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ivl'Sc cr'-rttrse '(ri i\pplicri !)lr,u:i- uncle:: Choice based credit Sernesrer
'riyst - c:han;les; jr-r the :..r'l1.i.il:usIir:ir:nce
-- irnplementecl u.ith effect
l.rom 2010 admissron
_ _1lli_:3ved
r-;rcrers is:;ueci
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Dateci, caiictr,u
u,iversity. p.o., 08.03.2010.
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2. U.O. No.GAI lJ t l1!-i8lCA i.t:rteci t6.t2.ZOOfl,,'
3' lulinutes tll 1-he irri-'et,ing oI Lire ljoai^ci oI Stu,lies in plant Scieiice
on 05.0i.201C.
vi. i,etter dateci 05.C2.2UiC i-or-war-,jccj
l;,,, g1r" Dr;ar,, lrai_-rrlsi, cf Sr:ict.rcc.
along il'ith sr,,llilb us.
5. Lr'tr"o-Bst-112: AS/Il-si O"l-10 iiatlrl 1t.*2,.:i)iu i.rcn: i::,:
Board uf Stticiies iir piz_ii;,i Sr:ii::ice.
E fi: l{
As per referenc<. clted 11) illti)vc, _sancti
choice t.)ased Creclil Semcst-er Si-;tenr in thc
the Llru.,'ersity from thc acacien:ic,,ear ,2OAg-,2
per papcr l-Liitd as 2nd
ence unciit' Ciroicc b
Denartmeirt was rm
eci. Lo inrpierIlr_rrt Lh,-:
a-i-tr.-renls/Sclioc,,ls ll
ihe scheme and syllabus of M.Sc Applir:d
redit Semester System in the Univeisity
ted from the academic year 2OOg-2009
'l'he Boir:"1 oi Studies at itii rneering helci on 05.01 .2OlO
resolvecl to
approve the ciilrnges iilllji'ovr:ci lry t-ire Departmenr-al Council, Department
Botanl', University of Ctiiicurr. irr the ,,,rrr".i syllahrrs of the lt.Sc Applied plant
Science course under Choicc basr:d Creclit Semester []rrstem, vide paper
read as
3'd aborre.
The Iieau, Faculry' t.ri Sq--ience reccrrrlnended t-hr: approval rtf the changes in
thc s)'llahus, itl view of urgeiiLly in ii-nplr:i::er:ti:.r-iorr ',i<le paper re.id as 4rh above.
As per referertce citecl (5) :,r];cvc, ihc Cinir-milr-i, Boart *:rf Sti.ii.,s i.;r pianr:
ciarified rirrit the syllalt';s:;ijtc:r i;-,cor1-,c;r.aiinlJ tjreri: clttr.r:,ges rrri:5, be, lrnpi.ernenteC
from 20 1 0 ad:nissior, oi1.t\,iti.(is.
r,ii6r:-fj-i-iejir-'elliji-, iLi '.,,,...,-. ,:ri' ,::.:;.r_err.j,,/. appj'cvri.,
iii,; r;i:Iangr-:: ;:i:rrr<.ii,eci
b'l t.hc. Di,i:a.i'trneti'.-al t).tr-l :t(.;ii, j_-rirt-)ri'1.:: ,3r:t oi 3o..:t;:1,, i_i11!r;.._.i.1..-,ti.,ri L::iti;.i:ui jn fl;t
CLirrl:nl S,rriiabris r':{'M..:.il: ,r,5.r1tiii:d ,,:,itrtt_ Sctci-tt.: Crtui S(: ll;r,*ii:;- i-hli;:_: ilitsra
serrieslt_:r.*i),siulll, sr;ir.J-(:f lr) ra:ijrrr:at.ir;n i:r, tiri._,,i\cetc_ier:j.ic c,.--,i:r:..;ii.
i r.,rtrl
Sanction has therefore been accorded Lo implement the changes in the
current syllabus of M.Sc Programm{Opptr.a Plant Science under Choice based
Credit Semester Systern with effect from 2010 admission onwards.
University Or<ter :ited second above is modihed to this extent.
Orders are issued accordingly.
Syllabus appended.
The Head of the Department
Department of Botany.
to: CE/EG I/Tabulation Section/DR III Exams/
Enquiry/ System Administrator
(with a requgst to upload in the University website)/
f, X/
D:\Syamala\GAlW SECU I \Order\ I 178-08-M.Sc{16.03. i0l.doc
M.Sc. Course in Applied Plant Science (CCSS)
Course Structure, Credit and Mark distribution, and Scheme of Examination
Viruses, Bacteria. Algae
BryophWes (Theorv)
IloT rc06
Viruses, Bacteria, Al gae
& Bryophytes (Practical)
Fungi and Plant Diseases
Fungi and Plant Diseases
Pteridophytes &
Gymnosperms (Theory)
Pteridophytes &
Gvmnosoerms (Practical )
Anatomv of Angiosperms
& MicrotechniqLre
Anatonrl, o f' Angiospern
& Microtechnique
Plant Physiology
Plant Physiology
Bi ophysics
& ImrnunoloEv (Theory)
B iochemistry, Bi ophysics
& lmmunoloey (Practical)
Plant Morphogenesis,
Ilot'2c l4
BO',t'2Cr I 5
IlOT2Ct l6
& Tissue
Culture (Theorv)
Plant Morphogenesis,
Embryogenesis & Tissue
Culture (Practical)
Environmental t) iologv
Environrlental Biologv
Angiosperrn Taxonomy
Angiosperm Taxonomy
Genetics, Plant
Breeding; &
Biostatistics (TheorY)
Genetics, Plant
Breeding, &
B iostatistics (Practical)
Cell Biology &
Molecular Biology
Cell Biology &
Molecular Biology
Genetic Engineering &
Bioinformatics (TheorY)
Cenetic Engineering &
ioinformatics (Practi
Elective I *
Elective 2*
Elective 3*
Elective 4*
cal )
(150 +
Grand Total
+Electives offered by the Department in the 4'" Senrester
omY (TheorY); Credit: 4
(TheoiY); credit: 4
4) BOT4E04
5) BOT4E05 General Bryology (Theory); Credit: 4
6) BOT4E06 Applied Bryology (Theory); Credit: 4
7) BOT4E07 Cell Biology (Theory); Credit: 4
l3) BOT4El3 Principles of Ethnobotany (Theory); Credit: 4
14) BOT4El4 Applied Ethnobotany (Theory);Credit: 4
l5) BOT4El5 Plant Tissue Culture (Theory); Credit: 4
l6) BOT4El6 Plant Biotechnology (Theory); Credit: 4
l7) BOT4ElT Basic Pteridology (Theory); Credit: 4
l8) BOT4El8 Applied Pteridology (Theory); Credit: 4
l9) BOT4Elg Principles of Algal Systematics ( Iheory); Credit: 4
20) BOT4E20 Applied aspects of Algal Systernatics (T'heory): Credit: 4
2l) BOT4E2l Genetics and Crop lmprovement I ('l'heory); Credit: 4
22) BOT4E22 Genetics and Crop Improvement ll (Theory)l Credit: 4
23) BOT4E23 Agrobiotechnology l(Theory): Credit: 4
24) BO'T'4E24 Agrobiotechni;logy 2
25; BOT4D25 Btprocess
(Theory); Credit: 4
2(r) BO-l-4t.2(r Etrzyme
There shall be provision 1or additiorrs or
necessaryr in the ensuing years ol admissio
'fhere shall
and other bodies concerned'
setnester. There shall be no practical exami
of the areas of electi'i'e papers chosen by
eacfi student has to submit a clissertation in one
'l-here shall be one internal examiner and one external examiner lor ail the courses
examiners of each semester shall
(including dissertation) in each semester, I'he internal
in that particular semester' The external
be the teachers who actuall.v imparted itlstruction
external examiners approved by the
examiners shall be selected from a l)anel of
Dcpartnrental Council lbr eaclt semestet'
Record of Practical Work
A certified record ol practical rvork
the time
done by the student should be submitted at
ol each Practical examinatiott'
of one of the elective papers opted in
Topic of dissertatron ma1, be chosen fronr an area
ttre 4th semester'
Evaluation (Internal & External) and Grading
calicut LJniversity Regulations for choice-based Credit
and grading'
lollorvect tbr inteinal and e.rternal evaluation
System (CCSS) is to be
Plan of Question Papers for External Examinations
Core & Elective PaPers:
(2x 10 : 20 marks)'
out of ten questtons
l)art []: ttight short ans\ver questions of 5 marks each
(8x5 : 40 nrarks).
( l0x2 : 20 rnarks),
The Board of Examiners for practical examinatiolrs of I to III semesters shall decide the
plan of question papers. The break-up of marks for the external examinations of practical
courses will be as follows: practical examination-20 nrarks; records/submission- l0
marks, viva voce-10 maiks.
Duration of exam inatintts
The duration for each t':re,oty and practical examination shall be three hours. Alter each
practical examination thele shall be aviva voce o1'of abouL l0 rninutes duration Ibreaclt
Syllabi of Core and Elective Courses
Core Courses
BOTlC0l. Viruses, Bacteria, Algae and Bryophytes (Theory)
Credit: 3
Course offered by: Dr K. V. Mohanan, Dr C. C. Harilal & Dr I'. Sunojkumar
Bacteria & Viruses
l. Bacteria: morphology and ultra-structure, nutrition, cultivation, growth, genetics'
plasrnids and t6eii characteristics. bacterial classification and general characters of major
groups, general accounts of actinornl'cetes and mycoplasmas'
). Virur.., classification ol viruses: detailed study of plant viruses including their
morphology. structure. isolation. purification, assay, infection. replication and
transrnission: general account of arrimal viruses, bacteriophages, viroids and prions.
--i. Methocls irr microbiology: culture media and their preparation. methods
sterilization, isolation oI pure cultures. cultivation of anaerohic bacteria, maintenance of
nricrobial cultures. estirnation of rnicrobial number and biornass, bacterial staining.
. I listory of Phycology:' corrtributions of Indian Phycologists.
2. Classification of Algae: Comparison of systems of classification of F.E. Fritsch
3. Phi,logenetic consideration: Evolution of thallus in green algae - parellelism
evolution - origin of higher plant groups lrom algae.
4. Morphology: Range of tlrallus structt're.
-5. Reproduction and life historv.
6. Cytology of algae.
7. Ecology: Ecology of fresh water and marine algae.
8. General account of the structure. reproduction and relationships in the following
groups: cyanophyta; ch lorophya; Xanthophyta; Euglenophya; Phaeophyta; Rhodophyta
9. Economic a.spects: beneficial and harmful aspects.
10. Irossil algae -- a general account.
I . General characters and systems of classification of bryophyes
2. Celeral account of the anatomy, reproduction, life history, and phylogeny of
Marchantiales. Jungermanniales. Funariales, Polytrichales and Anthocerotales.
3. Origin and evolution of bryophytes.
4. General account of fossil bryophytes and their affinities.
5. Contributions of Indian bryologists.
6. Microhabitats of bryophytes.
7.Economic importance of bryophytes.
8.8. Flerbariurn techniques tbr bryophytes.
Madigan, M. T. et al. 2008. Brock Biology of Microorganisms. Benjamin Cummings
Prescott, t-. M. et al.2005.Ivlicrobiology. McGrav" Hill
Singleton, P.2004. Bacteria in Biology, Biotechnology and N{cdicine. wiley.
Beck, J. V. et al. 1968. Laboratorv Manual for Ceneral Microbiologl'. Burgess Pub. Co.
Pollack, R. A. et alr.2004. Laboratory [,xercises in IVf icrobiology'. Wiley.
Chapman, V. J. 1941. An Introducti()n to the Study of Algae. CamLrridge L.lniversitv
Chapman, V. J. & Chapman. D. .1. 1973 'lhc Algae. N4acntillan.
Desikachary, T. V. 1959. Cyanophyta. Indian ('ouncil of Agricultural Research.
Fritsch. F. E. 1961. 'fhe Structure and Rep.oduction ot'Algae. Vol. 2. Carnbridge
University Press.
Irvine. D. t1. & D. M. John. 1984. Systenratics of'the (ireerr Algae. Academic [,ress.
Stevensen, .1. et al. 1996. Aigal L,coii;11-r,. [;r'.-sl.l u,ater Uenthic ecosystenrs. Academic
1998. Algae of !ndia and Nei'ahboring (lountries. l. Chlorophycota.
Oxford & IBIJ publishing Co. Pr.,' Ltcl.
Kumar, H. D. 1990. Introductory rlhyc'ol,rqy:. [:ast West [)ress Pvt. l-td.
Prescott. G. W.1969, The Algae. r\ ilevierv.'fhcmas Neisorr and Sons Ltd
Round, F. E. l975.The Biolog;,of Algae. tldwarcl Arrrolcl.
Smith, G. M. 1978. Manual oiPhyr:olcgy. 1'he Rorrarlcl Press Company.
Trainor, F. R.. 1978. Introdtrctorl Flhl,coiogy,.lohri ,t/iley and Sons.
Van Den Hock, Mann, D.G. arrd Jahus. Il.lVl ,\lgae: An introduction to frh_ycolog1,
Cambrid ge Universitv press.
Venkataraman, G. S. l9'12. Alga! tliofertiiiz-crs antl Rice Cultivation. 'l'oday and
Tomorrow's publ ishers.
Venkataraman, G. S., Goyal, S. K., Kaushik ll. I)., and Roychaudhary. p. 1974. Algae
form and function. Tooay and Tomorro\v's printers.
Vijayaraghavan, M. R. & Bhatia, B. iq97. Red Algae: Structure, UltrastrLrcture ancl
Reproduction. APH Publishing Corporation.
Smith, A. J. E. (ed.). 1982. Bryophyte [lcologv. Chapman & l-lall.
Shaw, A. J.& Goffinet, B. (eds.). 2000. Bryophlte Biology, Carnbridge Universitv l)ress.
Glime, J. M. & Saxena, D.l99l. Uses c''{'Bryophr,tes.-l'odav and Tomorrorvs Printcrs &
Schofield. w. B. 2001. lntroduction to 13r,v-ologl,. t'he Illackburn press.
Nair. M. c. et al. 2005. Bryophytes of wayanad. western Ghats. N,INHS. calicut.
BOTlC02. Viruses, Bacteria, Algae and Bryophvtes (practical)
Credit: 1
course offered by: Dr K. v. Mohanan, I)r C. c. llarilal & Dr p. sunojkumar
Viruses & Bacteria
l. Preparation of culture media
2. Isolation of bacteria from soil by dilution-plate nretl.rod.
3. Isolation of bacterial pure culture b.v streak-platc rnethod.
4. Staining ol'bacteria: simple stainirrg. cranr staining. spore staining, negative
5. Demonstration of bacterial motilii;r b'",, hangint drrlp methocl.
6. Isolation of Rhizobiurn fronr ro,ut rrodrrics of lr.u,urles
7. Demonstration of gelatin iiquelhctrori ancl starcrr hi'drol'sis bt,bacteria.
[. Collection. preparatiorr and presentation of algal herbariunt (minimum 5 herbaliuttt sheets).
2. Col lection and study olthe types rnerrtionecl below and their classification up to generic level.
Cvarroplrl,ta: Oscillatoria, Nosloc, .Anabaena, Scvtonemq, Microcoleus, Westilliopsis.
Clrloroplrvta'. Volvox, Hydrodicfl'on' I'ediu'strum., Enteromorpha, Lrlothrix, Ulvq, Cladophora,
Pillutphoro, Bulbochaete, Oedogonirun, Cephaleuros, Acetabularia, Br.vopsis,
LIaIimeclo, Desrnids (Cosntariunt, (-Io,sIeriunt), Mougeotia, NiteIIq, Zygnema.
Xanthoplryta : B o trytdium, Vauc h er i ct.
ari o ph yl,a : C
od i s c tr,s, P inn ul ar i tt.
Phaeophyta: Ecl ocarpu,s, Dictyota, P adin o,
Rhodophyta: Grdcilaria, Batrachospermum.
sum, Turbinaria.
Field coilection. Morphological aud structural study and herbarium preparation of the following
,4slerellu. Cyalhodium, Riccardia, Fossombronia, Anthoceros, Sphagnum, Bryum, and
Pogonutttm, Targionio, porella, Marchanliq, Dumortiera, Plagiochasma, Notothylas,
u t r ar
iu, ll.t, op lt
Macligan. M. T. et al. 2008. Brock Biology of Microorganisms. Benjamin Cummings
Prescott. 1.. M. et al. 2005. Microbiology, McGraw Hill
Singleton. l'.2004 Bacteria in Biology. Biotechnology and Medicine. Wiley.
Beck,.l. V. et al. 1968. Laboratory Manual for General Microbiology. Burgess Pub. Co.
Pollack. R. A. et al.2004. Laboratory Exercises in Microbiologl'. Wilev.
Chapman, V. .1. 1941. An lntroduction to the Study of Algae. Cambridge University
Chapnran. V. J. & Chapman. D. J. 1973.'Ihe Algae. Macmillan.
Desikachary, T.V. 1959. Cyanophyta. Indian Council of Agricultural Research.
Iiritsch, F. E. 1961. The Structure and Reproduction of Algae. Vol. 2.
Urriversity Press.
Irvine, D. E. & D. M. John. 1984. Systenratics of the Green Algae. Academic Press.
Stevensen. J. et al. 1996. Algal Ecology. Fresh water Benthic ecosystems. Academic
Krishnamurthy,V. 1998. Algae of India and Neighboring Countries. l. Chlorophycota.
Oxford & IBH publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd.
Kumar. H. D. 1990. lntroductory phycology. East West Press Pvt. Ltd.
Prescott. G. W.1969. The Algae. A Review. Thomas Nelson and Sons Ltd.
Round. F. E. 1975. The Biology of Algae. Edward Arnold.
Smith, G. M. 1978. Manual of Phycology. The Ronald Press Company.
Trainor. Ir. R. 1978. Introductory Phycoiogy. John Wiley and Sons.
Van Den l-lock, Mann, D.G. and .lahus, H.M. Algae: An introduction to Phycology.
Carnbridge Un iversity press.
Venkataraman. G. S. 1972. Algal Biofertilizers and Rice Cultivation. Today and
Tor-rlorrow' s publishers.
Venkataraman, G. S., Goyal, S. K., Kaushik B.D., and Roychaudhary, P.1974. Algae
form and function. Today and Tomorrow's printers.
Vijayaraghavan, M. R. & Bhatia, B. 1997. Red Algae: Structure, Ultrastructure and
Reproduction. APH Publishing Corporation
Srnith. A..1. E. (ed.). 1982. Bryophyte Ecology. Chapman & Hali.
Slraw. A..1.& Goffinet. B. (eds.).2000. Bryophyte Biology, Cambridge University Press.
Glime, J. M. & Saxena, D.l99l.llses at'Bryophr'les. Today and Tomorrolvs Printers &
Schofield, W. B. 2001. Introduction to }3r:yology, l'he Blackburn Press.
Nair, M. C. et al. 2005. Bryophytes ol'Way'anaci. Westsrn Chats. MNHS, Calicut.
BOT1C03 Fungi and Plant Diseases
Credit: J
Course ol'fered by: Dr P. Manirnohan
l. General characteristics of lungi: thailtrs organizaticrn. r:rodcs ol'nutrition. ce ll-u,zrll and
hyphal tip grorvth. fungal organelles. reproductrrin ar,ij spores. vegetative incompatibilitl'
and sexual compatibility, parasexual it-v.
2. Classification of fungi adopted in the l0'r'edition (2008) ol"Dictionary o1'tlre Iungi':
Kingdoms of fungi (Fungi, Chromista and Protcrzoa) and fungal phyla of true fungi and
pseudofungi; character.': uSed in fungal classifi c'ation.'
3. Modern views on phylogeny oI lungi based r)n ui'rrastructural and molecular
General characteristics and classifrcation ot- the fbllorving phyla: Myxornycota.
Oomycota, Chytridiomycota, Zygoml,cota, Cilomeronrycota. Ascoml,cota ancl
5. Asexual fungi (Deuteromycetes): General characteristics, habit and irnportance oI
asexual fungi. somatic structures, structures associated rvith asexual reproduction.
conidomata, conidia and conidium ontogenl'. oi.lici' asexual propagules. teleomorphanamorph connections, nomenc aturc-' and c ass i tl cati r: tt.
6. [.ichens: thallus structure. nutrition. reproc,rrcrioir. mLrtualistic interaction. ecological
and econonr ic signiticance.
7. lmportancc of the Plant Diseases. Conccpt r;i i)lunt Discasc; Causes of [']lant Diseascs:
Classification c'f Plant Diseases: llistorl'of Pl:int pulllsrlogy rvith special rcl'crencc to
Indian works: Parasitism and Pathogcnesis: Kocli's Postulatesl Effect of Pathogen on thc
Plants; Symptoms of Plant Diseases: Der',:lopnrcnt of-t-:pidemics: major plant pathogerric
fungi, bacteria, mycoplasmas, nenratodes and phenerr)gams: Plant Disease Management.
Agrios, G. N. 2005. Plant Pathologl. 5'?'cdition. Ac,arlemic Press
Alexopoulos, C.J. et. al. 1996. lntroductory M1,cclogv,4th Edition. Wiley.
Hudler, G.W. 1998. Magical Mushrooms. Mischievous Molds. Princeton [Jniversitl,
Lucas, J. A. 1998. Plant Pathology and Plant Pathogens. -1rd ed. Blackwell.
Kavanagh. K. 2005. Fungi, Biology and Applications. Wiley.
Kirk. P. M. et al. 2008. Dictionary o1'the Fungi, l0tr' F.dition. CAUI.
Nash, T. H. 1996. Lichpn Biology. Cambridge Ulriversitv Press.
Rangaswami G. 1999. Diseases of Crop Plants of lndia.4th ed. Prentibe Hall of India.
Webster,.l. and Weber, R.2007. lnLroductiorr to l:ungi. Canrbridge University Press.
BOT1C04 Fungi and Plant Diseases (Practical)
Course offered by: Dr P. lVlanimohan
l. Preparation of culture media
2. Isolation of fungi frorn soil bv dilution-plate method'
3. lsolation of fungi from durlg.
4. Study of rnorphology and anatonry of the reproductive strttctures
of the following
genera ol fungi '. ilemonite.s, Hemitrichia, Arcyriu, Synchytrium, Saprolegnia'
iltfhiunt. Alhugo, Pilitbolu.s, Glontus, Mucor, Rhizoltus, Sacchcrntmyces'
t'ophr:-inu. A.scobolus, Xvlctritt, 7'richttgkts.sun, Phomopsis, Drechslera, Aspergilltts'
Pe:nicillittnr, Allernaria, Cercospora, Fusarinm, Trenrclla, Auricularia. Auriculoscypha,
Puccinia, Hemileia, Coleosltorium, Uslilago, Agaricus, Entoloma, Marasmius'
Ilerogonio, Ganoclernru. Lcizites, l,y-c()perdon, Geaslrum, DicNophora. Cyathus,
Purntelia and Usnea.
5. Srudy of the symptoms and signs of the fotlowing plant diseases in the laboratory and
in the field and ideniification of ihe pathogens: abnormal leaf fall of rubber, coffee
plumeria rust. blister-blight of tea. quiCk wilt of pepper, white rust
leaf-spot of okra, porvdery mildew of any locally available crop, rice blast'
brorvn spot of rice. whip-rrnrit of sugar clne' Soft rot of carrot, sesamum
cassava mosaic.
6. Isolation of purc culture of a fungal ptant pathogen from a diseased
AlexopoLrlos. cl. | 1962. I-aboratory
manual for Introductory
Burgess Pub'
Pub. Co'
Lleck..l. V. et al. 1968. Laboraturv Manual for General Microbiology. Burgess
Konernarr .E. W. 1985. Practical Laboratory Mycology. Williarns & Wilkins'
Pollack. R. A. et al. 2004. I-aboratory Exercises in Microbiology' wiley
Hall of India'
Rangasrvami G. 1999. Diseases of crop plant of India,-4th ed. Prentice
l{oberts . G. 1979. Mycology Laboratory Procedure Manual.
BOTtC05 Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms (Theory)
Credit: 3
Course offered by: Dr P. V. Madhusoodanan and Dr A' Yusuf
quill worts, mo^squito ferns'
and tree ferns-General
bracken ferns, bird'S nest fle-rns, rnaid"n hui. fern,
nrorphology rvith special reference to South Indian species. Fossil Pteridophytespsilophytiies. Lepidodendrales. Calamitales, and Primofilicales -morpho-anatomical
L Diveisiiy of forms among pteridophytes: club
l'eature s.
