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M.Sc Diotechnoloqy(Sernester course) - revlsed syllabus and
scherne of examlnation 1 lmplemented w.e,f zoo:-oa admission
onwards -'approved - Orders jssued.
GA
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t,/;sncrfoxt
Dated, Calicut University.p .o . ,Zg.9.
G&A
ZOO3
Read: ( 1) Uinutes of rneetj.ng of Board of Studles in
Bjotechnology held on 14.2.2003.
(2) Mlnutes of meetlnq of faculiy of Sceinee held
on 10.3. A003.
(3) ftem ff A of the Mlnutes of meetjng of
Academic Crunell held on 27,3.2003:
9,3!:3
ont of course and its contents
e topies and also to inelude
s in the syllabus.
2' The Facurty of scrence at lts maetinq herd.on 10.
ap-'roved the mlnutes of Board
e+ strai.=.
3:
2003,
The meeting of .AcarJemlc ClunclL _ ..
held on
ap'rroved the mjnrt""-.,i-io"rd of Studies a'rxll
??.3.2C03,
also
the Mjnutes of
J:
Faeulty of lcience,
4' sanetion has heen accorded fcr implernentjhg the revised
sylrahrrs and seheme of M.sc Bi..techn"riqv
course w.€rf 2oo3_
04 Aeademlc year.
5.
lrders are issued accordj.ngly.
sd/_
Dr,t.:1rrl.' RRCT.STR"R (G&A.
Far Rq^rs,F,?,\R.
To ..t
J The Head
coPv to:
.
r)
of the Department of giotechnoloqy.
cE/bR/AR (u,sc),/universitv Llbr.ry/sF/Fc.
sRCTIONI
OrFra-R.
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UNIVERSIT'I OF CALICUT
(Syllabus for M. sc. Biotechnology - Semester and credit pattern)
(From tire Acaderttic Year 2003-2004)
Eliqibilitv for admission
Candidates with Bachelor's Degree uncjar 10+2+3 pattern of educatior-r in physical,
Biological, Agricultural, Veterinary, and Fishery Scierlces, Pharmacy,
Engineering/Technology, 4 years B. Sc. (Physician Assistant Course) or Medicine
(MBBS) or BDS with at least 55% marks or'a recognized lndian or Foreign University are
eligible for admission.
Process of admission
Candidates for admission will be selecfed on the basis of an All lndia Combined
of
Entrance Test conducted every year by an agency authorized by the Department
Biotechnology, Ministry of science and Ti:chnology, Govt. of lndia.
Course structure
and
The course is designed on Semester and credit basis with a total of four Semester
and ten
85 credits covering two academic years. ihe course covers 15 papers in theory
duration
in practical. For BT 302 each student will have to give one seminar of one-hour
on topics of current interest in the field which will be assessed by the departnrental
up to the
faculty. The project work (BT 301) commences in the third Semester extending
end of the fourth Semester.
Gounsellilrq
Each c.ourse instructor will be the overall counsellor for that course'
_Evaluation
1. General
a. For theory
examinations, marks fo1 internal assessment and
University examination will be in the ration of 1:1 for each paper' Two
internat examinations for each paper shall be conducted and the
average of the two ',vill be the marks for internal assessment.
practical examination 'will be in the mode of continuous evaluation'
There will be two intemal practical examinations during each
practicai are
Semester for each paper. All examinations in theory and
compulsory. Each practical examination will be evaluated for 45
for
marks. The total of two will be added to 10 marks allocated
assessmentofpracticalrecords.StudentswhofailtogetapaSS
in tl,eory or practical internal examinations' will be
theory
given another chance 13'd; to reappear for one additionaltest in
into account
or practical examinaticn, the marks of which will be taken
minlmum
of
4oo/o
foraveraginginthecaseoftheoryorfortotallinginthecaseof
of internal
practical examination. After evaluation, the answer script
doubts, if any'
examination will be given to the students to clear their
mark lists are
Vaiued scripts shall be maintained in the office till the
issued.
b.Forextemal,supplementaryand/orimprovementexamination,the
universityregulationforotherM.Sc.Courseswillbefollowed.
2.
Project Evaluation
Theprojectdissertationcarriesatotalof350marks(project-300+
presentation + Viva-voce
-
5)) and will be evaluated separately by both the
The average of the two
internal (normally the Guide) and extemal examiners'
willbetaken.Thedissertationshallbesubmittedattheendofthe4|h
Semester.
3.
Tabulation of Results
e.
extemal, will be entered
Marks obtained in ea:h course, internal and
seParatelY.
ri.
For a pass, the stutlent should score a minimum ol
4oo/o
in eaclt
coul.Seand50%inaggregate(theoryandpracticals)whichwillbe
be classifieci as first
ctassified as Seconcl Class. 60% and above will
Class.75o/oandabovewillbeclassifiedasdistinction.
and 507o aggregate in each
Note; A paper-wise minimu m of 4oo/o in each course
Semesterisstipulatedforastudenttopasshis/herexamination'lfacandidatehas
paper minimum of
scored 50% aggregate but failed to get the
4Oo/o
in a.ny papers' such
candidateshallreappearfortheconcemedpapersonlytogetthepaPefminimum
for a pass in a course is applicable to the
(4OYo). The minimum marks of 4oo/o stipulated
practical also.
\
Grievance Cel!
Student grievance pertaining to the award of intemal marks shall beibrought to
the notice of the teacher concemed. ln the case of failure to settle the grievance, the
matter shall be placed in a three member Departmental Committee consisting of HD,
Department Council Secretary or Senior Farculty, and the Concerned Teacher. HD will
be the Charrman of the Committee and the decision of the Committee shall be final.
SEMESTER.WISE COURSE TITLE-S, CREDITS, DURATION OF THEORY AND
LABCRATORY EXERCISES FOR EACH COURSE AND MARKS
Semester
-
!
M ARKS
Course
code
Hours/
week
Credits
B I- 101
3
3
Br
102
3
BT 103
Course title
lnter
Exte
mal
!'ota!
Cell Biology
nal
50
50
10c
3
Biomolecules
50
50
100
3
3
Microbial Physiology & Genetics
50
50
100
BT 104
3
3
Biophysical Chemistry
50
50
100
tsT 105
6
3
Practical in Cell Biology
100
100
BT 106
6
3
Practical in Biomolecules
100
100
Bt'107
6
3
Practical in Microbial Physiology &
Genetics
100
100
Total
S-e.4ester
700
- ll
M ARKS
Course
code
Hours/
week
Credits
BT 201
3
e
Molecular Biology
BT 202
J.
3
Cellular Biochemistry
BT 203
3
3
BT 204
2
BT 205
Course title
lntern
al
Exte
50
50
100
50
50
100
Enzvmoloqy
Biology of the lmmune system
50
50
10c
2
Bioinformatics & Biostatistics
50
50
6
3
Practical in Molecular Biology
100
100
BT 206
6
3
100
100
BT 207
6
3
t00
100
BT 2OB
2
2
50
50
in
&
basic
Macromolecules &
Practical
Enzvmoloqv
Practical in Biology of the lmmune
svstem
Elective
mal
Total
Total
i1-l
M ARKS
Course title
Course
code
Hours/
week
Credits
BT 211
3
3
Animal Biotech-rologY
nal
50
BT 212
3
3
Genetic Engirieering and Biosafety
BT 213
3
3
BT 214
3
3
Exter
nal
Total
50
100
50
50
100
Plant biotechrrJlogY
50
50
'100
[email protected]
50
50
100
lnter
and IPR
BT 215
2
2
50
50
BT 216
6
3
100
100
6
3
Practicat in Genetic Engineering
100
100
BT 218
6
3
Practicals in Plant Biotechnology
100
100
BT 219
6
3
Practical in Bicprocess Technology
100
100
o
Project Work
BT 301
850
Total
Semester
- lV
M ARKS
Course
code
Hours/
week
Credits
BT 3O2
2
2
BT 303
2
BT 301
6
Course title
serffi
StuGnt-s
lnternal
Exter
nal
50
50
Develooments in BiotechnologY
Assign menf,
50
50
FrojEEt Wotk (project-3oo +
Presentation + viva voce-SO)
350
350
Total
GRAND TOTAL
* ElectiveS.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5
6
Total
(Based on the availability of the Faculty)
Cell and Molecular Biology Recombinant DNA Technology
Environmental BiotechnologY
lmmunotechnologY
Molecular NeurobiologY
Plant Genetic Engineering
Recombinant DNA TechnologY
candidate
# Assignment shal! be relevant to the etective Paper chosen by the
COURSES
SE/I'ESIER.
