollege o'ffering M.Sc Microhiology
2)
Head ol the Depaftnrent of Life Science,
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M. Sc. IVI i cro h i ol ogy
S.t' I I u
h s
u
SEMESTER I
Paper
Unit
I.
-MB 1.1T. General Biochemistry
Structure and functions
of
Biomolecules:
-
Structure. classitications and
functions of carbohydrates- Monosaccharides: Disaccharides and poly'saccharicles.
Gly'cosidic linkages; amino sugars. sugar derivatives. g[,v-cosides and tlreir
functions' Heteropolysaccharides- Glycosaminogl."-cans and Clycoproteins. ( l-i
lvlarks)
Unit
II.
Structure and functions of amino acids and proteins: - Chemical structures and
classit-rcations
of amino acids. Chemical properties of amino acids: Amino
derivatir"es- biological amines and their functions. Proteins
acid
- different t1-pes of
classitications; chemical properties of proteins: Structural organization of proteins:
primary. secondan. tertiary and quaternary structures. Ramachandran's plot
and
protein contbrmation. Super secondary structures, motifs. and domains in protein
stmctures- Non- protein amino acids, biologically important amines and peptides.
(20 Marks)
Unit
III.
Lipids -structure. properties and classification. Fattv acid classificationSaturated- unsaturated and poll'- unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA):
Short chain.
medium chain and long chain faffy acids. Tri glycerides. phospholipids.
prostaglandins. prostacyclins and leukotriens: Sphingolipids and
_uly'colipids.
Structure and functioning of cell membranes. (10 lvlarks)
tjnit
IV.
Stntcture and properties
of
nucleic acids: -Purine and pl.rimidine
bases:
Nucleosides. nucleotides. nucleoside analogues. DNA-structure.
Watson and Crick
structure: Different forms of DNA
B and, Z types: Structure properties
-A,
ancl
functions of diflerent forms of RNA's. Hormones: - Chemical structure. properries
and tunctions of different t-v-pes of hormones. Classification- bascd on chernical
nature and mechanism of action. Vitamins:
-
classit'ication- structures. propcrties
and functions Deficiency diseases. ( I 5 lvlarks)
J
,,
/
',r,
I
M. S c. [l'I i c ro
Unit
V.
Principles and applications
of
bioI
ogy
9.1, I I 0
bu
:i
Centrifugation; Electrophoretic techniques
Chromatographic techniques-different
types. HPLC; GC.
Colorimerrl'.
spectrophotometry. Flourimetry and Flame photometry: PH- meter and Rotary
evaporator. Spectroscop)-
-
Ivlass- spectroscopy; NMR: Atomic absorption and
Emission Spectroscopy : ORD and CD; Electron spray. Lyophilization Techniques
-Principles and applications. Biphasic separation; Colloids -properties. Solutions properties: Osmosis. Diffusion: Dial.v-sis. Polar and Non- polar solvents. Principles
and applications of tracer techniques in Biology: Radioactive isotopes- applications
in
biological research: Effect
of
radiations
on Biological
systems. ,r\uto
radiography and its applications; Gei_ser - Ivluller counter. (20 ivlarks)
Paper
Unit
I
-MB
1.2T. General Microbiology
Microbial gro\\th and reproduction. Nutritional requirements, Nutritional
t1'pes.
elfect of various parameters and environmental factors on growlh. Cultivation of
bacteria- various culture media. culture methods. aerobic and anaerobic culturing.
estimation
of
microbial growth and methods
of cell quantitation. Culture
preservation strategies. Fungi. algae and virus -their cultivation techniques. (20
Ivlarks)
Unit
II.
Control of microbial growth. Effect of physicochemical factors on microbes.
Disinfection
-
factors affecting. various disinfectants and antiseptics. Evaluation
methods. Antibiotics and antimicrobials -their mode
action. (20 Marks)
Unit
III. Ultrastructure of bacterial
of
action. Olisodvnamic
cell. Nlovement of substances across membranes and
membrane transport systems. Cy'tosol and cell organelles. Bacterial appendages.
Storage granules. chromosome and extracellular genetic materials.
Spores.
sporulation and associated production of usefuls. (20 Marks)
4
t
-Lt
I t I t\'c
-)-'--
!:
ri: :sry!,t: : t[ 9y t-,:y t
ill.S c. ilI i *o
h i o I oi4y 9.1. 1 1,, 1,,,
t
Llnit IV. Ivlutation -tvpes of mutations. mutagens. fluctuation test. Ames test arrd replica
plating. Various approaches used
in
microbial classitication. Nlolecular levcl
approaches used in microbial taxonomy. (20 lvtarks)
Paper
[-init
I.