Pteridophytes: epiphytes, lithophytes, climbers, halophytes'
saprophytes, sciophytes, xerophytes, mesophyes, hydrophytes'
:.' Uistotogy in- relation ro ecology oi pteridophytes: Stelar evolution: protostele,
sip6onosteie, solenostele, Dictyostele and special stellar types. Vessels in
4. ]-he fent ganretophytes: patiern of development, morphology
hiochemical and' physiological aspects of gametophyte developmentand
photomorphogenesis. Developnrent of sex organs-antheridia, gametangiurn
5. 6:ytotogy: chr.omosome number and morphology; polyptoidy, origin of polyploids,
geographical distribution of polyploids. Apospory, apogarn)/, agamospory-vegetative
reproduction and hYbridization.
Habitat diversity
n:"t'rducti.ri: ir<tm Azrsllu; Azolla - ,lnohaenu
symbiosis: Ptericlophytes as weeds: Suiviniu (aqri:riici an,J Pteridittm (terrestrial) weed
problems; weed contro[-irrpacis ancl nlirrtagemen'r: biological control. ornamental and
medicinal pteridophytes. Pteridoplllr{si r-" eco l o g i c:i i ! rt i cators.
i . General characters, classiflcatior:
2. Geological horizon, cistribuiicn. g-.:neral acri)i.irii including morphologv. anatomr'.
phylogeny and interrelationship of thc foilor.vin*u ordcrs rvith special emphasis on the
genera specified:
a) Pteridospermales. Ll,ginopleri.:;, !Ieicrangiutt,'Sphenr4tteris. Sphaeroslomu,
La ge no,sto m a. Me dullo s a. Tr i grxt tt c o rp us. P o c l? t' i e s t o . (' o d o no t h e c u .
b) Glossopteridalesi (ilo,s,sopter is
c) Caytoniales : Caytonia
d) Cycadeoidales: (.ucadeoidea
6. Applied Pteridologv: Bio-fertilizer
Pentoxylales'. P entoxylon.
Cycadales : Zamia
g) Ginkgoales: Ginkgo
h) Coniferales: Cedrus , C)ryptomeriu,
CuTn'es',sus. ,4galhis, I'odocarpus.
'l'axales: Taxus
Ephedrales : Ephedra
k) Welwitschiales: Welwitschia
l) Gnetales: Gnetum.
3. Evolution oI gymnosperms
4. Distribution of living and fossil gyn.llti]:iperm i iir Irrdia
-5. Econonric importance of gymnosperms,
Bierhost. D. W. 1 971 . Morphologl, tif t ascular i,lant:;. Macmillan Co.
Dyer. r\. C. 1979. The experimentai Bie-.lqg,'o1-Fr:rns. Acadenric Press.
Hameed, C. A., Rajesh. K. P. anc! Madhusoocinr:utr. P. V. 2003. Fitmy Ferns ol'Sor-rth
India. Penta Book Fublishers & Disiributors.
Jermy, A. C. 1973 (Ed.) 1'he Phylogeny aud Clla-;:rillcirtion of Ferns. Academic Press.
Kramer.K.U.&Green,P.S. 1991.'I'hefamilic:;p.nCgenertrolVascularPlants.Narosa.
Nampy, S. and Madhusoodanan. P. V. 1998. Fitrr"ir Flora of South India-'I'axonomic
Revision of Polypodioid Ferns. Daya Publishin-s l-loiisc.
Andrews Jr.. H. N. 1961. Studies in Paleobotarry,. .ltrhn Wiley, New York
Arnold, C. A. 1953. Origin and relationships of the cycads. Phytonrorphologl,3: -51-65
Beck. C, B. 1985. Gymnosperm phyloeeny: A coinmentarv on the views of S.V,Meven.
Bot. Rev. 5l:273-294
chamberlain, c. J. 1919 The Living cycads. chicago Univ'ersity Press, chicago.
Chemberlain, C. J. lq35 'Gymnosperms: Structure and E',zolution .Chicago University
W. t.
1972. Investigations of North American cycadeoids: Pollinatiol
mechanisms in Cycadeoidea. Amer. .1. tlot. -5t-), 11t:1t1-l[1Jg
Dallimore, W. &.lackson, A. B. 1966. A llandboc'k ol'(loinltra.. 4'h edn. E.Ar.rrolcl.
Delevoryas.l^. 1962. Morphology and evolutiorr ol'iirssil plants. Nerv Yor.k.
-r'" '
4'l -
Favre-Duchartre. M. 1958. (iinkgo, an oviparous plant. Phytomorphology 8:377-390
Freedman. w.E. 1992a. Double fertilization in non flowering seed plants and its
rclevance to the origin of florvering plants. Intl. Rev. Cytol. 140: 319-355.
Irreedman. W. E. 992b. Ilvidence of a pre-angiosperm origin of endosperm: [rnplications
for tlre cvolutiorr oi flor.r,ering plants. Science 235: 336-339.
Circguss. I'. 1955. Indentification of Living Gymnosperms L\n the Basis of Xylotomy.
Akad Kiado.
IIarris. T. M. 1951. The relationships of the Caytoniales. Phytomorphology 1:29-39.
Mehra. P. N. 1988. Indian Conif-ers: Gnetophytes and Phylogeny of Gymnosperms.
Pramodh P. Kapur, Raj Bandhu lnd. Cornplex, New Delhi
Meven. S. V. 1984. Basic features of gymnosperm: Systematics and phylogeny as
evidenced by the fossil record. Bot. Rev. 50: l-l1l
Meyen. S. V. 1986. Gynrnosperm systcmatics and phylogeny: A reply to commentaries
by CB Beck. CN Miller. and CW Rothwell. Bot. Rev. 52:300-320
Millay'. M. A.. & Taylor. T. N. 1976. [:volutionarytrends in fossil gymnosperm pollen.
Rcv. Palaeobot. Palynol. 2l: 65-91 .
Miller.lr.. C.N. 1977. Mesozoicconf'ers. Bot. Rev. 43: 217-280
Pant. D. D. 1975. The classification of gymnospermous plants. Palaebot. 6:65-70
Pearson HHW (1929) Gnetales. Cambridge Univ Press, London
Madhulata. Sanwal. 1962. Morphology and embryology of Gnetum gnemon L.
Plrytomorpho logy 12: 243 -264
Scott. D. Il. 1909. Stu<lies in Fossil Rot4ry,2nd edn. Vol I A and C Black, London
Scott. D. 11. 1923. Studies in Possil Botary. Vol 2. A and C Black, London.
Sharnra. B. D. 1994. Gymnosperms : Morphology, Systematics, Reproductive Biology,
In:Johri. B.M. (ed.). Botany in [ndia:[{istory and Progress. Vol.2. Oxford & IBH,
Ncrv Delhi. pp 1-23.
Singlr, H. 1978. Embryology of Gymnosperms. Geb Borntrager, Berlin.
Stewart, W.N . 1981. The Progymnospermospsida:The construction of a concept. Can.
.f . Bot. 59: 1539-1542.
Steivart . W. N. 1983. Palaeobotany and the evolution of plants. Cambridge University
BOTlC06 Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms (Practical)
Credit: 1
Course offered by: Dr P. V. Madhusoodanan and Dr A. Yusuf
L Morphological and Anatonrical features of 'Lycopodium, Ophioglossum, Angiopteris,
O,smundu, Lygodium, Ceralopleris, Pteris, Adianlum, Blechnum, Aspleniurn,
Tri chomane.s, Pteridium. A croslichum, Salvinia and Azolla.
2. Fossils: Rhynia, Lepidodendron, Calamiles and Bolry'opteris.
3. Irr vitro spore and prothallial'devglopment in Knop's Agar. medium of Ceratopteris,
Chri s tel lu and Microsorum.
4. I'labitat study of Lycopotliurn. Athyriturr, Gleicheni.a, Actiniopteris, Pyrrosia, Dtynaria.
A c rrt.s' I i c htt nt and Sa lvin i a.
5. Subnrission of a field stLrdy report and l0 herbaria of common, local pteridophytes.
petrifactions. comnressiorrs. iirrpressions, slides
of tbssil types
included in gymnospelrn groups mentioned abovc'
2. Comparative study or vegetative and reproductive structures of all living gvrnnospernr
genera mentioned above.
3. Morphological and anatonrical studies of above mentioned taxa.
Bierhost, D. W. 1971. Morphology of Vascular Plants. Macrnillan Co.
Dyer, A. C. 1979. The experimental Biology of Ferrrs. Acadernic Press.
Hameed, C. A., Rajesh, K. P. and Madlrusoodanan. P, V. 2003. F'ilmv Ferns of'South
India. Penta Book Publishers & Distributors.
Jermy, A. C. 1973 (Ed.) The Phylogeny and Classification ol Ferns. Academic Press.
Kramer, K. Ll. & Green. P. S. 1991. The farniliei. and gerieraoi'VascularPlants. Narosa.
tr"amp-v". S. arrd \4adhusoodanan. P. V. I998. []ern filora of South India--I'axonomic
Revision of Polyoodioid Ferns. Daya Publishing lJouse.
Andrews Jr.. H. N. J96i. Studies in Paleobotany. .lchn Wiley, New York
Arnold. Cl. A. 1953. Origirt attd relatic'nships o{'tirr: c;'cads. Phytomorphology 3: 5l-65
Beck, C. B. 1985. Gymnosperm phviogeny: A c:onrntentarv on the views of S.V.Meyen.
Bot. Rev. 5l:273-294
Chamberlain. C. J. 19i9.'fhe Living (--1'czuis. (,hicago Unrversity Press. Chicago.
Chemberlain. (1. .1. l9-35. G)'mnosprrrn'rs: Structurc ancl I:volution .Chicago tlniversitl,
W. .
1972. In.,,estigniroirs ol' l'.1orth Amcrican cvcadeoids: lrollination
Amer. .1. .lJr;1. 59: 104t3-i056
Dallimore, W. & Jackson, A. B. 196(r. A Hanclbook ot'CoinIbra.. 4'h edn. tr.Arnold.
Delevoryas.l'. 1962. Morphology and evolution oi tossil plan(s. New york.
Favre-Duchartre, M. 1958. Ginkgo. an oviparorrs rrlant. Phytornorphology 8: 377-390
Freedman, W.E. 1992a. Doulrle fci'tiiizatit'rn irr non flowering seed plants and its
relevance to the origin of flowering piants. Intl. Rev. t]vtol. 140: 319-355Freedman, W. E. 992b. Evidence of a pre-angic.,sperm origin of endosperm: Implications
for the evolution of flo,vering plants. Science 235: -l.ld-339,
Greguss, P. l9-55. Indentifioation of Living Gynrnospenns on the Basis ol-Xyloton1,.
meChanisms in Cycadeoidea.
Akad Kiado
Harris, T. M. 1951. The relationships of the Caytoniales. Phytornorphology l:29-39.
Mehra, P. N. 1988. tndian conifers: Gnetophyles and phyrogeny of Gyrrorp.rms.
Pramodh P. Kapur, Raj Bandhu Ind. Complex, Nerv Delhi
Meyen, S. V. 1984. Basic features of gl,mnospernt: Si,stenratics and phylogeny as
evidenced by the fossil record. Bot. Rev. 50: I-l I I
Meyen, S. V. 1986. Gymnosperm systematics.anci phylogeny: A reply to conrmentaries
by CB Beck. CN Miller. and GW Rothw.ell. Br,r. R.cr,. 52: 300-j20
Millay, M. A.. & Taylor. T. N. 1976. Evolutior-.'ar),trends in fossil gymnospcrm pollen.
Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol. 21.: 65 -91,
Miller.lr.. C N. 1977. N,lesozoic conf-ers. F]or. I{ei .13: ). 7-280
Pant. D. D. 1975. The classification of gi,n1por,)ci.!Ir,)Lrs rrlants. palaebot. 6:65-70
pearson Hl-lw (1929) Gnetales, carlbrirlge [.iniv l)rcss.
Madhulata. Sanu'al. 1962. Morphoic'gv a,l.l r.nrhr.,olt)g_, of Cnetunr tlrlcrxol t.
Phyomorpholo gy 1 2: 243 -264
Scott. D. II. 1909. Studies in Fossil Botany,2'"r edn. Vol 1 A and c Black, L'ondon
Scorr. D. II. 1923. Studies in Fossil Botany, Vol 2. A and c Black, London.
Slrarma. B. D. 1994. Gvmnosperms : Morphology, Systematics, Reproductive
ln: .lohri. I].M. (ed.), Botany in lndia : t{istory and Progress' Vol. 2. Oxford &
Nerv Delhi. pp l-23.
Singh. ll. l97b. Enrbryology of Gynrnospe rms. Geb Borntrager, Berlin.
Stervart. W.N . 1981. Th. Prngymnospel'nospsida:The construction of a concept'
.1. Uot. 59 1539-1542.
Ster,r,art. W. N. 1983. Palaeobotany and the evolution bf plants. Cambridge
BOT1C07 Anatomy of Angiosperms & Microtechnique (Theory)
Course offered by: Dr K. M. ,Iayaram, Dr Nabeesa Salim & Dr Jos:T. Puthur
l. Meristents: Shoot apical meristem ard functional 2ones, axillary floral and
irrflorescence meristems - structural diversity of the vegetative meristems'
2. Cell differentiation: tracIeary element differentiation, se0bndary wall formation,
vascular clifterentiation, development of aerenchyma, development of laticifers'
3. Origin and structure of secondary plant body: vascular cambium formation-structure
and lormation of vascular cambium. anomalous secondary groMh-classification,origin,
in arborescent
arrd function, primary thickening meristem in monocots, secondary growth
Structure and function of vascular tissues: xylem- structure and rvater movement'
phloem- structure and rnetabolite trarrslocation, transfer cells, phloem loading and
Sec6rrdary cambium: classification, origin and constitution of cambium,
activity. .u,rbim in r,vound healing and grafting, cork-cambium, origin and function'
Root: development, structural organization of root apical meristem, developmental
activities. developnrental zol'res, longitudinal files of cells, a C' concept and
promeristem concept. T-division.
7. Leaf: development, structural diversiiy, anatomy of C3 and C4 plants' Ecological leaf
a6atomy. sun and shade leaves, xeromorphic leaves, succulent leaves, halophytic
and hydromorphic leaves.
g. Stress anatomy: anatomy and pollution, anatomical response to water stress and
rnineral deficiency, effects of pollution. insecticides and herbicides'
l. Microscopis: I-ight microscope. Phase contrast and electron microscope, Micrometric
measurements and camera lucida.
2. Microtomes: Rotary, Sledge, and Cryostat'
3. Processing procedure for micropreparation
Killing and fixing: Principle and purpose, Comrnorr chemical fxatives, their
preparation and specifi.,,...; FAA, Llarnoy's fluid, acetic aicohol' CRAF, Nawashins
fluid. and Zircle's fluid.
(ii) Dehydration: Prirrciple and proceclure, Dehydrating igents - Ethy! alcohol, nButyl alcoho[.'fertiary butvl alcohol. lsopropyl alcohol and Chloroform. Different
series: Alcolrcl-Xylene nrethc'.,. r\ icohol-l-tlA method &
Chloroform method.
(iii) Paraffin infiltration - use of emhedding or.'cn
(iv) Embedding: Preparation of hrlocks. 'i-' [rlock aird paper boat.
(v) Sectioning of'paraftin blocks using rolarv rriicrotome: 'f rimming individual blocks
and section cutting.
(vi) Adhesives and their preparations,
(vii) Mounting and spreading of paraffitr ribbons on nii,-.ro slides.
4. Staining: Stains used in niicrotechnique;
C lass i fi cat ion - i \ atural -- I {cm iltr.x,vl en.-, ('ir i': r I M. t' ) rce i n.
Synthetic (coal tar) Basic: Safranin. Crystal violet, Basic lirchsin, Llotton hlue
Acidic: Fast green, Orange G. Erytlrrosine. [..osii.i, ancl 'l'oluedin blue,
Staining procedure: Single. double and tripie staining
Staining combination: safranin and fast green icotton biue crystal violet and
oran ge-G/erythros i ne. Hematox-v* [ i n e. an d sa tian i n
5. Techniques of clearing, eounting, labeling and storinq ol'permanent slides.
6. Whole mounts, Vein riearing, and tissue maccralirrn.
7. Histochemical staining: Localization olproteins. nucieic aoids, insolublc
carbohydrates, & lipids.Fnzyme histochemistrv - Cieneral account.
8. Vital staining: Principle. procedurc, and applications.
Beck, C. B. (2005) An Introduction to Plant stnrcture flFrl Developrnent. Cambridge [Jniversit,r,
Esau, K. (1917\ Anatomy of Seed Plants. 2nd edition. .lohn Wiley & Sons
Fahn, A. (1990) Plant Anatomy. 4tr'edition. Butterworttr-l-leinenrann [,td;
Mauseth, J. D. (1988) Plant Anatomy. The []enjarlrr- flr-1n16i6gs Publishing Co.
Raghavan V. ( 1999) Developmental Biology of [,lo erirrg Plants. Springer.
Dickison, W. C. (2000) Integrative Plant Andtorny, rrcademic Press.
Miksche, J. P. (1976). Botanical Microtechnique and ('1'tochemistrl,. Iowa State LJniversit_y Press.
Gahan. P. B. ( I 984) Plant Histochemist.rv. Academic Press.
(1962) Botanical Histocl..emislry. WII irreeman & Compan1,.
Jensen, W.
Johansen, D A (1940) Plant Microtec.hniqtie. McGrau, liill
Khasim, S. M. (2002) Botanical Microtechnique: Prinriplt:.q ancl Practice. Capital Publishing
KrishnamooAlrl, K. V. (1999) Methocis in Cell WallCltochemisrry. Ct.R.C. Press.
Pearse, A. G. E,. (1980)Histchemistry, l-heo;"etical an<!;rppliecl,4'r' E,clition,
Vol. I &
Churchhi ll Livingstone.
Sanderson, .1. B. (1994). Biological lvlicrotectrnique. Bios Scientiflc Publishers.
BOTlC0S Anatomy of Angiosperms & l{icr,otechniquc (Practical)
Credit: I
Course offered by: Dr K, M. Jayaram. Dr Nabeesa Salim & Dr,Ios T. puthur
l. Anomalous secondiirv. growth: Drucuutct. I)ignoniu. Arnoranlhtt,t. l/t,ctonlhc,s,,
Mirabilis, Bougainvillea , Strychno,r aud Beetntr.tt.
Lcat'anatomy: C3 and C4 plants. :ucculents, xeromorphic leaves, halophytes
3. Stornata: types, stomatal index.
4. Shoot apical meristem of dicots and monocots.
I . Preparation of stained permanent slides of the following:
Whole mounts, free hand sections. maceration and Serial microtome sections
double. triple' atld histochemical staining procedures. At least twenty permanent
rllicropreparations representing whole mounts, free hand sections and
serial ,..iiom
should [re subrnitted tbr evalLratitrn.
Beck. C. B. (2005) An lntroduction to Plant structure and Developlnp-rt Cambridge
Esau, K. (1977) Anatomy of Seed plants. 2nd edition. John witey &sons
Fahn. A. ( 1990) Plant Anatomy. 4'r' edition. Butterworth-Heinemann l-td;
Mauseth. J. D. (1988) Plant Arratomy. 't-he Benjarnin cummings publishing co.
Raghavan v. ( 1999) Developme,;,al Biology of F'rowering plants. Springer.
Dickison. w. c. (2000) lntegrative plant Anatorny, Aca,Jernic press.
Miksche, J. P. (1976)' Botanical Microtechnique and Cytophemistry. Iowa State
University press.
Gahan. P. B. (1984) Plant Histochemistry. Academic presi.
.lensen, w. A. (1962) Botanical I-listochemistry. wli Freeman & company
.lohansen. D. A. (1940) Plant Microtechnique. McGraw Hill.
Khasim. S. M. (2002) Botanical Microtechnique: Principles and Practice. Capital publishing
Krishnamoorthy K. v. (1999) Methods in cell wall cytochemistry. c.R.c. press.
Pearse.A.G.E.(1980)Histcherrisrr.y.Theoretical andApplied.4,b Edition,vol. l&2.
Churchhi I I L.ivingsrone.
B. (1994), Biological Microrechnique. Bios Scientific publishers.
''d Setnester
BOT2C09 Plant Physiology (Theory)
Credit: 3
Course offered by: Dr Nabeesa Salim & Dr Jos T. puthur
l. Water and plant cells: Water in plant's life, properties. Diffusion and facilitated
dil'fusion. Absorption and short distance transport, pressuretdrlven bulk flow and long
distance transport. Osmosis driven by water potential gradieni. Water absorption by roots
via apoplastic, symplastic and transmembrane pathways. Roie of aquaporins. Water
tlovemeltt through xylem. Mechanism and theories of tr-ansport. Cavitation and
ernbolisnr. Soil-plant-atmosphere-continuunr; physiology of stomotal function_
blue light
eflect .
2. Plants and inorganic nutrition: Nutrient elements: Classification based on biochemical
Ittnctiotls- Physiological roles. Nutrient uptake: interaction between roots and microbes.
Ion uptake by roots: ditfusion, facilitated diffusion and apparent free space. Apoplastic
and svllrlrlastic pathways. Metrhrane potential. Passi.ie and active transport. irrnrpo.t
proteins: carriers,
Michaelis-Menten Kinetics. Channels: Voitage dependent K
channels. voltage gated channels. Calciurr channcls. Vacuolar
rrralatc channels. ATpase
activity and electrogenic pumps. Patch clarup stuclies. .4pplication of Nernst
Active transport and electrochemical potential graclie.ts,
3' Assimilation of mineral nutrients: Nitrogen and hio-geocycle nitrate assirnilation.
reduction, biological nitrogen fixation. Svnrbiosis: ,ritrogiase
activity, assinrilation ofammonia; pathrvays and enzymes - (iS, GOGA i and GbH. transport
of ar,icles and
ureides' Sul
siology tr
tr ie
-.ulphates. Importance ol.
imilatioir. Energetics of-ntrtrierrt
4. Photosynthesis:I-ight absorption ancl encrg_v ctn,n,ersion. electron
transfer systelr in
chloroplast nrembranes; A'l'p synthesi-s ;6 ;1l-1r11-,plasr. photos-v-nthetic
carbon rcclLrction.
carbon oxida'Lion and photorespiratori, crcles. t4 anr'l CAi\4
rrietabolism. ph_r,,siological
and environmetital considcretion of phoios.vnthesis. Distribution
;i;hrir.-rlinrilatesexport' Starcii and sucrose syrrthesis. rrlli: -catior: aritl partitioning: phloem
loacling and
unloading' Concept cf trsmotir:ali-1, gcnc[at(jci pressur" flo*.
lmportance ol'
plasmodermata in symplastic transpoi.t.
ate enLry' into rnitochondria and citric acid
involved in exchange rt(iclire cleciron transport enzl,mes ol. plant
nase= : otcnone and cyanide inscnsitivc
ert rnitoclrorrdr.iaI and other cellular
orters. Lipid rletabolism.
nalysis oIplant growth:production of cells.
chenrical evcnts. Ditferentiation : secondary
hesis ol- ccll wall. Development: initiation
ved in ihe conti-oi of development. role ol'
l)owering-floral induction. evocation ancl
nes. . Lliochemical signaling: Theories ol.
ne. c!"_\,'ptL)clrrome and biologir:al c!ock.
nd therrriopcriodism.
ogy ol- ripening- ccll w,all architecture and
tl. Seed devclopmerrt: deposition of t.eserves <Jrrring sccd
clcvelopment. desiccation ol.
seeds: hormor.es involved, desiccation to!iranc.--.
Classification ol seeds. seed
Germination physiology: Imbibition. gerrrri;iation an<l
reserve nrobiliz-atiorr.ind ph1,'tins. phvsiology of seed d.r.rnan*,.
l0' Plant grou'th regulators: auxins- lrios,v-rrthesis. tirn.port. phvsiological
signal transduction pathways. Gibbereliin_
transduction. Amylase activity in gerrninatin
role. morphogenesis in cultured ti.rrr',"r, *
metabolisrn of carbohy'drates. lipids, proteins
physiological role. conrnrercial uses. anil r.i-.r-r
rnetabolism, physiological effects. r<.ilc iir
balance concept.
I l. Photoreceptors: Phytochromes - photochemical and biochemical properties.
localisation in cells and tissues. pliytochronre induced rvhole plant responses. Ecological
luttctiotts. Mechanisms ol- phytoghrome regulated differenfiation. Signal transduction
pathways, role in gene expression. Cryptechromes: blue light hormones photophysiology,
effect on stem elongation. gene expression, stomatal opening, proton pumps.
phototropism, role of carotenoids.