'
Sl. Course Tifle No.
Theorv
1. Diversity of cell size and shape.
2. Celltheory.
3' structure of Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells -isolation and growth
of cells.
4. Sub-ceilurar fractionation and criteria of functionar integrity.
5. lvlicroscopic techniques for sturJy of cells.
6'
7.
8'
cellular organelles-ptasma membrane, cell
walt, their structural organization.
Transport of nutrients, ions and macromorecures
across membranes
Differentiation of the cell surface; tight junction.
Desmosomes and gap junctions,
extracellular matrix.
9.
cellular energy transactions -rore of mitochondria
and chroroprast.
10'
Nucleus' Nuclear envelope, nuclear matrix,
organization of chromatin,
nucieosome, and hlgher order folding and organization
of chromosome,
lambprush and polytene chromosomes, nucreorus,
and ribosome biogenesis
11' cytoskeleton, microtubules, microfitaments
and intermediate filaments; role i,r
cell shape and motility
12. cell motirity -ciria, frageila of eukaryotes
and prokaryotes.
13' Endoplasmic reticulum and biosynthesis
of protein. co-and post-translational
modification including glycosylation in golgi
complex, intracellular protein traific;
lysosomes
14' Protein localization: synthesis of secretory
and membrane proteins, import into
nucleus, mitochondria, chloroplast and peroxisomes,
receptor mediated
endocytosis.
15. Cell cycle -molecular events and model
systems.
16. Biology of cancer.
17
' cellular basic of differentiation and development -mitosis, gametogenesis
and
fertilization' Devetopment in Drosophila and Arabidop.sis;
spatial and temporary
regulation of gene expression.
18' cellular responses to environmental signals
in plants and animals -mechanisms
of signal transdliction.
BT 105 Practicals Cell Bioloqv
'i. Microscopy: bright field, phase contrast and fluorescence microscopy.
2. Miciotomy.
3. lnstrumental methods for cell biology.
4. Sub cellular fractionation and marker enzymes.
5. Histochemical techniques.
6. Mitosis and Meiosis.
/. Polytene chromosomes (salivary gland) or DrosophrTa - culture and growth of fruit fly
larvae, isolation of salivary glands and squash preparation of polytene chromosomes.
B. Buccal smear preparation to demonstrate Ban Body.
8. Demonstration of mitochondria by vital staining (Janus green) in buccal epithelial
cells/bakeis yeasts.
10. lluman karyotype preparations from photographs
Books
1. Molecular Biology of Cell, Alberts, B et
al. Garland publishing lnc. New York
2. Molecular Cell Biology, Lodish et. al., Scientific American Books, W.H. Freeman & Co.
3. Reproduction in Eukaryotic celis, DM Prescott, Academic Press
4. Developmental Biology , SF Gilbert, Sinauer Associates lnc.
5. Cell in Development and lnheritance, EB Wilson, Mac Milan, New York.
6. The Coiled Spring, Ethan Bier, Cold Spring Harbor Press.
7. Ferlilizalron, FT Longo, Chapman and Hall.
8. Molecular Biology of Steroid and Nuclear Homrone Receptors, LP Freedman.
Birkhuser.
9. Cell arrd Molecular Biologytoncepts and Experiments by Karp, John Wiley & Sons
lnc.
-.
BT 102 BIO-TilOLECULES
Iheo1y
1. Chemical foundations of biology -pH,
p(,
acids, bases, buffers, weak bonds and
covalent t,onds.
2. Principles of thermodynamics.
3.
Classes
of
organic compounds and lunctional groups -atomic and molecular
dimensions, space filling and ball and sUck models'
4. Amino acids and peptides -classification, chemical reactions and physical properties.
5. Sugars -classification and reactions.
6. Heterocyclic compounds and secondanr tnetabolites in living systems -nucleotides,
pigments and isoprenoides.
7. Separation techniques for different biomr:lecules.
B. Lipids -classification, structure and functions.
g. Proteins -classification and separation, prrification and crireria of homogeneity , end
group analysis, hierarchy in structure and Ramachandran map.
10. Polysaccharides -types, structural features, methods for compositional analysis.
11 Analytical techniques in biochemistry and
biophysics for small molecules and
macro,-nolecules for q uantisation.
BT 106 Practicals in Biomoelcules
1.
Titration of amino acids.
2. Colorimetric determination of pK
3. Model building using space, filling/ball and stick models
4. Reactions of amino acids, sugars and lipids including diagnostic
5. Determination and quantisation of chole.;terol, DNA and RNA.
6. Quantisation of proteins and sugars.
tests
'1. Analysis
8.
9.
of oils-iodine number, saponification value and acid number'
UV, visible, fluorescence and lR spectroscopy and absorption spectra'
Separation techniques -centrifugation, chromatography (gel permeation,
exchange, TLC, etc.), and electrophoresis (PAGE-SDS)'
ion
Books
1. Biochemical Calculations, lrwinn H. segel, John Wiley and Sons lnc.
2
General Chemistry, Linus Pauling, W. H. Freeman & Company.
3. Organic Chemistl:y, DJ Cram and Gs Hammond, McGraw Hill.
4
Biochemistry, D. Voet and J. G. Voet, J. Wiley & Sons.
5. Physical Biochemistry, D. Freifilder, W.H. Freeman & Company.
6. Laboratory Techniques in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Work and Worx.
7. Understanding Chemistry, C.N.R. Rao, Universities Press, Hyderabad;1999.
8. A Biologist's Guide to Principles and Techniques of Practical Biochemistry, K. Wilson
& K. H. Gciulding, ELBs Edition, 1985.
9
Tools of Biochemistry by T. G. Cooper.
1. The Beginning of Microbiology : The discovery of the microbial world by Antony van
Leeuwenhoek; The controversy over spontaneous generation, role of microorganisms in
transformation of organic matter and in the causation of diseases; development of pure
culture methods; the enrichment culture methods and development of microbiology in
the twentieth century
.
2. Methods in Microbiology: pure culture tecliniques, the theory and practice of
sterilization; principles of microbial nutrition; constructicn of culture media; enrichment
culture techniques for isolation of chemoautot-rophs, chemoheterotrophs and
photosynthetiC microorganisms.
3. Microbial evolution, Systematics and Taxonomy: The evoi'uiion of earth and ihe
earliest life forms; primitive o.rganisms anC their metabolic strategies and molecular
coding; new approaches to bacterial taxonomy classification, including ribotyping;
ribosomal RNA sequencing; characteristics
of
primary domains; taxonomic
nomenclature and Bergen's Manual.
4. Microbial Growth: The definition of groMh, the mathematical expression of growth, the
groMh curve, the measurement of growth and growth yields; synchronous growth;
continuoris culture; groMh as affected by environmentalfactors like temperature, acidity,
alkalinity , water availabilig and oxygen; culture collection and maintenance of cultures.
5. Overview of Basic Metabolism and Microbial Nutrition
6. Merabolic Diversity among Microorganisms: Photosynthesis in microorganisrns; role of
chloroohylls, carotenoids and phycobilins, calvin cycle; chemolithoroPhy; hydrogen -iron
-nitrite -oxidizing bacteria; nitrate and sulfate reduction; methanogenesis and
acetogenesis; fermentations -diversity syntrophy, role of anoxic decompositions;
n
itro
gen metabolism ; nitrogen fixation; hydrucarbon transformation.
7
.
rokary otic diversity
P
Bacteria: Purple and green bacteria; cyar,obacteria; homoacetogenic bacteria; gliding
and sheathed bacteria; pseudomonades; lactic and propionic acid bacteria; endosporesforming rods and cocci; mycobacteria; rickettsias, chlamydias and mycoplasma'
Archaea : Archaea as the earliest life forms; halophiles; methanogens;
hyperthermophilic archaea; thermoplasma.