-NIB 1.3T. Environmentat and Sanitation Nlicrobiorogy
Soil microflora. microbial interactions -competition. succession.
parasitism- s1'neruism and antagonism.
Biodegradation of recalcitrants
Geocvclc-s
b1-
s1,mL'riosis.
Soil as source of industrial
strains.
soil microbes. Concept of microbial intallibiliti.
of C. N. S. P. iron and sulphur oxidation. N2 fixation.
iVlvcorrhiza.
rhizosphere and phy'lloplane microt'lora. . (20 ivlarks)
Linit
ll.
Air
microbiolo-u1'': Source of microbes and their quantitation techniques. Factors
atlccting the extent and
t-v-pe
industries and pharmaceuticals
of air microflora. Room sanitation in hospitals.
etc. Air sanitation in cinema and metro tunnels.
Earlv warning of animal. human and plant diseases by air monitoring. Biolo_sical
weapons. their regulation and precautions. (20 Marks)
Unit
III. \\-ater microbiolog)' -
Source
of
water microflora and their quantitaion
techniques. Water purity in industries. irrigation, potable and recreational waters.
Indicator organisms. like E.coti and their detection. Bacteriological analy'sis of
drinking water. Water purification and various steps involved. (20 iVlarks)
Unit IV. Pollution and environment. Biosensors and Biological indicators. Waste water
manaqement and se\\'ase treatment; industrial. municipal and house hold
',vastes.
BOD
cont epts. treatment
of
tannery and slaughter house waste. Solid
,,vaste
filling. Treatment of petroleum wastes and xenobiotics General account. Marine pollution, oil spills. tar ball pollution. beach pollution. (20
management and land
Marks).
5
6
Practical - MB
l.lp
Growth curve of bacteria using breeds count.
cFU, turbidimetry and pcv
Bacterial gro*,h in riquid media varying
pH, temp. oxygen and sarinity.
Anaerobic culturing by Iiquid paraffin overlay
and pyrogallol.
EfIect of sterilization temperature on media.
Anaerobic enrichment of cellulose digesters.
Starvation induced sporulation of bacteria.
Survival of bacteria in various modes of storage.
Demonstration of mutation in bacteria.
Pha_ce
cultivation.
Determination of phenol Coeffi cient.
I
l'
Study of microbes using bright field. dark hled and phase
contrast microscopl..
I 2. Demonstiation of Microbial Bioluminescence.
l3' Efficiency testing of bacteria proof filters and autoclave.
14. Study of air microflora by prate exposure and
liquid entrapment.
I
5. Winogradsky column.
16. Water portability testing using indicator organisms.
17. Use of biofilms in sewage treatment.
18. Cultivation
of fungi - Slide culture technique.
19. Isolation of amylase producers.
20. Isolation of cellulase producers.
21. Bacterial Commensalism
22. Bacterial Synergism
13. lvticrobial Antagonism
6
Liniversi0; oJ'Calicut
M.Sc. ill icro
SEMESTER
bi
ologl: $y I I 0 b us
II
Paper -IVIB 2.1T. Microbial Metabolism
Unit
I.
Basic Principles of Thermodynamics -Larvs of Thermod;-namics: concepts of
Free energy and entropy Enzymology- Enz,vme-lUB-Nomenclature: Classillcation:
Enz.v"me
active sites: coenz,ymes and co-factors; Enz.vme kinetics: Michaelis-
lvlenton equation: Factors affecting enzyme activity Multi-subunit enz)'mes:
isozr"mes: allosteric enzymes; enzy-me regulation; Enzyme inhibition; Nlechanism
of Enzyme action:
Enzyme puritication techniques. Enzyme immobilization. (20
NIarks)
Unit
II.