12. Senescence and programmed cell death: Apoptosis and necrosis. Programmed cell
death in relation to reproductive development, and stress response. Genes associated with
senescence. metabolism during senescence.
l-1. Stress physiology: Water deficit and drought resistance, heat stress and heat shock,
chilling and frost. salinity siress. oxygen deficiency stress and heavy-metal pollution
14. Signal transduction. Classes of signals; rdceptors, signal perception, signal
amplification and transduclion reactions. role of Ca++ as second messengers, role of
Arrclerson, J. W. and Boardall..f. (1991) Molecular Activation of Plant cells- An
I ntroduction to P lant B iochenri stry. B lackwe ll Scientifi c Publishers.
Beck. C. B. (2005) An lntroduction to Plant Structure and Development. Cambridge
[ ]rriversity Press
Bewley, J. D, and Black F., (1994) Seeds: Physiology of Del.elopment'and Germination.
2"d Edn. Plenunr Publishing Corporation
Bidwell. R.G. S. (1979) Plant Physiology,2ndEdn. Macmillan Publishing Corporation.
Buchanan, B. 8,, Gruissem, w. and .lones, R. L. (2000). Bicchemistry and Molecular
Biology of Plants. American Society of Plant Biologists.
Devlirr. R. M. and Withanr. F. H. (1986). PlantPhysiology. lvthEdn. CBS Publishers &
l{opkins. w. G. (2004). Introduction to Planr Physiology. .lohn wiley & Sons Inc.
Karp C. (1996). Cell and Molecular Biology - Concepts and Experiments. John Wiley &
Sorrs. Inc.
Maver and Pol.iakoff- Maybcr, (1989).'T'he Germination of Seeds. IV'h Edn. Pergmon
rc ss.
I\4oore.-l C.(1981)
Research Experience
in Plant Physiology. A Laboratory Manual.
Springer Verlag,
Noggle, G. R. and Fritz Cj. .1. (1992). Introductory Plant Physiology. Prentice Hall of
lndia Pvt. Ltd.
Salisbury. F. B. and Ross c. w (1992) Plant Physiology.4s Edn. wordsworlh
Puhlishing Corporatiori.
Steward. F. c. Plant Physiology - A T::atise. Vol. I to X. Academic. press.
Sturnpf, P. K. and Conlt, E E (19S0). The Biochemistry of Plants: A Comprehensive
l-reatise. Academic Press.
Taiz, L. and Zeiger, E. (2002). Plant Physiology. The Benjamin Cummings Publishing
Ccirporation Inc.
Wilkins. M. B.(1984). Advances in Plant Physiology. Longman Scientitic & Technical.
BOT2C10 Plant Physiology (Practical)
Course offered by: Dr Nabecsa Salinl
rt Dr
cf molal. n:ola[, nornial.
.Ios 'l'. Prrtlrur
zincl percentage scriutions and
their dilutions.
2. Determination of moisture content of plant nratelirtls,
3. Deterntination of osmotic potential Lr.v piasmoi_ytic rncthocl.
4. Analysis of Phosphorus in plant tissucs.
5. Separation of plant pigrnents [ry paper chrorne.lography/ 1[in lal,er chrornatograplrl'
and absorption spectra of pigments separated,
6. Quantitative estimation of chlorophylIcoutent usirri1spectrophotonretry.
7. Measurement of Photosynthesis - flill R.eacti,-rrr
8. Measurement of LigLt Intensity and Light
ansnrission Ratio.
9. Measurement of growth rate using various i)at'amctcl'ri
10. Demonstration of Anrylase activity'and gibherr:llic acid efl'eot in germinating cercal
I L Regulation of Seedlirig Grorvlh b-,- Piant lJorrnr--nes
I2. Protein estimation by d1,e binding mcthod.
13. Estimation.of proline in plant tissues undel r,;rrioirs abiotic stresses.
14. Estimation of phenol content in plant tissues affecterl hv biotic stress
Anderson. J. W. and Boardall,.l. (1991) i\,4olecular Aclivation of Plant cells- An
Introduction to Plant Biochemistry. tslackwel I iicienti fi c Publishers.
Beck, C. B. (2005) An lntroduction to Plant Structure and Development. Carnbridge
University Press.
Bewley..l. D. and Black E. (1994) Seeds: Phvsiology o[Development and Germination.
2n" Edn. Plenum Publishing Corporalion.
Bidwell, R.G. S. 11979) Plant Physiology. 2"d [:dn. Macrnillan Publishing Corporarion.
Buchanan, B. El,, Gruissem, W. and .!ones. R. t." (2000). Biochemistry and Molecular
Biology of Plants. American Society l.rf ['lant tliologists.
Devlin, R. M. and Witham, F. I-1. (1985) Plairl I']hvsiology. IVtr'Edn, CBS pLrblishers &
Hopkins, w, G. (2004).lntroduction tc l)iant Phvsioiogl,. John wiley'& Sons Inc.
Karp G. (1996). Cell and I\{olecular Bioloq-v - Coirsspl5 and lrxperiments..tohn Wile1,&
Sons, Irtc.
Mayer and Poljakoff'- Mayber. (1989). Ihe (icrrninrrtion of Seeds. IVth Ecln. pergmon
Moore. T.C.(1981) Research Experience in pianr ph1,,siologi,. A Laboratorv Manual.
Springer Verlag.
Noggle. G. R. and Fri;z G. J. (1992). Inlrodrictr-.r1' Plant Plrysiology. Prentice Ilall of
lndia Pvt. Ltd.
Salisbury, F. B. and Ross c. w. (1992) [,lant prrysiology. 4tr' Edn. wordsrvorth
Publishing Corporation.
Steward, F. c. PlantPhysiology-i\ freatise. vol. Iio X. Acadernic. l)ress.
Stumpf, P' K. and Conn, E.E (1980). l-he tliochernistr.r,of Plants: A Comprehensive
Treatise. Academ ic Press.
Tatz, L. and Zeiger, F.. (2002). Plant Physiologr,. 1'he [3enianrin Cummings publishing
Corporation [nc.
Wilkins. M. B. (1984). Advances in Plant Physiology' Longman Scientific & l'echnical'
Credit: 3
Biochemistrv, Iliophysics and linmunology (Theory)
Course offered hv: Dr Sailas Ben.iamin
buffers, Hendersott-Hasselbalch
I . pH and buffers - properlies of tvater.
system, common buffers'
equation, pH. pKa, Kw,'proton hopping,
linear and ring
2.'(larbolrydraie: introductiott to tnonotron reducing
structLlres. homo- and heteroglycans. rnajo
sugars. artificial sweetet'lers, structuri and function of major homo- and
heieropolysaccharides. rnetabolism o[ starch, cellulose and glycogen. Gycolysis,
c),.clc. terminal oxidation. gluconeogenesis. glyoxylate
giycoproteins and proteogly,cani. biosynthesis of peptidoglycan, metabolic
3. Arnino acids and proi.inr, amino acids - classification,
unusutrl aminoacids. ninhydrin reacticn; biosynthesis and breakdown
classification and conforrnation pi'oteins, Ramachandran plot, structure,
nrechanism and allosteric regulation of haemoglobin, abnormal haemoglobin,
of protein'
ancl function of leghaernoblobin, Brief account on the biosynthesis
coenzymes, substrate
4. Enzyntology -itructure, function and classification of
rlgulation ol enzyme activity, active sites, inhibitors, allosteric enzymes.
and positive co-operativity. multienzyme, isoenzymes, ribozyme'
abzynre. detailecl study of FAS and Rubisco, penicillin and magic bullet'
i nact ivators, clizyme i n curi n g'frypanosorntasis'
with examples'
5. t.ipids - clasiitrcation. hrief accor.rnt on compound and dc,'ived lipids
classification o1'fatty acids. biosynthesis of fatty acids (m:orobes, plants and
functional food'
alpha. beta ald o,r.gu oxidation of latty acids, omega fatty acid and
trans-fatty acids and their darrgers, detailed study of coconut oil.
Brief account ott
6. Nucleic acid: biosythesis arid break down of purines andpyrimidines.
the types and conformation of DNA and RNA'
7. Vitarnins and hormones: classification, structure, function and source of vitamins'
vitamins as coenzymes. phytohormones classification, Structure, function and
t. U'n.igy metabolisms
concept of fiee energy, entropy, enthalpy, chentical equilibria'
phosphate compounds,
therrnodynamics, thermodynamics
of life; thermodynamics, kinetics and mechanisms of membrane
transport. energy rich bonds, redox reactions, synthesis of ATP, substrate
oxidative- and photo-phosphorylations.
2. Instrumentatiol, principles and functioning of: colorimetry and spectrophotometry,
celtrifugation, ultracentrifugation, electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing, chromatography
(1't c. gel filtration, iron .*il',o,.,g". affinity. GC, GC-MS. HPLC, FPLC), NMR, X-ray
crystallography. MRI. tools in natiotechnology (Atomic Force Microscopy' Scanning
Tunrreling Mitroscope, Scanning Probe Microscope), Fluorescent Microscopy, Flowcytotnetry, liquid scinti I latioll.
l. Radio isotopes. radioactive clecay. radiations and their applications in biology.
Immune syStem -- anrigens. antibodles. stntctrir(: ancl Iunction of clilferent classes olimmunoglohtrlins, prima-r'v anr-l seconciar.., intrfiut'ir) r'csltonse. lvrnphocl,tes and accessor.i,
cells. lymphokines, antibotl;, dir'crsriv, lrrrrnor'al an,-i ccll-rnediated immLrnitl. l,,lHC.
antigen presetttation. complenrcnl llration. irvirersensitii,itl, an<j allergy. ops6nisa1io6.
mechartism Of imnrune respolt.se ilnti vs6gJ2ltroir cf imnrunological Jiversltl,. gcnetic
control of inrmune response^ superaniigr.:ns, apirliiiilions of imunotogical tecirniques
ELISA, imnrunodiffusion. immrtnoelcctropiror,-'sis l\,lonoclonal and polyclonal
antibod ies, I{AT mediurn.
Alberghina' C. 2000
"Protein Engineering in tnclustrial Biotechnology. Harwood
Academic Publicatiqns.
'Berg, J. M., Tymoczko,
J. L., & Stryer t-,. 2006. Biochernisrrr, (6th t--dn). wH preenran &
M. | 989. Basic Biophl"sics fbr
Bioltrgists. Agro-Botanica publishers
Delves. P., Martin, S., Burton. D. & R.oitt, 1.2008. Iloitt's Essentials of lnrnrunologv
(l lth Edn). BlackwellPublishing.
voet. D. .1. & voet, J. J. 200s. tsicchemistr\/ (5th Ecln).John wiley & Sons
Glaser, R. 2001. Biophysics (5th Edn). Springe:
Hammes, G. G.2005. Thermodynamics and Kltretics firr BiOlogical
Sciences..lohn Wilev
& Sons Inc.
Jain, 'l' L'. Sanjay. .1. & Nithin. .1. S 20()6. trundarnental of Iliochemistry, (6rh
F.cln). S.
Chand & Co. l.td.
Kindt, T'. J.. Goldsby, R. A. & Osborne, B, A, 2tJOg. Kub1, Imnrunology (6th
trdn). WH
Freeman and C.o.
l.ewin B. 2008. Genes [X. pearson Educational Intei-national.
Nelson, D' I-. & Cox. l\'i. M. 2008. Lehrtingel Plrnciples of Brochemistry,i4rh
W.H. Freeman and Clo.
Pandey, A., Webb, O., Soccol, C. & l_arr;clre. C. 2,-til7. L.nzt,me Technology.
Rao, c. v.2005. Lnrnunology: A Text tlook. Nurcs* Rublishing House.
Sambrook. J' & Russel, D'W. 2008. Molecular Cloning A laboratory
manual (-5rh Ecln).
Cold Springer Harbor Laboratory lrress.
Upadhay, A.. tJpadhay, K.& Narh, N.200g. Biophvsicai chemisrry _ principles
Techniques. llimalaya Publishing Hcruse.
Credit: I
Biochemistry. Biophysics antr rm
nr u nrrogl,
(practica r)
Course offered by: Dr Sailas Benjamin
l. Detection of non-reducing sugar in the presence of reducing srgar.
2. Quantitative estimation of reducing sugar from plant tissue
3' Extraction and estimation of starch fionr plant rissue by a sLritable
4. colorimetric estimation of protein b1, Biurcr ,relirocr,
5. colorimetric estimation of protein h-v l,orvry ,:t. ,r. nretrr.cr.
(1. Measurenlent
of anrvlase/invertase/protease from any suitable plant/microbial source
using su itable rnethod.
7. Deternlination of Substrate.saturati:n and Michaelis-Menten curve of any en7,/me.
8. Preparation of buffers and nreasurement of pH using pH meter.
9. Deternrination of isoelectric pH of proteins.
I 0. Paper chromatograph ic separation of sugars.
I L Thin layer chromatography of amino acids.
12. Electrophoretic separation of DNA and proteins.
13. Separation o1' subcellLrlar particles by sucrose density gradient centrifugation.
l.l. I{trman Blood ryping
15. Immunodiftusion
I 6. I rn munoprecipitatjorl
Alhrerghina, C.2000. Protein Engineering in Industrial Biotechnology. Harwood
Acadern ic Publ ications.
tlerg..l. M., Tymoczko, J. L., & Srryerl,.2006. Biochemistry(6th Edn). wH Freeman
M. I989. Basic Biophysics for Biologists.
Agro-Botanica publishers
Delves, P., Maftin, S., Bufton, D. & Roitt, I. 200g. Roitt,s Essentials of
(l lth Edn). Blackwell Publishing.
voet, D. J. & voet, J. .t. 2005. Biochernistry (5th Edn).John wiley &
Glaser. R. 2001. Biophysics (5th Edn). Springer.
Ilanlmes, G. G. 2005. 1'hermodynamics and kinetics for Biological
Sciences. John Wiley
& Sons Inc.
'lain' 'l' L., Sanjay. .1. & Nithin, .1. S. 2006. Fundamental of Biochemistry (6th Edn). S.
Clhand & Co. t,td.
Kindt. T. J.. Goldsby, R. A, & osborre, B. A. 200g. Kuby Immunology
(6th Edn). wH
Irreeman and Co.
Lervin B. 2008. Genes IX. pearson Eclucational International.
Nelsott' D' L. & Cox. M. M. 2008. Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry
(4th Edn).
W.tJ. Freentan and Co.
[)andcy, A., webb, c., Soccor, c. &Larnch,., c. 2007. Enzyme
Technorogy. Springer.
[{ao. c. v. 2005. [mmunology: A Text Book. Narosa publishing
Sambrook, J. & Russel, D.W. 2008. Molecular Cloning A
manual (5th Edn).
Cold Springer Harbor Laboratory press.
Upadh.ay, 4.,,[-lpadhay, K. & Nath, N. 200g. Biophysical
chemistry - principles and
Techniques. Himalaya puhlishing llouse.
Bor2c13 Plant Morphogenesis, Embryogenesis, & Tissue culture (Theory)
Credit: 3
course offered by: Dr A. yusuf, Dr p. Sunojkumar & Dr K. M.
Plant Morphogenesis:
Basic concepts of plant morphogenesis and its importance: cell
size and fornt,
totipotency. symmetry, polarity. differentiation, factois influencing
Comparative morphology and plant morphogenesis.
Microsporogenesis, pollen morphology, pollen-pistil interaction, female gamctophyte irr
angiosperms, fertilization, endosperm. embryo. poi..,embryonr,. apomixis.
Tissue Culture:
Plant cell anr! tissue culture: introduction. hisiorr,. scope. Basic aspects of plant lis.sue
culture; Different culture media: cornponent:, grorvth regulatorsl growth retardants:
Undefined supplements; Explants: Sterilizatior,: lntrculation: Subculturing, etc. Various
media and their composisition.
Different types of cultures: Callus- <iiffbrent t',,pi95. (,ell culturel Suspension culturedifferent typesl culture tnethods of singie cells: -l'e sting cf viability of cells: Application
of celland callus culture with speciai reicrr:rice tr; ;nedicinal and aronratic planis. ln t;itr-o
morphogenes is ld ifferentiati on.
Organogenesis- different t)?es; factors olf'ect!nq: problems related to micropropagation
of woodv (iVledicinai) plants. Different sl;lges oIniicropropagation, Sontaclonal variation
and its imporlance with special reference io medicinal and aromatic plants.
Somatic embryogenesis: direct and indirect: Factors cflccting; embrl,o rnaturatiorr;
application. Sy'nseeds and its significance.
Production of pathogen-free plants: I)',ffbrcrit nrethorls. Meristenr cultur.e ancl its
importance in commercialization especialll' of \4edicinal ancl Aromatic plants.
Protoplast: lsolation and culture methods; Factor-( el'tbcting; Sontatic hyLrriclizatiorr:
Different types; Fusion methods. Apolication w'ith special reference to Medicinal and
Aromatic plants.
Haploids: Different type!' nndrogenesis a'nd gynogenesis. Advantages; Significance in
crop improvement with special emplrasis on Meciioinal and aromatic plants.
Ovary, t,r'ul€. endosperm and embryo crrlture; irnportance. In vitro fertilization (recenl
advarices) and its significance.
Secondary rnetabolites: Different classes; nrethocis of production- factors eff'ecting
Biotransformation;.Different types with exanrples. Imnrobilization: Differ.ent approaches:
'fissue culture in lndia with special
refbrence to Kerala. Exploitation of meclicinal plants
of Kerala bv 'l'issue culture.
Application crf Plant Tissue Culture:' Clonal p.opagation. arlilicial seed production of
hybrids and somaclones. drugs. products. cr\,op.jscrvation and germplasm storagc.
Modern trencls in plant tissue culture.
Conservation of Plant Genetic Resources-lmoortance of plant genetic Resources-l.cliit,
gene centres-Developntents in PGR-CtJD-tliodiver-sitv Act-Protection of Planl VaricticsGenebanks, tvpes.
Bhojwani. S. S. and Razdan, M. K. 198-?. Plant'i'issuc i:ulture: Theory and pracLiccr.
Doods. J. H. and Roberts. L. W. 1985. Exirc'rimcrrts in Piant l'issue culture. Canrbridge
University Press.
George, E. F. I993-96. Plant propagation i,.;v-l-issr-rc cirlture-2 vols. Exegetics l-tcj.
Narayanaswamy, S. 1994. Plant cell and-l-issue cultur'c. Tata McGraw Hill Ltd.
De, K. K. 1995. Plant Tissue Culture. Nerv Central Boi;k Agcnc1,.
llazdarr' M. K. 1995. An Introduction to Plant Tissue
Culture. Oxford & IBH publishing
Co. Pvt. Ltd.
Credit: I
Plant Morphogenesis, Embryogenesis, & Tissue curture
Course offered by: Dr A. yusuf, Dr p. Sunojkumar
& Dr K. M. Javaram
ts and study of pollen morphology.
f different stages; types of embryogeny
ions: dilferqrt media -
Preparation of sotid and liqr,rid media.
lnoculation technique: Culture of different explants.
Introduction of callus and organogenesis.
Anther, ovary, embryo culture; Miristem culture.
Production ofsynseed.
I n vi I ro t-erti I izatron
Bhojwani, S.S. and Razdan, M.K. 19g3. plant
Tissue culture: Theory and practice.
Doods' J'H' and Roberts, L.w. 1985. Experiments
in Plant Tissue culture, cambridge
University press.
George. E.F. 1993-99^1,.u1,
oropagation by Tissue curtur'e-2 vors. Exegetics Ltd.
Narayanaswamy, s. 1994. Plant-ceIl and
Tissue culture. Tata trtcc.aw Hill Ltd.
De' K'K. 1995. plant ,issue curture. New
centrar Book ag.r.v.
An Introcluction to Plant rissue curtlre. oxrord &
rBH publishing
BOT2ClS Environmental Biotogy (Theory)
Credit: 3
course offered by: Dr p. v. Madhusoodanan
& Dr C. C. Harilar
Ecosystem-structural and functional components,
trophic structure, major biomes
vegetation and soil types of tlre rvorld.
2' Productivity and
:nergy flow-concepts. limits and processes of primary production;
methods of productivity
3' Biogeochemical cycling-.basic typesr the global
water, carbon and Nitrogen cycles.
Succession, climax and stability- concepts,
of pioneer and climax
, dominance,
n, biotic
IVI, alpha, beta and gamma
potential, carrying capacity,
water; Minamata and Love Canal
pollution; effect on plants; control
ation, ereen house effect, Ozone
concepts. types of divcrsit.r-. ccnters of'diversity, phytogeographic zol.rcs.
vegetation types of India and Kerala, endemism. agrobiodiversitl,.
7. Biodiversity':
8. Conservation: In situ and ex situ conscn'atien, protected area concepts. Wildlil'e
Sanctuaries, National Parks and Fiiosphere Reserves. Afforestation-Social Forestry.
Agroforestry, Environmental [nrpact'Assessirent, Participatory Management. Wildlif'e
preservatiop Act (1972), Indian Forest Act (1980), Biodiversity Act. Organizations:
IUCN, WWF. CITES. TRAFPICI. Spe,cies Survival Commission, Conservation
programmes- UNEP, MAB..Ramsar convention. Convention on Biodiversity. Rio + 5.
Programrne, Environmerrt day. Conservatit)n movements itl lndia and
Kerala. Hoispots, Red list Categories, Red Data Book, T'hreatened plants and animals of
India and Kerala. lntellectual Propcrty Rights (lPP.) and patenting,
9. Gaia Hypothesis, Systern Philosophy.
Misra, R. 1968. Ecolc-rgY rvorkbook. Oxlbrd & !tsI I Publisliing Co'
Nayar,M.P.andSastry,A.R.K. 1987,1989,1990.RedDatatsookoflndianPlants.3vols.
Odum, L,.P. 1976. Fundamentals ol lrcology, \\''8. Sanders Co'
Puri, C. Indian Forest'F,eology. Oxtbrd Book & Stationerl" Clo'
Mackenzie. A. ball, A.S. and VirCee. S.R. 2002. E,cotogy (2nd Edition). Viva Books Ltd.
Smith, R.L, and Smith,T.M. 1998: Elements of L,cologv (4th Edition).-fhc Beniarnin
Cummings Publishing Co.
Cunningham, W.P. and Saigo, B.W. 1999. Environmental Science (5th Edition) McOratv
Chapman, J.L. and Reiss, lyl.J. 1992. Ecology-Principle and Application. Carnbridgc
University Press.
Park, C. 1997. The Environment-Principles and Apllications, Routledge,
Smil, V. 1997. Cycles of Life. Civilization arrd Biosphere W.H. Freeman and Co. N.Y'
Smith, R,L. and Smith, T.M. 1998. Illemerrr-s of Ecology i4th Edition). The Ben.iamin
Cummings Publishing Co.
BOT2C16 Environmental Biology (I'>raciical)
Credit: I
Course offered by: Dr P. V. Madhusootlanan & Dr C. Cl. Harilal
1. Evaluation of biotic and abiotit coinponents o['any tlvo important ecos]'stems.
2. Evaluation of food chain in the ccosl'stems mcntioned irr I
3. Determination of the Importance Value lnder (lVI) of plarrt species in the comntunitv
by quadrat. line and belt transect rtrctirods.
4. Preparation of ombrothermic diagram of diilbrent sites on the basis of givcn data set
Ibr comparison of climate.
5. Stud,v of the Relationship bctween two ccolop.ical variables using correlatiott atltj
the minimum size and nurnber or quadrats required rbr tinalysis o[
vegetation using species-area curve tnethod.
7. Study of the association between impoftuttt grassland species using Chi-square test.
8. Comparison of'protected and unprotected grassland stands using c'otnmuttil.r'
coeffi cients (sim i larity indices).
productivity by light and dark bottle
Deterr.ination of.gross ancl net phytoplankton
'ilt:';;.1.r*ination of moisrure content, porosity and bulk density of soils collected from
var-ving depths at ditferent locations'
and organic matter in the soils of croplands'
I l. Detennination of percent organlc carbon
grasslands and forests'
content in eutrophic and oligotrophic
12. Estimation of the dissolved oxygen
sanrples bl azide modification of Winkler's
evolution from different soils using soda
13. E,stinration of the rate of carbon
or alkali absorPtiorr method'
a given developmental activity using EIA
14. StLrdv of the .nri.onn1.ntal irnpact 9f
of polluted and non-pollu!9d aquatic ecosystems'
Sanctuary, National Parks, sewage
16. Visit to a meteorological statior.r, Witatlf.
and preparation of a report'
treatment unit and *ujo. cou"structiorl. areas
of an area'
I 7. Determination of density of species
of species of vegef ation.
l g. Determination oi rr"qu.n"y and heterogeneity
15. Comparative study
H Publishing Co'
Red Data Book of Indian Plants' 3 vols'
W.B' Sanders Co'
k & StationerY Co'
002. Ecology (2nd Edition)' Viva Books Ltd'
of Ecoiogy (4th Edition)' The Benjamin
Sn.rir6, R.L. and Smith,T.M. 1998. Elements
Crn'tnlinga Publishing Co.