Eukarya :Algae fungi, slime molds and protozoaViruses: Bacterial, plant, animal and tumoui' viruses; The discovery ,.classification anci
structure of viruses; lysogeny; DNA viruses; positive strand, negative strand, and double
stranded RNA viruses; replication; examples of trerpes, PoX, adenoviruses, retroviruses,
viroids and prions
g. Microbial Diseases: Disease reservoirs; epidemiological terminologies; infectious
disease transmission; respiratory infect:ons caused by bacleria and viruses;
by
tuberculosis; sexually transmitted diseases including AIDS, diseases transmitted
aninrals (rabies, plague), insects and ticks (rickettsias, lyme disease, malaria), focd and
water borne diseases; public health and water quality; pathogenic fungi, emerging and
resurgent infectious diseases.
9. Hcst-parasite Relationshrps: Normal mi:i'oflora of skin, oral cavity, gastrointestinal
tract; entry of pathogens into the host; coloriization and factors predisposed to infections;
types of toxins (Exo, Endo-,Entero) and their structure; mode of actions; vir;ulence and
pathogenesis.
.10.
Frokaryotic Cells: Structure-function: Cell walls of eubacteria (peptidoglycan) and
related molecules, outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria; cell wall and cell
membrane synthesis; flagella and motility; cell inclusions like endospcres, gas vesicles.
penicillins
11. Chemotherapy / Antibiotics: Antimicrobial agents; sulfa drugs; antlbiotics;
12. Genes, mutation and mutagenesis: UV and chemical mutagens; types of mutations'
ames test for mutagenesis; methods of genetic analysis'
10
13. Bacterial Genetic System: Transformation, conjugation, transduction, recombination'
plasmids anC transposing, bacterial genetics map with reference to E- coli'
14. Viruses and their Genetic System: Phage and its life cycle; RNA phages; RNA
viruses; retroviruses.
15. Genetic Systerns of Yeast and Neurospora
'l
6. Extrachromosomal lnheritance
1. Preparation of liquid and solid media for growth of microorganisms
2. lsolation and maintenance df organisms by plating, streaking and serial
dilution
methods, slants and stab cultures, storage of microorganisms
3. lsolation of pure cultures from soil and water.
and serial
4. Growth; growth curve; measurement of bacteria! population by turbidometry
grofih'
dilution methbds. Effect of temperature, pH, carbon'and nitrogen sources on
5. Microocopic examination of bacteria, yeast and molds and study of organisms
by
gram stain, acid fast stain and staining for spores'
6
Study of mutations bY Ames test'
T. Assay of
antibiotics and demonstratiorr
of
antibiotic resistance.
I'
Bacterial
transformation-
9. Biochemical characterization of selected microbes'
10. Transduction.
1
1. Conjugation
11. One Step growth curve of coliphage'
presumptive test' confirmed
12. Bataceriological analysis of water' Standard plate count,
test, completed test, IMViC test.
Books
Painter, P'R'
1. General Microbiology, Stainer, R.Y., lngraham, J.1., Wheelis, M'l', and
The McMillan Press ltd.
11
2. Brock Biology of
Microorganisms, Madigan, M.T., Martinko, J.M. and Parker, J.
Prentice-Hall.
3. Microbiology, Pel czar, M.J., Jr. Chan, E.C.S., and Kreig, N.R., Tata-McGraw-H;ll.
4. Microbial Genetics, Maloy, S.R., Cronan, J.E.Jr., and Friefelder, D. Jones and Bartlett
Publishers.
5. Microbiology, A laboratory Manual, Cappuccino, et al.
6. Microbiological Applications (A Laboratory Manual in General Microbiology), Benson,
H.J., W.C.B., Wm C. Brown Publishers.
EI_!-qLBIO P HYSICAL C H E M ISTil
Theorv
A. lnteractions in Biological Systems
1. lntra arrd inter-molecular forces, electrostat:c interactions and hydrogen
bonding
interactions
2. Vander-Waals and Hydrophobic interactions
3. Dlsulphide bridges
4. Rcle of water and weak interactions
5. Protein-protein and protein-ligand interactions, physicaland chemical methods for
study.
B. Structure of Proteins
1. Conformational properties of polypeptides and polysaccharides
2. Primary and secondary structure a-helix, b-sheet structures etc.
3. fertiary and quaternary structure
4. Structural features of membrane proteins
5. Conjugated and metal-binding proteins
6. Secondary and tertiary structure prediction of protein conformation
7
. Glyco and lipoprotein -structure and function.
C. Multiple Equilibrium
1. Titration of proteins to evaluate net and total charge
12
-'
v2. Scatchard and hill plots
3. Folding-unfolding equilibrium and denaturation of proteins
4. Effect of temperature and solvent condition on the thermodynamics of protein foldingunfolding equilibrium
5. Kinetics of protein folding
D. Techniques for the study of Macromolecular Structure and analysis
'1.
Ultracentrifugation. Sedimentation velocity and equilibrium, determination of molecular
weights
2. Viscosity
3
Micro calorimeter
4. Fhysical techniques in protein, nucleic acicjs and polysaccharide structural anaiysis
(UV, lR, NMR, LASER, Raman spectroscopy, MASS spectroscopy, fluorescence
spectroscoPY
5. X-ray crystallography, Scanning tunnelling microscopy
Books
1.
Biophysical chemistry Part
l, ll & lll, G R Cantor and P R Schimmel. Freeman
&
Company
2. Proteins - Structure, function and genetics, T E Creiton
3. Protein-Proiein interaction - Essentials of Biophysics, Narayanan
4. General Biophysics, Volkein Stein
5. Principles of Proiein strr.rcture, Karl Brandes et al.
13
SEMESTER - II
BT 201 MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
Theorv
1. lntroduction to Molecular Biology and Genetics
2. DNA Replication: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic DNA replication, mechanics of
DNA
replication, enzymes and accessory proteins involved in DNA replication
3. DNA repair and recombination
4. Transcrrption: Prokaryotic transcription, Eukaryotic transcription, RNA polymerase.
General and specific transcription factors, regulatory elements and mechanisms of
transcription
5. Modifications in RNA : 5'- Cap formation, transcription termination, 3'-end processing
ancj polyadenylation, splicing, editing, nuclear export of mRNA, mRNA.stability.
6
Translation: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic translation, the translation machinery
mechanisrns of initiation, elongatioir and termination, regulatior-r of translation, co- and
post-translation modifications of proteins.
7. Oncogenes and Tumour Suppressor Genes: Viral and cellular oncogenes, tumour
suppressor genes from humans, structure, function and mechanism of action of pRb and
p53 tumour suppressor proteins.
8. Arrtisense and Ribozyme Technology : Molecular mechanism of antisense molecules,
inhibition of splicing, polyadenylation and translation, disruption of RNA structure and
capping, biochemistry
of
ribozyme; hammerhead, hairpin and other ribozymes,
strategres for designing ribozymes, applications of antisense and ribozyme technologies.
9. Homologous Recombination: Holiday junction, gene targeting, gene disruption, FLP /
FRT and Cre/Lox combination, RecA and other recombinases.
10. Mapping of Genome: Genetic and physical maps, physical mapping and map-based
cloning, choice of mapping population, simple sequence repeat loci, southern and
fluorescence in situ hybridization for genome analysis, chromososme microdissection
and microcloning, molecular markers in genome analysis: RFLP, RAPD and AFLP
analysis, molecular markers linked to disease resistance genes, Application of RFLP in
14
forensic., disease prognosis, genetic counselling, pedigree, varietal etc. Animal
trafficking and poaching. germplasm maintenance, taxonomy and biodiversity
.
11. Genome Sequencing: Genome sizes, organelle genornes, genomic libraries, Y AC.
BAC libraries, strategies for sequencing genome, p,ackaging, transections and recovery
of clones, application of sequence information for identification of defective genes.
BT 205 Practicals in Molecular Bioloqv
1. lsolation of genomic DNA
2. lsolation'of Plasmid DNA
3. lsolation of RNA
4. lsolation of polyA+RNA
5. Preparation of probes.
6. ln vitro transcriPtion
7. ln vitro translation
8. N4etabolic labelling of proteins
9. lnduction
of
-galactosidase
10. r-complementation
Books_
1. Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual, J. Sambrook, E.F., Fritsch and T. Maniatis,
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, New York, 2000.
2. lntroduction to Practical Molecular Biology, P.D. Dabre, John V/iley & Sons Ltd., New
York, 1998.
