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. eD LHLrtgrRy Arrrr r-
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UNIVERSITY OF CALICUT
(Abstract)
M.Sc Applied Chemistry course - revised scheme and syllabus
from 2005 admission bnwards - approved - orders issued.
- implemented with effect
GENERAL AND ACADEMIC tsR,\NGH I 'J' SECTION
Dated, Caiicut University. P.O., 25.07.2005
No. GA. 11J11974312003
Read : 1 . $/inutes of meeting of Board of Studies in Applied Chemistry held on 14.01.2004,
p0.03.2004 artd 14.03.2005.
2. ltem No.ll (g) of the minutes of meeting of Faculty of Science held on
'18.05.2005.
3. lfem No ll A (30) of the minutes of meeting of Academic Council held on
't8.6.2005.
ORDER
1)
The meeting of Board of Studies in Applied Chemistry held on
14.01.2004, resolved revise the syllabus of M.Sc Applied Chemistry
course with effect from 2005 admission onwards.
2)
The Board of Studies at its meetings held on 30.03.2004, and 14.03.2005
finalised and approved the rnodified schemes and syllabus of M.Sc
Applied Chemistry course.
3)
The meeting of Faculty of Science held on 18.05.2005, vide item No. ll (g)
approved all the minutes. However, itein no.3 of the minutes was modified
by the Faculty as follows ie, the nurnber of elective papers to be
chosen by a candidate during 4th sernester shatl continue to be one.
4)
The meeting of Academic council held on 18.06.2005, vide item no. ll
A(30) of ihe minutes of meeting, anproved the minutes of Board of
Studies as approved by the Faculty of Science and also the minutes of
Faculty of Science.
5)
Sanction has therefore been accorded for implementing the revised
scheme and syllabus of M.Sc Applied Chemistry course with effect from
2005 admission onwards.
6)
Orders are issued accordingly.
Revised scheme and syllabus is appended.
sdrDEPU'IY REGTSTRAR (G&A l)
For REGISTRAR
To
1) The Principal of the college offering;, M.Sic A6iplied Chemistry course.
2) Head of the Department of Chemistry, University of Calicut.
Copy to : CE/ DR (M.Sc)/ University lnformation centres//SF/FC.
SECTION OFFICER
Pgn 26.7.05 C:\My Documents\PGNIORDER\J SECTION\GA l-Jl-9743-2403 DT. 25.7.05.dcc
\
,
UNIVERSITY OF CALICUT
M.SC. DEGREE COURSE IN APPLIED CHEMISTRY
(SEMESTER PATTERN)
SYLLABUS and REGULATIONS
@ffective from 2005 Admission)
Regulations:
1.
Applied Chemistry (Semester Pattern) shall be
equivalent to the M.Sc. degree course in Chemistry conducted by the Calicut
The M.Sc. Degree Course in
University.
2.
Eligibility for Admission
Candidates with Bachelor's degree in Chemistry with Mathematics and
Plrysics as subsidiary subjects are eligible for adrnission to this course.
Rules regarding minintum marks in B.Sc. degree required, rules of
reservation, etc. for admission will be lhat laid down by lhe University from
lime lo time.
3.
The course shall be offered in /our semesters during a period
acadentic years. Each semester shall hwe 5 months duration.
4.
Scheme of Examinations
of
two
The scheme of examination for each semester is given below. The total
marl<s for lhe entire course shall be 2000. Twenty percentage of total marks
for theory and praclical papers is allocatedfor internal assessment. During
the 4'h semester each sludent has to carry out a project work of 3 months
duration in cr National laboratory, R & D establishment, Laboratory of an
Industrial unit of repute or in the University Department. There shall be
internal assessment for project work and it will be assessed by a competent
Board o/Examiners. The duration of examination of each theory paper shall
no
I
be
3 hours and /or practical examination the duration shall be 6 hours per
paper.
\-n*
I
t--*NAIR
Prof: Dr' T'D' FADHAKRISHNAN
Cnatr;
J''
,oard ot styil:t^ j: ;:,r'^: ."r,cur
^^\
Y r':' :
tr*1
G
e
G.
Semester
- I Theory
Papers and Viva-Voce
@.
Modmum Marks
sl.
No.
1
Name of Paper
Papgr
I.
Theoretical Chemistry
-
4
I
Paper III. Organic Chemistry - I
Paper IV. Physical Chemistry - I
5
Viva-voce on theory papers
2
J
Paper II. Inorganic Chemistry
Totalfor Semester
Total
Marks
Intemal
External
assess-
assess-
ment
ment
20
80
100
20
80
100
20
80
100
20
80
100
25
25
345
425
I
-
-I
80
G:
ei
I
Semester
II.
Theory Papers, Practicals and Viva-voce
Theory papers
20
80
100
20
80
100
20
80
100
20
80
100
20
70
90
l0
10
70
90
10
l0
70
90
10
10
25
25
140
58s
725
220
930
l 150
20
20
IL
2
Semester
and Viva-Voce
III - Theoty Papers, Practical
1.
I Popu IX. ComPuter Basics and
I Initrurrrtal Methods of AnalYsis
2.
I faper
3.
I
100
80
100
fopu XI. Organic Chemistry - III
Chemistry - III
I fopt, XII. Physical
80
100
80
100
(a) | Practical IV. Instrumental Methods
Record
-Oo(b) |
70
90
l0
10
Viva-Voce on TheorY/?ractical
25
25
III
Total for Semester - I, il & ill
425
525
1355
1675
4.
X. Inorganic Chemistry III
Totalfor Semester -
Semester IV.
Project and
Any one of the following PaPers as elective Paper'
Viva-Voce
Theory PaPers
Paper
XIil -
Elective PaPer
(a) Bio inorganic Chemistry
or O) Ceramic Materials Chemistry
20
80
100
20
80
100
or (c) Environmental Chemistry
20
80
100
or (d) Natural Products Chemistry
20
80
100
or (e) Synthetic organic Chemistry
20
80
100
or (l) Polymer Chemistry
20
80
100
or (g) Solid state Chemistry
20
80
100
or (h) Industial CatalYsis
20
80
100
200
200
Viva-Voce (Elective Paper/Project work
25
25
Totalfor Semester IV
305
325
t620
2000
Project (Dissertation;
Grand Total for Semester I, IL
ilI
&
a
J
ill
5.
a)
b)
Project work
During Semester _ IV, each student shall
carry out a projec
the broad areas of Ih
c/physical
period of about I0-l
,ision of a
Department nominatea
tment. The project can be
carried out in a rese
nafional reptrte with co_
guidance -from experts there.
Council shall make a
decision regarding host insrirutions
to,be serected fi carrying our project
work. hch student wilr
le gtven a chance o Joio a particurar branch
and/or center, sabject to the
ivaitabirity *aii
i"-rirignra ro a tuacher in
the Department.
Ihe"candidate shatl subnit three copies
of a disserrafion based on the results
of the project wo,rk at the end of Iy'semesrer.
one externar examiner
from a
university and the teacher to ihom the
candid.are- i'rriigora shap varue
the
%. Those who obtain
f
afterincorporatingror^"ll:rt!:rt:;::'#;r::,rX
I
t
4
viva-voce examination- oy
conducted on a separate dcy
dissertation.
project work and erective paper sha,
by'thr"ro*, ream o/examiners who varued
th-e
I
be
rhe
I
6.
Internal Assessment
I
a)
The internal assessment marrcs shail
b.e base!_9n the performance
of the
students in (a) test papers (50%o),
seminars (25%o) ord'uiro-roce (25%o)
in
.s (75%o)
and viva_voce
I
tests
: #:,
i;: :#:!
b)
a
The
;
J
*, #,?,;;x,:;J;,;: fff,,
e
d t o t h e,,, 0,,
;l;r;
e
J
The marks scored in-test papers shail
be taken after normarization as rhe
marks for this- conponent. t;o, *^inoiiiiro,'-)nu
internar,marks
shall be the average of the iart s awayded
by the individuar teachers in the
assessment committee. The internar
asseisment
awarded to the
students in each paper in a semester
shail be
i?*:!?l
,;i
,oti?ii."'"*
3
J
e
3:
4
r1,"";::;"i,',""f,r1,
ent in each
semesrer.
lhe norlcr awortlecl kt
The committee shail consist of rhe Head
o/ rhe Departntent
Departmenral councir seiretary,
or a
ar chairntan,
bacher nominated by
G)
ol
rhe
rhe
w
I
I
Departmental Council and the teacher(s) handting the subject. The decision
of the committee shall befinal.
7.
Conduct of Extcrnal Examinations
a)
External Examinations in each semester shalt be conducted after
five months
from the commeneement of the classes. The Board of examiners shall consist
of one external examiner and one internar examiner in each of the broad
areas of TheoreticaUPhysical/Inorganic/organic chemistry. In the IIt
Semester all the teachers supervising the projects shall be in the board as
internal examiners. The rules regarding valuation are those laid down by
the universityfrom time to time.
b)
The board of examiners shall conduct the viva-voce examination
separate day at the end of each Semester.
8.
Eligibility for
a)
The candidate shall obtain 40% of the marlcs allotted
as s es sment
b)
a pass
for the internal
of e ach theory paper and practical paper separately
for a pass.
The candidate shall obtain a minimum of 40% marlcs allottedfor the external
assessment of each theory paper, practical paper and viva-voce separately
for a pass.
The candidate shall obtain a minimum of 50% marlcs
assessment of the project workfor a pass.
d)
on a
allottedfor the external
The candidate shall obtain a minimum of 50% of the aggregate marlu in
each semesterfor a pe$s, subject to the separate minimum-reqiirements (a, b
and c) given above. The successful candidates shall be classi/ied asfollows.
50 60 -
:
:
:
59%
74%
7596 and above
Second Class
First Class
First Class with distinction
If a candidate fails in one or more papers (theory and/or practical) in a
semester, he/she can move ahead to the next semester. However,'hehhe
shall be considered_ eligible for the degree only when he/she clears the
failed
paper(s) along with the subsequent batch of students in accordance with the
syllabus inforce at that time. If a candidate
fails in the project, he/she shall
resubmit the dissertation along with the subsequent baich of s;tudents, after
incorporating
by the examiners. The chaices
for
ted to rwo.
the
supplementary
t)
The candidate may be given two chances to appear
practical
students ,
years afte
along
Jforce
for
itth *e
failed theory and
subiequent baich of
the
at that time within a period of'5
y\_5
;
o
G
!.