, d-:---^^
r<+L Dri+inn)
Science (5th Edition) McGraw
Cunningham, W.P. ufd Suigo, B.W. 1999. Environmental
and Application' cambridge
cliaprnan. .1.L. and Reiss, M..1. 1992. ticology-Principle
LJniversity Press.
Apllications. Routledge'
t,ark. cl. 1997, The Environnrent-Principles and
Biosphere w'H' Freeman.and.
Srnil. v. 1997. Cycles of Life. civilization and
co' N'Y'
Cummings Publishing Co'
3'd Semester
BOT3C17 Angiosperm Taxonomy and Phytogeography
Credit: 3
Course offered by: Dr M. Sabu & Dr P' Sunojkumar
Angiosperm TaxonomY:
I . T-axonomy: Definitions, Objectives, Importance'
2. Ilistorical development of theories
assit-tcatory systems.
plant classification and
Bentham & Hooker. Engler,
4. Conceptuut bur", of the classifications of the following:
Flutchinson. Cronquist' Takhtaian'
5. Taxonomic structure, taxonomic hierarchy, ia.rononric calegories - supraspecilic and
infraspeoific categories: Ccncept i;f species, gcn!.is arrd farnilv
6. Taxonomio characters: Concept,lf character. character variations and their taxonomic
7. Sources of taxonomic characters: N4or-pholog-r,. ,Attatonry'. [:mbryology. Cytologv.
Palyno logy, Phytochemi stry.
8. Modern trends ii; Plant Ta.xonr'rrny: tl iusystetnatics. Numerical 'l'a.xononrv
(Taximetrics). Cladisti cs, Ivlolecu I ar' I axo nom r,.
Evclutionary taxonomy: Corlr-ept
primitive and
characters/groups, monctohyly and pol-vphyly. par.allelisnr and convergence, homology
and analogy.
10. Practical identification of plants: Dill'erent kinds oI'Identificatitin keys. Construction
of dichotomous keys - lndented and bracketed kc:ys.
ll. Various kinds of Taxomonic literature: [iioras. ]levisiorts, Manuals, Monograplis.
Periodicals and Journals.
12.PlanfNomenclaturc: Brief History on the origin and development of nomenclature:
detailed study of the major provi-"ions of thc lnterttational Code of Botanical
Nomenclature (ICBN) - Effective and Val,,1 Publicatiorr. Rule of Prioritl' and its
limitations. Typification, Different kinds of t)"pes. Author citation. Rejcrction atrd
retention of'names, Conserved narnes: Nontenclature of hybrids; Nomecnlature ol'
cultivated plants. Common technical terms usecl in Plant nomcnclature.
13. Methods of plant exploration; Marragement of Herbaria; Major Herbaria in India
and the World; Role of Herbaria in taxonomy. ['loristic studies in India; Ma.ior centers o['
taxonomic and floristic studies in lndia; Organization and functions of the F]otanical
Survey of lndia.
14. Botanical Gardens: Role in taxonoitJ and biodiversity conservation.
Objectives oi Phytogeography.
Descriptive Phytogeopgraphy: T'ypes
of plarit distribution: Continuous distribution;
or circurn-austral, and pantropicall
of land- bridge, theory of continental drift. theory of
Discontinuous distribution;
polar oscillations or Shifting of poles, glaciati<;ns Centers of'origin and diversitv of
plants; Metltods of dispersal, migrations and isoiation: Theon, ol area and theory of
tolerance. Factors influencing plant distribution: lVligration of floras. and Evolution of
floras. Floristic regions of the worlci: Vegetation Zones in relation to latitLrcles and
altitudes; a Lrrief account of the phytochuria o{-the lndian subcontinent; Endemics: Neo
and relics.
Geographical Information Systems: definition, fundamental concepts and conrponents o1'
CIS: developments and future trends in GIS
Cronquist, A. 1988. The evolution and classification of tlorvering plarrts. Nerv York
Botanical Garden Press.
Dahlgren, R. M.'t.. Clifford. I1.'1. & \"eo. P. i--. l9U-s.'T'he lrarrrilies oIMonocot-vledons.
Davis. P. tl. & Heyrvood. V. FI. 1973. Principles of Angiosperm Taxonomy. Roberl R
Krieger Publishing Co.
l)ouglas. E. & Soltis et al. 2005. Phylogeny and Evolution of Angiosperms. Sinauer
Associates Inc.
I{arris J. G. & lVI. W. Flarris. 2007. Plant Identification Terminology. Spring Lake
bIish ing.
[]utchinson, J. 1959. The Families ol Flowering plants. Oxford.
l\4c Neill..l. et a1.2006. International Code of Botanical Nornenclature (ICBN) (Vienna
Ctode). A.R.G. Gautner Verlag K.G.
.lanick. .1. et al. 2002. Internatiorral Code of Nomeiiclature of Cultivated plants.
Interrrational Society for Horticulture Science.
.luditlr. ?.. w.2002. Describing plant Species. Bishen Singh N{ahendrapal Singh.
Kitching' l. J.et al. I998. Cladistics - the theory and practice ol'Parsimoriy Analysis.
Oxford University Press.
Naqshi. A. R. 1993. An introduction to BotanicalNomenclature. Scientific publishers.
Radl'ord. E. A. 1986. Fundamentals of Plant Systematics. Harper & Row publishers.
Sinrpson, M. G. 2006. PIant Systentatics. Elsevier.
Sivarajan, V. V. 1991. Introduction to thq Principles of Plant Taxononry. Oxford &
Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd.
Smeath. P. H. A. & Sokal, R. R. 1.973. Numerical Taxonomy. wH Freeman
& co.
Stace. c. A. 1989. Plant Taxonomy and Biosystematics. Edward Arnold.
Avise' .1. C. (2000). Phylogeography. ]'he History and Formation of Species. Harvard
University Press.
Brou'n..1. FI. & M. V' I-omolino (1998). Biogeography.2nd Edition. Sinauer
c-ox. c. 8., Healey, I. N. & Moore, p. D. ( 1976). Biogeography. An Ecological
[:r'. l ut ionary Approach. 2nd Ed ition. I] lackwell Scienti fi c -publications.
MacDonald. G. (2003)' Biogeography: Introduction to Space, Time and
Life. .lohn Wiley
Sons. Inc.
Sirnmons, l. c. (1979). Biogeography: Natural and cultural. Edward
Arnold Ltd.
Whittaker, R. H. (Ed.) (1973). Ordination and Classification of Communities.
In R.
(Ed. in chief), t{andbook of vegetation Science. part v. Dr. w. Junk
Bor3c18 Angiosperm Taxonomy and phytogeography (practicar)
Credit: l -
Course offered by: Dr M. Sabu & Dr p. Sunojkuma
During the course of this study, the student shall get familiar with the
local flora.
should get
ethod of dissecting and studying plants in
terms, preparing- scientific ilTustrations,
ificial keys
based on Bentharnand Hooker,s system of
or this purp
hall work out at least 2 members oieach olthe lollowing families.of angiosperms available in the area: Menispermaceae.
Anttonaceae, Polygalaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Tiliaceae, Rutaceae.
Melastomataceae. A izoaceae, Rubiaceae. Asteraceae,
oleaceae, Ap;.y;;;;[;,
Asclepiadaceae. Gentianaceae. Boragin rceae. Scrophulariaceae. L"rtibrl;;;J;.
pedaliaceae. Acanthaceae, Lauraceae. Lorantltaceac. [',uphorbiaceae. LJrticaccae.
Com mel ina ceae. Zingiberaceae, A raceae. and Poaccac'
3. During the course of this study, each student shall undertake a. fleld study tour for itt
least 3 diys. under the guidance alrd strpervisiott o['a tehcher', at a place ecologically and
floristicaliy different from their place of regttlar study. Fiaclt one shall also collcct plant
specimens for herbarium prepaiation and shall suLrrnit at lcast fifty, rvelI preserved.
correctly identified and labiled herbarium specinrens aiong rvith the field book and report
for evaluation during the course of their practica. exanlination.
4. Interpretation uf*upr. charts, lanrlsat irtrageries. etc. pertaining to the vegetation
distribution. continental drift etc.
Cronquist. A. i988. The evclii'rion trrrci <:iassificatiolr o1-tlorvering plants. New
Botanical Garden Press.
Dahlgren. R, i\,i. T., Cliffbrci. H. 1'. & 'i'cc P' l' i985. The I'amilies of Monocot,vledons.
Robert R
Ouvis, P. H. dLHeywoorl. V. i-1. i9?-i. i'rinciples oi'z\ngiosperm TaxononlY'
Krieger Pub!ishing Co.
Douflas, E. ,t Sottis et al. 2005 Phi,log.rn-v ancl [ivolutiott of Angiospernrs.
Associates IItc.
Harris J. G. & M. W. Harris.2007. ['lant Llenritrcalion'['errtlrinology. Spring
Hutchinson, J. 1959. The Families of Flowering piants. oxlbrd.
(ICBN) (Vienna
Mc Neill, J. et al. 2006. International Clorle of Botanical Nomenclature
Code). A.R.G. Gautner Verlag K.G.
Janici, .1. et a[. 2oo?.. lnternational code of Nomenclature of cultivated
lntemational Society for Horticulture Science'
Judith, E,. w. 2002.besoribing Plant Specie;. Bishen Singh Mahendrapal
Kitching, I. J.et al. 1998. Cladistics - thc theory and practice of Parsimony
Oxford University Press.
Nuqrtri, 4.R. lq9:. en introduction to BotanicalNontenclature. Scientific
Radford. E. A. 1986. Fundamentals of Plant Systeltlatics.
Simpson, M. G. 2006' Plant Systematics' Elsevier'
Oxfirrd & IBI-l
Sivarajan. V. V. lggl.lntroducticrn io the Prinupics of PlantT'axonolny.
Publishing Co. Pvt. I-td.
WH Freeman & Co'
Smeath, C. f i. n. & Sokat, R. R. 1973. Numericrl axonotny.
Stace. c. A. 1989. Plant Taxononrv and Biosy'slematics.
of SPecies. Harvard
Avise. .1. C. (2000). Phylogeography' l'he History and Formation
University Press.
Sinauer Associates.
Brown, .1. U. A M. V. Lotnolino (1998)' Biogeography' 2nd Edition.
Biogeography' An Ecological and
Evo lutionary APProach. 2nd Edition. Blackwell Scientific
MacDonald, G. (2003). Biogeography:tntroductiontoSpace,TimeandLife'JohnWiley
Cox, C. 8., HealeY, I. N.
& Moore, P. D. (1976).
& Sons. Inc.
Biogeography:Natural and cultural. Edward Arnold Ltd'
ln R'
whittaker, R. H. (Ed ) ( tglz\. brdination and classification of communities'
'['tixen (Ed. in Chief. Handbook of Vegetation Science. Part V' Dr'
I G.(1979).
Genetics, Plant Breeding, and Biostatistics (Theory)
Credit: 3
Course offered bY: Dr K. V. Mohanarr
Mendelism- Mendelian tactors- segregatiorr of mendelian factors- dominance'
codorninance and incomplete dominance of mendelian factors'
2. Independent assortmcnt- interaction of gene
es- linkage and
3. Linlage and joint segregation- Linkage
recombination in eukaryoiesind prokaryotes-
us and threshold
4. Quantitative geneticr- Vrltipl" lactors- con
traits- QTI.- tleritabitity- transgressive variation'
5. plasmagenes- cyto[lasntic inheritance- chloroplast ge;tes and mitochontrial genesnraternal inheritance- informosomes- Applications of exLrxnuclear inheritance.
6. (ienetics of sex deternrination- sex tinkage- sex linked, sex influenced and sex
characters- sex linked lethal mutations.
7. Genetics of photosYnthesis
8. Genetics of Nitrogen fixation
9. Biometrical genetics- probability and genetics- prediction of genetic behaviourstatistical tools in genetic analysis.
10. Genetics of prokaryotes- genetic organization of bacteria and viruses- bacterial
mutants- transformation, conjugation and transduction'
I I . Developmental genetics- genetic control of development in plants- genetic control
cell lineages.
12. Behavioural genetics- Genetics of biorhythms- genetics of mammalian clockgenetics of behaviour.
t:. npplied genetics- Eugenics, euphenics and euthetlics. Immunogenetics.
14. Regulation of gene action in prokaryotes and eukaryotes'
15. Genetic structure of populations and its change - Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium Sewall Wright effect - changes in genetic structure, causes apd ccnsequences - speciation
and evolution.
Plant Breeding:
L lntroduction- History-Biological foundations of plant breeding- converrtional
techniques- advanced techniques- special methods.
2. Biological foundations of Piant hreedirrg- Ii.ole of hereditv and environnr('rlt ill
characteiexpress!on- Systerns cl reproduction irr llants- Ivlating systems in sexuaIlv
reproduced plants.
3. Plant propagation- sexual, i'lsetrclosexutl and rsex''lal methods- special methods of'
plant propagation- micropropagation.
+. Conrintional methods of plant breeding- plant donrestication, plant introdttction.
selection and hybridization.
5. Modern methods of plant breeding- mutation breeding, potyploidy breeding and distant
hybridization. Biotechnological approaches in plant trreeding'
6. Breeding for special purooses- breeding for pest. disease and stress resistance. QualitY
breeding- Heterosis breeciing. Breeding synthetic varieties. Breeding contpositc
l. Quantitative methods in biology- introduction
2. Methods of data collection- priman, and secondary data- census and sarrlpling
3. Tabulation and presentation of
numerical data- diagrammatic and graphical
4. Measures of centraltendencies- mean. median and mode. Ske'xness ancl curtosts.
5. Measures of variations- range, quartile dt:viation. tnean deviation- variancc and
standard deviation. Standard error and Coefficie,lt eg','65i2[isn.
6. Tests ofsignificance- z. t and 12 tests.
7. Analysis of variance.
8. Correlation and regression anal,vsis.
9. Factor and cluster anal);sis'
0 Experimental designs.
Kowles R. Solving Problems in Genetics. Sprttlger'
Sambamurthy A. V. S. S. Genetics. Nar<'sa i'Lrblishing }loLrse'
Brooker R. .1" Genetics: Analysis and Principles Addison Weslel' Longman lnc'
Iledrick P. W. Genetics of Populatiorts' Jones and iJartletl ['trblishers'
Griffiths A..1. F.. Gelbbart W. N'I.. I.cu'ontin R' ( " N4iller 'l' U' Modertt
Analysis. WH Freeman & ComPanY.
('onccpt Publishing Companl'.
Dabholkar A. R. E,lements of Biometricai Cienetics.
Frankel O. H. and Bennet E. Genetic R-esources irr Plants lllackrvell.
Hotter P. Text book of Genetics. Ivy Publishing House'
r'llpaz Publications'
Satpathy G. C. Genetics :
sadhu M. K. Plant Propagation. New Age [nternational Publishers.
Allard R. w. - Principles of Plant Breeding. .lolrn wiley & Sons.
Jain H. K. and Kharkwal M. C. Plant Breeding. Narosa Publishing House.
Chahal G. S. and Gosal S. S. Principles and Procedures of Planr Breedillg. Narosa
Publishing House.
Roy D. Plant Breeding, Narosa Publishing House
Ilayward M. D., Bosemark N. O. and Romagosa I. Plant Breeding- Principles arrd
prospects. Chapman and Hall.
Gupta S.K. Plant Breeding. Agrobios.
Klran M. A. Plant Breeding. Lliotech Books.
Sharma.l. R. Plant Breeding. Tata McGraw Hill.
.loshi R. M. Biosafety and Bioethics. lsha Books.
Pagano M. and Gauvreau K. principres of Biostatistics. Duxbury.
Sharlna.l. R. Statisticzrl and biometrical techniques in plarit Breeding. New
Irrternational Publ ishers.
Panse V. G. and Sukhatme, I'}. V, Statistical Methods for
Agricultural Workers. ICAR.
Rangasrvamy R. A Text Book of Agricultural Statistics.
New Age International
Jasra P. K. Biostatistics. Krishna Prakashan Media (p) Ltd.
Bo13c20 Genetics, Plant Ilreeding, and Biostatistics (practical)
Course offered by: Dr K. V. Mohanan
l' l)roblems based on independent assorlment, gene interaction and multiple allelism.
2. Problenrs based on linkage and chronrosome mapping.
3. Problenrs Lrased on quantitative genetics
4. Problems b"sed on population genetics.
Plant Breeding:
l. Floral biology of rice, legumes, cashew, capsicum and Solanum.
2' Ilnlasculation and hybridization in plants like rice, legumes, cashew, Capsicum
So lan u nl.
3. Special r,ethods of plant propagation- budding, Iayeringand
B iostatistics:
l' Diagrarnatic and graphic representation of data using pr.(.grammes like MS Excel.
Open office Calc or Statistica.
2' Analysis of numerical data fbr mean, median. mode, vari:ance, standard deviation,
standard error and coefficient of variation.
3. Analysis of variance between data from diflbrent samples
using MS Excel.
4' Calculation of correlation coefflcient between groups of data
and calculation of critical
Kowles R. Solving Problems in Gcnetics. Springer.
Sambamurthy A. v. S. S. Genetics. Narosa purbriihing House.
Brooker R. J. Genetics: Analysis and principles. Addlson wesley
Longman Inc.
Hedrick P. w,- Genetics of populations. Jones and Bartlett publishers.
Griffiths A. J. F., Gelbbart w. M.. Lewontin R. c., Miller J. H.- Modern
Analysis. W.H,Freeman & Company.
Dabholkar A. R. Elements ol Biometrical Genetics. Concept publishing
I'rankel O. H. and Bennet E. Genetic Rgsources in plants. tilackwell.
Hotter P. Text book of Genetics. Ivy prrblishing House.
Satpatlry G. C. Genetics. Kalpaz publicrtions,
Sadhu M. K. Plant Propagation. New Age Internationar publishers.
Allard R. w. - Principres of prant Breeding. John wirey & Sons.
.lai^ H. K. and Kharkwal M. c. plant Breeding. Na.osa publishingHouse.
Breeding' Narosa
Chahal.G. s. and Gosal S. S. Principles and Procedr'rrcs ol'Plant
Publishing Houss,
Roy D. Plant Llreeding. Narosa Punlishing-ltornagosa
! Plant Breeding- Principles and
Hayward M. D., Bo-semark N 0 anci
and Hali.
eeding. I'grohios'
reeding' llioter:h lloc;ks'
'tata lVtcGrarv FIill'
Sharma J. R. Plant
Joshi R, M. Iliosafety and Bioet
iostzrti:;ti'':s Dttxbttrv'
Pagano M. and (iauvreau K. t'ri
techi'iiqr'ic:: in Plarrl Breeding' Ner'r' Age
Sharma J. R. Statistical an<J
I nternational Publishers.
for AgricLrlttrral Workers. IClAlt'
Panse V. G. antl Sukhatme, P. V' Statistir''al It4ethods
'Iext Book of 'Agriculttrral Statistics. New Age lnternational
Rangaswamy R. A
J;p. K. Biostatistics. K;ishnaPrakashatr N'ledi^ (l)) I-td.
BOT3C21 Cell & Molecular Biologv (Theory)
Credit: 3
Course offered by: DrJohn E' Thoppil
& functi.ns ot- ccllular
LCells&TheirEnvironment:I-lltrastructure'ooml-uslt ion
junctions, cell wall, cell membrane, detailecl sr
lnembrane fluidity, membrane potential & membrat
ptastids' GERI' conlplex:
2. Ultra structure, composition & functions of mi
Planis & lvlitochondrial
detailed stucly
of mito
chloroplast Import. Photoslvnthctic
Ch lorosornes &. L-hromatophores'
of ATP
:ion '';f
DoLnains. c'hlort"r
les' l:lldocl'tosis & [rxocytos t s'
oxalo'somes' (ilyoosgnres'
Ivlicrrtbc)dies: Glloxiscnres. I'croxisorircs"
{Prokaryotic. Er.rkaryotic' Cil,toplasnric.
Sitcsl Ribosomal Dinlers'
Oigunifrr. ctr;.). Structure, (-lori:pcnc,ts of Rillcrsotrra! Actirc
FlydrogerroSomes; R.iboscnres: Dift.ereni
Pore Complex' Euchrotnatin'
4. Nucleus: (;itr"r Structure. Nuclear Men',brane' Ntrclear
Nuclear Matrix' Nuclear
lleterochromatin, Prochromatin, Antishromatitt. Nttoleolrts'
tin AssemblY Factor lCAF).
grg^nization. Kinetochore. Satellites.
Structure, Chcmisi.r, ancl
romosome Knobs, Cl^iomosome Corli.g, C'hr.mosonle
Chromosome Clore & Chronrosome Scaffold: Special
&' Significance Gii'rnt
chromosomes &. Lamp Brush chromosontes. Structure
Chromosomes. Neocentric &
Chromosomes in plants, B-Chromosornes. Micro & Mega
Holocentric Chromosomes.
Microtllaments &
6. Cytoskeleton, Cell Motility & Cell Cycle - Molecular Motors,
proteins (MAI'}) - Dynein'
Microtubules, Actins & Tubulins, Microiubule Associated
Kinetics' Progression &
Dynactin, Kinesin. Kinectin; Intra-cellular & lnter-celltrlar
and Events. Ultra Strttctltre
Regulation, N,litosis & Meiosis - chromosome Mechanistns
& Spindle Polc []ocl1''
of Synzrptorenral Complex & Spindle Apparattrs.
7. N4olecular Structure ol DNA:
lelical- Circular, Nickecl-Circular, Linear'
Ileplication: DNA Synthesis ln I/ilro'
8. (rene I'rxpression & Gene Regulation:
I{NA Processing in Eukaryotes' RNA Splic
Irxons. Exolt Shtrffling, RNA Editing; Struct
Regulation of Gene ExPression'
9. Mr.rtation & DNA Repair Mechanisms: Sornatic & Germinal
& lndtrced N4utations. Environmental Mutagens, Molecular Basis
Repair Mechanisi-'ls (Li ght-Dependant-' Ex rision-' Mismatch-'
in Prokaryotes &
10. DNA Recornbinatiorr: Molecular Mechanism of Recombination
Model of
E,ukaryotes, Illegitimate Recombination, Flolliday/Holliday-Radcliffe
Holliday .luncture, cruciform bNn, whitehouse
Recornbinational Probes.
Freeman & Co'
2. Scicchitano, D. t 99i. frAotecular CelI Biology W' H'
and Experiments' Fourth
3. Karp, G. 2004. Cell and Molecular
F:ditiori. WileY.
Taylor & Francis.lnc'
4. Alberts, B. et al. 2007. Molecular Biology of the cell.
expression: A hidden layer of
5. Morris, K. V. 2008. RNA and the regi,iation
conrplexity. Caister Acadernic Press'
Cel! and MolecularBiology' Lea
6. De Robertis. E. D. P. & De ltobertis, E. M. F. 1987'
Publishing Co'
B. M. 2002. Chromatin and Gene Regulation. Blackwell
g. Allison. L. Z0o7 . Fundamental Molecular Biology. Blackwell Publishing Co'
in Plant Molecular Biology
10. Glick. B. R. & Thompson, J, Ir. lgg:. tvtethods
iotechnologY, Promega.
BOT3C22 Cell & Molecular Biology (Practical)
Credit: I
Course offered by: Dr John E' Thoppil
pollen grains of
l. study of pollen mitosis using acettr-carmine smear techniques in the
lmpatien.s balsqmina-
2. Chromosome counting & study of the n:c'iotic chromosomes in the PMC of
Tradescantia using aceto-carmine smear techniqucs.
3, Study of reciprocal translocations in the translocatiolr heterozygote. Rhoeo spathut'ccr
using aceto-orcein smear techniques.
4. Study of mitotic waves and synchronized cell d!vision in T'ephro,sia/Crotalarin using
Aceto-carm ine squash techniques.
5. Study of induced chromosome aberrations (clastogenic & non-clastogenic) in Allium
at ivum / Vi c i a .fab ct.
6. Study of induced chromosome breakagt--s in Aliitlti cttpa var. aggregatum using
hydroxyquinoline-orcei n technique.
7. Study of induced polyploidy in Alliurn cepavar. cepa/ Hippeu,strun using colchicineorcein technique.
8. Study of the spiral coiling of macicmolec'.ules in ihc chrom(tsomes of llaentctnthus
using nitric acid vapour technique.
9. Chromosome image analysis of kan,otvpe fionr tlrc specirnen sripplied usirig ClllAS
l. Extraction of DNA/RNA from plant tissues.