3. Molecutar Biology LabFax, T.A. Brown (ed.), Bios Scientific Publishers Ltd., Oxford..
1991
.
14. Molecutar Biology of the Gene (4th edition), J.D. Watson, N.H. Hopkins. i'W.
Roberts, J.A. Steitz and A.M. Weiner, the Benjamin/Cummings Pub. Co. lnc., California,
1987.
5. Molecutar Celt Biotogy (2nd Edition), J. Damell, H. Lodish and D. Baltimore, Scientific
American Books lnc, USA 1994.
15
6. Molecular Biology of the Cell (2nd edition), B. Alberts, D. Bray, J. Lewis, M. Raff.
K.
Roberts, and J.D. Watson, Garland Publishing lnc., New York, 1994.
7. Gene Vll, Benjamin Lewin, Oxford University Press, U.K., 1998.
8. Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, A Comprehensive Desk Reference, R.A.
Meyeres (ed.), VCH Publishers lnc., New York, 1995. 9. Genomes, T .S. Brown.
Suggested Reaoing
10. 8th Day of. Creations.
ar zoz ceuumn ato
Theorv
1. Carbohydate metabolism: Glycolytic pathway, glycogenolysis,
gluconeogenesis,
pentose phosphate pathway.
2.
Proteins & amino acids: Biosynthesis and degradation of amino acids -glutamic acid,
phenylalanine, methionine, tryptophan, isoleucine, histidine, biosynthesis of proteins.
3.
Lipids. Biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids, phospholipids and sterols.
4.
tsiosynthesis and degradation of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides. General account
of nucleic acid biosynthesis.
5. Sequencing of proteins and nucleic
acids.
Biological oxidations. anaerobic and aerobic oxidations. Redox theory. Electron
transport systems in mitochondria and cholorplasts. Glyoxylate pathway and cyanide
6.
insensitive respiration.
7.
Bioenergetics. entropy, free energy concept, energy of activation, standard free
energy and calculation of standard free energy changes in chemical reactions. Eneregy
production in biological reaction. High energy and low energy phosphate compounds.
Free energy of hydrolysis of ATP, phosphagens.
8. Classrfrcation and nomenclature of enzymes. Mechanism of enzyme action. Lock and
key and rnduced fit hypothesis. Enzyme catalysis and energy of activation. lnflunce of
pH, temperature, substrate and enzyme concentration on enzyme activity
9
lsolation and purification of enzymes. Various methods of isolation and steps of
purification Expression of enzyme activity. Unit of activity. Specific activity
16
10. Enzyme catalysis in solution- kinetics and thermodynamic analysis, effects of organic
solvents on enzyme catalysis and structural consequeltces. kinetics of enzyme inhibitors
11
.Enzyme catalysis, specificity -evidence for enzyme substrate complex - nulceophilic
and electrophilic attachment -group transfer reaction, elimination,
isomarisation,
rearrangernent, aldol condensation etc. role of co enzymes and metals.
12.
Regulation of enzyme activity. Fine and coarse controls. Allosterism. Positive and
negative modlrlations. Zymogens. Covalent modifications -phosphorylairon and
adenylations. Multienzyme complexes. Compartmentalization of enzymes. lsoenzymes,
enzyme induction and repression. lmmobilized enzymes. Enzyme engineering-
13. Ribozymes and Catalytic antibodies -Functional proteins -structure and drug targets
(enzymes and receptors).
14. Computer Aided drug designing, computational techniques in structural analysis;
nanoparticles.
15. Physical and chemical methods for immobilization of small and macromolecules.
BT 206 Practicals in Cellular Biochemistrv and Basic Enzymologv
1. Electrophoresis of proteins -native and under-denaturing conditions.
2. N- and C -terminal analysis of proteins.
3. Peptide mapping.
4. Separation techniques (HPLC, GPC, FPLC), ion exchange, gel filtration, affinity
chrontatography.
5. Chemical modification of proteins.
5. Enzyme: pqification and kinetic analysis.
7. Hydrodynamic properties- measurement and applications.
8. Methods for ilnmcrbilization of enzymes.
9. Techniques for analysis of secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures of proteins
10. Protein -DNA interactions.
11. Determination of Tm of nucleic acid.
12. Enzyne rsolation from various tissues, precipitation methods for purification and
enzyme proteins.
7
Books
1. Essentials of Molecular Biology, David Friefilder, Jones and Bartlett Publications.
2. Proteins-Structure and
Molecular Properties, TE Creighton, WH Freeman and
Company.
3. Genes Vll, B. Lewin, Oxford University press.
4. lntroduction to Proiein Structure, C. Branden and J. Tooze, Garland Publishing, New
York.
5. Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, J. Kendrew, Blackwell Scientific
Publications,
Oxford.
6. Physical chemistry of Macromolecules, Tanford, c., John wiley and Sons.
7. lntroduction to Biophysical chemistry, R.B. Martin, McGraw Hill, New york.
8. Biophysical Chernistry, Cantor, W.H. Freeman.
9. Protein Structure, I\4ax Peruz
Theorv
1. lntroduction: Phylogeny of immune system, lnnate and acquired/adaptive immunity,
Clonal nature of immune response, memory cells.
2. Organtzation and structure of lymphoid organs: primary and secondary
3. Nature and biology of antigens and superantigens
4. Antibody structure and function, immunoglobulin super family
5. Antigen-antibody interactions and its applications e.g. precipitation, agglutination, RlA,
EL
lSA, Western blotting, immunofluorescence/flow cytomertry.
6. Major histocompatibility complex: structure and function of class I and class
ll
molecules of human and mouse, regulation of MHC expression.
7. BCR & TCR generation of diversity: VDJ rearangement mechanism of variable
region, DNA rearrangement, isotype switching, expression of lg genes, secr-etion of
immunoglobulins.
18
vB. Complement system: activation of classical and alternative pathways , regulation of
complement system.
9. Cells of the immune system: Hematopoiesis and differentiation, lymphocyte trafficking,
B-lymphocytes,
T
-lymphocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, natural kiiler and
lymphokine activated killer cells, eosinophil, neutrophils and mast cells.
10 Regulation of immune response:
-Antigen processing and presentation, generation
of humoral and cell mediated
tmmune responses.
-Activation and differentiation of B and T -lymphocytes
-Cytokines and their role
in immune regulation (eg. lL2, lL4, interferon.y--,i-lsignal
transduction mediated by cytokine receptors -T -cell regulation, lmmunological tolerance
11. Cell -mediated cytotoxicity: Mechanism of T cell and NK cell Mediated
lysis,
antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, macrophage mediated cytotoxicity
12. Hypersensitivity (Type l, ll, lll & lV)
13. Autoimmunity: tolerance to self antigens, organ specific and systemic autoimmune
disease, role
of MHC in
autoimmunity, mechanism for induction
of
autoimmunity,
treatment of auto immune diseases.
14. Transplantaiion: Cellular basis of allergic reaction, transplantation antrgens, tissue
typing, mechanisms involved in allograft rejection, and treatment of graft rejection,
specific immune suppressive therapy (eg. Monoclonal antibodies)
15. lmmunity to infectious agents (intracellular parasites, helminthes and viruses).
16. Tumour irnmunology: Oncogenes and cancer induction, tumour antigens effector
mechanism to tumours. mechanism of tumour evasion and immunotherapy of tumours
17. AIDS and other immunodeficiencies
18. Hybridoma technology and monoclonal antibodies. Myeloma cell lines
myeloma cells with antibody
-
producing B-cells. Fusion methods
screening methods for positive hybrids
characterization
-
-
-
Fusion oi
selection and
single cell cloning production, pr-rrification arrd
of monoclonal antibodies. Application of monoclonal in biomedical
research in clinical diagnosis and treatment.
19. Priciples and strategy for developing vaccines. New methods of
vaccine
preparation. Drug delivery system.