Project work
a)
- IV, each student shall carry out a project work in one of
broad are as of Th eoreti cal/Inorgani c/Organi c/P hys i cal C hemi stry for a
of about 10-12 weeks under the supervision of a teacher of the
nominated by the Head of the Department. The project can be
out in a research institute/industry of national repute with cofrom experts there. The Departmental Council shall make a
decision garding host instilutions to be selected for carrying oul project
work.
student will be gwen a chance to choose a partiailar branch
and/or
subject to the availability andwill be assigned to a teacher in
b)
G
Semester
@
G
fi
f,
The candidate
submit three copies of a dissertation based on the rerults
of the projecl work the end of IY semester. One external examinerfrom a
f
f
Yiva-Voce examination on the
conducted on a separate day by lhe
dissertation.
work and elective paper shall
e
e
o
be
e,
team of examiners who valued the
e
e
6.
Internal Assessment
a)
the performance of the
The internal assessment marks shall be
students in (a) test papers (50%o), seminars (25
viva-voce (25%o) in
'5%o)
(b)
paper,
each
theory
and viva-voce
respect of
and
tests
(25%o) in respect of each practical paper. The
shall be done by a
area of the
Committee of teachers of the Department belonging to thd
concerned paper. The answer papers shall be returned lo t-\^e.sndent.s after
lhe assessmenl,
b)
e
lhe
University and the
r to whom the candidate is assigned shall value the
disserlation. The pass
for the project is 50%. Those who obtain
less than 5096 marks for
project shall resabmit the dissertation in a
ntpp lementary appe aranc e
incorporating the modifications suggested
by the examiners.
c)
{5
The marks scored in lest pdpers shall be taken after normalizati, as the
inlernal marks lor lhis componenl. For seminar/viva, lhe
shall be the average of the marks awarded by lhe individual teachers
assessment committee. The internal assessment marlcs anarded to
students in each paper in a semesler shall be notified.
fi
e
f:
f,
o
e
6
@
@
c)
A grievance redressal committee (nominated by DC and consi.sting of 3
leachers) shall be constiluted as dn when required lo look inb the
G
mmplainls, rf any, lodged by lhe shilenl,s regarding thc mqrliv atvardatl kt
them in the inlernal assessment in each seme.ster.
G
The committee shall consist of the Head of lhe Deparlment as Chairnran, lhe
Departmental Council Secretary, or a teacher nominated by the
e
c
c
'o
(
I
f
(
9.
Pattern of question papers for External assessment
(
A. Theory papers
0
There shall be nine questions in
catiers 16 marks and is without
covering the enfire syllabus (g uni
shall be from the eight units in
choice within the unit. The pattern of the question paper
is given below.
vIIAor vII B, VIIIAorwIIB, andw
VI
{
A or
orIXB
gxg
:
6
64 marks
6
Practical Papers
Each practical paper carries a total of g0 marks out
of which 70 marl$ are
0 marlrs for the Laboratory Record.
the pattern of questions to be asked
10.
6
2x8=16marks
II A or II B, III A or III B, IV A or II/ B, y A or v B,
B.
(
c
l(a) to h
vI B,
{
The revised syllabus and regulations will take effect from
Admission onwards
6
6
6
6
2005
€,
Prof r Dr, T,O. f,AOHAKBISHNAN IIAIR
Chairman
Boatd ol Studies ir" Appricd Chentistty (PGi
L,niueloity of Calicut
Chairman
P.G. Board of Studies in Applied Chemisty
University of Calicut
6
E
U
"6
I
6,
0?.05.2005.
€,
@
6
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(lttivcrsity of Culicul, M,Sc, Applied Chenilstry
-fi
Semester I. Paper I. Theoretical Chemistry
- I (80 hrs)
[Contents: Quantum mechanics (8 units) |
UNIT I (10 h)
a) Mathcmatical concePts
io-ordinate system: Cartesian, cylindrical polar and spherical polar co-ordinates
and
their relationships. Cornplex numbers: Definition, complex conjugate, Absolute value
of a complex number, complex functions.
Elements
of operator algebra: Definition of an operator, Linear and nonlinear
operators, 'Del' and 'del squared' operators and their expressions in cylindrical and
siherical polar co-ordinates. Eigen function and eigen values of an operator, Eigen
value equation, Hermitian operators, Eigen functions of commuting operators, Wellbehaved functions, nonnalized and orthogonal fi.rnctions.
b)
Brief history of quantum mechanics:
c)
Formulation
Piank's quanturn Postula-tes, Einstein's quantum theory of radiation, Explanation of
photo elecnic effect, Milliken's verification of Einstein's photoelectic equation,
wave-particle duality of radiation, wave particle duatity of particles, de Broglie matter
*ur.r, Electron diffiaction, Heisenberg's Matix Mechanics (brief mention),
Schrodinger's wave mechanics, Deduction of Sctrodinger equation from classical
wave equation.
of quantum mechanics - The Postulates of
quantum
mechanics:
State function postulate, Operator postulate, Eigen value poshrlate, Expectation value
postulate, Postulate of time dependent Schrodinger Equation of motion, Conservative
system and time-independent Schrodinger equation, Stationary states, Formulation of
a quantum mechanical problem.
[J]\{IT
a)
Ir
(10 h)
Quantum mechanics of translations motion ( 5 h)
The particle in a one-dimensional box-complete treatment. The practicle in a threedimensional box (consider rectangular and cubic boxes), Separation of variables,
Degeneracy, Symmetry breaking. Treatment of more than one particle (noninteracting) in a box. Intoduction to Tunneling.
b) Quantum Mechanics of vibrational motion: (5 h)
Harmonic oscillator (complete treatment): Method of power series, Hermite equation
and Hermite polynomials, Recursion formula, Rodrigue's formul4 Wave functions
and energies, Important features of the problem, Harmonic oscillator and molecular
vibrations, Three-dim'ensional harmonic oscillator.
UNrT III (10 h)
Quantum Mechanics of Rotational motion: (10 h)
'
Rigid rotator (cgmplete teatment): The wave equation in spherical pol.ar coordinates.
Planar rigid rotator (or Particle on a ring), The Phi-equation, Solution of the Phiequation, Handling of Imaginary wave functions, Wave functions in the real form,
Polar diagrams.
7{.
e'
C
C
ion of variables, The Phi-
G
C
s
mome:
eigen functions of angular
Spherical harmonics as
quantum numbers' Space
,,'o*.r,orln, Lgt'ftt-momentum
angul*
of
euantization
quantization'
t,
,
I
I
solutions, Laguerre
energies ofhYdroge
functions and their
Orbital diagrams'
of sPin bY
for
hYdrogen
Spin orbitals,
ctions.
Stoner's
in manY electron atoms'
n of variation
theorem
Variation treatment for
(non-degenerate case
with slanted bottom'
t atom'
Pernrbation treatmen
Hartree-Fock Self-co
i' Slater's des for calculating
Slater's treatment of
S1ater orbitals'
(Jr\rr YI (10 h)
UNIT
- . - :- -rrrrn*rr'c
Svmmetnc
manv erectron atoms'
Slater
ror
-puoti'"
ltJH.ifilitill'*u.s-'pll
Ui:m;*""1t *ur.''"tTn iioi',
antisymmetry principle'
antisymmetic
and
a.tt*inJ'it"'iuuri't
exclusion principle'
Vector model of ato
CouPling of angul
term sYmbols for
Electronic sPe
series' The electrq
g8
uNrT
vrr
(r0 h)
Chcmical Bonding I
i) Schrodinger equation for a molecule, Born - Oppenheimer approximation.
ii) Molecular Orbital (MO) theory
Mo theory of Hz*- Mo theory of Hz. Mo treatment of homonuclear diatomic
molecules Liz, Ba, Cz, Nz, oz, Fz and hetero nuclear diatomic
molecules LiH, Co,
NO, HF. Correlation diagrams, Noncrossing rule. Spectroscopic term
symbols for
diatomic molecules.
iii) Valence Bond (VB) theory
VB theory.o{ Hr. VB theory of-more complex molecules: Bonding
in BeH2, H2O,
NH3, orbital overlap. Molecular g.o*.Ly, Hybridization,
water, Ethylene, and Acetylene, Murtiple bonds,
uNrT
vsppn
Exaioples: Methane,
theory.
vrrr
(10 h)
Chemical Bonding II
i) MO theory fo_r more complex molecules (6 h)
HMO theory of linear conjugated
Charge on an atom, bond order, C
hydrocarbons (benzene). Formula for
Frost-Huckel circle mnemonic device
ii) Intermolecular forces (4 h)
lnter molecular forces - ion dipole, dipole-dipole, ion-induced
dipole, dipole-induced
dipole and dispersion interaltions - ."thl-uti"al expressions
-'donor-acceptor
interactions - Lennard Jones potential.
References
l.
2'
F.L. Pilar, Elementary euantum chemistry,McGraw-Hil1,
196g.
P'w' Atkins, Molecular quantum mechiicsl,lfr paition,
oxford
1983.
3' M'w' Hanna' Quantum mechanics in chemistry,2nd
t969.
University press,
Edition, w.A. Benjamin Inc.,
on, Pearson Education Inc.,2003.
versity Science Books, 19g3.
n, Academic press Inc., 1993.
emis try, Tata McGraw_Hi ll, 1994.
to Quantum Mechanics, McGraw-Hill, 1935
).
ice Hall, 1983.
ion, New Age Intemational, 2000
ectroscopy (problems & Solutions), Vishal
1t/1(
39
,!
,
,
,
,
,
,
?
,
,
)
,
t
,
)
,
t
,
,
,
)
)
,
a
a
a
)
a
,
i,
,
,,.