Glycoly'sis- aerobic and anaerobic types; alcoholic fermentation: regulation of
,uly'colysis. Pvruvate dehydrogenase complex; Krebs cycle: Glyoxylate o'clesignificance. regulation; Substrate- level phosphorylation; Electron transport chaincomponent stmcture: oxidative phosphorylation and mechanism of ATP formation:
Chemi-osmotic coupling hy'pothesis. Gluconeogenesis; Glycogenesis
and
glycogenolysis. Starch synthesis; HMP- shunt and its significance. (20 Marks)
Unit
III. De-amination; Trans- amination trans- methylation and decarbox,,-lation
reactions c'f amino acids. Synthesis and degradation of various amino acids;
essential. semi-essential and non-essential amino acids. Fatty acid oxidation: alphabeta. and omega oxidations; Faqv acid synthesis; synthesis
of unsaturated and long
chain fattv acids. Fatty acid biosynthesis. Purine and pyrimidine- bios.v-nthesis and
degradation (15 Marks)
Unit IV. Peptido-glycan biosynthesis. Antibiotics- Structure. classification, and ftrnctions
of dilferent types of
Bacterial toxins
-
antibiotics. Nlechanism
of action of different
chemistry, properties and mechanism
antibiotics.
of toxigenicity.
Fungal
toxins: - aflatoxins and ochratoxins- toxic effects and lvlechanism of toxigenicir-r,.
Alcoholic f'ermentation; energy production in anaerobic microbes; Biochemistn.
of
methanoge'tesis. Biochemistry
of
Bioluminescence; Bioluminescent bacteria.
Biochemistry of ranciditv development and microbial lipolysis: Chemical nature
and ultra structure of storage granules in Bacterial cell; pHB- synthesis: Volutine-
7
!!,:jy_,_f:!tt:rl9ltiry!
M'sc'
fuI i
*o
-------'--..--.--- F
h i o I o g1t $Y I I xfi
ss
synthesis;AlginatesandSiderophores-theirstructureandtunctions.Ivlicrobial
and steroid transformations. (25 lvlarks)
metabolism of Xenobiotics. co-metaborism
PaPer
Unit
-MB 2.2T' ImmunologY
mediated immune s).stem'
Specific immune response. Humeral and cell
and idioty'pes' Genetic
structure & classes. lsotypes, allotypes
I.
Immunoglobulin
(25 Marks)
basis tbr immunological diversity'
Llnit
II.
Hematopoesis
T and B cells
- Cells of immune system' Iymphoid organs'
l'vmphoc-'-te traff-rc'
- Structure- tunction. maturation and development'
cl,tokines. Processing anrJ presentation
Ly'mphokines and
of intracellular and extracelluar
antigens'
T
lmmune response to T-dependant and
Primary and secondary immune response.
inrlependentantigens.Majorhistocompatibilitycomplex.(25Marks)
their applications in immunodiagnosis'
Unit lll Antigen-antibody reactions and
Complement s}'stem'
antibodies and hybridoma technolog,v. .
N{onoclonal
lmmunological tolerence'
Unit IV.
A brief
account
(1
5 N{arks)
of;
dysfuntional
immunit'v
h-n-persensitivity reactions. blood compatibility'
autoimmune
diseasc's'
Rh' incompatibility' transplantation
immunology.immunosuppression'tumorimmunologyandimmunodeficiency
diseases' (15 lvlarks)
Paper
-MB
2-3T' Industrial Microbiology
Unitl.Isolationandscreeningofindustriatlyimportantmicrobes.Strainselectionand
improl,ement.Bioprocesses-conceptsanddesign.Continuousandbatch
of
Bioreactor design and control' Kinetics
fermentations. Tvpes of bioreactors'
such as mass transport
process. Transport phenomena in bioprocess
fermentation
transttr' (20
oxygen transfer coefficients' heat
and
liquids
and
gases
for
coetficients
Marks)
systems. ConcePts of
UnitII.Principle.;ofbioprocessmediaformulations.sterilization
temPerature.
and control of variables such as
inoculum development' Monitoring
agitation. pressure and pH' ( l5 Marks)
l.-!,,,1,',
i_:-----
ll n ive rs it|, oJ' C al ic ut
M.S c. il[ i cro
Unit III.
Down stream processing
- filtration. centrifugation.
bioI
ogy
$.y, I I n $
r
q
precipitation. salting
out- crystallization and biphasic separation. Bioassays.
Standardization.
tbrmulations and packauing. Shelf life considerarion. (l5lvlarks)
Unit
IV.
IVlanufacture of the tbllo',ving: penicillin. streptomycin. tetracy'cline.
Vit.
B
-12. Citric acid by surface and submerged process. Ethanol fermentation tionr
molasses. Industrial fermentation of w'ine and beer. Acetone - butanol fernrentation.