19
of cells
1. Blood film preparation and identification
organization
2. Lymphoid organs and their microscopic
3. lmmunrzation, collection of serum
4. Double diffusion and immuno-electrophoresis
5. Radial immuno diffusion
6. Purification of lgG trom serum
7. Flurochrome Ab conjugation
- Biotin - Ab conjugation and Ab-enzyme
conjugation
S.SeparaticnoftnottonuclearcellsbyFicoll.Hypaque
9. l,.ymphocyte/cell line staining
method
1O Separatton of lymphocytes by Rosette
11.Con-Ainducedproliferationofthymocytes(byMlTmethod)
12. Westem-blotting
13 ELISA
14. Hapten conjugation and quantization
1
using commercial kits)
5. lmmunodiagnostics (demonstration
1
6. AffinrtY chromatograPhY
Books
l.Kubylmmunology'4thedition,R.A.Goldsby,ThomasJ.Kindt,BarbaraA.osbonte
(Freeman).
2.lmmunology,AShortCourse,4thedition,EliBenjamin,RcchardCoico,Geoffrey
Sunshine (WileY-Liss)'
3. Fundamentals of lmmunology' William Paul'
4. lmmunologY, Roit et al'
Biology Ltd'
5. lmmnuobiology, C A Janeway et al'' Current
6.Currentprotocolsinlmmunology'JEColignaetal'JohnWiley&Sonslnc'
7.
A K Abbak et al., Saunders company'
cellular and Molecular lmmunology,
E-rJ-o_4_qg!NEoSMAILC_S_ANp_Bro_s_mrtsrtgs
1. Brief description and tabulation of data and its graphical representation
-l
2. Measure of central tendency and dispersion: mean, median, mode, range, standarci
deviation, variance. ldea of two types of errors and level of significance, tests of
,
significance (F and t test); chi-square tests.
3. Simple linear regression and conelation.
4. lntroduction of digital computers: organizations; low-level and high-levei languages.
the binary number system.
5. Fiow charts and programming techniques.
6. lntrcduction to programming in Q basic and C.
7. lntroduction to data structures and database concepts, introduction to internet and its
apolications.
8. lntroduction to MS-office software, covering word processing, spreadsheets and
presentation software.
9. lntroduction to Harvard graphics/Sigma plotter.
10. Computer-oriented statistical techniques: Frequency table of single discrete variable.
Bubble sort, computation of mean, variance and standard deviation; t-test, correlation
coefficient
11. Bioinformatics and biotechnology : Definition of Bioinformatics; structure and function
of databases, protein sequence data banks: PDB, MMDB, SWISSPORT, Sequence
alignment and database searching; worldwide databases. Nucleic acid sequences,
BLAST, FASTA, PSI-BI-AST algorithms. Pair wise sequence alignment
sequence cornparison and multiple alignments
- CLUSTALW,
-
NEEDLEMAN.
PILEUP; patterns motifc
and Profiles. rn sequences. lntroduction to Molecular graphics.
Books
1: Bioinformatics
-
A practical guide to the analysis of genes and proteins. Ed. A. D
Baxevanis and B F F Ouellette, Wiley lnterscience.
2. lntroduction to tsioinformatics, A M Lesk, Oxford University Press.
3. Principles of Biostatistics, M Pagano and G Kimberlee, Duxbury Press.
4.
Probability and statistical inference,
R V Hogg and E A Tarris, Prentice
Hall,
Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.
21
a'a
BT 208 ELECTIVE PAPER
* ElectiveS:
(Based on the availability of the Faculty)
1.
Cell and Molecular BiologY
2
Environmental BiotechnologY
3.
4.
5.
lmmunotechnologY
6
Reconibinant DNA TechnologY
Molecular NeurobiologY
Plant Genetic Engineering
SEMESTER. III
Theorv
1. Structure and organization of Animal cell
2. Equipment materials for animal cell culture technology:
3. primary and established cell line cultures: lsolation of the tissues, mouse, chicken
embryo culture, human biopsy material, primary explant, enzymatic disaggregation
and
trypsinisation, collagenase method, mechnical disaggregation, separation of viable
nonviable cells, enrichment of viable cells. Cells lines: immortanolization of cell lines,
selection of cetr line, routine maintenance, replacement of medium subculture, criteria for
sr.tbculture, use of intibiotics.
4.
lntroduction
to the balanced salt solutions and simple growth medium. A
brief
of
discussion on the chemical, physical and mctabolic functions of different constituents
culture medium. Role of carbon dioxide, Role of serum and supplements.
5. Serum and protein-free defined media and their applications
S. Measurement of viability and cytotoxicity: specific culture methods, cytotoxicity,
with
viabiirty, reproductive ;ntegrity. Technical protocols: comparison of microtitration
,' ,'
cloning, assay by survival and proliferative capacity, cytotoxicity assays: relationship
between cell number and cytotoxicity index, anticancer drug screening'
growth.
7. Eiology and characterization of cultured cells, measuring parameters of
g. Basic techniques of mammalian cell culture in vitro; disaggregation of tissue and
primary culture; maintenance of cell culture; Cells separation: cell separation of Density
Gradient, immune panning, magnetic sorting, Fluorescence - activated cell sorting.
9. Scaling-up of animal cell culture: General methods and culture parameters - Cell
qr-lalification, groMh kinetics, medium and nutrients, pH and oxygen' Monolayer culture;
cell attachment, scaling up, roller bottle and its medication. Suspension culture. Static
flow
suspension culture, small-scale suspension culture, stirred bioreactors contrnuous
culture, mixing and aeration, air-lift fermenter, rotating chambers, perfused suspension
groMh'
culture. lmmobilized cultures: entrapment cultures, microcarriers, monitoring of
perfused monolayer culture: membrane perfusion, hollow-fibre perfusion, matrix
perfusion.
10. Cell synchronization
11. Cell cloning and micromanipulation: Dilution cloning, condition medium. Feeder
layers, cloning in agar, isolation of clones, Genetic variants, micromaripulation'
12.Cell transformation: genetic instability, immortalisation, with viral
immortalisation
of
human fibroblast: protocol
of
genes,
fibroblast immortalisation, post
contact
transfection care of cultures. Aberrant growth control, anchorage independerrce,
inhibition, tumourigenicity, malignancy, tumorigenesis, invasiveness.
13. Application of animal cell culture
14. Stem cell cultures, embryonic stem cells and their applications
15. Cell culture based vaccines
16. Somatic cell genetics
plasma
Organ and histotvpic Cultures: Types of organ culture techniques: clotted
single slide
substrate, agar substrate, raft method, Grid method, watch glass technique,
.17.
cells' rat liver'
tech;rique, agar gel technique. Organ culture of tissues e'g' neural
lmmobilization
histotypic culture: gel and sponge techniques, hollow fibres. Spheroids.
of living cells protocols for encapsulation (alginate)
18. Measurement of cell death
19. Apoptosis
20 Three dirnensional culture and tissue engineering
23
)
l'I -1
BT 216 Practicals
[email protected]
1. Preparation of tissue culture medium and membrane filtration
2. Preparation of single cell suspension frorn spleen and thymus
3. Cell counting and cell viability
4. Macrophage monolayer from PEC, and rneasurement of phagocytic activity
5. Trypsinization of monolayer and subculturing 6. Cryopreservation and thawing
7. Measurement of doubling time
B. Role of serum in cellculture
9. Preparation of metaphage chromosomes from cultured cells
10. lsolation of DNA and demonstration of apoptosis of DNA laddering
11. MTT assay for cell viability and groMh
12. Cell fusion with PEG
Books
1. Culture of Anirnals Cells 4th Edition, R. lan Freshney, Wiley-Liss
2. Animal Cell Culture -Practical approach, ed., J')hn R.W. Masters, Oxford
3. Cell Growth and Division: A PracticalApproach, ed., R. Basega, IRL Press.
4. Cell Culture Lab Fax, ecls., M.Butler and [t4. Dawson, Bios Scientific Publications Ltd.,
Oxford.
5. Animal Cell Culture Techniques, eds., Ma:'tin Clynes, Springer.
6. Methods in Cell.Biology, vol. 57, Animal Cell Culture Methods, eds., Jenni P. Mather
and David Barnes, Academic Press.
Tireorv
1. Sccpe of Genetic Engineering
2. tr4ilestones in genetic engineering: lsolation of enzymes, DNA sequencing, synthesis
and mutation, detection and separation, cloning, gene expression, cloning and patenting
of life forms, genetic engineering guidelines.
3. Molecular tools and their applications: Restriction enzymes, modification
enz5'mes.
DNA and RNA markers.