University of Caticul - M.Sc. Applied Clrcmistry - Syllabus
Scmester I. Paper
II. Inorganic Chemistry - I
|-
Periodic properties of elements, - First and second row anomalies,
periodic
anomalies of the nonmetals and post-transition metals. Octet rule, concepts
-of
resonance and hybridization, VSEPR model, structure of molecules. Electronirfittunt - precise and - rich compounds. Electronegativity and partial ionic
character, lattice energl, Born-Lande equation, Faians rules Slater rules, radiusratio rules, structur.e of simple solids. (10 hrs.)
UNIT
UNIT ll - Acid-Base chemistry - concepts of Bronsted and Lewis, strength of acids
and bases, Hard and soft acids and bases. Comparison of softness and hardness,
charge/size effects. The Drago-Wayland equation.. Heterogeneous acid'base
reactions
- surfoce acids. Super acids.
Acid base concepts in non-aqueous media, leveling effect. Reactions in liquid NHj,
SOz, HzSOt and HF, Molten salts. (10 hrs)
III -
Bronhydrides - preparation, reactions, structure and bonding,styx
nymber, closo, nido, arachno polyhedral structures. Boron cluster compounds Wade' rules, Polyhedral borane anions, carbornes, metalloboranes metalla
carboranes -synbthesis, structure andbonding. Borazines andborides (10 hrs).
UNIT
LINIT
Molymorphism of C, P
and S. Fullerenes and
endohedral
metallofullerenes. Silicates and aluminosilicates - structure, molecular sieves,
zeolites. Silicones-synthesis structure and uses, carbides and silicides.
Phosphorous-nitrogen, phosphorous-sulphur and sulphur-nitrogen compoundssynthesis, structure, bonding and uses. (10 hrs)
- Halogens in positive oxidation states, Interhalogens, pseudohalogens
andcluster and polymeric halides, Metal halides. Hypohalites, halites, halates,
perhalates-oxidatising strength. Noble gas Chemistry - noble gas compounds,
UNIT Y
(10 hri
formation structure, bonding and stability.
UNIT VI - The metallic state, Bonding in metals -.free electron, band and zone
theories.
Attoys - substitutional and interstitial,Hume-Rothery rules, intermetallic compounds
and intermediate phases. Zintil phases.
Reduction of oxide ores Ellingham diagram, reduction potentials, Latimer and
Frost and porbaux diagrams, Principles of powder metallurgt. Metallic corrosion
and passivity. Isopoly-and heteropoly anions of Mo and W. (10 hrs).
-
UNIT VII -
Lanthanides and Actinides Sources, extraction, seperation and
applications, , the lanthanide-and actinide contractions, dffirence between 4f and
5f orbitals, absorption spectra, comparison with transition elements, stable
oxidation states, Oxidation state IY of Ce, Pr and Tb, II of Eu, Sm and Yb, Unranyl
compounds, Formation, isolation and reactions of trans uranium elements and the
heavier elements (101
- 112
(10 hrs)
'il4
)
I
I
(80 hrs)
,o
\
a
C
3
UNIT VIII
-
Introduction to coordination chemistry. Types of tigands and
formation constants, factors
tion of stability, chelate - and
theory and its
REF'ERENCES
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
limitations.
and macrocyclic
ligands.
e0
Valance bond
hrs
,
D.F. shriver, P.w. Attains and c.H. Lotgford,Inorganic chemistry, ELBS.
KF. Purcell andJ.c. Kotz_, Inorganic chemistry, w.B.'saunders io^pony.
J.E, Hlheey, Inorsan.i1.!.hemistry-- principles of stntcture and Reacirvity.
F.A. Cotton and G. Wilkinson, Advnced Inorganic Chenistry.
L.Y. Azarofi, Introduction to Solids, Mc Gran, Hill. New york
G.Wulfsberg Inorganic Chemistry, Viva, 2002
B.E.Douglas, D.H.McDanial and JJ Arexandeer, concepts and Models of Inorganic
Chemistry, 3d edn., John Wiley, 2001.
T\_
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3.
.)
Universily of Calicut - M.Sc. Applied Chemistry - Syllabus
Semester I. Paper
III. Organic
Chemistry - I (80 hrs)
UNIT I (a) - Bonding - M.O. Theory, Electron delocalization and Aromaticity.
(,
Molecular orbitals, Huckel M.O.theory, Qualitative applications of HMO
theory to delocalized pi systems. (ii) Valence Bond theory and Resonance
Stability
(including resonance energ/ nd resonance hybrid).(iii)
of
delocalized pi-systems of (a) butadiene molecule (b) allylic cation, anion and
radical by V.B. theory and HMO theory.(iv) Stability of cyclic pi-systems by
HMO theory
Aromaticity, Antiaromaticity, Mobius
concept,
Homoaromaticity, Aromaticity of Annulenes, charged rings and fused ring
systems. (v) Stability of benzylic systems.
(1) Hydrogen bonding (inter and intramolecular) (ii) Effects of hydrogen
bonding on (a) boiling points of liquids, (b) acidity/basicity, (c) stability of
hydrates (d) stability of conformational isomers (e) characteristics of erythro
and threo isomers (to be illustrated with examples in each case (iii) crown
(10 hrs)
(b)
ethers.
UNIT II:
Acidify, Basicity, Solvent effects in Organic Chemistry
a) Acidity and basicity, Definition of pka, neutral nitrogen base neutral oxygen
bases, Luis acid and bases, Bronsted acid and bases, HSAB Principles
solvent interaction, inter molecular, ion-dipole, dipole- dipole and
dipole induced forces.Hydrogen bonding, electron pair donor-electron pair
acceptor interactions (EPD/EPA), solvophobic interaction. Solvation,
classiJication of solvents according to acemical constitution, in terms of acid
base behaviour, interms of specific solute/ Solvent interaction. Solvent effect
on absorption spectra, Y-value, Z-value and (-value of solvents.
b) Solute
(6hrs)
UNIT III: Basic concepts in the study of Organic Reaction Mechanisms
(a)
Acidity constant, Hammett acidity function, Reactive intermediates and their
characterization. Isotope effects, stereochemical coruelations. Kinetic Vs
thermodynamic control.
(b) Transition state, potential energ/ vs reaction co-ordinate, substitutent effects
(inductive, mesomeric and field ,ffrctl on reactivity. Quantitative
correlation of substituent fficts - Linear free energ/ relationships, Hammet
equations, seperation of polar resonace and steric effect and Taft's
equations.
(6 hrs)
IL
UNIT IV
-
Stereochemistry
Disymmetry, asymmetry, chirality , conditions for optical activity, relativb
and absolute conJigurations , D and L notations , sequence rule ,'R and s
nomenclatut'e in cyclic and acyclic compounds
Optical isomerism of
compounds containing more than one asymmetric 'C' atoms Enantiotopic,
Homotopic, Dias tereotopic, Hydro gen, pr o chir al c entr e.
-
Optical Isomerism of compounds having no asymmetric C atom. Biphenyls:
Conditionfor optical activity in biphenyls, X & notation. Atropisomerism,
^S
in biphenyls, molecular overcrowding, chirality due to helical structure.
Allenes
- structure
and conditionfor optical activity
Optical isomerism of Nitrogen
Aldoximes and Ketoximes.
- R & s notation.
& Sulphur Compounds , Stereochemistry of
Absence of free rotation in double bonds, nomenclature of geometrical
isomers, E & Z notation of compounds with one and more double bonds in
Methods of determination of the con/iguration of geometrical isomers in
acyclic and cyclic systems, interconvertion of geometrical isomers.
Determination of cotigurations in annulenes.
(10 hrs)
UNIT V
-
Conformational analysis
Difference between configuration and conformation, internal factors
fficting the stability of molecules - dipole interaction, bond opposition
strain, bond angle strain. Perspective and Newman projection , eclipsed,
gauche and staggered conformations. Conformations of acyclic compounds
-
Ethane, n-butane, alkene dihalides, glycols, alkene, chroro hydrines,
tartaric acid, erythro and threo isomers, aldehydes and
Inter conversion of mial and equatorial bonds in chair conformation
ketones.
.
-
Monosubstituted cyclehexane methyl and t-butyl cyclohexanes - /texible
and rigid systems. Conformation of disubstituted cyclohexanes (1:1; 1:2, I;3
and
conformation of substituted cyclohexanone 2-bromo
cyclohexanone, dibromo cyclohexanone (cis & trans) and 2-bromo-4, 4dimethyl cyclohexnone. Anchoring group and conformationally biased
molecules. Conformations of 1:4 cis and trans disbstituted cyclohexanes in
which one of the substituents is t-butyl and their importance in assessing the
reactivity of an axial or equatorial substituent, conformations of decaline,
adamentane, sucrose and lactose.
1:4).
Effect of conformation on reactions in (a) Debromination of dl and meso
dibromobutane or stilbene dibromide using KI. @ semipinacolic
13
deaminations of erythro and threo 1,2-diphenyll -(p-chlorophenyl) 2-amino
ethanol.(c)Action
methyl magnesium bromide
2-phenyl
propionaldehyde (stereochemical direction of asymmetric induction). (d)
Dehydrohalogenation of stilbenedihalide (dl and meso) and erythro and
thr e o-br omo - l, 2 - diphenylpr op ane.
of
on
Effect of conformation on the course and rate of reactions in cyclohexane
systems (a) SNz and SNt reactions for (1) an mial substituent and (ii) an
equatorial substituent in Jlexible and rigid systems. (b) Et, E2 eliminations
illustrated by the following compounds.
,
ii)
ii)
(c)
(d)
(e)
4a-Butylcycloheryl tosylate (cis and trans)
2-phenylcyclohexanole (cis and trans)
Menthyl and neomenthyl chlorides and beraene hexachlorides
Pyrolytic elimination of esters (cis elimination)
Semipinacolic deamination of cis and trans-2-amine cychohexanol.
Esteri/ication of axial as well as equatorial hydroryl and hydrolysis of their
esters in rigid and flexible systems. (Compare the rate of esteriJication of
menthol,
A
is
omenthol, neomenthol and neois omenthol).