Bakers yeast. Lactic acid from whey. amylases by fungi. mono - sodium
*rrlutanrarc.
Importance of fermentations in ay-url'edic medicines. Importance and production ol'
Single cell protein (SCP). (30 Nlarks)
Paper
t-lnit
I.
-MB 2.1T. Biophysics, Biostatitics and Bioinformatics
Biostatistics
-
Principles and practice
of
statistical methods
Research: Basic statistics: Averages: statistics
of
Biological
Dispersion; Coefficient of
variations: Standard error: Probability; Distributions: Tests
sicnificance; Students T-test: Basics
in
of correlation and
of
staristical
regression. Anal,vsis of
variance. (20 Marks)
tJnit
II.
Structural Biology- Structural organization in proteins
-
Primar_v, secondary.
tertiary and quaternary structures: motifs. domains and super secondary structures:
Ramachandran plot and protein conformation. Role
of individual amino acids in
protein stnlcturel amino acid propensities: Structure prediction Methods; Protein
Engineerine 3-dimensional structure
of Hb.
Antibody. Rubisco. Interferon.
Interleukins and ATP- ase. (20 Nlarks)
Unit
III.
Structure. conlbrmation
and properties of
pol}'saccharides Structure and conformation
monosaccharides. and
ol nucleic acids-DNA and R|NA: 3-D
stnlcture of t RNA Or-sanization of chromatin structure: DNA -protein interactions
Structure and properties of high-energy molecules such as ATP. GTP, CTP and
Creatine -phosphate. lvlembrane structure and functions. Different transport
mechanisms: Donnan- membrane equilibrium. Crystallization techniques lbr
biomolecules; Crystallographr'. (20 N{arks)
9
!! r-,y-gr: !tt- -of 9I
Unit
!t-"'t
!
iVl.Sc. ill i c ro
b i tt
lttg)t
S)'
II
ub us
Approaches
Bio-informatics -: Biology in the computer age - Computational
operating
Biological questions. Basics of computers - selvers, workstations'
IV.
to
systems. L'nix. Linux.
world wide web. A brief account on introduction
biological databases. Search engines. hnding scientific articles - Pubmed
-
tcr
public
assembling
biological databases. Protein Data Bank. Swiss-prot. Genbank Sequence
ORF using computational methods - analysis ol sequences using computer
BLAST' motifs tinding the structural motils (protein) - Flomology search using
Strttctttre
Phylogenetic analysis. Sequence analysis and sequence alignment'
prediction and protein modelling' (20 N{arks)
Practical -MB 2.1P
l. Preparation buffers.
2. Protein Estimation using Lowry's method
3. Folin - ciocalteau estimation of unknown protein using Std. graph
4. Carbohydrate estimation
5. Dissolved 02 estimation
6. Estimation of ascorbic acid in plant matter
7. Citric acid estimation
8. PHB Synthesis
g. Visualization oiPDB files using rasmol'
10. SDS PAGE using protein Standards
I 1. Gel
filtration chromatograPhY
12. Dialysis of Proteins
1
3. Paper chromatograPhY
I4. TLC
15. Column separation of plant pigments
10
-u-r-,y-"-::t?-,rf -9:!try!_
M.Sc. M icrobiology
9.1:11 o6
rt
Practical -MB 2.2P
1. Strain development
2. Scale up,>f inoculum.
3. Enrichment of coir pith degraders.
4. Familiarization with bioreactor.
5. Demonstration of continuous and batch operation using bioreactor.
6. Demonstration of SSF, fixed bed and fluidized bed svstems.
7. Cell disruption techniques
8. Downstream processing - Salting out
9. Bioassay.
10. Citric acid production.
I
l. Alcohol
fermentation
SEMESTER
Paper
Unit
I.
III
-MB 3.1T. Medical Microbiology
Epidemiology. pathogenicity and treatment
of
diseases caused
by
Haem.
influenzae. C. diphtheriae. E. coli. Pseudomonas, Bacillus anthracis, Cl. tetani- Cl.
walchi, Leptospira
icterohaemmorhagiae,
N.
gonorrhea,
Iv{ycoplasma.
compvlobacter. Rickettsia -cox- burneti, Chlamidiae -trachoma. Ner,r' Bacterial
diseases- Helicobacter, Lyme diseases, Legionella. (25 marks)
Unit
II.
Epstein Barr virus- Influenza virus. Rubella (German measles).
diseases. ,a^IDS. Hepatitis virus.