4. Nucleic acid purification, yield analysis
24
5. Nucleic acld amplification and its applications
6. Gene cloning vectors: Plasmids, bacteriophages, phagemids, cosmids, artificial
chromosomes
7
Restriction mapping
of
DNA fragments and map construction, nucleic acid
sequencing.
8. cDNA synthesis and cloning: mRNA emichment, re/erse transcription, DNA primers,
linkers, adaptors and their chemical synthesis, Library construction and screening
9. Alternative strategies of gene cloning: Cloning interacting genes -two-and-three hybrid
systems, cloning differentially expressed genes. Nucleic acid micro
atay arrays.
10. Site-directed mutagenesis and protein engineering
11. How to study gene regulation? DNA transections, northern blot, primer
extension, Sl mapping, Rnase protection assay, Reporter assays.
'12. Expression strategies for heterologous genes: Vector engineering and codon
optimization. t.cst engineering, in vitro transcription and translation, expression in
bacteria, expression in yeast, expression in insects and insect cells, expression
in mammalian cells, expression in plants
l3.Processing of recombinant proteins: Purification and refolding, characterization of
recombinant proteins, stabilization of proteins.
14. Phage display
15. T-DNA and Transposon tagging. Role of gene tagging in gene analysis, TDNA and transposon tagging, identification and isolation of genes through T-DNA
or transposon.
16. Transgenic and gene knockout technologies: Targeted gene replacement,
chromosome engineering.
17. Gene therapy: Vector engineering, Strategies of gene delrvery, gene
replacement/ augmentation, gene correction, gene editing, gene regulation and
silencing.
18. Biosafety guidelines in r-DNA research. GMOs
25
=_
BT 217 Practicals in Genetic Enqineerinq
1
compeient
Bacte;'ial cr.rlture and antibiotic selection media Preparation of
cells.
2.
Quantitation of nucleic acids
3
4.
Agarose gel electrophoresis and restriction mapping of DNA
Construction of restriction map of plasmic DNA
5
6
Cloning in plasmid/phagemid vectors
Preparation of single stringed DNA template
7.
8.
9.
DNA sequencing
Gene expression in E'coli and analysis of gene product
Reporter gene assay (Gus/CAT/tr-GAL)
10. PCR
11. Northern Blotting
12. Southern Blotting
Books
E'F' Fritsch and T' Maniatis
1. Molecularcloning: A Laboratory Manuai, J. Sambrook,
2000'
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, New York'
and B.D. Hames, IRL Press' oxford'
2. DNA Cloning: A PracticalApproach, D.lvl. Glover
1
995.
P'B' Kaufman' W' Wu' D'
3. tvlolecular and Cellular Methods in Biology and Medicine,
Kim artd L.J. Cseke, CRC Press, Florida, 1995'
vol' 152' S'L'
4. Methods in Enzymology, Guide to Molecular cloning Techniques'
Diego' 1996
Berger and A.R. Kimmel, Academic Press lnc" San
D V' Goeddel'
5. Methods in Enzymology, vol. 185. Gene Expression Technology'
Academic Press lnc. San Diego, 1990
'
D A Mickloss and G A
6. DNA Science : A first course in Recombinant Technology,
New York
Freyer, Cold Spring Harbour Laboratory Press'
T.MolecularBiotechnology,2ndedition,s.B.Primrose,BlackwellscientificPublishers.
Oxford, 1994.
26
8. Milestones in Biotechnology, classic Pape,"s on Genetic Engineering,
ald W.S. Reznikoff, Butterworth-Heinemann, Boston, 1ggZ.
J A orri"f
9. Route Maps in Gene Technology, M.R. Walker and R. Rapley, Blackwell Science Ltd
,
Oxford. 1997.
10. Genetic Engineering: An lntroduction to Gene Analysis and Exploitatton in
Eukaryctes, S. M. Kingsman and A.J. Kingsman, Blackwell Scientific Publications
Oxford, 1998.
1
1. lrlolecular Biotechnology-Glick
Theorv
'1.
Conventional plant breeding
2. lntroduction to cell and tissue culture, tissue culture as a technique to produce novel
plants and hybrids.
3
Trssue culture media (composition and preparation).
4. lnitiation and maintenance of callus and suspension culture; single cell clcnes.
5
Organogenesis, somatic embryogenesis, transfer and establishment of whole plants
in soil. Synthetic seeds and application; somaclonal variation and application
6. Shoot-tip culture: Rapid clonal propagation and production of virus-free plants.
7. Embryo culture and embryo rescue.
8. Protoplast Isolation, culture and fusion; selection of hybrid cells and regeneratron of
hybrid plants, sy.mmetric and asynrmetric hybrids, hybrids Biotransformation.
9. Anther, pollen and ovary culture for production of haploid plants and homozygous
lines.
10. Cryopreservation, slow growth and DNA banking for germ plasm conseryation.
11. Plant Transformation technology: The basis of tumour formation, hairy root, features
-I1
of
and Rl plasmids, mechanisms of DNA transfer, role of virulence genes, use of T1
and R1 as vectors, binary vectors, use of 35S and other promoters, genetic markers,
use of reporter genes, reporter gene with introns, use of scaffold attachment regions,
methods of nuclear transformation, viral vectors and their applications, multiple gene
trans,fers, vectorless or direct DNA transfer, particie bombardment, electroporation,
27
ln
mictoinjection transformation of monocots. Transgene stability and gene silencing
planta transformation.
12. Application of plant transformation for productivity and performance promoter
trapping, activation tagging. Herbicide resictance, phosphoinothricin, glyphosate' s\.rfonyl
urea, alrazine, insect resistance, Bt. genes, non-Bt like protease inhibitors,
gene,
alpha amylase inhibitor, virus resistance, coat protein mediated, nucleocapsid
PR
disease resistance, chitinase, 1-3 beta glucanase, RIP antifungal proteins, thionines'
proteins, nematode resistance abiotic stress post-harvest losses, long shelf life of fruits
sterile lines'
and flowers, use of ACC synthase, poly- galactrunase, ACC oxidase' male
bar and barnase systems, carbohydrate composition and storage, ADP glucose
pyrophosphatase, terminator gene technology.
and potato'
Chloroplast transformation: Advantages, vectors, success with tobacco
cotttrol
14. Metabolic engineering and industrial products: Plant secondary metabolites,
.13.
phenylpropanoid pathway, shikimate pathvtay;
therapeutic
alkaloids, irrdustrial enzymes, biodegradable plastics, polyhydroxybutyrate.
proteins, lysosomal enzymes, antibodie,s, edible vaccines, purification strate-gies,
mechanisms and mani-pulation
of
oleosin partitioning technology'
15. Molecular marker-aided breeding: RFLP maps, linkage analysis, RAPD markers'
(single
microsatellites, scAR (sequence characterized amplified regions), sscP
molecular
strand conformational polymorphism), AFLP, QTL, map-based cloning'
sl s,
marker- assisted selection.
16. Arid and semi-arid plant biotechnology'
17. Green house'and Green-home technology'
BT 21B Practicals in P]qn-t--Brot-*l1lqlegy
1. Preparation of media
2. Surface sterilization
3. Organ culture
4.Calluspropagation,organogenesis,transferofplantstosoil
5. Protoplast: isolation and culture
6. Anther culture, production of haploids
7. Synthetic seed PreParation
28
8. Cytological examination of regenerated plants
9. Agrobactenum culture, selection of transformants, reporter gene (GUS) assays.
10. Developing RFLP and RAPD maps
Books
1. Plant Biotechnology, J. Hammond, P. McGarvey and V. Yusibov. eds Springer
Verlag, 2000
2. Plant Propagation Part I & ii, E F George, Exegetics, Eng[and
3. Plant Tissue Culture, S S Bhojwani and M K Razdan, Elseveir, Amsterdant
4. Plant Cell culture - A practicai approach, Dixon et al., IRL Press, Oxford
5. Synseeds: Application of Synthetic seed to crop improvement, CRC Press, Bcca
Raton.
6. Gene transfer to plants, I Potrykus and G Spangenberg, springe;'-Verlag, Berlin
7. Plant Cell and Tissue Culture for the Production of Food lngredients, T-J Fu, G.
Singh, and W.R. Curtis, eds.,KluwerAcademic/Plenum Press, 1999-
8. Biotechnology in Crop lmprovement, H.S. Chawla, lnternational Book
Company, 1998.