Esterification of axial as well as equatorial carboxyl groups and hydrolysis
of their esters. (g) Hydrolysis of mial and equatorial tosylates. (h)
oxidation of secondary mial and equatorial hydroxyl group to ketones by
chromic acid
(12 hrs)
UNIT VI
-
Chemistry of free radicals
Generation and characterization of free radicals - Stable and persistent free
radicals - Direct detection of free radical intermediates - Structural and
stereochemical properties of radical intermediates. Radical ions - Reaction
mechanism involving radical intermediates - Free radical substitution and addition
reactions - Intramolecular reactions - Rearrangement and fragmentation reactions
of free radicals - Electron transfer involving transition metals - Carbenes and
Nitrenes - Formation of singlet and triplet carbenes, addition to double bonds,
ins ert i on and r e arr an ge ment.
(6 hrs)
UNIT VII - Elimination & Substitution Reactions
a)
Steriochemical and mechanistic aspects of SN reactions. Effect of solvent,
leaving group and substrate struture. Neighbouring group participation.
Non-classical carbocations and ion pairs in SN reactions. Ambident
necleophiles and substrates. Sy' and Srui reactions.
b)
Elimination reactions leading to C:C bond formation. El, E2 and EICB
mechanisms. Hofman and Saytzeff modes of elimination: the effect of leaving
group and Substrate structure Cis eliminations.
1+
I
Electrophilic addition to C:C and its streiochemocal aspects.
(6hrs)
UNIT VIII -Aromatic substitution reaction
Aromatic Electrophilic substitution: Mechanism, Directive and rote
controlling factors, formation of C-C bonds, C-N bonds, C-^S bonds and
C-halagon bonds. Nucleophilic aromatic substitution by Addition
elimination and Elimination-addition mechanisms. The benzyne
me chani
sm, ar omatic r adic al sub stitution, SNRr mechanism.
(8 hrs)
REFERENCES
t.
)
i.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
F.A. Carey, RJ. Sundberg - Advanced Organic Chemistry, Plenum.
T,H. Lowry, K.S. Richardsen - Mechanism and theory in Organic Chemistry, Harper
Collins.
Jerry March
- Advanced Organic Chemistry, McGraw Hill.
Nasipuri - Stereochemistry of Organic Compounds, 1993 edn.
Kalsi - Stereo chemistry of Organic Compounds, Wiley Eastern.
Eliel, Atlinser Conformational Analysis, lliely Inter Science.
P.Y. Bruice, Organic Chemistry, Prentice Hall.
MitlandJones. Jr. Organic Chemistry, Norton & Company.
MU Jones: Physical and Mechanistic Organic Chemistry, Cambridge University Press.
16:
(lniversity oJ Culicut, M.Sc, Applied Chemistry
-
I
Semester I. Paper IV. Physical Chemistry
- I (80 hrs)
UNIT -I Thermodynamics - I (10 h)
First and second laws of thermodynamics (brief mention). Thermodynamic criteria
for equilibrium and spontaneity. Thfud law of thermodynamics - Statement of the law
and eiplanation., Need for the third law, Nernst heat theorem, Apparent exceptions to
third liw, Applications of third law, Determination of absolute entropies using third
law. Unattainability of absolute zero. Residual entropy. Determination of relations
(The
connecting the thermodynamic partial derivatives by the method of Jacobians.
discussion to be confined to closed thermodynamic systems.)
UNIT : II. ThermodYnamic - II (10 h)
Thermodynu i6 of solutions: Partial molar quantities, Chemical potential, Variation
of Chemical Potential with temperaflre and Pressure, Partial molar volume and its
determination, Gibbs-Duhem equation, Thermodynamics of ideal and real gases and
gas mixtures. Fugacities of gases and their determinations, Activity, activity
coefficient, standard states of substances (for solute and solvents). Duhem-Margules
equation and its applications. Thermodynamics of ideal solutions, Deductions of the
laws of Raoult, .b.rllior.opy, cryoscopy and osmotic pressure. Non-ideal solutions,
Deviations from Raoult's law, Excess functions - excess free energy, excess entropy,
excess enthalpy and excess volume.
UNIT : III. Thermodynamics - III (10 h)
Thermodynamics of irreversible processes:
irreversible processes. General theory of nonequilibrium
pro..rr.r. Entropy production. The phenomenological relations. Onsager reciprocal
relations, eppticaiion to the theory of diffirsion, thermal diffusion, thermoosmosis and
thermomol..ul- pressure difference, Electokinetic effects. The Glansdorf-Pregogine
Simple examples
of
equation.
References
l.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
g.
S. Glasstone,Thermodynamicsfor Chemists,East-West, 1973
Rajaram and Kuriokose, Themodynamics ,East-West, 1986
R.F. Rastogi and R.R. Misra, An introduction to Chemical thermodynamr'cs, New Age
lntemational
D.A. McQuapie and J.D. Simon, Plrysicat Chemistry, A Molecular Approach, University
Science Books, 1997.
K.J.Laidler, J.H.Meiser and B.C.Sanctuary, Ptrysical Chemistry, Houghton Mifflin Company,
New Yorh 2003.
pigoggine; An introduction to Thermodynamics of irreversible processes, lnterscience
n.C. fyte, Chemical and Process Thermtdynamics,2d Edn, Prentice Hall of India
G. K. Vemulapalli, Physical Chemistry,Printice Hall of India
H. Margeman andG.M. Murphy, Vol. Chap.I The Mathematics of Physics and Chemistry.
g-
IL
a
3
a
UNIT YIII complexes,
influencing
macrocyclic ffict,
theory and its
to coordination chemistry. Types of ligands and
and nomenclature, formation
tants, factors
methods of determination of
chelate - and
-
and macrocyclic ligands.
Valance bond
C
C
G
0 hrs
G
REFERENCES
t.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
.
D.F. Shriver, P.W. Attains and
Langford, Inorganic
KF. Purcell and J.C. Kotz,
C hemistry, W. B.'Saunders
J.E. Huheey, Inorganic Chemistry )
of Stucture and
F.A. Cotton and G. Wilkinson,
Inorganic Chemistry.
L.V. AzarofJ Introduction to Solids, Mc.
Hill. New Yorlc
G. Wulfsberg, Inorganic Chemistry, Viva,
B.E.Douglas, D.H.McDanial and JJ Alexandeer, Concepts and
Chemistry, 3il edn., John Witey, 2001.
G
6
e
C
of Inorganic
4
6
@
6
G
6
6
a
€
er
6
C
3
3
3
G
C
G
e
f
f
f
a
It
I
,
n-
1.
C
C
Electroch
Derivation of
Debye - Hucke
Dev-iations from
iry. validity of the
UNIT IV.
"i..jnffi-utiot'
aqueous solutions'
e oi dissociation and
Dispersion of
rimitiie-raw an$'its
ln.
-ri^
conductan?;:H".,.,^
*.",of
"q'arrtit*i"'":-t'
the Debye-Huckel limiting
various-fo
equation..inJ.noinelectrolyticsolutions.
uNIr
h,.l.lll,llu::'il*ffi'I::|,ffx|]::n
ceus. concentration cells
iur*.,l.,ersibre
determination'
jun31i9n j""'t4 and jts
of
s]alts' Temperature coefficient
with a without transferenc..';i;;il
;#,'r'soluble
Determination of solubility- "J
EMF and
rrNrr
J';;;;;;
concentation porarization'
- Hydrogen
H,J*H,tJ;S'iJfl;l#J[fili,i,i"i^t^":.ntials.
a.,.ro.riiJioo. over vortage and their
it,
(poteffi
over voltage
Decomposition vortage
lXiirl,FJd*"mposition
(Theories of over
over vottage, oxygerl "r.,
.uttoiJpio..rr..
process'
determinat[n. Mechanism
Ioni" discharge ^ 9t slow
potentials'
voltage) - lonic diffirsion
tttUtitl--f[" half wave
principles of polarography.
ft.
aroppi"g
n,t"*i
References:
l.D.A.Mclnnes,ThePrinciples.ofelectolhemisw,DoverPublications.
gt"tott'emistry' VanNostrand'
Vol. I and II,
S' Gl sstone' lt9g"tilIo
Aspects
Bockris and Reday,'viodern
-i,ir..oochemistry
Etectrochemistrv,
t:*tti'ff,ilopov, Theoretical
state-I ( 10 horus)
UNIT VII. ary**e
Mir Publishers'
Crystat sYmmetry'
gtde Planes' Allo
for the non-exl$(
Mathematical proof
itt"ogtuphic Projections
nrrrt*..- rt'r*gt"" nootio*'-
lft:**,,;tfi;ii,:;:##;ffi
;pranes'Introductiontospacesroups'
UNITVIII.CrystallineState.II(10hours)
ral structure of crystals'
Reciprocal
method' R
diffracted
arangeme
G
I
G'
{
c
I
(
f
rJ.i.a, -a
*-ir.il;F;t',
,
G
ry
(
of'G' H and S' Fuel cells'
-^ia
23.
6
Powder method'
ralysis' lntensity
:rystals' Electo
Fourier sYnthesis'
References:
'l.D.A.McQuarrieandJ.D.Simon,PhysicalChemistry,amolecularapproach,
Science P":\: nr----r^^r r.hornictrv- prentice Hall.
.' uniu.rrity
chemistry', Prentice*rall'
y:*"'H,:1'#ffiTi'1'11""t
3.P'w'Atkil"d;;ili'Ch""i'CfiriioxforduniversitvPress'
t7
{
I
llniversity of Cnticut, M.Sc. Applied Chemistry 'Syllabus
Scmcstcr
II. Papcr V. Theorctical Chemistry - II (80 hrs)
(3 units)]
[Contents: Group theory (5 units), Spectroscopy
UNIT - I Molecular Symmetry (10 hours)
Symmetry elements and'symmetry operations
in molecules. Identity,
Rdtation,
Reflection, lnversion arid tmproper rotation operations. Exarnples. Point Groups and
their determinations.
UNIT - II Mathematical-Groups (10 horus)
Mathematical group - Definition, Examples, order of a group. Abelian and cyclic
groups, Group Multiplication table. Rearrangemen't Theorem. Sub groups and
bt^i6 in a group. Similarity Transformation. Conjugate Elements. Matices.