Slo,u,,. v.irus
Viral hemmoragic fevers - Ebola. Blastomr.cetes
dermatitidis. Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus fumigatus and A.flayus.
Trvpanosoma
-
Giarida lambia. Malaria, Cryptosporidium. Encephalitis virus.
Japanese encephalitis virus. (25 marks)
Unit
III'
Infections in Vulnerable hosts, antimicrobial drugs. Bauer Kirby test. Brorh
dilution test. minimum inhibitory and lethal concentrations. Ivlechanism ol action
1l
!! y i: ::t !t_:: : t[_9, !t" y !
e
tut. S c.
and activit,v spectrum
of
IV.
Sy
IIo b
us
penicillin. streptomycin, tetracycline. sulfbnamides.
rif-ampicin. polymixin - B. Amphotericin
Unit
il[ i c ro h i ology
-
B. Drug resistance. (30 marks)
Conventional and rapid microbiological methods for identification of bactcria.
in
Automation
microbiology
-
Culturing advances. Spiral platin_u. Ox-r-'ferm.
mycotube. enterotube etc. Ivlolecular diagnosis. (20 marks)
Paper
Unit
I.
-MB 3.2T. Molecular Biology
NLrcleic acid chemistry, properties of nucleic acids. Watson
& Crick modc[ of
DNA- the larv of DNA constancv & C-value paradox, eukaryotic genome
orqanizaticn. repetitive DNA, selfish DNA. DNA replication in prokaryotes &
eukarvotes. models
of DNA replication-rolling circle &
D-loop.
reverse
transcription. (25 lvlarks)
Unit
II.
Prokaryotic
&
eukaryotic transcription. transcription factors. regulatorv
elements. operon concept.-Lac
& Trp operons.
The genetic code. Translation
in
post transcriptional modifications.
prokaryotes
&
eukar,votes. regulation of
translation, post translational modifications of proteins. (25 Marks)
Unit
IIL DNA
& repair, DNA recombination. transposons. DNA
amplification, regulation of gene expression, oncosenes & tumour suppressor
genes.
damage
viral & cellular oncogenes. tumour suppressor
&p53 tumc.ur suppressor proteins. (15 Marks)
Linit
IV.
-genes
from humans.
pRb
-
Bacterial transformation. transduction &. conjugation. intem:pted mating
techniques
&
gene mapping,
l)tic &
lysogenic phages. episomes. plasmids. ( l5
NIarks)
Paper -MB 3.3 T. Food and Agricultural Microbiology
Unit
t.
Factors predisposing
to food
spoilage at different levels
-
intrinsic
and
ertrinsic factors. Spoilaue of meat trsh. milk. vegetables, fruits and stored grains.
Spoilage at low temperature. Food presen,ation by phy'sical and chemical means:
irradiation. drying. heat processin-u, chillin-s, freezine. high pressure and food
t2
Lt n ive rs
i0,
ut
oJ' Co I ic
lll.Sc. ill i cr o b i ol ogy
preserv'atives. lvlodern techniques
magnetic fields
-
51, I I a h
us
like high electronic field pulses. oscillating
pulses, intense light pulses and ultra high hydrostatic pressure.
Class I and class II preserv'atives. Effect of self generated preservatives like organic
acids. Preservation of meat as corned bee[. sausages. fish fillets. vecetables in brinc
and as pickles. fruits as cut-fruits, jams. pasteurized milk. (20 lvlarks)
tJnit
II.
Fermented dairy products microbes involved
acid cultur:s
- yoghurt. and cheese
in fermentation -starter lactic
production and its types. Fc-rmented tbod
b1.
microbes: fish. meat products. Importance of Bifidobacterium. Nisin manuthcturc.
r,vhe.v"
utilisation e-q:- alcohol, lactic acid and SCP femrentations. Delactosing milk
enr,v"matically. Idli. soyasauce and Indian pickle fermentations. Yeast role in bread
making. Food hygiene and control - food sanitation in food manut-acture and in
tfue
retail trade. Food control agencies and their regulations. HACCP. Food poisoning.
intoxications
like botulism and
aflatoxins. Infections
like
Salmonella.
Staphylococcus, Listeria etc. (20 Nlarks)
Unit
IIl. lvlicrobial
interactions between plants rhizosphere
-ph.,-llosphere
my'corrhizae - symbiotic association in root nodules. Fixation of molecular nitrogen.