DNA/RNA fronr plant tissrrcrs.
Colorimetric estimation of DNA by Diphenylamine method.
Colorimetric estimation of RNA by Orcinol method.
12. Isolation and staining of
Celis, J. E. 1994. Cell Biology :A Laboratory Hand Book. Vol. l-3 Academic press, lnc.
Barch, M. J. et al. 1997. The AGT C1'togenctics Laboratcrl' Mantral (3rd edn),
Li ppencott-Raven Publ ishers.
.lahier. J. 1996. Techniques of Plant Cytogerietics.(-)xii:rd & illH Publishing Co. I'}vt. l-tcl.
Singh R. .1. 1997. Plant Cytogenetics. LIP.C Prcss.
Sharma. A. K. & Sharma A, 1990. Chromosonrer'l'ectrniques - Tlreory & Practice.
Butterworths & ('o.
'i-echniciries: (.cll Biology'. Promega.
Rickr.vood, D. & IJarris. J. R. 1996. Essentia[
Sharma, A. K. & Sharma A. 20C I . Chromosonie Painting - Principles, Strategies &
Scope. Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Taylor G. R, 1997. Laboratory N{ethocls for the Dctcction of i\lutations & Polyrnorphisnrs
in DNA. CRC Press.
Bonilacirro..i. S.2003. ShortProtocols in (leli Bioicill_1'..lohn Wiley'& Sons lnc.
[,[oyd, R. V.2004. Morpholcgy Methods: Celland \iciecirlar [3iology Techniques.
Humana Press.
BOT3C23 Genetic Engineering & tsioinlbrmatics tf-heory)
Credit: 3
Course offered by: Dr Sailas Benjamin & Dr A. Yusuf
Genetic Engineering
l. Molecular Techniques' DNA markers & DNA probes, DNA Sequencing rnethods
(Maxam & Gilbert, Sanger et al.. capillary), RNA SeclLrencing. Sequanator. In .situ
hybridisation (DIRVISH & FISH), PRINS, colottv hybridisation. dot & slot blots:
blotting (Southern, Nofthern, Western, South-Western & North-Westeni/. R["1,P. t{At']l).
s fs & PCR (variants in pcR). Rear-tirne quantitative pcR, pcR,
t,cR), DNA_ & RNA
llrlgerprintilrg. genomic Iitrrary. cDNA library & gen
bank; chro*oro,r.
e pro.iect.
3' Cene transfet in prokaryotes and eukaryotes: Recombinant
viral method;
tnediated gene trarsfer; protoprast fusion,
micro-ceil fusion; ,"tupt,u..
transfbr: liposorle inediated gene transfer;
microinjection A. eiectroporation; biolistics &
organelle engineerrng
T'r'ansgenesis in plants: Somaclones;
biological control: pathogert
Irorlozvgous cultivars: enriihment of stora
post harvest preservation; selection
UNIT'DA-fABASES & TooLS: Introduction to
and exercises' Significance oi databases towards Need for informatics tools
informatics projects. The
;es:. GenBank, DDBJ,EMBL, pli, prim4ry
abases, Gene bank flat file.' pioiein
t_lNI'f _ 2
urrrooted trees, Elements of pl-rvlogene
A lignment, Substitution l\,lodei guiAin
BLrildirrg the Data Model (Alignment).
Building Methods, SearChing for free:;, Rooiir,g -['recs, [:valuating 'l'rees ancl
Phylogenetic softwares (CLU STAL\\/, PH YL I P ctc ). Crurceptu al n u nreri cal s.
PREDICTIVtl METHODS: Predictive Methods usirig Nucleotide seqrrences:
Framewdrk, Masking repetitive DNA, f)atabasc searches. Codon Bias Detection.
Detecting Functional Sites in the DNA (pronroters. transcription f'actor hinding
sites, translation initiation sites), integrated Gene Parsing. finding RNA Cjerres. Web
based tools (GENSCAN, GRAIL, GENEFINDITR). I'}redictive Methods using Protein
sequences: Protein Identitl, based on composition. Physical properties Based on
sequence, secondary structure and lblding classes, specialized structures or t-eatures.
tertiary structure. Related r.veb based software (JPRED. PROSEC, NNPRLTDICI',
PLASMID l\,'IAPPING AND Pltii\,fE[t t)F-SiGN: Rcstrictiorr inapping. LJtilities. t)NA
strider, MacVccl,or and OivllLiA, gene cotlstrttctiorr KIT. Vector Nl'1, Web bascd tools
(MAP. REBz\S[); Primer design --r,ec'ij i'r:r tools, I)rirner design prc,grams antl sofitt'arc
(PRIME3). (.onceptual numerica!s.
UNIT - 6
CENON,'IE BIOINFORMATI{-S: Sequencing n,ctirocls (quaiitative), Bioin{brntatics tools
and automation in Genome Sequcr,cing, anal,vsis oi iiau,genor-ne sequencc data. Litilitr
of EST database in sequencing, Bioinformatics in cietectiorr of I'olyrnorphisms. SN['s and
their relevance, Biointbrmatics tcols rr' microarra,r' data analysis. tools for comparativc
TjNIT - 7
MOLECULAR VISiiAt,IZATION: Generatiorr cr Rcirieval. Stntcture Visualizatiotr.
Conformation Generation, Graphical representation of' tnoiecular strLlctures: stnall
molecules (lor.r, molecular weight - peptides. nuclcotides, disaccharides. sinrple clrtrgs
molecules) and macromol..:oules (high moiecular rveight molecules - proteins. DNA.
RNA. membratres). Usages of visualization softrvare available in public domain likc
VMD, Rasmol. Pymol, Spdb Viewer, Chime. Cln-l[).Rotatneric Structures of Proteins
(Conformational Flexibility), Canonical DNA Frornrs (DNn Sequence L:lfects).
Systematic methods of exploring confbrmational space
UNIT - 8
INSILICO MODEI.ING & DRUG DESIGN: Scope and applications of insilico modeling
in modern biology. Comparative moCeling, Corrstructirtg an initial model. refining
the model. manipulating the model. nrolecLric superposition and structural
alignmeht. i:r-rncept of energy minimization. cii{terent types of interactiotts ancl
formulation of forc.e fields. Basic MD algorithrn. its limitations. treatment o!'long
range forces. Molecular rnodeling in drLrg discoverr,. deriving bioactivc
conformations, molecular docking, quantitative structLrre-activity rclationship
(QSAR). deriving the Pharmacopiroric Pattern. Receptor Mapping, Estilnating
Biological Activities, Ligand - Receptcrr Interactions: I)ocking, Calculation.ol'IVlolecular
Properties using Energy Calculations (no derivation). Conceptual numericals.
Genetic Engirieering
l.Lewin B (2009). Geneli [X. ['lulnana i't'c:rs,
2'Flyrrrre WG (2008). Biotechnology ahd Bioengineering. Nova Science publishers
3'l-ipps. G. (2008). Plasrnids: Current Research and Future Trends. Caister Academic
J. D. (2006). Genetic Engineer-ng-Current Controversies. Greenhaven press.
5' Engdahl, S. (2006). Genetic Errgineering-Contemporary lssues. Greenhaven press,
Diego, uSA.
6' Magnien, E. & De Nettancourt, D. (1985). Cenetic Engineering of plants
and MicroOrganisms Important for Agriculture. Springer Verlag.
7' Fox. M' w. (2000)' Beyond Evolution: The Genetically Altered Future of plants.
Animals, the Earth ... and Humans. Lyons press.
8' Ho' R' J' ! ' &- Gibaldi, M. (2003) Biotechnology and Biopharmaceuticals:
Transforming Proteins and Genes into Drugs. Wiley_VCH.,
l. Bioinfbrmatics - Andreas D Baxevanis. wiley.lnterscience, 199g.
2. Bioinformatics -David w Mount, cord spring harbor, 2001.
3. Introductio, to Bioinformatics
- Arthur Lesk, oxford, 2006,
4. Bioinformatics - stuart M Brown, NyU Medical center,
Ny usA. 2000.
5' Fundamental Concepts of Bioinformatics D E Krane &.ML
Raymer, pearson, 2006.
(r. Structural Bioinformatics
- pE Bourne and H weissig. wiley - I_lss, z,ool.
7' Colrrputational nrethods lor macromolecular r"q,.i.r.. analysis R F Doolittle.
Academic Press. 1996.
8' cornputational nrethods in 'Molecular Biology S.L.Salzberg, D B
Searls, S Kasil,
lllsevier. 1998.
9' [Jioinformatics, Methods And Applications - Genomics, proteomics And
Discovery - S C Rastogi, N Mendiratta & p Rastogi, pHI,
l0' 'fhe Molecular Modeling Perspective in Drug besign'- N Claude
Cohen Acadenric
I l. Analytical l-ools for DNA, Genes
& Genomes: - Arseni Markoff, New Age, 2007.
Introduction to Bioinformatics Anna Tramontano taylor
& francis. rzioil
13. Bioirformatics - Des Higgins & vrillie Taylor
oxfori. (2005)
14' Discovering Genomics. Proteomi,:s and-Bioinformatics A M
Campbel and L
Fleyer. Pearson education. 2007.
Bo13c24 Genetic Engineering & Bioinformatics (practicar)
Cretlit: I
Course offered by: Dr Sailas Benjamin & Dr A. yusuf
A. Genetic Engineering
Genonric DNA isolation by crAB method from plant
2. Isolation of bacterial genomic DNA.
3. Molecular weight determination of DNA by Agarose
-1. Restriction fragment arralysis
of DNA.
-5. Plasmid
DNA isolation.
Ilstimation of DNA concentration by spectrophotometric
7. Esti,ration of RNA concentration by Spectrophotometric method.
8. Lac induction by X-Gal rnethod.
B. Bioinformatics
l. Exercises on windows. Linux, LINlx. Netr.vorking, Internet search & Graphics.
2. Usage of Software for identification - Accessing existing databases on the World-wide
Web; Software for identification of'species;
3. Usage of softwares to elucidate structure o{'biomolecules, docking of molecules &
molecular designing/modelling; Analrtical soflware related to Genomics and proteomics.
4. Usage of similarity, homology .rd alignment softwares: Software of Microarrav
analysis - design, processing and analysis.
Genetic Engineering
l. Ausubel, t'. ll. et al. (2AA2) Short protocols i;t i\4olecrtlar Biology. Vol. l. 2 .lohn
Wiley & Sons.
2. Wilst-rn, -1. & Hunt. T. (2007) N,lolecrilar Biolos'v'.rf the tlell - Problenrs Bc.,ok: 5'r'
Edition. Garland Science.
i-1. (2007). Studelits'joliitii;irs Mar',iral {br Molecttlar Cell Biologr'. W. ll.
3. Lodish,
Freeman Co.
4. Innis. M. A., Geliand. D. H. & Sninsk-v..1..1. i!999). PCR Applications: Protocols for'
Functional Genomics. Academic Pryss.
5. Mitra, S. (1996) (ienetic Engineering. I'vlacmil!an h.:dia Ltd.
6. Reed, R, et al. (2007) Practical Sxitls lrr Bior-noleeulzir Sciences. Ben-iamin Ctrmnrings,
L Bioinformatics - Andreas L) Baxeve.nis. Wilei' !tttct'sciettce. 1998.
2. Bioinformatics - David W Mount, (lold spring harhor. 2001
3. Introduction to Bioinformatics - Arthul'I-esk. Oxlorcl. 2006.
4. Bioinformatics - Stuart M Brown. NYll Mediclri Center.l-\' LjSA. 2000.
5. Fundamental Concepts of Bioinformatics - D ll Kranc & M l, Raymer. Pearsorr. 2006.
6. Structural Bioinform&t,cs - PE, Bourne and [{ Weissig. Wiley -- Liss. 2003.
7. Computational methorls for macromolecular seqLlence analysis - R I Doolittle.
Academic Press, 1996.
8. Computational methods in Molecular Biology - S.l-.Salzberg, D B Searls. S Kasi{.
Elsevier, 1998.
9. Bioinformatics, Methods And Applicirtions: Genornics. Proteomics And Drug
Discovery - S C Rastogi, N Mendira''q' & P Rastogi. Plll. 2006.
10. The Molecular Modeling Perspective in Drug Design - N Claude Cohen - Acadenric
Press, I 996.
I l. Analytical Tools for DNA, Genes & Genontes: - Arseni Markoff, New Age. 2007.
12. Introduction to Bioinformatics - Anna Tr.imo:tano taylor & francis. (2007)
13.'Bioinformatics - Des Higgins & Willie Taylor - Oxford. (2005)
14. Discovering Genomics, Proteomics and Bioirrlirrmatics - A M Campbel and l-.1
I-{eyer, Pearson education, 2007.
4th Semester
Elective Courses
BOT4EO1 Theoretical Aspects of Angiospernl 'l'axonomy (Theoq')
Credit: 4
Course offered by: Dr M. Sabu & Dr P. Sunojkunlar'
L Taxononty-objectives and scope.
2. Conrparative analvsis oltlre theories and concepts of Angiosperm classifications,
3. Evaluation of Dalhgren's system of classification.
4. Units of classification:
of various units; supraspecific and infiaspecific
characters: good and bad characters, qualitative and quantitative
characters. analytical and synthetic characters, character weighting.
6. Structural and chemical data in Taxonomy: Reproductive and vegetative characters and
their variations; Chemical compounds useful in'taxonomy: Secondary metabolites.
7. Role of secondary metabolites in the delimitation of categories.
8. Origin of species: ldeal species. Isolation and speciation.
9. Phytgeographic and Ecological data in Taxonomy; Pattems of distribution. Vicariance
10. critical study on the current views on the origin of Angiospe nrts.
ll. Evolution of Angiosperm Flower.
12. Evolutionary taxor)omy: Concepts
,, ,.
plesiomorphic and,, apomorphic characters
Agashe. S. N. 2006. Palynologv and its applications. Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. pvt.
Crorrquist. A. 1978. I'he evolution and classification of flowering plants. New york
Botanical Garden Press.
Dahlgren. R. H. T., Clifford, & P. F. Yeo. 1985. The Families of Monocotyledons.
Davis, P.H. & V.H. Heywood. 1973. principles of Angiosperm Taxonomy. Robert
Kricger Publishing Co.
Douglas. tr. & Soltis et al. 2005. ph1,lsgsl11, and Evolution of Angiosperms. Sinauer
Associates lnc.
lla|ris .f.(j. EL M.W. Harris. 2007, Planl Identitlcation Terminology. Spring Lake
I'}Lr b I
ish in g.
Heywood. v.H. & D.M. Moore. 1984. Thc current concepts in plant Taxonomy.
Hr,rtchinson..l. 1959. The Farnilies of Flolvering plants. oxford.
Mc Neill. J. et al. 2006. International Code of Botanicat Nomenclature (ICBN) (Vienna
Code). A.R.G. Gautner Verlag K.G.
'lanick. J. et al. 2002. International Code of Nomenclature of Cultivated plants.
Internati ona I Society for Horticu lture Science.
.ludd, clanrpbell, Kellogy & Stevens. r999. plant Systematics A phylogenic
.ludith. E.w. 2002. Describing plant Species. Bishen Singh Mahendrapaisinglr.' '
Kitching. I. .1. et al- 1998. Cladistics - the theory and practice of Parsimo"ny Analysis.
Oxlord Urriversity Press.
Larvrence. G.H'M- t951. Taxonomy of Vascular Plants. C:rfbrd & IBH publishing
Manilal. K.S. & A.K' Pandey.1996. Taxonomy and Plant Conservation. CBS publishers
and Distributors.
Manilal, K.S, & M.S. Mukthesh Kurna.r, 1998.;\ iranclbook ol-taxonomy Training. I)ept.
of Science & Technology.
Nair, P.K.K . 197l. Pollen Morphology of'AngiosDenns. vikas publications
Naqshi, A.R. 1993. An introduction to Botanical Nomenclaturs. Scientitic Publishers.
Radford, E.A. 1986. Fundamentals of I']lant Systcnratics. llarper & Rorv PLrblishers.
Sasidharan. N. 2004. Flowering Planrs. Kerala Fcrest Research Institute.
Simpson. M.G. 2006. Plant Systematics. ljlsevie:r ./rcaclernic press.
Sivarajan, V.V. lggl.lntroduction to the Prin,:ipies of I']lant 1'axonomy. OxforiJ & IB]l
Publishing Co. Pvt" Ltd.
Smeath, P.H.A. & Sokal. R.R. 197'i. Nurnerical 'faxonomy. wFl Freeman & co.
Sporne. K.R. 1974. Ivlorpholog.v of Angiosperms. New' Delhi. Cambridge University
C.A. 1989. Plant Taxonomy;inC Ilios-v-sterrritics. Edward Arnold.
Stebbin, G,L. 1963. Variation and evolrlion in piants. Coiumbia tjniversity Press.
Steussey. 1'.{- 2002. Case studies in Plzu:t'I'axonom-v. Bishen Singh Mahendrapal Singh.
Stuessv, T-tJ. i990. Plant'['axonctrt',, - 'ine S.1'si{:r1l;1tiL' evolution of Comparative data.
Columbia Universitv Press.
BOT4E02 Applied Aspects of Angiosperm Taronorny (TheorJ')
Credit: 4
Course offered by: Dr M. Sabu & Dr I. Sunojkurnar'
l. trield study and collection of specimens: Cenci'ai coilcctions. Special
collections: Recording of data in the fieid: Clollection of speciai groups of plants: Aquatic
Plants, Succulents, Bana.ita. Bamboos, Palrns; Preparation ancl preservation of Specirnens:
Herbarium. Pickled specimens, Wood san:ples. i'ollen. Seeds; Major herbaria ol'the
world; Herbarium Ethics.
2. ldentification of plants: Important vegetative and floral ctiaracters: 'l'echnical
description of plants; Preparation of analytical illustrations.
3. Construction of keys for identification of plants: Ditferent kinds of keys.
4. Computer application in Taxonomy; data base development. Data analysis. Digitizing
5. International Code of Botanical Nonrenclature (ICBN): Articles governing Ulf'ective
and Valid Publication; Priority of nanres; Typificafion - Lectotypification.
Neotypification, Epitypification; Rcjection arrJ retention of' names; Conservation ol'
names; Alternative names; Common technical r.enns in nomenclatural citationsbasionyms, Synonyms, Autonyms, Tautonyms, tlomonyms.
6. Procedure involved in the recognition and publicalron of new plant species.
7. Preparation of taxonomic research afticles loi public:ation:. format and rna.for
components of the article. Publication ethics.
8. Preparation of Floras, Monographs and Revisions: conrmon format of nomenclatural
9. Major sources of general 'l'axonoilic refererrc:cs: Index Kervensis. lndex [-onclinensis.
TaxLit. (Taxonomic Literature), Kew Record ot'taxorronric [-iterature. t]PIl- BgtanicoPeri od icum I-{ u nti anu m.'Author's of' P I ant }.1 amt-'s'.
10. Botanical l,atin. lnc'lex to Ame rica,ir IJotur-rit tr!. I ,ileratrrlc. -['hesaLrrus Literaturc
[]otanicae. lndex Herbariorum.
Iteci L.ist Categorization: Procedures of Evaluatio, und.ut"gorization
12. Establishment and Organization ol a herbarium: Seleciion of site, Plan of the
nature of construction. Adm inistratiott.
I 3. J'zrxonomic Research projects: Plan and presentation of project proposals;
lrnplenrentation of research project.
bu i I d i n g.
Agashe. S. N. 2006. Palynology and its applications. Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. Pvt.
Cronquist. A. 1978. The evoh"rtion and classification of flowering plants. New York
Botanical Garden Press.
Dahlgren, R. I-1. T., Clifford.
l'. Yeo. 1985. The F'amilies of Monocotyledons.
Davis. P.tl. & V.H. Fleyrvood. 1973. Principles of Angiosperm Taxonomy. Robert R
Krieger Publishing Co.
Douglas. E. & Soltis et al. 2005. Phylogeny and Evolution of Angiosperms. Sinauer
I-larris J.(]. & M.W. l{arris. 2007. Plant Identification
Terminology. Spring Lake
['u b I ish in g.
V.H ,k
Moore. D.M. 1984. The Current concepts
in Plant Taxonomy.
Acadenric Press.
I'lutchinson, i. 1959. The F'arnilies of Flowering Plants. Oxfqi'cl..
Itzlc Neill. J. et a1.2006. International Code of Botanical t\omenclature (ICBN) (Vienna
Code). A.R.G. Gautner Verlag K.G.
Janick. .1. et a[. 2002. lnternational Code of Nomenclature of Cultivated Plants.
International Society for Horticulture Science.
.ludd. Campbell, Kellogy & Stevens. 1999 Plant Systematics - A phylogenic approach.
.ludith. E.W. 2002. Describing Plant Species. Bishen Singh Mahendrapal Singh.
Kitching, I..1. et al. 1998. Cladistics - the theory and practice of Parsimony Analysis.
Oxford University Press.
L.au,rence. G.H.M. I951. Taxonomy of Vascular Plants. Oxford & IBH Publishing
Manilal. K.S. & A.K. Pandey. 1996. Taxonomy and Plant Conservation. CBS Publishers
and Distributors.
Manilal, K.S. & M.S. Muktlresh Kumar. 1998. A handbook of taxonomy Training. Dept.
of Science & Technology.
Nair. I'}.K.K. 1971. Pollen Morphology of Angiosperms. Vikas Publications.
Naqshi, A.lt. 1993. An introduction to BotanicalNomenclature. Scientific Publishers.
Radiord. Il.A. 1986. Fundamentals of Plant Systematics. Harper & Row Publishers.
Sasidharan. N. 2004. Flowering Plants' Kerala Forest Research Institute.
Sirnpson. M.G. 2006. Plant Systematics. Elsevier Academic Press.
Sivara.ian. V.V. 1991. Introduction to the Principles of Plant Taxonomy. Oxford & IBIJ
Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd.
Smeath. P.H.A. & Sokal. R.R. 1973, NumericalTaxonomy. WH Freeman & Co.
Sporrre. K.R. 1974. Morphology of Angiosperms. New Delhi. Cambridge Universitl,
C.A. 1989, Plant Taxonomy and Biosystematics. Edward Arnold.
C.t,. i963. Variatiorr and evolulion in planrs. Columbia University Press.
Steussey. T'.F.2002. Case stuCies in P!ant l'axonomy. Bishen Singh Mahendrapal Singh.
'faxonorn-v - i'he S-vstematic cvolution of Comparative data.
Stuessy, 'f.D. 1990. Ptant
[-in iv ersit_y Press.
BOT4E03 F'ungal Biologv and
Credit: 4
Course offered by: Dr P. Manimohan
L Fungal cell structure: cell rvall. cilimembrancs.
organelles. reserve materials.
rnvcelial fungi, nutrient
2. Fungal
acquisition- extracellular digestion oI itutricnrs. rrto'r/c!nenl of nuLrients into ihe cell.
enzyme induction and repression. nutl'itionai i'cqitirenient: - essentiaI rnacro- and
microelements, vitaminq, growth flirctrrrs, sn1,i1r]urnctrtal requiretnents - pH. nroisturc.
temperature. light.
3. Fungal genetics: Heterokaryosis, sexual compatibility and rnating types. parasexuality,
vegetative incompatibilit".'
4. Fungal spores: diversity, passive and active trtcchanisrits of spore discharge, spore
5. Fungi as saprotrophs: role of fungi in the decornposition o1'cellr.rlose and ligrtin. tvooddecay fungi. softrot, white rot, brown rot, dry rot. fungal succession.
6. Fungi in pathological relations of agriculturai inrportance: lLrngi as parasites of plants.
fungi as parasites and predators of nematodcs. fungi as parasites of arthropodes.
biological control util ising fungi.
7. Fungi of medical interest: ntycoses, nrvcoto>.irts, and mycetislll.
8. Fungi as mutualistic symbionts: lichens' '11'corrhiz'tte' endophytes' fungi as itrsect
symb i onts. anaerobic oh ytriCs i tt lteri-' iv ores.
9. Fungal technology: fermentation techtro!og1 - lerrnentor design and operatiott.
upstream arid downstream processes- r-;olid sut;str-ate fermentation; fungi and sot,be't.ts
products; role of fungi in cheese prepari{ior,; cultivation o1'fungi lor food - musltroonts
and other macro fungi, edible biornass fionr ycasts and mouids - single cell proteirrs:
fungi and production of alcohoiic bevcrallc-s: rvttie. [,eer. <ji.*tilled spirits; fungal enzymes
of commercial importance; prorJuciion of priniar,v- rtetal'roiites of economic impottance b1'
fungi - industrial ethanol, citric acicll production of secondarv rnetabolites of econontic
importance by fungi - antibiotics, ergtrt tlkaloids: turtgi ancl biotransformation of Lrsefirl
metabolites; applications of gene cktning in fungi.