9. Practical Application
1
Distrihuting
of Plant Molecular Biology, R. J. Henry, Chanman and
Hall,
997.
'10 Elements of Biotechnoiugy. P.K. Gupta, Rastogi and Co., Meerut, 1996.
11. Plant Genetic Engineering, Grierson, Black A P (Chapman and Hall)
12. Plant Genetic Manipulation tcr crop protection, Gatehouse et al., CABI, Publishers.
'fheorv
'1.
\
lntroduction to bioprocess engineering
2. Bioreactors
3. lsolation, preservation and maintenance of industrial microorganisms
4. Kinetic of microbial growth and death
5. Media for industrial fermentation
-
-
6. Air and media sterilization
29
.<
7. Types of fermentation processes: Ar,.ilysis of batch, fed-batch and conttnuous
bioreactions, biotransformation, Stability
of
microbial reactors, analysis
of
mlxed
microbial populations, specialized bioreactors (pulsed, fluidized, photobroreactors etc.)
8. Measurement and control of bioprocess parameters
9. Downstream processing: lntroduction, renroval of microbial cells and solid matter,
foam separation, precipitation, filtration, centrifugation, cell disruptions; liquiC-liquid
extraction, chromatography, membrane process, drying and crystallization, efftueni
treatment: DOC and COD treatments and disposal of effluents.
10. Enzyme and whole cell immobilization and their industrial applications
11. lndustr;al production of chemicals. Alcohcl (ethanol), acids (citric. acetic anc
gluconic), solvents (glycerol, acetone, butanol), antibiotics (penicillin, streptomycin
tetracycline), aminoacids (lysine, glutamic acid), single cell protein.
12. Use of microbes in mineral beneficiation and oil recovery
13. lntroduction to food technology
-Elementary idea of canning and packing
-Sterilization and pasteurization of food proci.tcts
-Technology of typical food/food products (L'read, cheese, idll.)
-Food preservation
of
property, oatents
table inventors. patent protection on inbiotechnoloov
BT 219 Practicals in Bioprocess Technoloqv & Enqineerinq
1. lsolation of industrially important microorganisms for microbial processes
2.
Determination
of thermal death point (TDP) and thermal death time (TDT) of
microorganism for design of a sterilizer
3. (a) Derermination of groMh curve of a supplied microorganism and also to determine
substrate degradation profile
(b) Computer Specific groMh rate (-), growth yield (Y/s) specific product formation rate
(Qp) and specific substiate consumption rate (Qs).
3C
4. Comparative studies of ethanol production using different substrates
5. Microbial production of citric acid using Aspergiltus niger.
6. Microbial production of antibiotics (penicillin)
7. Production and estimation of alkaline protease
8. Sauer Krant fer-mentation
9. Use of alginate fo; .cell immobilization
'10. Study of rheology of viscous polymers and microbial cultures
11. Determination of oxygen transfer rate and Kla
12. Determination of mixing time in bioreactors
Books
1. Biochemical Engineering, Aiba. s., Humphrey. A.E. and Millis, N.F., University of
Tokyo Press, Tokyo.
2. Biochemical Reactors, Atkinson. B., Pion Ltd., London.
3. Biochen,lcal Engineering Fundamentals, Baily. J.E. and Ollis. D.F., McGraw-Hill Book
Co., New York.
4. Bioprocess Technology: Fundamentals and Applications, KTH, Stockholm.
5. Process Engineering in Biotechnology, Jackson. A.T., Prentice Hall, Engelwood Ciiffs.
6. Bioprocess Engineering: Basic Concepts, shuler. M.L., and Kargi. F., Prentice Hall.
Englewood Cliffs.
7. Principles
oT
Fermentation Technology, stanbury. P.F., and Whitaker. A , Pergamon
Press, Oxford.
8. Bioreaction Engineering Principles, Nielson. J. and Villadsen. .J., Plenum Press.
9. Chemical Errgineering Problems in Biotechnology, schuler. M. L. (ed.), AICHE.
10. Biochemical Engineering, Lee. J.M., Prentice Hall lnc.
11. Bioprocess Engineering-Kinetics, Mass Transport, Reactors and Gene Expression,
Vieth. W.F.,John Wiley & Sons lnc.
12. Hand book of lndian patent law and practice, N R Subbaram, Viswanatham Printers
and publishers Ltd.
'13. lntellectual prcperty law,
P
Narayanan, Eastern Law House
31
^
Wirole genome analysis: Preparation of ordered cosmid libraries, bacterial artificial
chromosome libraries, shotgun libraries and sequencing. Conventional sequencing
(Sanger, Maxam and Gilbert methods), automated sequencing'
DNA Microarray: Printing of oligonuclectides and PCR products on glass slides,
nitrocellulose paper. Gencme analysis fcr global patterns of gene expression using
fluorescent-labelled cDNA or end-labelleo RNA probes. Analysis of single nucleotide
polymorptrism. using DNA chiPs.
proteome analysis: Two dimensional separation of total cellular proteins, isolation and
sequence analysis
of
individual protein spots
by mass spectroscopy Protein
microarrays. Advantages and disadvantages of DNA and protein microarrays.
Books
1. Recent articles in joumals
2. The lnternet and New Bioiogy : Tools for Genomic and Molecular Resear;h
by
Peruski, Jr. and Peruski (ASM) 1997.
3. Functional Genom'ics: A PracticalApproach, Stephen P. Hunt and Rick Livesey, eds.,
Oxford University Press, 2000.
4. DNA Microarrays: a PracticalApproach, Mark Schlena, ed., Oxford University Press'
BT
SEMESTER
301 PROJECT
(continue to 4th Semester)
- /Y
BT 301 PROJECT
BT 302 STUDENTS SEMINAR (on the recent development on biotechnology)
BT 303 ASSIGNMENT (Assignment shall be relevant to the elective paper chosen
by the candidate
32
BT 208 ELECTIVE
1. CELL AND MOLECULAR
of cell cycle control system in
overview of the cell cycle; dissection of the genetics
(S' cerevisiae)' biochemical analyses of the
fission yeast (S. pombe), and budding yeast
methods of studying cell
ce, cycre using animar embryos and mammarian ce, curture;
system; cell cycle arrest and
cycle progression; components of the cell cycle control
kinases and cyclins' r'ioiquitrn and
checkpoints; intracellular signals; cyclin-dependent
proteolysis; transcriptional regulation and cell cycle
into mitosis, DNA replication checkpoint
lntracellular control of cell cycle events - entry
separation; cell cycle progression and
soindle attdchment checkpoint and chromosome
p53'
cell growth; DNA damage checkpoint and
Programmedcelldeath(Apoptosis).overviewoftheprocessanditsrelevancetn
Apoptosis under physiologic
disease; genetics of apoptosis; methods of study;
conditions and pathologic states'
Cell cycle deregulation and cancers'
growth and apoptosis
Extracellular control of cell division, cell
cycle related genes; DNA MicroarrayS and
Studies on cloning and expression of cell
genes'
expression profiling of cell cycle related
References
1 Text Books
Latest editions of the following:
et al'
Molecular Biology of the Celt- Bruce Alberts
Genes - Benjamin Lewin
' Cell and Molecular BiologY - KarP
Motecular Celt Biotogy - Damell et al'
Cold Spring Harboi- symposla on
Bio)ogical Responses to DNA damage Press
Quantitative Biology, Vol'LXV' CSHL
:
2. Standard Laboratory Protocols:
ManualstikeDNACloning(SambrookandRusselt)andShorfProtocolsin
topics from the Practical
Molecular Biotogy and the monognphs on related
Approachsen.es(/RLPress)mayalsoberefenedinadditionto-Cellcycle_
_ Heidelberg, Germany)'
mateials and methods (Spinger_ Verlag
3. Science Joumals:
Studentsareexpectedto|<eeptrackofthelatestreviewsandarticlesonthe
above-mentioned..opicsfromhighimpactjournalssuchasCell,Science,
Nature,PNAS,JournalofMolecularBiology,CunentopinionsinCell
and Development etc
Biology, Trends in Biotechnology' Genes
33
2.
processes for
protection. Biological
ffier,ttn
Biotechnology
Ourrent status of
advanced srudse
process-carrier and
srudge
Activated
reactors
(RBC), Fluidized Bed
contactor:s
filters' rotating biological
process, Biological
Up
corumn Reactors'
'ow
disesters' Packed
::ffi:[:H];::,,
;:::::;::':::::;';.
contact
(UASBR)
blanket reactor
anaerobic sludge
algae in biosorption
bacterial' fungi and
of
use
Biosorption:
Bioenergyfromwastes:Biomassforenergyproduction,ethanolfrombiomass.
lignocellulosic residues''
and oil spills'
app,cations to
Bioremeciiation' Biotechnology
tsiotechnorogicar
of
exampres
Xenobiotic compounds,
Biodegra,Jation of
management'
hazardous waste
pesticide waste disposal
applications or
processlng
Biotechnological
paper industry' and food
industry,
apprications in Tannery
Biotechnorogicar
industry
Bioplastics
eco-friendry products:
and
Brodegradabre
Books
.,'
.