Biolertilizers VAIVI. Rhizobium, Frankia, Azospirillum, Azotobacter cyanobacteria.
Ti plasmid and its importance. Microbes in Coca and Coffee fermentations. Husk
retting. biogas from agro waste. mmen digestion. and termite nutrition. (10 lv{arks)
Unit
IV.
Factors predisposing plants to microbial infections. Mycoplasma and coconut
',r"ilt. Brief account of planr diseases caused by microbes. Plant -pathogen
interactions- plant def-ences. endophltic microbes. use of tissue sap as a culture
medium. Plant disease control strategies. Biological u'arefare of plants- precautions.
Factors predisposing animals to microbial diseases. epizootic ulcerative syndrome
of fish. ( l5 r\larks)
Unit
V.
Biological insect control using microbial insecticides -viral bactcrial
fungal. Advantages and disadvantages of biopesticides, qualities
and
of an ideal
microbial Iresticide. Factors affecting its efficiency. Mass production of bacterial.
viral and tungal pesticides. Bioassavs. quality control. Success stories
Bacillus thuringensis.
B. Sphericus. B. popillae against
penetrans against nematodes. Viruses
-
baculovirus
-
- bacteria[ -
insects and pasturia
NPV. CPV. nematodes like
13
l!t
)'t ',!'.rt-
!riyr!9:t_9y!ty!
ttt
M.Sc. Microbiology Syllsg6
Neoplactana carpocapsae. Fungi
-
Entomophthora and muscardine fungus. (15
marks)
Practical -MB 3.1 P
l. Acid fast staining
2. Stool picture of pathogenic protozoa
3. Microscopic examination of pathogenic microbes using permanent slicles
4. Preparation of permanent slides
5. Preparation of antibiotic discs
I
6.
7.
8.
9.
Antibiograms of common bacterial pathogens
Determination of MIC
Demonstration of antifungal activity
Insoluble antibacterial sensitivitv by ditch plate method
10. Detection of betalactamase production
I
l. Identification of common bacterial and fungal pathogens using biochemical
tests.
12. Gel diffusion test
13. Blood group determination - A, B, O, and Rh.
14. Widal test
15.
VDRL test
I6. ELISA
I 7. Immunoelectrophoresis
18. Blood cell count - TC and DC
19. ESR determination
20. Complement fixation test
Practical -MB 3.2 P
.
2.
3.
I
Effect of 02 depletion on food storage.
Survival of added test microbes in pickles and curd
Brine storage of tbods
l4
fi
!-ri:gryltt:
t 9t!L,y!
M.S c. M i cro b io logy
S.y | | sg
a5
4. Whey fermentation to alcohol
5. Study of microflora in idli, soya-sauce. chilli sauce, palm toddy.
6. Milk microbiology - direct microscopic count and standard plate count
7. Methylene blue reductase test
8. lsolation of microbes from yoghurt. curd.
9. Microflora of termite gut
10. Demonsration of microbial succession
I I . Demonstration of microbial antagonism
12. Bioassay
of Bti and Bt
13. Conrparison of microflora in Bt-treated and chemical pesticide-treated soils
14.
Microbial analysis of food products
15.
Microbial spoilage of refrigerated food
16. Extracellular enzyme activities
17.
-
- bacterial and fungal
cellulase, protease. lipase and phosphatase
Microbial flora from different soil types and habitats
18. Isolation of nitrogen
fixing bacteria
19. Isolation of phosphate solubilizing organisms
20. Degradation of phenols
21. Phosphate, nitrogen and metal removal by microbes
SEMESTER 4
Paper
Unit
I.
Production
-MB 4.1T. Microbial Biotechnology
of microbial biofertilizers
cyanobacteria. Rhi:obitrnt.
.4zotobacter. Azospirillum. Phosphobacteria and VAM. Extremophiles and their
possible uses - Thermophilic organisms. Yeasts and its uses - Bre,*,er's and
Baker's yeast - Food and fodder yeasts - yeast products and their uses. Microbcs
as a health food - Spirulina and its production methods.
Unit
II.
Petroleum microbiology
-
Sedimental microbes
in petroleum formation
-
Coal bioprocess to eliminate sulphur. Microbial enhanced oil recoven'. oil spills
degradatirn by microorganisms. Microbial production of fuels- Hr and ethanol.
l5
!ri:::r:ttt: t
94t_,yt
;;i; ;;;;;,;;;;;; ;;i;; ;,,,
Nlicrobial leaching
of
ores
- oil extraction - metal leaching and biomininq.