Anke, T. 1998. Fungal Eliotechnologv, L.hapman & Iial[.
Carlile, M. J. and Watkinson, S. C. 2001. The Frungi. Academic Press.
Deacon, J.W. 2006. FungalBiology. Blackwell.
Esser, K. (Series Ed.). The Mycota. A Comprehensive T'reatise on Fungi as Experinrental
Systems for Basic and Applied Research. l3 Vcls. Springer.
Gow, N.A. & Gadd, G. M. t9g+. the Growing Futigrrs. Springer.
Jennings, D. H. and Lysek. G. 1999. Fungal Iliolosr'. Bios Scientific Publishers.
Kavanagh, K. (ed.) 2005. Fungi- Biology and Applications. Wiley.
Moore,' D. & Novak-F razier, L. 2002. Essenti al lru n gal Clenetios. Sprin ger.
Moore-Landecker, E. 1996. Fundamentals ol'[-'urrgi. ('anrhridge Llniversity Press.
webstcr' 'l' and weber, R. 2007. lntroduction to Fungi.
Cambridge tJniversity press.
BOT,{Ii04 Fungal Systematics (Theory,)
Credit: 4
Coursc offereri by: Dr p. Manimohan
l' [)versity of fungi: magnitude. significance, and conservation.
2. Taxonomic ranks: eukaryotic kingdoms - modern views,
kingdom chromista/
stranrenopila, kingdom Fungi, and kingdom protozoa.
The concept of ,Domains, in
biological classificatior. r.unk, above ramily, families,
subfamilies'and tribe;, genera,
, speciat form, morphotype, chemotype, ecotype,
concepts of anamorph .teleomorph and holomoiph;
3' Irrternational code of Botanical Nomenclature:
detailed study of the rules and its
"pecial provisions in the ICBN for fungi - nuniing.orpleomorphic fungi.
4' Modern techniques available [or fungal taxoiomy: .h
-o,u*onomy, cytogenetics,
electrophoresis, seroIogy. urtra structure. n,creic
acid anarysis.
,5. Principles of numerical taxonomy.
6' cladistics and their application in fu.ngal taxonomy: practical
reasons for studying
phylogenyl the structure of phylogenetic
relationshipi; !i..i., trees and gene trees;
rnaking and testing phylogeneiic trees, sequence
charatters as evidence for rei-ationships;
methods of inf'erring trees
7' Ph1'logsny of fungi and pseudofungi based
on ultra structure and nucleic acid analysis.
8' (lollection' examittation, and pres*ervation of different
grorp, of fungi, techniques
and nlethods used to.maintain fungal herbaria
and culiure collections, major fungal
culturc collections and herbaria of thJrvorld.
9' Naniing, describing, iilustrating, and publishing;
monographs and revisions, keys.
floras. rnaps.
i0' Fulrgal taxonomic literature, sources of references,
catalogues of names, tracing
incomplete and incorrect references, .lates
of publication, major mycological Iibraries.
c itatiorr of I iterature.
I l' Traditional and modern systems
of fungal classification with special reference to the
classification of fungi (from kingdom-level to
order-level) adopted in the lOth editisn
(2008) ol"Dictionary of the t ungl.
Alexopoulose. c. J. et. ar. r996. Introductory
Mycorogy,4th Edition, wirey.
Frisvad, .1. C. ( I 998)-_Chemical Fungal Taxonomy.
CRC press.
Harvksworth D.L. 1974. Mycclogisis Handbook.
Kirk. P' M.. camon. p. F. , Minter. D. w. &
Starpers, J. A. (e.d;.). 200g. Dictionary
of the
[:ungi. I 0'r' edition. CABI publishing.
Mc Neill' J' et al' 2006. International code
of Botanical N<imenclature (lcBN) (vienna
Code). A.R.G. Gaurner Verlag K.G.
at. 2004, Biodiversity of Fungi: Invento y.and
Monitoring Methods.
and schweizer.
M. r999. Morecurar Fungar Biorogy, cambridge University
Reynolds, D. R. & Tayldr, J. W. 1996. l-he I ungal Holomorph: Mitotic. N,leiotic and
Pleomorphic Speciation in Fungal Systcmatics. CABI Publishing.
Sneath, P. IJ. A. & Sokal, R. R. 1973. i.*-umerical 'laxonom\'. WH [ireeman & Co.
Talbot, P. H. B.l97l. Principles of Fungal Taxorron-ry. Macmillan.
BOT4E05 General Bryology (Theory)
Credit: 4
Course offered by: Dr P. V. Madhusoodanan
I. General rrrorphologv. anatomv. irxil renrodu -iioir o1'bryophytes.
2. Methods of collection and samplirrg tcchrriqucs ol'hr1'ophytcs.
3. Origin antl evolution of bryophytesl antithc'iic arid hom,rlogous theories: [:volution
gametophvte: evolution of soorophl'te.
4. Classit'ication of bryophytes: 0!alsilicatio: ti;r hornworl.s. liverworts. and
Historical account, recent trenCs.
5. Phl,togeography of bryooh,vtes: majcr centres of'Cistritrution and diversit,"".
6. Fossi! bryophytes; ftrssii Flepaticopsida, fossil Lli'vopsida. Naiadita.
l. Morphrr!ogical and Anatoii'iicai stuCies or: iVlarcharrtiales (Aslerellu, Rcb<ttrliu,
Jvlarchantia, Dumorliera. Targionio, Ll.tathochtrr.i; Ric:ciales {Riccia); f"ossoilbrorriales
(Fossombronia): Metzgeriales (Pallavicinict, Ricc.arciitr, lvletzgeria)'. Jungermanniales
(,lungennanio)'. Porellales \Pore:ila, l--rullanir.r\'- i)olvtrichales (Pogonatum)'. Bryales
lBryum); Dicranales (Ciarckea, Camp-viopus Ocloble1tharum); Funariales (l;unario):
Pottiales (Hyophila)
8. Reproduction: Vegetative. Sexual I alternatiorr of' generations.
Smith, A. J. E. (ed.). 1982. Br,vophytc Ecolog.,,. (-'hapman & llall.
Shaw, A..1.& Goftlnet. r), (eds.).2000. tlryophyte tsiology', Cambridge Universitl,Press.
Glime,.l. M. & Saxena. D.l99l. Uses of Bryoph.vt-es. Today and'ft-rnrorrows Printers &
Nair, M. C.. Rajesh, K. P. & Madhusoodarran P. \i. 2005. Brvophytes ol' \\'avanad
Western Ghats.'Malabar Natural tlistory Societi
Schofield. W. B. 2001. Introduction to Br,volog-"-.'ilrcr Blacktrrrrn Press.
BOT4E06 Applied Bryology (Theory)
Credit: 4
Course offered by: Dr P. V. Madhusoodanan
l. Habitat
studies: Aquatic (Riccia.fluifnrr.s). TerrestLia[ (HuoTthila. Brytunt), Epiphytic
(O c t o b\ep hariun') Epiphyllou s (l,ej e une o).
2. Ecology' of bryophytes- habit, habitat. associaterd vegetation, and role of brvophytes
in ecosystem dynamics.
3. lmportance of bryophytes- medicinai. horticuliural. antimicrobial. antifungal. active
constituents. pollution monitoring (lAI'). peat nrcrss. ctc.
4. Conservation of bryophytes- the necd lirr c'oriservation. IUCIN
Bryophyte garden.
5. Recent advances in the field ol-b;-yr;iog1,,- iitolcer,.r irrr sturjies. chemical
constituents and physiological ecoh)q\,.
Red Data Book:
6. tlryological Research Centres of the rn'orld; major
Index Hepaticum, Floras'
7. BLyologi.ul lit"ruir,.. und ,."rources;- lndex
Indian bryologl-sis'such as Kashyap, Ram
Flabit and microhabitat'
Srnith, A..1.
E. (ed.). 1982' Bryophyte Ecology' Chapman & Hall'
Biology, cambridge University Press'
Shau,, A. .t.& Goff,rnet, B. (eds.).2000. Bryophye
and Tomorrows Printers &
Glir,e..t. N4. & Saxena, D.l99l. Uses of nryoptlytes. Today
2005' Bryophytes of wayanad in
Nair. M. C.. Rajesh, K. P. & Madhusoodanain P. V.
Western Ghats. Malabar NaturaI History Society'
BOT4E07 Cell BiologY (Theory)
Credit: il
Course offered by: Dr John E' Thoppil
for the Study of celt & Isolation of Sub-cellular organelles'
Digital Microscopy'
Cell-Culture, Cell-Disruption, Cell-Fftr:tionation, Cell-lncubator,
C1'tophotornetry & Micro-Densitometry
& Functions of
2. Biomernbranes &" Cell Signaling: Structural organization
across M;mbrales' SRP'
Bionrembranes, Membrane Channels, Eig ral Transd.uction
transport; protein sorting &'
Receptors. Messengers, & Plant Signa'ls, Vesicular
nrodifications in the secretory pathway'
in cell cycle, cyclosome' Regulation
3. Cell cycle & Division: E,vents & Ertzyrnology
Cellular Growth & Growth
of Eukaryotic Celi Cycle. Apoptosis. npoptotli in plants;
&. Significance, Microtubule
Retardation. Mechanis.r of cellular i{eproduction
1. Techniques
Pt, Chromosomes' Ultra
Centrorneric lndices, KarYotYPe
es - H, G, C, T, N, R, Pr, Q & F
ingl Di gital KarYotYPing
& Stiuciural Variations in Chromosomes: Chromosome Elimination'
Chromosome Diminution. Chromosome D
5. Numerical
Labels, Radioactive Tracers
Radiation Protection
Chimeras. Radiatiotl Hazarcls, Racliation llazard Assessment,
Benign & Malignant Tumours, Metastasis, Transformation
Cytology of
(Adenoma' Carcinoma' Lymphorna'
Diff-erentiatiorrl Characteristics, 1'ypes oi Cun"tt'
Sarcoma, Ivlelanoma & [,eukemia). Chron-,osome Rearrangenients & Cancer. Genetic
Tumors, Clhernicai Carcinogenesis & 'i'cral.ogenesis^ Carcinogens & Teratogcns. Tunror'
Suppressor Genes, Radiation & Dr.,{A !{epair ii.; (.a:'crr;r-rsencsls & Cancer Gene I'helapr,.
8. Modern C-ttogenetic Characterization Teci'rnirluec: C'ornmon Stains used firr
Cytological Studies. F-lurochromes. Cytol..rgical ,\larkcrs. C,vtological Maps. F lSt I.
Ch romosome Pai nting.,Harl equin Stain ing & Spec tral Karyotypi n g (S KY )
9. Recent Advances iri Cell Biology: Image C.vtontctrv. Clironrosonre Bancls. Florr
Cytometry. Electropho.'etic Karyotyping, Chrcimosorne Engineering. Chromosorlc
Uptake, Chromosome Librarl'. Centrontere Acti.ration. Centronrere N4apping in
Eukaryotes & Micro-cinemato graphy.
Heim, S. and Mitelman, F. 1995. Cancer Cytcrgenetics, Wile1,-[-iss.
Mitelman, F. 1994. Catalog of Chromosomai Aberrations in Canc.er (5th edn). Wiler-Liss.
Pollard,. T', D. & Earnshaw, W.C. 20i)7.C.ell Brolt>g,v. lilsevieL.
Alberts, I). et a|.2003. Essentiai Cel! iliolog,"-. 'l'aylor & Irrancis lnc.
Becker, W. M. et a|.2008. World of thc Cell, rleniarnin-Cummings Publishirrg Companv.
Sumner, A. 'f . 2003. Chrontosomes, Biacku,elI Irr.ii:iishing Co.
Latchman. D. S. 1997. Basic Molecular Cell Biologv. Blackrvell Publishing Co.
Francis. D, 2001. Plant CellCyci3 and its lnterfaces. RlackwetlPubtishing Cto.
Robinson, D.2003.'Ihe Goigi Apparatus and the Plant Secretory Pathrvav. tslackr,vell
Publishing Co.
Robinson. i. P. et al.l9!)7. Clurrenl prr.rtoci,is in (.yitttmetry. Llnlimited Learning
BOT4E08 Molecular tsiology (Theor'1')
Credit: 4
Course offered by: Dr John C. Thoppil
Molecular Structure of Chromosornes: l.iitra Structure &. Conrposition ol'
Chromosomes, Centromere (Point & [{cgional), Telomere, Nucleosonres.
Chromatosome, DNA I'ackaging & Packing l{atic, Clhromosomal Proteins, Repeated
DNA Sequences @ighly Repetitive. Moderately, Repetitive & Unique Sequences).
Genetic Material: S(ructure & Biosynthesis of Nucleic acjds: Nuclear Genes &
Plasma Genes (Mrtbchondrial. Plastidic & plasmid - pAC, BAC & yAC).
Organisation of Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic (lenornes. C-value. C-value Paradox.
Different classes of DNA & their Reassociatron Kinetics & cot-r,alues.
Replication of Genes & Chronrosomes: Mer:hs6i51n ol' Replication of Cenes &
Enzymes involved, Experiments of Messelson & Stahl. Cairns, Pulse Chase Analysis.
Chromosome Replication. Multiple Replicons in Chronrosomes. Drrplication olNucleosornes, Replication of Chro.rnosomo Termini. Telomere Length & Aging.
Gene Expression & Protein Svnthesis: lrlr.icleo-Cytoplasmic lnteractioni in Gene
Expression, Transcription in Prokaryotcs &" [rukaryotes. Promoters. [:nhancers.
'Iranscription Factors, Polycistrolric iVe.ssenger.s. (ioLrpling
of T'ranscl.iption &
Tr.nslarion in Bacteria, r)rocessinq or'[]uireii'.ric rrltNA (capping. Spricing. Tairing
& Editing). Structure & Prttcessirrs o['rF.tNA & tRNA: protein Syrrthesii. proteirr
Sorting & Proteirr Targetine.
-s. Repair & Reconrbittation of Cienes: Restriction. Modification & Repair of DNA, Role
ol'[Lcc. A in f(epair & Reconrbination of DNA, Recombinational Repair. Molecular
Models of Gette Reconrbination, Homologous Rbcombination & Gene Silencing.
6. Mobile Genetic Elements: Transposons (Replicative, Non-replicative & RNA
Mediated). Mechanism of Action; 'Bacterial Transposons (ls Elements. Composite
Elernents & Tn Elements) & Medicai Significancel Eukaryotic Transposons (Ac &
Ds Elements. P Elements, Mariner E,lements. etc.); Retrotransposons (Ty Elernents.
copia Elements, F-G-l Elements. LINES, Ll Elements, e/c.); Transposons &
Genome Organisatiorr, Transposons & Mutation, Transposons & Evolution,
Transposon Tagging & Transgenesis by Transposoni.
7. Cerre Regulation: Bacterial Gene Control (Jacob & Monad Model), Eukaryotic Gene
Control, Regulatcry Sequences in Eukaryotic Protein Coding Genes. Transcriptiol
Activators & Repressors. Operon Concept, Different Types, Constitutive Muiants,
Bacteria I & Eukaryotic'l'ranspositions.
8. 1'echrliqLres for the Characterization of Genes & Gene Prpdrrcts: Extraction of DNA
& RNA- Detection of Repeated DNA Sequences, DNA.Renaturation Kinetics.
Restriction Mapping. DNA Footprinting, Chromosome Walking & Jumping; Genetic
Disease Diagnosis, DNA Amplification. DNA Miroarray, SHOM, Protein & A.ino
Acid Sequencing: f:xort Connection & Re'n,ersed Genetics; Hurnan Gene Transfer.
Genetically Modified Products - Anti-Sense Therapeutics, Genoceuticals, Fusion
Biopharmaceuticals, Novel Antibiotics & Phytovaccines, Antiviral Compounds,
Artifi cial Sweetners. Biocosmetics & Biopesticides.
10. Molecular Techniques for the Inrpro',rement of Organisms: Somatic Cell
l-lybridisation. Cloning ol Plastid & Mitochondrial Genes, Gene Editing & Gene
Site Directed Mutagenesis, Gene Transfer Techniques. Organelle Sequence
l-ransl'er. Bioluminescence. Sperm 'fyping. Transgenic Plants & Animals. Antisense
Technology & Applications.
watson, .1. D. et a|.2007. Molecular Biology of the Gene. Benjamin-cummings
Publishing Company.
I-odish, H. er u|.2007. Molecular Cell Bic.,ogy. W. H. Freeman & Co.
Karp. G' 2001. Cell and Molecular Biology, Problems Book and Study Guide: Concepts
and Experiments. 3'd edition. Wiley Internati nal.
Griffiths. A. .1. F. et al. 2007 . Introduction to Genetic Analysis. 9th edn. W. H. Freeman &
Primrose. S. & Twyman, R. 2008. Principles of Gene Manipulation and Genomics.
Blackn,ell Publishing Co.
(jerdes. 1,.1.2004. Genetic Engineering. Cale Group.
Kreuzer, IJ. & Massey. A. 2008. Molecular Biology and Biotechnology. Blackwell
I'uhlishing Co.
White. R..1.2001. Gene Transcripticrn: Mechanismi and Contior. Blackwell publishing
Kreuzer. I l. 2001 . Recombinant DNA ancl Biotechnology. Blackwell Publishing Co.
Watson. -1.D. ct a|.2007. Recombinant DNA: Genes and Genomes. W. H. Freernan Co.
BOT4E09 Ecological Aspects of Plant Function-s
Credit: 4
Course offered by: Dr Nabeesa Salim & l)r Jos T. Puthur
l. Water relations - transpiration as an inevitabic consequence of photosy,nthcsis. w,atcr
availability and field capacity of different soils. u,ater movenlent towards rooting profiles
as dependent on soil moisture content, roots sense ntoisture gradients and grow towards
moist patches, effect of soil and drying on le:f conductance. effect of vapour pressure
difference on transpiration rate of leaf, effect c,'irradiance and COz on leaf conductance.
cuticular conductance and the boundary layer conduciance. compromise between cartron
gain and water loss. water st<lrage in leaves of' aquatic angiosperms, adaptations to
clrought and dessication. avoidance-- annr,rals and dccidgnur species, desiccatiorr
tolerance-evcrgreen shrubs. tes'tirreciir-,n pIant:;.',',inter u,ater relations and lreczing
toierance. r;alt lolerance
2. N'[ineral nutt'ition -'nub'iunts ilr tire srii!. nutli'-:,ri u.iovenrcnt 1o the rrrot sur{ace, rooI
traiis that determine nutrierrt acqLlisitir:',, acclir.lrariion and adaptation of nutrient uptake
kinetics, response to ltutrient suppll'. acquisitron oi' phospliate solubilising conrpounds.
changes in the chemistry and plI in the rhizosplr:,'c, exerl;,in of organic chelates. root
proliferation in nutrtent rich patches. biotic inlluences symbiotic associatiorr.
ml,corrhiza and actinonrycetes, met:hanics cf erhanccd uptake of phosphorus. carbon cttst
of micorrhizai symbiosis. agricultural and eculoqical perspectives, association witlr
nitrogen fixing organism, svmbiotic, lcgume-r!rizi''bium association. carborr costs of'
legume-rhizobium symbiosis at low p[-l and in tlre ,presence of large supply of conrbined
nitrogen, endosyntbiosis. ecological efiec:ts of norr. :;ynrhiotic association rvith nitrogerr
fixing organisms.
3. Photosynthesis - ca:b,tti cycle and ecosyslenis. supplv t'nd dentand of COz in the
photosynthetic process, stomatal and boundary laycr conductance. the internal
conductance. Physiological and anatomical differences betr.veen sun and shade leaves.
light response curve of sun and shade leaves. environmental signal fbr shade aoclirlatiorr
in chloroplasts, effect of excess irradiance, photo inhibition-protectiorr by carotinoids o{'
xanthophylls. chloroplast movement in'resporlsL'to changes in irradiation, photosynthesis
under high activation of rubisco. post illumination CO: assimilation and sunfleck
utilization efficiency. Partitioning ol photo assinrilatc. regulation of the rate ol'
photosvnthesis by feed-back mechanisnt, gluc,rsc repression of genes encoding C.aivin
cycle enzymes. ecological impacts mediated iv source sink interactions. efI'ect of soil
nutrient supply'on photosynthesis, inleratriion rif'nitrogen ivith light and water, eil'ect ancl
adaptations of high temperature on photosvnti-rcsis. heat shock protein nred iatecl
4. Respiration: Role of respiration iri plant carbon balance. ecological aspect and concerrr
of plant respiration, ATP produc.tion in isoiatcd nritocht-rndria and in vivo oxidative
phosphorylation, regulation cf electror' transfbr via cvtochrr>nre and alternative patlrrvays.
ecol ogi cal functions of alterir at ive l;athrva'v', heat p rocl ucti on.
-5. Transport of assimilates: major lransport compounds. Lt-rng distance transport ol'
assimilates: s1'mplastic and apoplastic: ccologicrrI clistribLition of assirnilates. phloerr
stnrcture, Ioad i ng and unloadin g transooll prob cnr s rt t' c I i rn hcrrs.
6. Ecology irt relation to grou,th and developnrcnr: Seeil dcvelopnrent- intlucncc:; and
adaptations, seed germination ancl clorrriancy.-harcl seercl coat, ecological aspects ol'
<iorprar.rcr and gernlirlation, seedling development-juvenile phase, delayed florvering,
cielaycd grccning during leaf'developnrent in tropical trees, reproductive phase -. timing
of cleveloprrent by sensing day 1s,.1*tt, short day and long day plants (photoperiodism) in
relatiort rvitlr flowering, spring and autumn timing of flowering by sensing temperature
(vernalization), effect of temperature on pollination.
7. Ecological biochemistry: allelopathy and defense mechanism, defense against
herbivores. qualitative and quantitative defense compounds, mode of mechanism for
plants not being killed by their own poisons, environmental effect on the production of
secondary plant metabolites, induced defense and communication between neighboring
plants. clrernical defense and secotldary metabolites.
8. E,cosystem global process: decomposition of litter, link between decornposition rate
and nutrients mineralizatiorr. root exurlation and rhizosphere effects, ecophysiological
coltrols. ccosystem and biomass productivity, scaling from plants to ecosystetn.
pSr,siolog'cal basis of productivity. net carbon balance of ecosystems, and global carbon
cyc le .
Shaw, A.J. 1990. Heavy Metal J'olerance in Plants: EvolutionaryAspects. CRC Press.
Clhakrat'rort.v. l.J. and Chakraborty B. 2005. Stress Biology. Narosa Publishing House.
Orcutt. D.M. apd Nilsen. Il.'f.2000. Physiology of Plants under Stress: Soil and Biotic
Factors. .lohn Wiley & Sons. Inc.
Prasacl. M.N.V. 1997. Pla;rt Ecophysiologr'. John Wriey & Sons, Inc.
prasad. M.N.V. and Strzalka, K. 2002. t']hysiology and Biochemistry of Heavy Metal
Detoxification and Tolerance irr Plants. Kluwer Academic Publishers'
Lecrec. .1.C. 2003. Plant Ecophysiology. Science publishers [nc.
prasad. M.N.V. 2004. Heavy Metal Stress in Plants: From Biomolecules to Ecosystems.
II''d Ed. Springer-Verlag.
Kvesitadze. C., Kh.atisashvili, G., Sadunishvili, T. and Ramsden, J.J. 2006' Biochemical
Mechanisms of Detoxification in Higher Plants: Basis of Phytoremediation' SpringerVerlag.
Madhava Rao, K.V,, Raghavendra, A.S. and Janardhan Reddy, K. 2006. Physiology and
Molecular Biology of Stress Tolerance in Plants. Springer.
BOT4Et0 Physiology of Plants LTnder Stress
Credit: 4
Course offered by: Dr Nabeesa Salim & Dr Jos T. Puthur
tJiological stresses: Principal environmental stresses to which plants are subjected,
plalt rcspolses to stresses. Strategies: stress escapers, avoidance, tolerance, adaptations,
acc I imatiott, and hardening.
2. Water stress: Physio'rgical effects - Reduction of leaf area, leaf abscission abscisic
acid lbrrnation a1d stomatal changes, photosynthesis lirniting, Wax deposit orr leaf
sLrrface. Energy dissipation from ,leaves, induction of CAM metabolism, loss of
mernbrarre integrity, Osmotic adjustments and its role in tolerance to drought. lmpact of
water detlcit on aquaporins ion carriers channels and pumps. lnduction of additional gene
actiorr. Chilling and freez,ing stresses: Freezing tolerance due to membrane stabilization'
role ol osnrolites and antifreeze protein in promoting freezing tolerance' Ice crystal
formation and protoplast dehydration.