Addition and Multiplication of Matrices, Inverse of a matrix. Character of matix.
Diagonal matrix, Direct sum and direct product of square matices, Block
diagonalized matrices. Solving linear equations by the method of matrices Matrix
form of symmetry operations. Basis
III.
Theory of molecular symmetrT: (10 hours)
Representation of groups. Basis. Construction of representations using vectors and
atomic orbitals as basis. The representation generated by using Cartesian co-ordinates
positioned on the atoms of a moleculd (SOz and HzO may be takbn'as examples).
Reducible and irreducible representations. Construction of irreducible representations
by reduction (similarity transformation). Great orthogonality Theorem (GOT) and
properties of irreducible representations, Construction of irreducible representations
using GOT, Constrnction of character Table (Czv, Crv, Czt, C+v). Nqmenclatr:re of
ineducible representations-Mulliken symbols, Symmety species. Derivation of
reduction formula using GOT, Reduction of reducible representations, (e.g., Ica't )
using the reduction formulq Direct sum and direct product of irreducible
IJMT -
representations. Connection between group theory and quantr:m mechanics.
uNrr -
rv (10 h)
Application of Group theory to chemical bonding: ( l0 hours)
i) Vanishing and nonvanishing integrals. Transition moment integral and selection
rules. Overlap integrals and conditions for overlap.
ii)
Molecular orbital treatment of molecules using Group theory. Tfreatnent of HzO,
Classification atomic orbitals involved into sprmes species, Group orbitals,
Symmetry adapted linear combination (SALC), Projection operator, Corutnrction of
MOs, Electronic configuration of H2O, Symmeties of the ground and excited states,
Electronic transitions and selection rules, Laporte selection rule for centro symmetric
molecules.
iii)
v
Group theoretical treatment of hybridization, Construction of hybrid orbitals in
BFI and CIII, lnverse transformation.
-v
(10 h)
Application of Group theory to molecular vibrations:
Molecular vibrations, Symmetry species of normal modes of vibration, Construction
of f.r1. Normal coordinates and drawings of normal modes (e.g., H2O and NH3),
Selection rules for IR and Raman activities, Complementary character of IR and
Raman Spectra, Determination of IR active and Raman active modes of molecules
(e.g., H2O, IIHI, CtIe, SFo).
rrNIT VI (10 h)
i) Generdl TheorY of SPectra:
Electro magnetic radiation and its different regions, Interaction of matter with
radiation and its effect on the energy of the molecule. Origin of molecular spectra,
Theory of the origin of rotational, vibrational and electronic spectra. Intensity of
spectral lines, Dependence of intensity on population, transition probabilities,
Ttransition ,no111.nt integral, Selection rules. Line widths, Doppler broadening,
Lifetime broadening.
ii) Microwave sPectroscoPy:
Rotation rp".tr"bf diatomic and poly atomic molecules, Rigid and nonrigid rotator
models, Asymmetric, symmetric and spherical tops. Isotope effect on rotation spectra,
Stark effect, Nuclear and electron spin interactions. Rotational transitions and
selection rules. Microwave spectometer - Principles & Instrumentation. Applications.
iii) Vibrational sPectroscoPY:
Vibrational specta of diatomic and poly atomic molecules, Harmonic oscillator
model, Anharmonicity, Vibrational transitions and selection rules. Morse potential,
uNrT
Fundamentals, Overtones, Hot bands, Combination bands, Difference bands.
uNrT vII (10 h)
i)
Vibration-rotation spectra of diatomic and polyatomic molecules, P,Q,R
branches.
IR and FTIR spectrophotometer - Principles
& lnstnrmentation, Applications.
ii) Raman sPectroscoPY:
pure rotatiorial, pqre vibrational Raman spectra, Vibrational-rotational Raman spectra,
Selection rules, Mutual exclusion principle'
Raman spectroscopy,
Raman spectrophotometer- Principles & Instnrmentation, Laser
Applications.
iii) Electronic sPectroscoPy:
lntensity of
Basic principles, Beer --i,ambert law, Molar extinction coefficient,
- Condon principle,
elecfionic transitions. Tlpes of electronic transitions. Franck
of
excited electronic states of diatomic molecules. Electronic spectra
Ground and
polyatomic molecules,
Chromophores'
Exte
Fluorescence, Phosphorescence. Jablonski
tp.ti"t-
Vibrational relaxation,
tYfl-:ll'
converslon'
of conjugated
molecules-dissociationandpredissociationspectra.
W-Visible spectrophotometir - Principles & Instrumentation. Applications.
UNIT
VIII (10 h)
i) NMR sPectroscoPY:
Magnetic propetties tf nuclei, The
Chemical shift and factors influen
interaction; Coupting constant, Fact
es' Solvents used'
effects' Spin-spin
nstant' Effects of
rotation on NMR spectrum, Karl's
chenrical .*.t oni., iluxional molecules, Hindered
and instrumentation' Multiple NMR
relationships, NMR spectrometer- Principles
lcl
spectroscopy (brief account). Applications of NMR spectroscopy to structure
elucidation of simple organic and inorganic molecules. FTNMR.
ii) ESR spectroscopY:
Theory and measurement techniques, Hyperfine interactions, Equivalent and
nonequivalent protons, Kramer's theorem. ESR spectrometer- Principles and
instrumentation. Applications in structure elucidation of simple molecules.
iii) Moss Bauer spectroscopy:
The Moss Bauer effect. Instrumentation. Hyperfine interactions, isomer shift, electric
quadruple and magnetic hlperfine interactions. Applications.
iv) Mass SpectrometrY:
Basic principles, Instnrmentation - Mass spectrometer, interpretation of mass spectra,
resolution, exact masses of nuclides, molecular ions, isotope ions. Fragmentation
processes - Mclafferty rearangements, retro Diels - Alder fragmentation. Application
in stnrcture elucidation and evaluation of heats of sublimation and ionization
potential.
References
F.A. Cotton, Chemical applications of Group Theory,2nd Edition, Wiley Eastem,
1971.
Jaffe and Orchin, Symmetry in Chemistry, Wiley Eastern
L.H. Hall, Group Theory and symmetry in Chemistry,McGraw Hill
R. McWeeny, Symmetry: An Introduction to Group Theory and its Applications,
Pergamon Press, London, 1963.
P.H. Walton, Beginning Group Theory for Chemisfry, Oxford University Press
Inc., New York, 1998.
A.W. Joshi, Elements of Group Theory for Physicisfs, New Age International
Publishers, 1997.
P.W. Atkins , Physical Chemistry,6s Edition, Oxford University Press, 1998.
F. Daniels and R.A. Alberty, Ptrysical Chemistry,sh Edition, Wiley Eastern,
l.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
g.
10.
ll.
12.
13.
14.
15.
1980.
D.A. McQuarrie and J.D. Simon, Physical Chemistry, A Molecular Approach,
University Science Books, 1997.
K.J.Laidler, J.H.Meiser and B.C.Sanctuary, Physical Chemistry, Houghton
Mifflin Company, New York,2003.
C.N. Banwell, Fundamentals of Molecular Spectroscopy, Tata McGaw Hill,
New Delhi,1994.
G.M. Barrow,Introduction to Molecular Spectroscopy, McGraw Hill, 1962.
H.H. Willard, L.L. Merit and J.A. Dean, Instrumeial Methods of Analysis, 4n
Edition, Affrliated East-West Press Pvt. Ltd., 1965.
N. Sathyanarayan4 Electronic absorption spectroscopy and related techniques,
University Press, 2000.
R.S. Drago , Physical methods in Inorganic Chemistry, Affiliated East-West Press
Pvt. Ltd., 1977.
W
2-O
A
(lniversity of Colicut'M.Sc. Applied Chemistry - Syllabus
Semester
UNIT
II
- Paper VI - Inorganic chemistry-Il (80 hours)
The crystal fietd-and ligand field theories - Orbital splitting in
octahedral, tZtrahidral, squari planar, square pyramidal and triogonal
bipyramidal fietds. significance of 10Dq, factors affecting crystal field
,pl'itting, spictiochemiia[ and nephelauxetic series, Jahn-Teller ffict.
irlotecilar orbital Theory - Composition of ligand group orbitals' MO
(10 hrs)
diagramsfor complexes with andwithout pi-bonding.
I-
t
configuratiotls, selection
Electronic spectra of complexes - Terms of
in
rules for d-d transitions. Effect of weak ligand fields on RS ter-ms
octahedral-and tetrahedral cimptexis. Orgel diogro*t, Spectra oJ3d m'etal
complexes, calculation of Dq, B, B parameters, correlation diagram,
Taiabe-sugano diagrami. bhorg, transfer spectra-spectra of f-block
(10 hrs)
LIMT lI -
elements.
UNIT
of transition metal complexes - Types of magnetic
Paramagnetism - the curie-and curie-lueiss la'n'. The p,I,1t;s
properties.
-anil
p spin-only expressions, quenching of orbital moment in metal
endent par amagnetis m.
c ompl exes, spin-orbit coupling, temper ature indep
Antiferromagnetism-types and exchange pathw6ys, spin cross over.
Magnetic properties off-block elements. Determination of magnetic moment
lll - Magnetic properties
by Gotty method.
1INIT
(10
hrl
Reaction mechanisms of metal complexes, Classification, rate laws,
Metal and ligand substitution reactions in octahedral complexes - A, D and
mechanisms- and associated energetics aquation and base hydrolysis,
stereochemical changes, isomerisation and recemisation. Fuoss Eigen
equation andfactors determining ond D mechanisms. Lability ond inertness
oi the ,o*p|*rr, trans-ffict,1B theories and applications, the cis-ffict.
Reactions of coordinotrd ligonds hydrolysis, acid dissociation, aldol
condensation, trans aminatlon, template effect and macrocyclisation.
(10 hrs)
lY
-
I
-
:
Redox reaction mechanisms - classification, outer'sphere electron
transfer, chemical activation, Marcus theory and thermodynmics.
IJMT Y
-
and
- kinetics, effect of the nature of metal Two
ligand, bridging group fficts. Metal-ligand redox reactions.