IVlicrobes and bioremediation - role of microbes in herbicides. pesticides and orhe:
xenobiotics degradation. Degradation
Biotransformation
-
of toxic
useful products obtained
chemicals b.v Psettclomonti,.
in biotransformation. Vlicrobi;
production of products like Biopolymers and biosurlactants.
Unit
III.
Immobilization of cells and enzymes. Advantages and disath'antageS
rr.
immobilized s1'stems. Enzvme based electrodes. ATPase based cell qLrantitario:-
and Lumac s].-stem. Flybridoma
technolo-ey
fbr
monoclonal
antibodic.s.
recombinant vaccines. Animal cell culture. Novel bioreactor designs lbr aninla.
cell cultt re - hollow- fiber, microcarrier and spin bioreactors. Probiotics -
u.se c.
Lttctobuc'illi and BiJiclobacterium - therapeutic and nutritional value.
Lrnit
IV.
ivlicrobial Insecticides. Commercial Products
b,v-
Recombinant Microbes.
Plant and animal Transsenesis- Cloning. Gene Therapy. Vaccine farming
Environmental impact of genetic engineering
-
problems of GM foods and crops.
of insects - cotton bollworm. tobacco budr..,'orm- use o-multiple alleles of Bti toxin genes. Environmental release and monitoring
Bti. Toxin
resistance
c---
genetically modifled/engineered or-{anisms.
Milk flavor
manipulation thr.)ur.:r
rumen microflora. mitigating greenhouse gas emission from dair_r'ing using
biotechnology.
Paper
Unit
I.
-MB 4.2 T. Genetic engineering, Biosafefy, Bioethics and IPR
Restriction digestion of DNA. separation by isopycnic & agarose gel methods.
Cloning vectors-plasmids. BACs. PACs
& YACs. cuttine &joining DNA
linkers- adaptors
&
libraries. genomic
& cDNA libraries. PCR-different
molecules.
homopoll'mer tailing. DNA libraries- construction
of D\.r.
types like RT-PCR. long PCR.
inverse PCR. quantitative PCR. differential display PCR. nested PCR- R,A,CE etc..
probes- radiolabel led DNA/RNA probes. synthetic oligonucleotide probes. clonin,:
in E.coli- -"-east & gram *ve bacteria. Expression strate-sies fo:'
heterolo-sous genes. r,'ector engineering & codon optintization. screening strate'-iu-..
strategies-cloning
l6
[-l n iv e rs i ty oJ' C a I ic
ut
M.Sc. Miuobiology gyll4g
screening
by
hybridization. colony hybridization. plaque
lift
11t
assay, Northem.
southern & rvestern blotting, FISH. reporter assays. (25 Marks)
Unit
II. DNA sequencing, nucleic acid microiurays,
site directed mutagenesis &
protein engineering, DNA introduction methods like calcium chloride
facilitated
uptake. microinjection. electroporation. particle bombardment, use of Ti plasmid
in
-qenerating transgenic plants. Molecular markers
AFLP analysis. RNA intert'erence.
t-tnit
III.
Impacts
of
biotechnology
(I
-
in genome analysis: RFLp. RApD.
5 tvfarks)
legal, socioeconomic. public elucidation
ol.
of biotechn<ilogy in generating new' forms of life. Biosafety in general. Food
and feed products containing GMOs. Risk assessmenUanalysis. Risk managementprocess
Ethical aspects of GVIOs. policy on the storaqe of GMOs, Gene technolog_v- act.
Precautionary principle. Potential environmental risks & benefits. potential socioeconomical risks
&
benefits.
Bioethics: The Nature of Bioethics.
Genetic
modificatior/research on plants and animals, therapeutic cloning, human cloning.
stem cell research. Federal Laws and the roles ot-: The Food and Drug
Administration. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, The United States
Department of Agriculture. The Environmental Protection Agency, State and Local
Agencies. (20 Marks)
Unit
IV.