3. Heat strcss and heat shock: lnhibition o1'phor_osi,nthesis. synthesis ol. lreat shock
protein. heat shock protein nrediateri therrno l.ie:i.;ince.
4' Salinity stress: F.ffect on soil struciure and piaiii lunctrorr. clepression in photgsynthetic
rate and growth, Effect on osrnolaiity a.nd resuitani ion uptake. plants
straiegies to avoid
salt injury: ion exclusion as adaptation. Irnponance ol'sodium tranlport
qrowth of'aerobic soil microbcs. rlarnage
s anoxia. acclimation to oxygen cleflcit
Generation of ATp from glvcolysis and
cnc expression. Increase ol'
!;icnt: aerencht,nra lormation and sterl
6' Environmental pollutants: Air pollution: E.iibct ol
armospheric sulp6rrr clioxide.
carbon- monoxide, peroxyl nitratc, ozolre and grecn lrouse
gases. Oxidatir,,e danrage of
biomolecules by ozone, synthesis of anrioxidants and antioxldant
enzymes, induction ol'
tolerance to oxidative stress. Mechanisnr ol' tle:loxification in
difibreni plant parts.
Anthropogenic pollutants: Industrial and agrit;..rlturai: Heavv metals:
Metal accumulator
plants, avoidance and amelioration mechaniim;. Synthesis
oiphytochilatins: biosvnthesis
of glutathione. characterization. Pesticirjes: mciaholic effbct of xenobiotics. residual
effect on plant metabolism.
7' Nutrient deticiency stress; Soil cliaracteristics anJ nrineral stress:
nutrient acquisition.
root modiflcation and icn uptake. plarrt horrroeostasis anci ionic balance. i.n
compartmentation and pI-! contro!. I'J-r.rlr-it:nt dcllciencies and grorvth:
root shogt ratio.
developmetrl of lateral shoots tillers anii leirves. reprocuctirrn. improving
plant nutrition
deficiency, genetic potentiai, rnorpir.l..eicai arrcl iiitichemical changes.
8' Stress due to plant pathogen: i{r,rst para::ite interaction: Crowth reqrrirenrepts.
pathogen itr host tissue. response of ho-st rnetalroiisnr to phytopathogens. plant
against pathogen attack: ['hysical and clrenrical hciors. Water
relations. nutricnt and
r.vater flow il: diseased plants. nuti-itior; ai-rtl nl,r.1r
9- Allelochenristrv as a stress: presence ol'allelofatln,. ccological
signilrcance o[.
allelopathy' 'fypes of allel
nitroqcn L,ased ,ir,l carh<.,n baseJ cornpounds:
Phenolics and terpenoids, D
cti';itv anc rnode cl'rclease of allelochcrricals irr
different plant parts' Detoxi
lelo, ire nricals. Atriotic and biotic stresses due to
l0' Stress due to weecls and other competitors: Ilesource characteristics. intra
and inter specific compoitions; models of comperitions. diff-erent
theories. Competition
and other biotic influences: Mycorrhiza and herbivory.
Shaw, A'J' 1990' HeavyMetal Tolerancc in Plants: Evolutionary
Aspects. CRC press.
Chakraborty. U. and Chakraborty B. 2005. Stress Biolog1,. Narosa publishing
Orcutt, D'M' and Nilsen. E.T. 2000. Physiologl,oFPlints under Srress:
Soil and Biotic
Factors. John Wile1,& Sons, Inc.
Prasad. M'N.v. 1997. Plant Ecoph-"-siorog_1,. .rrhn wirey'&
Sorrs. I,c.
Prasad' M'N'v, and Strzalka. K. 2002. I']hys olot) un,l
tliochernistry of lleav-r, Metal
Detoxiflcation and Tolerance in plants. Klurve; tca,temlc pLrblishers.
I-ecrec. .l c. 2003 Plant Ecoprrl'siorogv.
-scie,cc Pirbrishers Inc.
=.**..- g
M.N.V.2004. Heavv N4ctal Stress in Plants: From Biomolecules to Ecosystems.
Ild. Springer-Verlag.
Kvesitadze. C.. Khatisashvili, C., Sadunishvili, l'. and Ramsden, J.J.2006. Biochemical
Mechanisrns of Detoxification in t'ligher Plants: Basis of Phyoremediation. SpringerPrasad.
Madhava llao, K.v., Raghavendra, A.s. and Janardhan Reddy, K. 2006. phy,siology and
Molecular Biology of Stress Tolerance in Plants. Springer.
Credit: 4
Basic Environmental Science
Course offered by: Dr P. V. Madhusoodanan
& Dr C. C. Harilal
E,nvironrnental Science- licology- Introduciion - rnultidisciplinary Sciencenrenr Defln ition Scope, App I ication- Environmental awareness
2. Ecosl,stems-concept-fulrctional and structural qorripenents-Energy flowBiogeoclrerrjcal cycles - C, N, P, HzO and sedimentary cycles.'l,ood chail and food webProducers. coltsutners and decomposers- Ecological Pyramids- Ecological succession.
3. [j.cosystem diversity- -ferrestrial and aquatic Biomes- Forest, -Grassland, Desert.
Tundra Marine and Fresh rvater (lentic and lotic) ecosystems- characteristic features,
structure and function: Forest types of India. Kerala.
4. Biodiversity- species, genetic and ecosystem diversity- global, national and local
levels- Value of biodiversity- Consumptive and productive use, social, ethical, aesthetic
and option values- Hot spots and warm spots- L,ndangered and Endemic species of India.
5' Biodiversity conservation strategies; in situ and ex situ conservation-Protected areas of
India. wLS, NP and Biosplrere Reserves-Gene bank, seed bank, IBPGR,
Cryopreservation- Biotechnology biodiversity conservation; IUCN categories, Red data
[:n v i ron
Population ecology- Population growth, Population characteristics- densityfrequency. dominance, IV[, natality and mortality, fertility and fecundity; Reproductive
potential. age distribution, population.
Misra. R. 1968. Ecology workbook, Oxtbrd & IBH publishing Co.
Nayar. IV{.P. and Sastry. A.R.K. 1987.1939.1990. Red DataBookof Indian Plants.3 vols.
Botanical Survey of India.
Odum, 8.P.lr976. Fundamentals of Ecology. W.B. Sanders Co.
Puri. C. Indian Forest Ecology, Oxford Book & Stationery Co.
Mackenzie, A. ball, A.S. and Virdee, S,R.2002. Ecology(2nd Edition). Viva Books Ltd.
Srnith. R.L. and Smith,T.M. 1998. E,lements of Ecology (4th Edition). The Benjamin
Clurnntings Publishing Co.
Ctrnningharn, W.P. and Saigo, B.W. 1999. Environmental Science (5th Edition) McGraw
Chaprnan. J.1.. and Reiss. M.J. 1992. Ecology-Principle. anei Application, Cambridge
University Press.
Park. c. 1997. The Environrnent-Principles and Apllications, R'outledge.
Smil. v. 1997. cycles of l-if'e. civilization and Biosphere w.H. Freeman & co.
Smith, R.l-. and Smith, T.M. 1998. Elements of Ecology (4th Edition). The Benjamin
Cunrrnings Publishing Co.
BOT4E12 Applied Environmental Science
Credit: 4
Course offered by:Dr P. V. Madhusoodanan & Dr C. Cl. Harilal
Natural Resources and associated problems: Forests
World/lndia/Kerala: water
resources, Mineral resources; Food resources; tlr ergy sources; Land resources
2 Environmental pollution-definitiorr. causes. eflc-cts and control- measures of'
b) watcr poilution c) land pollution
a) air pollution
O thermaI pollution
e) noise
d)marine pollution
g) Nuclear (Radio active) oollutionl (lase studie:;: Minamata. l-ove Canal. Bhopal
tragedy. Chernobyl^ Tsunami 3.
3. Solid waste management- urban and ;rtdustrial w;isies; Roie
ttf individual- prerientiotl
of polhition
4. Disaster managentent
5. Environmental Impact Assessment thi,'\)
6. Bioremed iation, Bioflocctrlation
7. Society and tnvironment- sustainatrle devcloptrtetit -ooncept.
8. Gia hypothesis- Water conservation. rairi waicr harvesting- w'ater shed nlallagement
9. Climatic change- global warming. ozone depletion. Creen house effect, Glaciation
t0. Environment Protection Act- Air (.Pollution and control) Act- Water (Pollution and
control) Act- Earth summit (LINCITD) Rio+S, Rio l- l0
I | . (Ramsar conservation Ramsar sites of India- Kyoto agreement.
12. IPH and Patents.
13. NGOs and conservation movements.
Misra, R. 1968. Ecology workbook, Oxford & ItlH ['}ublishing Clo.
Nayar, M.P. and Sastry, A.R.K. 1987,1989,1990. Red Data Book of lndian Plants. 3 vols.
Botanical Survey of India.
Odum, E.P.1976. Fundamentals o1'E,coiogy. W.B' Sanders C-lo'
Puri. G. Indian Forest Ecology, Oxford Book & Stationery Co.
Mackenzie, A. ball, A.S. and Virdee. S.R. 2002, Ecology (2nd Edition). Viva Uooks Ltd.
Smith, R.L. and Smith,T.M. 1998. t-lenrents ol'E.cology (4th Eldition), The fleniamin
Cummings Publishing Co.
Cunninglram. W.P. and Saigc. B.W. 1999. F.nvironnrental Science (5th Editiorr) McGrau,
Chapman. .1.L. and Reiss, M.J. 1992. I'-cologr,-Principle ancl Application. (.ambridge
University Press.
Environment-Principles and,\pliicatiotls, Routledge.
Park, C. I 9q7.
Smil. V. 1997. Cycles of Life. Civilization and Birrsphere W.[-1. Freeman & Co.
Smith. R.L. and Smith, T.M, 199E. Eletnents rri-[icology (4th I]dition), The Benjamin
Cummings Publ ishing Co.
BOT4El3 Principles of Ethnobotanl''
Course offered by: Dr P. Sunojkumar
. [:.thnobotarry: Dcfi nitions.
2. Scope and functions.
3. Ilistorv and development of Ethnobotarry: Development of Ethnobotany in Asia with
special refelence to that in India. Ethnobotany outside Asia.
Scientific knorvlcdge: lndigenous technical knowledge (lTK): Indigenous
Agricultural knovvledge (lAK). -fraditional ecological knowledge (TEK). Rural people's
knor,i'ledge (RPK). Traditional botanical krrowledge (TBK), Integrated knorvledge sysrem
5. [)ocullentettion and itrterpretation ol 'fraditional BotanicaI Knclvledge: Basic
approaches to the study of Traditional Botanical Knowledge - Utilitarian, Cognitive. and
6. Scierrtific validation of traditional plant use: Nutritional quality, Phannacological
properlies. lnsect repellent activity.
7. Ecology of Culture and Cultural Ecology: Functional interpretations of culturally
deterrnined behaviour - Human sacrifice, Male.supremacy. Pollution taboos, [n-law
avoidance. Evil spirit honres. Sacred groves. Drug preparation.
8. Collecting Ethnobotanical Evidence: The dynamics and distribution of traditional
botan ical krrorvled ge.
9. Sources of knon,ledge: The dissemination of traditional botanical knowledge,
dift'erential distribution of tiaditional botanical knowledge: Socio-cultural influence on
knorvledge distribution - lntercultural influences (Mode of production. Biological
envirclnment. Level of external contact (acculturation), EthniCity, Religion), Intracultural
inf'luences - Gender. Age. Class. Place of birth, Literacy, Occupation, Migration forwork
or tnarriage. Age at marriage. Kinship and marriage relations, Number of children,
Number of generations in the household. [,anguage ability.
10. Dvnarnics of Knowledge: Observation, Experimelttation and Adaptation.
ll. Traditional Botanical Knorvledge in Rural Developnrent: The origins of participatory
rcscarch. Partnership in practice.
12. l-..thnobotany and sustainable utilization of plant resources.
13. Protection of Traditional Botanical Knowledge.
14. Ma.jor subdisciplines of Ethnobotan.v.
15. Ma.ior tribes of Kerala and their dependence on plants.
Chaudhuri, Rai. H. N., Guha. A., Roychowdhury. E. & Pal. D. C. 1980. Ethnobotanical
uses of Herbaria-ll. J. Econ. Tax. Bot. I : I 63- I 68.
Clraudhuri. Rai, H. N., Banerjee. D. K. & Guha, A. 1977. Ethnobotanical uses of
Irert'raria. Bull. Bot.Surv. Indial 9:256-261
Faulks, P.J. 1958. An Introduction to Ethnobotany. Moredale Publications Ltd., London.
Ford, R. I.(Ed.). 1978. The Nature and Strtus of Ethnobotany. Anthropological Paper
no.67. Museum of Anthrop.. LJniv.of Michigan.
Harshberger..l. W. 1896. The Purpose of Ethnobotany. Bot. Gazette3l :146-154.
.lain, S. K. & Rao, R. R. 1983. Ethnobotany in lndia-An Overview. Botanical Survey of
.lain. S. K. (Ed.). I 981 . Glimpses of Indian Ethnobotany. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co.
.lain.S. K. 1964. TheroleofaElotanistinfblkloreResearch. Folklore5:145-150
Jairr. S. K. 1967a. Ethnobotany- Its scope and study. lndian Museum gull. Z::g-+:.
.lain, S. K. 199.5. A Manuaiof F.thnobotany. Scienti'llc l'}uhlishers.
Jain, S. K., Mudgal, V., Banerjee, D. K., Guha.,'\.. [)al. D. C. & Das, D.1984.
Bibliography of Ethnobotanv" Botanical Survov of India.
Ranfrew, Jane. I 973. Paleoethnobotany. Col umbia Iiniversitl' Press.
BOT4E14 Applied Ethnobotant'
Credit: 4
Course offered by: Dr P. Sunojkumar
l. Methods
irr ethnobotanical stucly: Ceneral ctlrnobotanical techniques-Anthrcrpological
field methods. Quantitative appro.ach (Open-'.:nded and semi-structured interviews.
'Hands on' learning of traditionai techniques) and Qualitative approach (Structured
interviervs and questionnaires, F'ree-iisting, Pile soriing and preference ranking: triadic
and paired. Systematic surveys -d.g.. uf transc'cts ol hectirre piots); Quantification and
verification: Free-listing, Preference+anking. Direct matrix ranking. Utilization surveys.
2. Interview techniques aJrd elicitation methods; Choosing participants. Linguistic ancl
other symbolic airalyses.- Symbolic and Empirical arralysis of-Myths and Folklore; Plant
labels and cultural significance.
3. Plant collection and taxonomy: Nature and Lrses of voucher specimens, Plant
identifi cation. Classifi cation.
4. Archaeobotanical data: Observation of archaeobolanical remains and collection o1data. Evidences from specialized archaeological cuntexts. Dating methods ancl data
5. Specialist ethnobotanical methods: Nature and applications of specialist nrethocls Languages and linguistics. Art, history, Agri,:ultural science. Ecology, Phytochenristr.v".
Pharmacognosy, Molecular biolog1,. Applied anthropology', Environmental econontics.
Ethical analysis and law. Communication and eciucation. lnformation systems.
6. Practical applications of Ethnobotanical data: External benefits - National arrd Global
interests in ethnobotan-v,: Ethno-directe<! sanrp!ing in Lliodiversity Prospecting: Plant
derived drugs used in orthodox nredical practice: lLaditional Plant management and
Environmental conservation;l,raCitional gernrpiasnr management:in situ and ex sitr"t
conservatior.l: Local beneflrts: Cuitrrral surl'ival and community developmeltt:
Ethnomedicine and Primary health care; Rene-'rable plant products: Sustainable source olincome; Protecting local resources.
7. Commercialization and consenyation: SListainable developrnent - Economic grorvth ancl
resource conservation.
8. Documentation and analysis oictilsobotanicai data.
Chaudhuri, Rai, H. N., Guha, A., Roychowdhury, t-. & Pat. D. C. 1980. tjthrrobotanical
uses of Herbaria-ll, .1. Econ, Tax. Bot. i :i 63- 168.
Chaudhuri, Rai, H. N., Banerjee. D. K. & Guha- A.. 1977 . Ethnobotanical uses ol
herbaria. Bull. Bot.Surv. [ndial 9:256-261,
Faulks, P.J. l95S An lntroduction to Ethnobotanl. N{orcclalc I'ublications Ltd.. [-otrdort.
Ford. R. l.(tid.). 1978. The Nature and Status of l",thnobotany. Arrthropological [)ape:r
no.67 . Museum of Anthrop.. Univ.of Michigan.
Harshberger. J. W. 1896. The Purpose of Dthnobotun,v. []ot. (iazette 3l': 146-154.
.lain, S. K. & Rao, R. R. 1983. Ethnobotany in lndia-An Overview. Botanical Survcy ol'
(lrd.). l9til. Glimpses o1-lndian [ithnobotany. Oxford'& IBH Publislring Co.
S. K. l9(r4. 'lilre role of a Botanist in lblklore Research. Folklore 5:145-150
S. K. 1967a. Etlinobotany- [ts scope and study. Indian Museum Bull.2:39-43.
S. K. 1995. A Manual of Ethnobotany. Scientific Publishers,
S. K.. IVludgal,'y'., Barrer.iee, D. K., Guha, A., Pal, D. C. & Das, D.1984.
tlibliography of Ethnobotany. Botanical Survey of lndia.
Ranliew. .lane. I 973. Paleoetlrrrobotany, Colurnbia University Press.
S. K.
BOT4El5 Plant Tissue Culture
Course offered [ry: Dr A. Yusuf
& Dr P. Sunojkumar
Plant cell arrd tissue culturc: introduction, history, scope.
2. Basic aspects of plant tissue culturel totipotency, rl'rorphogenesis, differentiation and
polaritl,l diflerent culture rnedia: components; growth
regulators: grou,th retardants: undetined supplements; explants; sterilization;
Inoculationl subculturing, etc.
3. Different types of cultures: callus- different types; cell culture; suspension culturedifferent types: culture methods of single cellsl testing oiviability of cells; application of
cell arrd callus culture rvith special refbrence to medicinal and aromatic plants. In vilrut
morphogenesi s: d i fferentiati on.
4. Organogenesis- different types; factors effecting; problems related to micropropagation
of rvoodv (Medicinal) plants. Ditferent stages of micropropagation, Somaclonal variation
and its importance with special reference to rnedicinal and aromatic plants.
5. Son-ratic embryogenesis: direct and indirect; Factors effecting; embryo maturation;
application. Synseeds and its significance.
6. Production of l)athogen fiee plants: Different methods; Meristem culture and its
irlportance in comnrercialization especialll, of Medicinal and Aromatic plants.
7, Protoplast: Isolation and culture methods; Factors effecting; Somatic hybridization:
Different types; Fusion methods. Application with special reference to Medicinal and
Aromatic plants.
8. Haploids: Different types: Androgenesis and gynogenesis, Advantages; Significance in
crop inrprovement with special emphasis on Medicinal and Aromatic plants.
9. Ovary. ovule, endospenn and embryo culture; importance . ht vitro fertilization (recent
advances) and its significance.
10. Secondary metabolites: Different classes; methods of production- factors effecting
yield. Biotransformation; Different types with examples. Immobilization: Different
approaches : Advantages.
I l. Tissue culture in India with special reference to Kerala. Exploitation of medicinal
plants of Kerala by Tissue culture.
12. Application of Plant Tissue Culture: Cllonal propagation, artificial seed production oI
lr1'brids arrd somaclones. drugs, prroducts, cryopreservation and germplasrn storage.
Bhoju,ani. S. S. and Razdan. M. K. 1983. Plant Tissue culture: Theory and Practice.
Doods, J. H. and Roberts, L. W. 1985. i:,xperiments in Plant Tissue culture.
University Press.
George, E. F'. l993-96.P[ant propagation by Ti-"-"tte crtlturc-2 vols. Exegetics
Naralanaswamy, S. 1994. Plant iell and Tissue culture. Tata
De, K. K. 1995. Plant Tissue Culture. Nert Central Book Agency'
Razdan, M. K. 1995. An Introduction to Plant-[ issue Culturc. Oxfbrd & lB]{
Co. Pvt. Ltd.
BOT4El6 Plant BiotechnologY
Course offered by: Dr A. Yusuf & Dr P. Sunojkunrnr
plant gene structure and expression; Reguli:iion ot' structure and
Regulation of ptant gene expression. Protein coding genes. I'ranslational control. RNAcoding genes.
Z. Gene t'ransfer to plants: Target plant celis tbr transfirrmation,
approaches, Agrobacterium nrediateci genetic translbrmation of plants' Molecular
rnechanism of T-DNA transfer. Vector Lrased the'l'i olasnrid. Protocol for Agrobacterittm
mediated genetic transfcnnation of plani:i.
3. Direct-genetic transformatior, cl'DN,A inir, Frotoplasts; Bicrlistic process (particle
Bombardment mediated), l'ransti.rrnration of' protoplast by eleotroporation,
microiniection. macroinlection ancj rl',icro'irrojectlies: Virtts t'ectors lor gene transl-er to
4. Crop improvement through gene translcr tecilnriicgy; Pro.iectiles oI transfortlted
plant variei), irnprovement: addition of usetul traitt a-ienetic rnapping and gene clonirtg.
5. Develoiing resistance in crops; tierhiciCe iesistance. Insect resistance. Virus
'r'esistance'. Nematode resistance- Parasite
resistance,'ltun-gal pathogen resistance. Bactcria
6. lmprovement of crop tluality; Nutriiional qualit1,. Post harvest quality' E,xtension of
flowei Iife, pigmentation, Frug.an""; Male sterilitl, l'or hybrid seed production..
7. Engineering the plant cell iactory f<rr secondary metabolite production; Oligopeptides
and pioteinr, ,rgu, polymers, alkaloides and phenolics, degradable polymers-.
g. Ur", and applications of transgenic plants; Nerv products, Pharmaceuticals.
Bioremediation, iiant quality and protection, Eclihie vac',cines. Antiviral proteins
Antigens antibodies
9. Bi-orisks of producing transgenic ptant; Bio-safcty and product labelling,
and material transfer agreements patenting of plant varieties.
and Plastic
10. Environmental Bioiechnologv: Cleaner 1".1,1s[-rgies- Fertnentation, Paper
industries. Bioremediation. Bioflocculation. [Jioserrsors. Biochips. Biof'errilizerssignificance. Biological Nitrogen Fixation- rtif'qettes- structure. transfer prospects.
Nitrogenase biochemistry, fitnctioti.
Purohit SS. Bioteclrnology: J;undamenta is ancl apP I icat ion. Agrobios.
philipose l)N4. Experimental [iiotechnoiogy. Dontitiant PLlhlishers & Distribtrtors,
(ixiord antl lUl{ Prrblishing Co. I'vt.
Raz-dan MK. lntrodLlcrion to Plarit l'issue cullui'c
()xfbrd W]l Freeman & (lo.
Chawla HS. i-aborator)/ menLial firr Plarrr [Jio',cclriiok:gv.
Springcr Flarbor Lab Press.
Sambrook J & Russel DW. l\4blccular" Clorring
Sudhir M. I'lant Biotechnology. Dominant Publislrers & Distributors.
Smitli RH. Plant'[issue Culture : Techhiques and Experiments. Academic Press.
Slatcr A. Scott N. Fowler M. Plarrt Biotechrrol^'I)': The Genetic manipulation of
Oxford University Press.
.tha TB & Ghosh B. Plant Tissue Culture: Basjc and Apptied. Universities Press
Karanth B. Selected Readings in Plant Cenetics and Biotechnology. Book Enclave.
IlOT4El 7 Basic PteridologY
Credit: I
Course offeretl by: Dr P' V. Madhusoodanan
l. Origin
and PhylogenY
of Pteridophytes; Homologous theory, antithetic theory,
concept. Telome theorY.
generatiops; apogamy, apospory,
a ganr()spor)' and parthenogenesls.
n,1orpt.,niogicai diversiLS'-Rltizotne. leaf. sporophylls (heterophylly)- soral evolution-
phyletic stiae. sporangial evolution-phyletic swing-primitive
gical characters.
protostele, siphonostele, solenostele,
Diciyostele. Special types of steles-Dictyoxylic (Osmunda), Dicyclic (Pteridiunt)Dici;clic siphonostele (Matonia) 1'ricyclic clictyostele (stenochlena) ancl'ror-shaped stele
Arnphiplrloic-siphonostele (lv'larsilea)- Dictyostele with accessory bundles
4. Arratomy- steIe, strurcture, stelar evolution,
\C.t,u I h e o
[.eal' trace-secotldary thicken i ng-vesse ls.