(10 hrs)
eiectrons-, innei+phere electron transfer processes.
Inner-sphere electron transfer
UNIT Yl
Photochemical reactions of metal complexes. Prompt-and delayed
reactions. Excited states of metal complexes intralignd, ligand field,
charge transfer and delocalized states. Charge transfer excited states and
redol procrir"r, communication between excited states, radical pair models.
Propelties of ligand field excited states, rules for photosubstitution, photo'
-
-
ZL
\
aquation and ligand exghange reactions.
Photo-isomerisation and photorecimization' Photo-substitution mechanisms.
Metal complex srniitizers,
chemical actinometry and photo_chromism.
UNIT
yII -
Organometallic compounds _ ClassiJication
and nomenclature. The
electrr n counting-covalent and ionic
models.
Carbon'o donors. Main group
l, 2, 12, i,3, 14 and 15,- syith
structure and bonding in metal
muitiple bond - the metal carbenes
I6'and 18- electron rules,
UNIT-vIII: Transition mgtal complexes with chain ru-donor
ligands - synthesis,
structure, bonding and applications of complexes
of ethylene, a1yl, butadiene and
acetylene. complexes of ring n-donor rigands synthesis, structure, bonding and
reactions of typical c.omplexes of cyclob-utuai.n.,'irHr:,-cut
u, czHz and crHr?;
Fluxional organometallics.
REFERBNCES
1.
2.
3.
4.
R*r:!nt
to 4 of paper II. Inorganic Chenistry_I
-!
A.E. Martell, Coordination Chemiitry Vol.L
R L. Dutta and-A, Sb:!d: Elementi
of Magnetochemisrry.
RS. Drago. Physical Methods in InorganiiChemistry. r
z3
u
t
(
I
(
University of Calicut - M.Sc. Apptied Chemistry _ Syllabus
Semester
II
- paper
vII - organic Chemistry-Il
(g0 hours)
UNIT I - Reactions of Carbonyl Compounds
Reactivi,ty of carbonyl
groupl in aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids,
esters,
acid chlorides with nucelophilic
nucleophiles). Reactions o
Reactions at a_corbon atom _ A
Prins r
carbon
ulation.
and Wittig reaction.
(10 hrs)
reaction by the ,,Frontier
molec
rules (7) ipplicatioi
,i'rrir'i,*
charged systems ana
O) 3 and 5
reaffangement.
(r o
hrs)
REFEREN.E.
1
and K'5. Richardson: Mechanism
and theary in organic chemistry,
2:i,;:\&
Harper
2' F'A' Carey and R.J. sundberg, Advanced organic
Chemistry, prenum press.
UNIT
III -
Chemistry of Natural products
,\
identification using spray reagents - classification - Importance of terpenoids as
of
Jtavoir and fragrinri ,o*pounds and insect repellents (an overview) Synthesis
-camphor
Steroids
- Chemistry of biisynthetic pathway to mono and di+erpenoids
in
claisification - TLi itlentification ,iirg spray reagents - Importance of steroids
n
strog
id hormones
physiologt and
'oi
hway
rogesterone clrotiterol t
d
ones'
g materials Flavanoids - as
Coumarins.
(10 hours)
REFERENCES
1.
I.L. Finar, Organic Chemistry, Yol' IL Longman'
2.
universities Press
N.R,Krishnaswami, Chemistry of Natural Products'
UNIT IV - Photochemistry
General PrinciPles, Jablonski
re
re
t
of singlet oxYgen'
(10 hours)
REFERENCES
1.
)i.
Organic Chemistry' Plenum Press'
F.A. Carey and R'J' Sundberg: Advanced
p.O. Kan'Organic Photochemistry' Mc Grau' Hill'
UNIT V
- Molecular rearrangements
de in rearuangements'
(10 hours)
REFERENCES
1.
2.
3
4
2{
UNIT VI
-
Oxidation
-
Reduction reactions
Oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes, Ketones or Carboxylic acids Oxidation
of aldehydes and ketones, Hydroxylation of alkenes, oxidative cleavage of
carbon-carbon double bonds, Addition to orygen to carbon-carbon double
bonds, oxidative cleavage of allcynes, reactions of alkenes with singlet
oxygen. Allylic oxidation. Muffat oxydation, swern orydation, oxidative
coupling of phenols. Reduction reactions. Reduction of double and triple
bonds with catalytic hydrogenation, Steriochemistry and selectivity,
reductions using LAH, NaBHa,and diimide . Lindlar catalyst
(10 hours)
REFERENCES
F.A. Carqt and RJ. Sundberg; Advanced Organic Chemistry, Plenum Press.
RO.C. Norman andJ.H. Cox, Principles of Organic Slnthesis, Chapman & Hall.
1.
2.
W.Carruthers, Some modern metyhods
3.
of organic
synthesis, Cambridge [Jniversity
Press
4.
H.O.House Modern Synthelic reaction Benjamin, Cummins
LINIT VII
- Biomolecules:
Protein, Neuclic acid, Lipids and Carbohydrates.
Structure and organization of protein, protein sequencing, structure and
functions of DNA and ENA, codon and anticodon recognition, protein bio
synthesis, PCR, DNA hybridization, recombinant methods and gene
engineering.
Structure
of
oils, fats and
sphin gol ip i ds and gly
coI
waxes.
Introduction
to
phospholipids
ipid.
Carbohydrate- stereochemistry and con/igeration of glucose, mannose,
xylose, galactose, arabinose and ribose. Oligosaccrides and polysaccaridesstarch, glycogen, cellulose, chrtin. Indusrial applications ofpolysaccarides.
(10 hours)
REFERENCES
l.
2.
i.
J. March, Advanced Organic Chemistry, Mc Graut Hill.
P.Y. Bruice, Organic Chemistry, Prentice Hall.
J.Claydewn, N.Greeves, S.Warren & P.LYothers, Organic Chemistry Oxford University
Press
UNIT VIII - Heterocyclic Chemistry (10 hours)
2b
Aromatic heterocycles and nonaromatic heterocycles, types. Five membered
compounds with one heteroatom. Synthesis of pyruole, Furan,
Thiophene, Indole, Benzothiophene. Six membered. Quinoline,
Isoquinoline, Pyrylium salts, 2H-pyran-2 ones, 4H-Pyran-4-ones. Five and
six membered ring with two or more heterotoms-pyrimidines and purines,
quinazoline,. Oxazine, Thiazene, imidazole.
ring
(10 hours)
REFERENCES
1.
2.
Joule, J.A. and Miller, K. Heterocyclic Chemistry.
Gilchist, Heterocyclic Chemistry.
2T
University of Calicut, M,Sc, Applied Chemlstry
Scmcstcr
-
Syllabus
II. Paper VIII. Physical ChemistrT - II (80 hrs)
UNIT I - Statistical Thermodynamics - I (10 hours)
Basic Principles, Permutations. Probability distribution of particles in energy states.
Micro states and macro states. Statistical .weight. Most probable distribution.
Thermodynamic probptility and entropy. Boltzmann distribution law. The partition
function and its relation to the thermodynamic functions.
UNIT II - Statistical Tbermodynamics - II ( l0 hours)
The perfect gas. Factorization of the partition function into the tanslational,
rotational, vibrational, and electronic parts. Evaluation of partition functions and the
thermodynamic functions. Ideal monatomic and diatomic gases. The system partition
function (canonical partition function) and its relation to molecular partition function.
Sackur - Tetrode equation. Heat capacity. The anomalous heat capacity of Hydrogen.
Ortho and para hydrogen.
UNIT
III
- Statistical Themodynamics - III (10 hours)
Heat capacity. Heat capacities of solids, Classical and quantum theories, Einsteins
theory of atomic crystals and Debye's modification.
Heat capacities of gases, Classical and quantum theories, The anomalous heat capacity
ofhydrogen, Ortho and para hydrogen.
Imperfect Gases. The virial expression and the virial coefficients. Relation between
the virial coeffrcients and the cluster integrals.
UNIT IV - Statistical Thermodynamics - IV (10 hours)
(a)
O)
Quantum statistics
The ideal Fermi Gas. Fenni - Dirac distribution law. Energy and pressure of Fermi
Gas. Gas Degeneracy. Application to electons
metal.
The ideal Bose gas. The Bose-Einstein disnibution law. Energy and Pressure of an
in
ideal Bose
gas.
Gas Degeneracy. Application
to
Bose-Einstein condensation.
Application to liquid helium.
References:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
G.S. Rush Brook Statistical Mechanics, Oxford University Press.
T.L. Hill, Introduction to Statistical Thermodynamics, Addison Wesley.
K. Huary, Statistical Mechanics Thermodynamics and Kinetics, John
Wiley.
F.C. Andrew, Equilibrium Statistical Mechanics, John Wiley.
O.K. Rice, Statistical Mechanics, Thermodynamics and Kinetics, W.H.
Freeman and Co.
UNIT V - The Liquid State: (10 h)
X-ruy diffiaction studies of simple liquids. Short range order. Radial distribution function.
Configurational Partition function for liquids. Theories of the liquid state. Lattice theory,
The cell or free volume theory, The simple hole theory. Order-disorder theory. LennardJones theory of melting. Communal entropy of liquids.
W
I
I
I
-l
References:
1.
2.
3.
I
I
J.A. Barker, Lattice theories of the liquid state, Pergamon Press.
tr. Prigogine, Molecular Theory of solutions, North Holland Publishing Co.
O.K. Rice, Statistical Mechanics Thermodynamics and Kinetics, W.H.
Freeman and Co.
Molewyn Hughes, Physical Chemistry, Cambridge University Press.
4.
t
I
q
q
q
UNIT VI
- Solid State Chemistry - I
(10 hours)
Electronic Structure of solids (Brief mention only). Classification of solids into conductor,
semiconductors and insulators. Preparation, properties and industrial importance of
Semiconductors.
&a
Y
{
,{
Imperfections
in solids. Point, line and plane defects, Electrons and holes.
t
Nonstoichiometry.
,f
"1
UNIT VII - Solid State Chemistry - II (10 hours)
Imperfection and Physical properties of solids @rief survey)
i) Electrical properties - Electrical conductivity, Hall effect, dielectric properties,
il
/.:
I
piezoelectricity, ferroelectricity and conductivity.