Patenting research tools and the law: Patents as a Strategy tbr protection
of
Intellectual Property, Benefits and Costs of Patents, Requirements for patent
Protection- patentable subjects and protection in biotechnology. international
convention for the protection
of new varieties -
Strasbourg convention. UpOV
convention. Experimental Use Exemption. The patentablility
of
microorganisms-
legal protec,ion for plants and other higher organisms, new plant varieties
by rights.
tissue culture protocols. transfer of technology. Patentability of vectors. patents
on
Research Tools. Access
to data and intellectual property: scientific exchange
genome research. Recombinant DNA:
A
in
Patented Research Tool. Nonexclusivelv
Licensed with Low Fees: PCR and Taq Polymerase: A Patented Research Tool fbr
Which Licensing Arrangements Were Controversial, Protein and DNA Sequencing
Instruments, Research Tools in Drug Discovery. (20 Marks)
17
.,:
tL
n
ive rsi ty: of C alic ut
d-
t;
Il{.Sc. Micro bi ology gyl I qg ug
Practical -MB 4.1P
l.
Study of mitotic stages using onion root tip
2.
Kar.zotype preparation
3.
DNA isolation
4.
Estimation of DNA
5.
RNA isolation
6.
Estimation of RNA
7.
Hyperchromic shift on DNA melting
8.
Bacterial conjugation
9.
Isolation of plasmids
10. Indrrction of Beta galactosidase gene in E.
1
l. Expression of cloned
coli
gene in E.coli
12. Agarose electrophoresis of RE digest of
DNA
13. Western Blot
Dissertation
A dissertation should be submitted by each student as a part of the curriculum.
based on a topic related to the subject area at the end of the forth semester. (200 Marks)
l8
t.
\.
!-Y-tY-ry!tY--q[-9lt-!-'Yl
M.Sc. M icro
bio
logy
Sy | | a [
REFERENCES
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2. Biochemistry - Voet and Voet
3. Biochemistry - Strayer
4. Biochem.stry - West and Todd
5. Lehninger's Principles of Biochemistry - Nelson and cox
6. Principles of Biochemistry - White Handler and Smith
7. Fundamental principles of bacteriology - A.J. Salle
8. Microbiology - Pelzar M.J, Chan et al.,
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-
Stanier
Fundamentals of microbiology
12. Principles of Microbiology
-
-
Frobischer
Ronald M Atlas
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of Microbiology
-
-
Mara & Nigel Horan
-
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Jayaram paniker and Ananthanarayanan
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-
Coleman et
-
Baron et al
al
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Travers
25. Fundame rtals of Immunology
-
Kuby
26. Food microbiology
- Adams MR and Moss MO
27. Food Microbiology - Frazier WC and Westhoff
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l9
4s
3
Lt' n
it' e rs
i b:
oJ' C o I i c ut
f:
1lI. S c.
29. Basic food microbiology
30. Dairy lvlicrobiology
-
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i7.
- Subha rao
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B.D. Singh
3-1. wtolecular biolog.v-
36. Genes
s
Robinson RK
32. Agricultural Microbiology
-
S.t, I ! ab u
Banwart GJ
-
31. A_sricultural Microbiology
33. Plant breeding
M i cro b i ology
of the cell
Bruce Alberts et al..
-
- Frietielder
Vlll - Benjamin Lewin
IVlolecular Cell Biology 15'h Ed.; - Lodish
38. Bioinformatics computing
-
Bergeron
39. Bioinformatics - sequence and genome analysis
40. Introduction to Bioinformatics
-
Ivlount
-
Arthur lvl Lesk
42. Comprehensive biotechnology
-
N{urray and Moo Yung
43. Text book of Biotechnolog.v
Cmger and Cruger
41. Biostatistical analysis - Zar
-
44. Manuel of Industrial microbiologl,' and biotechnolog.v
45. Biotechnolog-v of Integrated pest management
46. Biopesticides. use and delivery
-
-
-
Demain& Davies
Persle,v
Hall and Menn
47. Industrial microbiology - Prescott and Dunns
48. Principles of Fermentation technology
49. Fundamentals of biotechnology
50. Biotechnolo-uy
-
-
-
Stanburry PF, Whitekar
Ed. Paul Prave et al.,
B.D. Singh
51. Biolo-qical fundamentals
-
Biotechnology
51. Plants. genes and crop biotechnology
-
-
Ed. H.J. Rehm and G. Reid
Chrispels & Sadava
53. Enrironmental biotechnology and cleaner bioprocess
,-i. i,.,iciplc's of Gene Manipulation
5-5.
lv{olecular Biology of the Gene
-
- Primrose
Watson
56. Recombinant DNA technology -Watson
57. Bioethics: An Introduction for the Biosciences - Ben Mepham.
58. \4icrobiolological Applications
-
AIfred E Brown
20
+I::-
Fly UP