5. Spore rlorphology-Trilete and Tetrahedral spores-structure-ornamentation-heterospory
and seed habit. spore gerrninatiolt in vilro spore culture.
6. Garnetophyte-patterns of development-homosporous and heterosporous ferns-ferrl
allies-Morphology of nrature gametophyte-ultrastructure-photoperiodisrn'
Bierhost. D.W. l97l . Morphology of Vascul:' Plants. Macmillan Co.
Dycr. A.C. 1979. The experimental Biol,:gy of Ferns. Academic Press, London
-fhe Ph"logeny and Classification of Ferns' Academic
.leinry. A.C. et al. (lrd.) 1973.
Krarler. K.Lj. & Green. P.S. 1991.'the families and generaof Vascular Plants, Narosa.
Nampr,. S. and Madhusoodanan, P.V. 1998. Fern Flora of South India-Taxonomic
Ilevision of Polypodioid Ferns. Daya Publishing House'
l]arneed. C.A., Rajesh, K.P.and Madhusoodanan, P.V.2003. Filmy Ferns of South India.
Pcnta Book Publishers & Distribtrtors.
BOT4E18 Applied Pteridology
Credit: {
l. t-labitat ecoiogy-Hydrophytes, Halophytes, Rheophytes, Epiphytes, Xerophyes'
Sciophytcs, Climbers, Filrny Ferns, Tree Ferns, Saprophltes - Adaptation of
I'teri dophytes-RET Pteridophytes, Conservation.
2. Cytology of pteridoplrytes-polyploidy and high chromosome number-origin of
polyploids cy'tology and reproduction.
3. Fossil pteridophytes-Psilophytales, Lepidodendrales. Calamitales,
Primofilicales-Fossil Marattiales and Osmundales. Evolution of plant body-lndian lbssil
4. Classification of pteridophytes by Foster anci Gliflbrd. Holttum, Pichi Sernrolli. B.K.
Nayar, and Kubitzki.
5. General characters ofextant pteridophytes
Psilopsida - Psi lotales.
Lycopsida - Lycopodiales, selagirieilales. Isoetales
Sphenopsida - Equ isetales
Fi I icopsida - Ophioglossales, l\4aratti a! es. Osm undales,
Schizaeales, C),atheales" G leichen i aies, Marsi Ieales. Salv in iales
6. Contribution by lndian l'tericioiogists - S.-S I]iL. B. K. Nayar. Fr. V.S. Manicke,nr. and
A. Abraharn.
7. Applied Pteridology - horticulttrre Fr-rod - N4edicinal Iliotbrtilizer - Weeds (a<luatic
and terrestrial) - Ecologicai Indir:atcrrs - Pollutioli ctnelioration.
8. Molecular Taxonomy - N{ethodologi'. applicirtion
Bierhost, D.W. 1971. Morphology of Vaseular Piarrt-s. Macmillan Co.
Dyer, A.C, 1979. The experimentalBiology olFerrts. Academic Press. London
Jermy, A.C. et al. (Ed.) 1973. The Phylogeny arrcl Classitlcation of Ferns. Acadenric
Krdmer,K.U.&Green,PS. lggl.Thefamiliesandgeneraof VascularPlants.Narosa.
Nampy, S. and Madhusoodanan. P.\' 1998. Fern F-lora of South lndia-'l'axonomic
Revision of Polypodioid Ferns. Daya Publishing House.
Hameed, C.A., Rajesh, K.P. and Madhusoodanan, P.V. 2003. Filmy F'erns of South India.
Penta Book Publishers
& Distributors.
BOT4E19 Principles of Algal Systematics (Theor"v)
Credit: 4
Course offered by: Dr M. Sabu & Dr C. C. Harilal
Diversity of algae.
2. Comparative analysis of various algal cklssiltcation - (;.M.
Smith; C.E. Paenfus:
G.W. Prescot; F.E. Fritsch; V..1. Cirai ran and F.F.. Round.
Historl'of Phycology: Prior to 1800; Eart1, lgti'centuryl late lgth centurl,': lirunclation
of moderrt systematics, Modern trends in algaI olassification.
Algal habitats distribution. synrbiosis and parasitism. Algae as ecological
5. Algal literature; Monographs; Revrsit-rns; Floras. erc'.
6. Describing, illustrating, naming rind publishing algal taxa.
7. Reproduction and evolution of' algae Chloropltyceae. Phaeophl'ceae and
of the structure. i'cprociuctioir and relationships ol' Dinophvta.
Chrysophyta and Bacil lariophyta.
Chapman. V..1. 1941. An introductiorr Io the Study o1-Algae. Cambridge [Jniversity I)ress.
Chapman, V..1. & Chapman. D..t. 197-1. l'hc Algac. Nlactnillan.
olAgricultural Research.
1961. TIre structure and reproduction ol' Algae. Vol. 2. Carrrbridge
1959. C-vanophyta. lrrdiarr Council
[Jniversit], I)ress.
In,ine. I) l-.. & D. M. .lohn. 1 984. Systematics o1'tlre green algae. Academic Press.
.Tan Stevenscn ct al. 1996. Algai ecologv. [rresh rvater Benthic ecosyslems. Acadetnic
Krishrrarnurthy. V. 1998. Algae of lndia and neighboring countries. L Chlorophycota.
Oxford & IBH publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd.
Kurrar. FI.D. 1990. Introductory phycology. East West Press Pvt. Ltd..
Prescott, G.W. 1969. The Algae. A Review. Thonras Nelson and Sons Ltd
RoLurd, I-'. F.. 1975. The Biology of Algae. Edward Arnold.
Srnith. G.M. 1978. Manual of Phycology. The Ronald Press company.
F.R. 1978. Introductory Phycology. .lohn Wiley and Sons.'
Van Den Hock, D.G. Mann and Jahus, H.M. Algae: An introduction to Phycology.
Cambridge Urriversity press.
Venkatararnan. ClS. tqZZ. Algal Biofertilizers ind rice c,ultivation. Today and
Torlorrorv's Printers & Publishers.
Verrkatararnan, G. S., Go1,al, S. K., Kaushik, B.D. & noyJhaudhary, P. 1974. Algae,
lornr and functiorr. Today and J'ornorro\ry's Printers & Publishers.
Vi.jayaraghavan. M.R. & Bhatia. B. 1997. Red algae: Strqcture, ultrastructure and
reproduction. APtl PubI ishing corpoiation.
BOT4E20 Applied Aspects of Algal Systematics
Coursc offered by: Dr M. Sabu & Dr C. C. Harilal
Collection, identification and preservation of different groups of algae. lndian work
orr algae.
l-aboratory culture and staining of algae.
Methods of comrnercial cultivation of algae.
llconomic importance of algae: fodder and fertilizer, phycocolloids, energy and
chemicals. H2 production, phycornir:r:ralization, sewage disposal, biofouling, toxicity,
5. International code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN)
(r. Algal physiology: photosynthesis, respiration, chemotrophy, Nz metabolism,
circadian rhythm, phototropisrn.
7. Algal biogeography.
Chaprnan. V..1. I 941 . An introduction to the Study of Algae. Cambridge University Press.
('hapnran. V..1. & Chapman. D..1. 1973. The Algae. Macmillan.
Desikachary, 'f .V. 1959. Cyanophyta. Indian Council of Agr,icultural Research.
t'-ritsch. P E. 1961. 'fhe structure and reproduction of''.Algae. Vol. 2.' Cambridge
[Jniversity Press.
Irvine.D.E.&D.M..lohn. l984.Systernaticsofthegreenalgae.AcademicPress.
Jan Stevensen et al. 1996. Algal ecoiogv. I;resh vvater Benthic ecosystems. Academic
Krishnamurthy, V. 1998. Algae ol'India and neighborinc countries. L Chlorophycota.
Oxford & IBH publishing Co. Pvt. Ltci.
Kumar, FI.D. 1990. Introductory phvcokrgl,. Eirst West Press Pvt. Ltd..
Pnescott, G.W. 1969. The Algae. A Review.'llrontas Nelson and Sons Ltd
Round. F. E. 1975. The Biology of Aigae. Edr.iard Arnold.
Smith, C.M. 1978. Manual of Phycology.'t'he lionald Press contpany.
t;.R 1978. Introductory Pitycology. .[olin \\jiley'and Son.s.
Van Den I'!ock. D-G, Manrt and.laltirs. H.M. Algae: ,\rr rntroduction to [)hrcologl.
Cambridge L ;n iversity press.
Venkataratnan. G^S. 1972. Algal P,iof'brtilizers and rice cultivation.-l-r,dav ancl
Tomorrow's Printers & Pubiishers.
Venkataraman, G. S., Go1,ai, S. K.. Kaushik. B.D. & Roychaudhary, P. 1974. Algae.
form and function Today and Tomorroll,'s Printers & Publishers.
Vijayaraghavan, M.R. & Bhatia. B. 199i. [(etl algae: Strrrcture. ultrastructure arrcl
reproduction. APH Publishing corporatic.n.
BOT4E21 Genetics and Crop Improiement
Credit: 4
Course offered by: Dr K. V; Mohanan
of origin. variabilit,v. llolal [riology, propagation, breeding tecltniclues
oitlie t'ollou,ing crops.
e. tea; I'. coffec: g. rubber; h. cardanront: i. rrocottLtt:
a. rice: b. rvheat; c. maize; d.
ri. pepper; ri. gittger; p. turmeric; c1. i'arrilla.
2. Detailed account of crop research institutes under CGIAR. ICAR ond f enlmoclit)'
1. General account
and crop management in fhe case
3. Thrust areas of crop research and major hotlle necks in R
the above crops.
& D activities in tlre casc
Dabholkar A.R. Elements of Llionretrical Gcnetics. C.oncept I']ublishing Conrpanr'.
Frankel O.II. and Bennet E. Genetic Re-.ources irr Piants. Black Well.
Sadhu M.K. Plant Propagation. New AZge International Publishers.
Allard R.U.' - Principles of Plant Breeding. .lohn Wiley & Sons.
Jain H.K. and Kharkwal M.C. Plant Breeding. Narosa Publishing l-louse.
Chahal G.Sl and Gosal S.S. Principles'and Procedures of Plant Breeding. Narosa
Publishing l{cuse.
Roy D. Plant Ilreeding. Narosa Publishing l-lcuse
Hayward M,l),, Bosemark N.O. and Rorrrasosit I. Piant Breeding- Principles and
prospects. Chapman and Hall.
Gupta S.K. I'}lant Breeding. Agrobios India.
Khan M.A. Plant Breeding. Biotech Books.
Sharma .1.R. Plant Breeding.'[ata-McCrarv i iili.
.loshi R.M. []iosalety and Bioethics. lslra Bookr;,
Pagano M. and Gauvreau K. Prilrciples cl [Jiosl"atistie s. i)uxhurv.
Sharma .l.l{. Statistical and biorletrical techlriques in PIant Breeding. New Age
I nternational l']ubl ishers,
Panse V.(i. and Sukhatme, P.V. Statistical rnethods for Agricultural Workers. ICAR.
Ilattgasrt'atrv R. n Te.rt Ilook of Agricultural Statistics. Nerv Agc Irrternational
.lasra P.K. []iostatistics. Krishrra Prakaslran Media (P) t.td.
Pu b
LJOT4L,22 Genetics and
Cnrp Improvenrent
Course offered by: Dr K. V. Mohanan
l. Crop gerretic resources- conservatioq and utilization. Centres of origin of cultivated
plants- prinrary and secondary centrei of diversity. Gene banks- international and
national networks ol'gene banks.
2. Systems of reproduction and mating systems in crop plants
3. Conventional methods of plant breeding- plant domestication, introduction, selection
and hybridization.
4. Modern methods of plant breeding- Mutation breeding, polyploidy breeding, distant
hybridization and biotechnological approaches in crop improvement.
,5. Resistance brecding-. breeding for pest, disease and stress resistance.
6. Genetics of photosynthesis
7. Genetics of nitrogen fixation
8. Patenting of lit'e forms- IPR, I.armers' rights and plant breeders' rights.
9. Production of improved seeds- seed cerlification- procedurd of variety release.
10.liarming systems- intensive, organic, integrated- merits and demerits- sustainable
agricu lture.
l. Gerretically modilled crops-
nrajor achievernents- nrerits and demerits- biosafety.
t)abholkar A.R. Elernents ol-[Jionretrical Genetics. Concept Publishing Company.
F-rankel O.t-I. and Bennet E. Genetic Resources in Plants. Black Well.
SadhLr M.K. Plant Propagation. Nerv AZge International Publishers.
Allard R.W. - Principles of Plant Breeding. John Wiley & Sons.
.lain t-I.K. and Kharkwal M.C. Plant Breeding. Narosa Publishing House.
Chahal G.S. and Gosal S.S. Principles and Procedures of Plant Breeding. Narosa
Publishing House.
Roy D. Plant Breeding. Narosa Publishing House.
Hayward M.D., Bosemark N.O. and Romagosa l. Plant Breeding- Principles and
prospects. Chaprnan and Hall.
Gupta S.K. Plant Breeding. Agrobios India.
Klran M.A. Plant Breedirrg. Biotech Bcoks.
Sharnra .1.R. Plant Breeding. Tata-McGraw Hill.
.loshi R.M. Biosafety and Bioethics. Isha Books.
Pagano M. and Gauvreau K. Principles of Biostatistics. Duxbury.
Sharrna .1.R. Statistical anci biometrical techniques in Plant Breeding. New Age
I nternational Publishers.
I)atrse V.C. and Sukhatnre. P.V. Statistical methods for Agricultural Workers. ICAR.
R. A Text Book of r\gricull,urai
Statistics. New
Jasra P.K. Biostatistics. Krishna Prake,shan Me.-iia (lr) [,td.
BOT4E23 Agrobiotech nology I
Credit: 4
Course offered by: Dr Sailas Benjamin
Plant gene structure anC expressionl Regulatiorr oi'structure and expression. Regulation
of plant gene expression, Protein coding genes, l-ranslational control. RNA-coding genes.
Direct genetic transfotrflBtion of DNA into protoplasts; lliolistic process (particle
Bombardment mediated;, transformation of protoplast by electroporation. microinlection.
macroinjection and microprojectiles.
Crop improvement through gene transfer technology, pro.iectites of translorrnecl plants;
Plant variety improvement: addition of useful trait; Genetic rnapping and gene clolring.
Developing resistance in crops; Ilerbicicle resistance, Insect resistance. Virus resistance.
Fungal pathogen resistance, Bacteria resistance. Nematode resistance, Parasite resistancc.
Improvement of crop quality; Nutritional quality. Post harvest quality. Extcnsion offlower life. Pigmentation, Fragrance: Male sterilit,,' 1or hvbriC seed production.
Engineering the plant cell factory irrr secondarv mctaholite production: Oligopepticlcs
and proteins, sugcri polymers, alkaloides and p[ ,'nolics. degradable polynrers-.
Uses and applications of transgcnir: plants: ne\\/ products, pharrnaceuticals.
bioremediation. plant qua!ity and proteciion. edible vaccines. antiviral proteins.
Biorisks of prcducing transgenic plairi: ilio-sai'ct,v and product labelling. 'l'rade secrecy
and material transfer agreements. I)aterrting of' plant varieties. Enr,,ironmental
EnvironmentaI Biotechnology: Clcaner technoicgics- f:ennentation. Paper and [)lastic
industries. Bioremediation. B iolloccu iation. [J i,.rscnsors. B i och ips.
Sudhir M. Applied Biotechnologl,anci Plant (jenelics. Domirrant PLrhlishers &
Purohit S. S. Biotechnology: Fundamentals and applicalion. Agrobios.
Lewin B. Genes. Pearson Educational Internationai.
Peter KV. Horticulture Science Series. Nerv lndia frublishing Agency.
Nelson DL & Cox MM.Lchninger Principles o[ Biochcmistry, Wtl Frecrnan anci
Channarayappa. Molecular, Biotechnology: Principles and Practices. (Jniversities Press
(lndia) P.Ltd.
Piramal V. Molecular Biotechnology. Dominant Puhlishers & t)istributors.
Gilmartin PM & Bowler C. Molecular Plant Biolog1,. Oxtbrcl llniversity Press.
Sudhir M. Plant Biotechnology. Dominant Publisher-. & [)istribLrtors.
.lha'IB & Ghosh B. Plant'fissue Clultr-rre: IJasic anri ApplicC. tJniversities l'ress (lndia)
Karanth B. Selected Readings in Piant Cenetics anri []ioLechnology. Book Enclavc.
Das H. K. Text Book of Biotechnolgy. (ed). Wilcy Dreanrtech India P.Ltd.
Ranjan R. 1-ransgenic Plants. Agrobios.
BOT 4824 Agrobiotech nology 2
Credit: 4
Course offered by: Dr Sailas Benjamin
Agrobacterium mediated gene transfer
use in gene manipulation. Selectable
unt mediated gene trasfer Molecular
on vector and Ti plasrlid; protocol for
ation of plants; its suicess in monocots
tedy, molecu Iar mechanisrn ol- nru lti pl
cal Nitrogen Fixation_ nif genes_
function Legume Symbiosis, Symbiotic
biochemistry of leg_haqmoglobin.
nology: Rice, wheat, oil seed crops,
verages crops, spices and condiments,
and biofuel: potent crops fbr biofluel
production, mechanism, transesterification
Applicd []iorechrrorogv and pranr Generics.
Donrirra.t pubrishers &
d appl ication. Agrobios.
dia Publishing Agency.
Biochemistry, WH Freeman
Molecular Biotechnologv: Principles
and practices. universities press
nt Publishers & Distributor.s.
iology. Oxford University press.
lishers & Distributors.
sic and Applied. Universities press (lndia)
Karantlr B' Selected Readings in prant
cenetics and Biotechnology. Book
Das H. K. l'ext Book of Bioiechnorgv
wirey Dreamtech India p.Ltd.
Ranian R. Transgenic plarrts. agroUlos.'
BOT4E25 Bioprocess TechnologY
Credit: 4
Course offered by: Dr Sailas Benjamin
Introduction to lndustriai Bicprocess: A histirrical ot,ervicw of industrial f-ernlentatitrtt
process - traditional and modern biotechnology A brief stlrvcY of organisnls. processes.
products relating to modern biotechuology. Process flow slreeting -_ block diagrams.
pictorial representation.
Overview of Fermentation Processes: Ovcn,iew of' ferttrcniation rndustry, getteral
requirements of fermentation processes. basic confir:uration of I'ermentor and ancillaries.
main parameters to be monitgred and coitroilc,j ii.i ii:rnietttation processes, Processing'
down and upstreams.
Raw Materials and Media Design tbr Ferrnentation I)tocess: Criteria for good tredittt-tlmedium requirem'ents fbr fermentation processes. carbon. tlilrogen. minerals. vitamins
and other complex nutrie,,nts. oxygen requirements, Inedittm formulatiolr ol' optirilal
growth a1d product fo.rmdtion, examples trl'simple and complex merlia. design of various
commercial media for industrial fermen'rations - mcr,liui.tl optimization methods
productiol of Primary Metabolites: r\ br'iel'outlirtc o{'llrocesses lirr the prodr'rction ot'
some commercially important organic acids (e.g, citric acid. lactic acid. acetic acid etc'.):
amino acids (glutamic acid, phenr:aianine. aspatlic acid etc.,) and alcohols (ethanol.
butanol etc.).
production of Secondary Metabolites: Studi, o1'productioli processes for variotts classes
of secondary metabolites: antibiotics: beta-iactatns (penicillin, cephalosporin etc.).
aminoglycosides (streptoml-cin etc.,) macrolide:; (er1'throml'cin). vitamins and stcroids.
produclion of bioproducts: Production nf Ii1'pestir:idcs. hiofertilisers. biopreservatives
(Nisin), cheese, biopolymers (.xanthan gurn. PHti r:1c,.). sittglc ce lI proteirr'
production gf Modern Biotechnol6H), i)roducts;: i)i'trtlitctitttt of recombillant proteilrs
having therapeutic and diagnostii: applicaiions:.produr:tion of vtrccines and tlronoclonal
antibodies. Products of plant anti animai cell ctrlturc'
(.anrbridge University Prerss,
Ratleclge C. & Kristia.nsen B. (eds). [Ju:-.ic Biott:1:.!11111f1rgv.
.losh R. M. Biosaf'ety anci Bioethics. isha iloc'ks
.losh R. Ir4. Riosensors. lslta I]ooks.
Achrekar J. Concepts in Biotechnology. Dotninat-,i Puhlishers antl Distributors'
Vashisth p. Environmental tsiotechloiogr,. Dtrrniirant I)ubiishers and Distribrrtors.
Pandey y' Webb C., Soccol C. & Larircire C. [rnz--r'rnc'iechrrology. Sprirrgcr'
Khan I. A. & Khanum (eds). Fuirclainentals r,,1'\4olectrlar lliology'Genetic engineering
Ukaaz Publioations.
Pearson Educatiorial ltrternatiolrai.
Nelson D. I-. & Cox M. M.. Lehlilgel Principlcs ol Biochemistrl'. WH [-reernan and
Sambrook.l. & Russet t). W. Molecular Cloning. Colcl Springer Flarhor Lab I'ress NY.
Roussos S.. Soccol c.R., Pandey n.ct Angrti'c. Neu Florizons in Lliotechrrology,
Kl uwer Academic Publications.
Alberghina C (ed). Protein Engineering in lnclustrial []iotechnology. Harwood Acadenric
B iotcchnolt.rg-v.
Das [{. K. ]'ext Book of Biotechnolog},. Wilev I)t'cl'.rnLcch lrrdia.['].[-td.
BOT4E2(r Enzvme Engineering and Technology
Credit: 4
Course offered by: Dr Sailas Benjamin
of enzyme actionl
Introductiotl to Enzynres: Classificatiotl r-l.f enzymes' Mechanisms
corcept .l'active site and energetics of errzyme substrate complex formation'
of cpzynre actionl principles of catalysis - collision theory, transitiorr state theory; role of
entrop)' itr catalvsis.
Kineiics of Iinzyme Actiorr: Kinetios of single substrate reactions; Estimation of Michelis
N4errten pararneters. Lineu,caver- Burk Plot, Multisubstrate reactions-introduction to
ping-pong nrechanisnt, ratldom - order tnechanism and compulsory order mechanisms;
product. Allosteric
'l-urnor.1. lurnber: t1,pes oI inhibition & rlodels lor substrate and
effect on
regulatiorr of enzymls. Monod -Changeux-Wyman model,
.n)1,,r., & deactivation kinetics. Ramachandran plot and its appiication
Enzyme Imntobilization: Physical and chemicaI techniques for enzyme immobilization etc'' adsorption, matrix entrapment. cncapsulation, cross-linking, covalent binding
exantples. advantages and disadvantages. I mmobi lised enzyme bioreactors
PLrrification and Clraracterization of Enzymes from Natural Sources:
teases. amylases, lipases, cellulases etc''and
sterol syrrthesis. Production and purification
oactsimalandnricrobiaisources;rnethodsofAnalYsis of film and Pore
actions; formulation of
dilTusion eff'ects
' Design of irnnrobilized
dirnerrsiortless groups and calctr
and membrane reactors
euz)'nle reactors - packed bed. fl
in analysis; design of enzyme electrodes and
lt6zlnie biosensors: Application
thcii application
as biosensors in industry'
Proteirt crlgineering: Protein errgineering i
rccover\r and folding of recombinallt prote
engine.,'i,.,g lbr a{finity purificatiorl '
I\4 i croarrar'. Swi ssPort'
Biotechnology' cambridge Universrty
Ratledge C. & Kristiansen B. (eds). Basic
lsha Books'
.losh Rl IVL Biosafety and Bioethics'
.losh R. M' Biosensors' Isha Books'
Dominant Pu
Achrekar J. Cioncepts in Biotechnology'
Vashisth P. Environrnental Biotechnology'
C' Enzym
Parrdev A.. Webb C.. Soccol C' & Larnchc
of Mol
Khan l. A. & Khrnum (eds)' Fundamentals
B iotecltrrology. Ukaaz Publications'
L,etvirr B. Cenes. Pearson Ecluoational
of Biochernistry' WH Freeman and
Cox M.
D. L. &
Springer Harbor,Lab Press
!f,,lTrill- J. & Russer D. w. N,rolecurar cloning. cold
& Ang'ur C' New Horizons in Biotechnology'
Rottssos S" Soccol C'R'' Pande)' A'
K lrtrver Acadenr
ic Publ ications'
.ra '
Alberghina C (ed). Proteiu [:,nginecriirlt in llrrlrisil'iir!
i)as i-I. Fl. l-cxl B,.rok of []iqlecirncrlog-r,. \\rilc_r' I)rr:irnitcr:h Iliiia
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