Super conductivity, Meisner effect,
superconductivity
ii)
Optical properties
r
-
Photoconductivity, luminescence, colour centers,
refraction, birefringence.
iii)
{
Brief discussion of Cooper theory of
Ivlagnetic properties
-
diamagnetism, Paramagnetism
;l
I
lasers,
ferro mangnetism,
antiferromagnetism and ferrimagnetism.
Thermal properties - thermal conductivity and specific heat.
Mechanical properties: Strength of real crystals as compared with an ideal crystal,
different strengthening mechanisms.
iv)
v)
Refcrences:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Introduction to solids, L.V. Azaroff, McGraw-Hill.
Chemistry of Solids, A. K. Galway, Chapman and Hall.
Solid State Chemistry, N. B. Hanna, Prentice Hall
Physical Chemistry, G. M. Barrow, McGraw - Hill.
Physical Chemistry, W. J. Moore, Prentice Hall
Solid state chemistry, A. R. West, John Wiley.
UNIT VIII - Photochemistry (10 hours)
Laws of Photochemistry. Quantum yield and its determination. Effect of temperatwe,
wavelength and intensity of radiation on photochemical reactions. Kinds of photochemical
reactions. Kinetics of photochemical chain reactions. Hz-Brz reaction. Hz-Clz reaction.
Photolysis of
NHl. Excimers and Exciplexes.
Photosensitization by Hg.
Photo-physical phenomena. Radiative and non-radiative transitions. Jablonski diagram.
Fluorescence. Phosphorescence. Luminescence. Chemiluminescence.
Thermoluminescence. The Ruby Laser.
Rcferences:
D. A. McQuarie and J.D. Simon, Physicd Chcmistry. A molecular approach,
University Science Books.
2. G.K. Vemulapalli, Physical Chemistry, Prentice-Flall of India.
L
t
zq
\
Ilttivcrsity of Callcut, M.Sc. Applled Chemlstry
Semcstcr
III. Papcr IX. Computer
-
Syllabus
Basics and Instrumental Methods of Analysis
-I
(80 hrs)
IINIT I - Introduction to Computers in Chemistry (10 h)
Basic ideas of CPU, input and output devices, memory. Hardwares and softwares.
System softwares and application softwares.
Programming Languages : machine, assembly, and high level languages. Interpreter
and compiler. Flow charts and Algorithms. lntroduction to BASIC language, BASIC
characters, Numeric constants and variables, Sting variables, Symbols of arithmetic
operations, Hierarchy of operations. BASIC Statements, User defined functions.
Writing simple programmes in BASIC: Factorial of a number, Method of least
sduares, Determination of empirical formula of hydrocarbons, dipole moments of
disubstituted benzenes, delocalization energy of aromatic systems, molecular weight
of an organic compound, lattice energy of ionic crystal using Born-Lande equation,
solubility of sparingly soluble salts, half life & average life of a radio active elements.
Calculation of energies and wave firnctions of a particle in a l-D box and plotting the
wave functions and probability densities using spread sheet (e.9., EXCEL),
Calculation of Hermite polynomials.
Introduction to C language, C characters, Constants and Variables, C statements. C
programming, Factorial of a number, Mblecular weight of organic compounds.
Basic ideas on the use of Intemet in Chemistry Education.
References
J. B. Norton,Introduction to BASIC, BPB publishers.
S.M. Venit, Programming in BASIC, problem solvingwith structure and style,
Jaico Publishing House, Bombay.
Madric and Donevan, Understanding Computers, McGraw Hill.
K.V. Raman, Computers in Chemistry, Tata McGraw Hill,l993.
K.B. Wiberg, Computer programmingfor chemists, Benjamin Inc., NY, 1965.
Wilkens and others, Introduction to computer programming for Chemistry Basic Version, Allyn and Bacon, London, I 981.
N. Subramaniam, Programming in Basic,A.L.Wheeler and Co.
P.Lykose, Personal Computers in Chemistry, John Wiley and Sons, NY,
1981.
Ramesh Kumari, Computers and their applications to Chemistry, Naros-a, New
l.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Delhi,2002.
UNIT II - Introduction to Computational Quantum Chemistry (10 h)
Electronic structure of molecules, Review of Hartree-Fock SCF method, Basis sets,
STOs and GTOs, Nomenclature of basis sets. Semi-empirical and ab initio methods.
Calculations using Gaussian Programme, Specification of molecular geometry using
a) Cartesian coordinates and b) Internal coordinates, The Z-matrix, Z-matrices of
some simple molecules (e.g., H2, H2O, Formaldehyde, Ammonia, Methanol), The
structure of a Gaussian Input file.
E}
References
l'
2.
3.
4.
t NIT III.
D.A. McQuarrie and J.D. Simon, Plrysical Chemistry, A Molecular Approach,University Science Books, 1997.
I.N. Levin, Quantum Chemistry,56 Edition, Pearson Education, Inc.,2000.
T. Clark, A Handbook of Computational Chemistry,John Wiley and
Sons,
Inc., 1985.
F. Jensen, Introduction to Computational Chemistry,John Wiley
and Sons,
t999.
(10 hourp)
Fundamental law of spectophotometry, nephelometry and turbidometry.
uv-visible
and IR spectophotometry - instrumentation, single and double beam
instruments.
Atomic'emission spectometry - excitation ro*.rs (flame, AC and DC arc),
spark,
inductively coupled plasmq glus discharge, laser microprobes, flame stnrcture,
instrumentation, qualitative and quantitative analysis. Aiomic absorption
spectometry : sample atomization techniques, instrumentation, interference,
background correction, analytical applications.
IJNIT
IV:
(10 hours)
Atomic fluorescence spectrometry - Theory, instrumentation and applications. X-ray
methods: X-ray absorption and X-ray diftaction - basic instrumentation and
applications. photoelecton spectomety - Auger, ESCA and sEM theory,
instmmentation and applications. Basic principles of automated and online analysis.
IINIT V. (10 hours)
Electroanalytical methods - Basic theory, instnrmentation and applications of
electogravi-.try, coulomety, polarography, amperometry, biamperomety, cyclic
voltarhetry, chromopotentiometry and stipping analysis.
t NIT VI.
(10 hours)
Thermal methods - instrumentation and applications of TG, DTA and DSC, factors
affecting thermal analysis, thennometric titrations, TN{A and DIvIA.
Radiochemical methods: Applications of radionuclides, activation analysis, isotope
dilution analyses, liquid scintillation systems, applications in mineralogy and
polymers.
UNIT VII : (10 hours)
Separation techniques: Liquid - Liquid extaction - dishibution laws,
use of oxine,
dithiazone, high molecular weight''amines, dithiocarbamates and crown
ethers in
extraction.
Chromatography: classification, theory, basic instrumentation and uses of paper,
thin
layer,liquid, column, gas, ion-exchange chromatography, and HPLC.
L
3l
UNIT VIII. (10 hours)
Environmental analysis : Air pollutants and their fate in the atmosphere - CO, SO2,
Mlr, Fz, Clz, CFC, hydrocarbon, organosulphur and organotin compounds, air
pollution modeling and monitoring.
Types of water pollutants: organics and inorganics, sludge, radionucleides, oxidants
and reductants, and their determination.
Analysis of drugs and pharmaceuticals - Quality control, offrcial methods,
classical
and modern methods of drug analysis. Principle of estimation of biological
fluids hemoglobin, choiesterol and blood sugar. Theory of the analysis of
milk, butter, other
diary items, starch based food products and beverages. Fats and oils
characterization, iodine, bromine and saponification values.
References
l.
2.
3.
4.
Vogel's textbook of quantitative inorganic analyses.
Skoog and West, principles of Instrumental analysis.
willard, Merrit, Mean and settle,Instrumental methods of analysis.
Official methods of analysis of the AOAC.
v
\,
IJniversity of Calicut - M.Sc, Apptied Chemistry - Syllabus
scmcstcr
III
- Papcr X. Inorganic chemistry-Ill (80 hours)
(10 hrs)
aspects and
UNIT_I: Metal - metalf bond and metal clusters - General electronic
- quadruple bonded complexes of
bonding in metal - tn.tat single, double, triple and
structure and electron count non .*ionyl clusters. The iJolobal analogies. Cluster
(10 hrs)
the Wade Mingos - Lauher rules, higher carbonyl
organic synthesis and
compounds
UNIT-II: Applications
-in
and activation of Hz, Nz, Oz, NO by
homogeneous catalysis.
ve addition, reductive elimination and
transition metals.
reagent' Hydrozirconation of alkenes
insertion reactions CarUonylation by Collman's
(10 hrs)
and alkynes
clusters.
.
of
Co
Catalytic
--- --'
Homogeneous catalysis - Hyd'r
of 'alkenes, alkyne, cycloadditions and
hydroformylation of alkenes, Monsanto a
iri.tuf .o*plexes in enantioselective
UNIT-II:
synthesis"
(10 hrs)
inorganic compounds and
UNIT IV - Infrared-and Raman spectal studies of simple
on coordination with metal ion'
metal complexes. changes in ligand vibrations
carbonyls cD and oRD
Metal ligand vibrations.- vibrational specta of metal
Spectra of metal comPlexes.
metal completles from
NMR spectroscopy for stnrctual studies of diamagnetic
reagents'
Lt.*ira
shift and spin-spin coupling.
[NIT-V:
Lan
Tf;r;
rlexes as shift
and A parameter' g
ESR specta of metal complexes - Hyperfine splitting
degeneftLcy, application .to copper
orrbuo..-.ffect, hyperfine interactions
le iron and tin complexes' (10 hrs)
values, zer
complexes.
(qualitative
-
trace
ically
f
The
metal
of
transport
calcium. Storage and
(10 hrs)
es.
myoglobin'
Oxygen transport by heme proteins-- hemoglobin and
cooperativity'
binding,
structure of the Oi Uinaing site, nature of heme-dioxygen
Hemerythrin and hemocYanin.