Environmentar Biotechnorogy
HimalaYa Pulbl' House'
-
N' Jogand' 1995'
management' s'
porution
rndustriar
APH Publ' Corpn'
K' Agarwal' 1998'
S'
'2. Environmentai Biotechnology'
3'Microbiology,M.J'Pleczar,E.C.S.ChanandNoel,R.Koneig'TataMcGrawHill.
K. Mathur'
Purohit and S.
application, S.S.
and
Fundamentals
4.
Biotechnology:
Agrobotantca'
34
3.
IMMUI'IOTECHNOLOY
Antibody structure; antibody fold, COR confirmation, Human monoclonal antibodies fronr
VJD-gene Repertoires: expression of anybody fragments in Bacteria, Generation of
anybody genes using PCR, expression of Ab fragments on the surface of bacteriophage,
vectors for phage display of Ab fragments) phage display lnstead of conventional
Hy'bridoma.
Technology
to
produce antibodies; phage display
to
make antibodies without
lmmunization to increase antibody affinity methods and protocols.
Strategies for Humanising antibodies; Humanised antibodies: cloning and sequencing of
murine lmrnrtuoglobuiin region segments, COR grafting, expression
of
Humanised
antibodies/reshaping technologies.
Synthetic antibodies. capturing molecular diversity in a test tube; Essentials of Bacterial
expression and Filamentous phage biology and methods.
Expressing antibodies in
E
coli. an overview; vector for antibody secretion, expression
by secretion and detection using FI-AG Tag.
Brief account of expression of single chain antibodies in transgenic plants. expression
rn
plants and analysis of expressed proteins.
Books
1.
Antibody Engineering C A K Bonebaeck, Oxford University Press
2. Protein Engineering: Principles and practice, J L Cleland, C S Crait, John Wiley and
Sons
3. Animal Cell Culture, J R W lrlaster, Oxford University Press.
.F
4. MOLECULAR
NEUROBIoL-oGY
Neurons, Synapse, Action potential, Neuronrascular junction.
Nerlrotransmitters -GABA, Serotonin, Epi;rephrine, Norepinephrine, Acetylchoiine,
Dopamine and Neuropeptides -Normal physiologicalfunctions. Neurotransmitter
synthetic and degradative pathways
Receptors -G-protein coupled and ion chanr:el and their action through second
messengers.
Classification of neut'otransmitter receptors -GABA, Serotonin, Epinephrine,
Norepinephrine, Acetylcholine, Dopamine and Neuropeptides
Receptor assay -Radioreceptor assay RT-PCR for the detection of neurotransmitter
.receptor rnRNA, Western blotting.
Neurodegenerative diseases -Alzheimer's disease, Parkinsonism etc.
Books
1. Molecular Neuroscience, patricia Revest
& Alan Longstaff
2. Biochemistry of signal transduction and regulation, Grhard Krauss
3. Biochemistry, Lubert Stryer
. 5. PLANT
GENETTC ENG!ffi
Plant genome: basic organization of plant genes, genes and their construction, nuclear,
chloroplast and mitochondrial genome - structure, organization, and regulation of plant
genes' promoters and other regulatory sequences, reporter and selectable rnarker- genes,
dif rerential expression, protein coding genes, RNA-processing,
RNA-coding genes,
transcription of RNA genes by RNA polymerases. Antisense-RNA technology
Genetic nranipulation of crops for insect resistance using plant derived genes: enzyme
inhibitors, lectins and lectin like proteins.
36
\r
Metabclic engineering: Plant secondary metabolites production through cell cultures goals
for genetic engineering of plant seconclary metabolism, mapping of metabolic pathways;
metabolome and the genes
- a functional genomic approach; cloning of plant genes;
approaches to engineering the plant cell factory - production of new compounds, reduction of
toxic compounds, niant compounds in microorganisms. Potential of secondary metabolites
in genetic engineering of crops for resistance.
Uses and application of transgenic plants with special reference to for human lherapeutic
proteins. Aroma biotechnologY.
Books
1.
Plant Biotechnology, J. Hammond, P. McGarvey and V. Yusibov, eds. 2000
Springer Verlag
2. Gene transfer to plhnts, I Potrykus and G Spangenberg, springer-Verlag, Berlin
3 Plant Genetic Engineering, Grierson, Black A P (Chapman and Hall)
4. plant Genetic Manipulation fot crop protection, Gatehouse et al., CABI'
Publishers
5.
Metabolic Engineering and plant secondary metabolism, R. Verpoorte and
A
\A/.
Alfermann, 1999, KluwerAcadetric Publishers.
6 Aroma biotechrrologY
7. Recent articles on different topics published in reputed journals
6. REEPMBINANT DNA TECHNO
PurifyingandanalyzinggenomicDNA_overviewofgenomicDNi.analysis
preparation, rnanipulation and mapping of HMW-DNA.
Overview of cloning systems
vectors
-
-
Plasmid / bacteriophage based vectors; High-capacity
Cosmids, BACs. PACs and YPCs
PCR in genomic analysis
-
gerletic engineering with PCR, RT-PCR, 5' & 3' RACE
MOpAC, Long PCR, lnverse PCR, Quantitative PCR and Differential Displzry - PCR
Probes - Radiolabelled DNA/RNA prcbes, Synthetic oligonucleotide probes
a'7
a
a
S'trategies for Gene Discovery in Mammalian systems
-
Constructing and screening
normalized cDNA libraries, Direct cDNA selection, Exon-trapping; Gene detection by
identification of CpG islands.
Detection of DNA variation, identification and analysis of DNA Polymorphism; DNA
Markers for physical nrapping, Representational Differential analysis.
Fluorescence-based DNA Sequencing, Shot-gun Sequencing, Transposon-mediated
DNA Sequencing, Computational Analysis of DNA and Protein Sequences.
Analysis of Gene Expression in cultured Mammalian cells
-
Cis-acting regiorts and tran-
acting factors, Transcriptional Run-on Assays, lnducible systems.
Protein- lnteraction Technologies
-
Two-hybrid systems and other two component
systems.
Overview of Meiotic Mapping in Humans and Genetic & Comparative mapping in Mice.
Somatic Cell Genetics and Radiation -hybrid Mapping.
Fluorescenl in-situ hybridisation
.
References
Text Books
1.
Molecuiar Cloning
- a Laboratory
Manual
-
Vol l, ll and lll
-
Sambrock and
Russell, 2001 Cold Spring Harbor Lab.Press, CSH, NY.
2.
Genome analysis
2OOO, Cold
3.
-
A Laboratory Manual
- Vol. l, ll. lll and lV Bruce Biren et el,
spring Harbor Lab Press, CSH, NY.
DIiIA-Protein lnteractions
-
Ed. By Travers and Buckle, 2000, Oxford
Univ.
Press, U.K.
4.
Short Protocols in Molecular Biology
- Frederick
M.Ausbel et al 1998, John Wiley
& Sons lnc. USA.
Science Journals.
Students are expected to kebp track of the iatest reviews and articles on the abovementioned topics from high impact joumals such as Cell, Science, Nature (including
Nature-Biotechnology and Nature-Genetics), P/VAS, Joumal of Molecular Biology,
Current Cpinions in Cetl Biotogy, Trends in Biotechnology, Genes and Development
etc.
/V. 8... Students are advised to follow
suggested for their studY
the latest edition of the books
38
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al
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a
. -:.
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