UNIT-VII:
and function of copper proteins in electron transport
pio.arr, cytochromes, iron-sulphur proteins, fiosinase, superoxide dismutase'
A brief idea on structure
93
Lewis acid role
of zn(il) and Mn(II) containing en4rmes, carboxypeptidase,
vitaminBlz and coenzymes.
UNIT vrlr - chlorophyll.- photosystems
I
Metal complexes in medicine, metal ionrd]I.. Nitrogen fixation_nitrogenease.
aencie".r, ,"'.i.ity and detoxification.
(10 hrs)
REFERE]iCES.
t.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
I t.
3r
University of Calicut - M.Sc. Applied Chemistry - Syllabus
Semester
III
- Paper
XI. Organic Chemistry III (80 hours)
UNIT I - Organic spectroscopy
Electronic absorption and chiroptical spectroscopy- Measurements using polarised
light ordinary apsorption and chiroptical spectroscopy, Circular birefringence and
Circular dichorism, ORD and CD. ORD and CD spectra and Cotton effect
rH
Applications of UV, IR,
r3C
&
NMR and MS in the structural elucidation of
(Problem
approach only Instrumentation not required).
compounds
oriented
organic
W -
Characteristic absorption
calculating absorption maximum.
of
organic compounds
-
Empirical rules for
IR - Characteristic group absorptions of organic molecules - Alkanes,
Alkenes,
phenols,
carbonyl
alcohols,
ethers,
aromatic
hydrocarbons,
Alkynes, Mononuclear
compounds. Amines & Amides, Nitrile, S-H and S=O groups.
lH NMR: The chemical shifts and shielding, chemical equivalence and Magnetic
equivalence, Local diamagnetic shielding, Magnetic anisotropy, Spin-Spin coupling,
coupling constants, the mechanism of coupling (one bond and two bond coupling
only): Protons on heteroatoms. Coupling of protons to other nuclei Quadrupole
boardening. First and second order spectra. Aromatic compounds. Homotropic,
enantiotropic and diastereotropic hydrogens. Spin decoupling - Double resonance.
High resolution NMR. Vicinal and derminal coupling in rigid systems.
r3C
ProtonC-13 NMR: C-13 chemical shifts, correlation charts, calculation of
coupled C-13 spectra. Spin-spin splitting of C-13 signals, proton decoupled spectra,
off resonance decoupling.
Mass .spectrometry: Mass spectra, Determination of molecular weight, molecular
formula from isotope ratio data, Fragmentation paffern in different classes of
compounds. Mordem techniques of ionization.
(12 hours)
REFERENCES
1.
2.
Silverstein, Bassler, Monill
Wilry Sons, 1991.
3
4
-
Spectoscopic ldenti/ication of Organic Compound
-
John
Kemp: Organic Spectroscolpy - McMillan, 1996.
Pavia: Spectroscopy ofOrganic Compounds and Edn. Scunder Publishers.
J.B Lamberl, H.F Shurvell, D.A.Lightner and RG. Cooks, Organic structural spectroscopy,
Prentice Hall
LINIT II - Photochemical and Electrochemical Synthesis
Photographic processes. Photopolymerization and photochemical degradation of
polymers. Photochemistry in synthesis. Photochemistry of dyes and pigments.
Photoelectrochemistry in. solids and organized assemblies. Photochemical renrcte
3t
a
functionalisation and hydrogen abstaction reactions. Introduction to PET, chemi and
bioluminescence reactions. Industrial photochemistry.
Basic aspects of electroorganic reactions.Electrochemical oxidation and reduction
reactions. Cathodic reduction of organic functional groups. Oxidation of
hydrocarbons-imerization and electropolymerization reactions.Electrochemical
sensors.
REFERENCES
1.
2.
P.O. Kan, Organic Photochemistry, McGravt Hill.
P. Suppan; Chemistry of Light, RS.C. London.
IINIT III - Multistep Organic Synthesis
Synthetic analysis and planning. Retrosynthetic analysis, disconnections, functional
group introduction, interconversions. Approch to synthetic planning illustated by
simple molecules. Synthones and synthetic equivalents. Control of stereochemistry.
Selectivity and specificity in synthesis. Chemo-, Sterio-, diasterio, enantio selctivity
and specificity. Asymmetric synthesis, stereospecific synthesis . Protecting $oups
hydroxyl, amino, carbonyl and carboxylic acid protecting groups. Umpolung
reactions and use in synthesis. (10 hours)
Reference:
1)
2)
,
4)
F.A. Caney, RJ. Sandberg, Advanced Organic Chemistry.
M.B.Smith, Organic rynthesis, Mc Graw Hill
RO.C.Norman, Principles of organic synthesis
RS.Ward Selectivity in organic synthe;is, John Wiley and Sons
UNIT IV - Molecular Recognition and Supramolecular Chemistry
The concepts of molecular recognition, host -guest receptor concept. Forces
involved in molecular recognition-hydrogen bonding, ionic bonding, n stacking,
vanderWalls and Hydrophobic interactions and their significance, Supramolecular
Chemistry- molecular receptors, Calixarenes, Crown ethers, Cryptands,
cyclophanes, Cyclodextrins and other molecular hosts. Self assembly of
supramolecular structures. Introduction to combinatorial Chemistry. Principles of
green Chemistry.
(10 hours)
References
l. H.Vogtle, Supramolecular Chemistry, John Wiley and
Sons.
H.Dugas, Bioorganiv Chemistry, springer
3. RSanghi, M.M.Srewasthsva, Green Chemistry, Narosa
4. Fenniri, Combinatorial Chemistry, Oxford University Press.
2.
UNIT V : Synthetic Reagents
.
Synthetic reagents: Synthetic application of the following reagents: NBromosuccinimide, Diazomethane, Dicyclohexylcarbodimide, Selenium
dioxide, m-chloroperbenzoic acid, DDQ Lithium diisopropylamide (LDA),
Diisotbutylaluminium hyrdride(DlBAl), Dimethyl cuprate, Organoboranes,
3b
organosilanes, complex metalhydrides
only -, phase transfer catalysis.
-
NaBHa/LiDHa and NabHqlAlCIt
(10 hours)
References
3
4
M.Caruthers, Morder Synthetic Methods, Cambridge.
Pizey, Synthetic Reagents, Vol. I -4.
Fiser & Fiser, Synthetic Reagent, Vol.l-4.
H.O.House, Modern synthetic reactions, Benjamin Cummins
VI.
Application of Organometallics in Organic Synthesis: Use of
organometallic compounds of magnesium, lithium, Zinc, cadmium, copper, boron,
silicon in organic synthesis, Rearrangements catalysed by metalions and complexes.
UNIT
(10 hours).
REFERENCE
1.
2.
Synthetic Reagents - Pizey - Yol. W.
Some modern melhods of organic synlhesis by W. Carruthers.
UNIT YII - Industrial Organic Chemistry (10 hours)
Chemicals from natural gas and petroleum. Petroleum refining reactions (an
overview only). Chemicals from coal. Brief study of the Chemsitry, mechanism and
catalysts in the following manufacturing processes. Conversion of ethylene to vinyl
acetate, acetaldehyde and vinyl chloride. Conversion of propylene to acrylonitile,
acrylic acid, benzone and prophylane to phenol and acetone. Acetone to methyl
methacrylate. Phenol to aniline. Alcohols to aldehyde and ketones. Hydrogenation of
phenol to cyclohexanol, pyrrole to pynolidine. Industrial chemistry of fats and oils.
Reference: H.A. Wittcoff and B.G. Renbar, Industrial Organic Chemicals.
UNIT VIII - Synthetic Polymers (10 hours)
Definition
of polymers, understanding the following terms -
Degree of
polymerisation, average degree of polymerisation, number average and weight
average molecular weights; homopolymer and co-polymer, alternating, random and
block polymers; linear, branched and network polymers (definition of the terms
only). Chain growth (radical, anionic and cationic) polymerisation, co-ordination
polymerisation, and step growth polymerisation - illustrated with suitable examples
(only mechanism no kinetics required). Classification - Fibers, Elastomers and
Plastics. Thermoplastics and Thermosetting resins (Basic ideas only).
Stereochemical configuration of polymers - Tacticity, isolatic, syndiotactic, atactic,
threodisotactic and erythodisotactic illustrated with suitable examples. Brief study
of the synthesis, structure and application of the following polymers - polyethylens,
polypropylene, PVC, reoprene, lefton, plexiglass, urea-formaldehyde resin, melanin
formaldehyde resins, polyethylene terephthalate, polycarbonate, liquid crystal
polyester, polyurethane forms, silicon elastomers, high temperature polymers.
3T
References
l.
2.
D. Feldman and A. Barbalata, synthetic polymers, chapmann
and Hall.
G.Odian, Principles of Polymerization. Mc GrawHill.
3g
Ilniversity of Caficut, M.Sc. Applied Chenistty -Syllabus
semester
III.
Paper XII. Physical chemistry
- III
(80 hrs)
Kinetics - I
Rate laws, Determination of order of reaction. True order and false order.
Differential method. Method of isolation. Guggenheim method. Kinetic of complex
reactions. Reversible, parallel and consecutive reactions. Steady state approximation.
fuce Rate law for turimolecular reactions - Lindemann mechanism Chain reactions Herzfield mechanism. H2-Br2, Hz-CLz reactions. Dissociation of acetaldehyde.
Explosions . Hz'Ozreaction.
UNIT
- I. Chemical
UNIT
- II. Chemical
UNIT
- III.
Kinetics - II
Reaction dynamics. Theories of reaction rate. Effect of temperature on reaction rate.
The Arrhenius equation. The energy of activation. Collision theory (Derivation).
Reaction .ror, ,.ition. Transition state theory @eviation). Comparison of the two
theories. Thermodynamic teatnent of reaction rates. Linear free energy
relationships. Theoretical calculations of energy of activation. The London equation.
Potential energy surfaces (brief treatnent).
Chemical Kinetics - III.
Kinetic of reaction in solution. Comparison of solution and gas kinetics. Diffusion
controlled reactions. Influence of solvent on rate. Cage effect. Effect of dielectric
constant on rate. Primary and secondary kinetic salt effects. Structural effects on rate.
Hammett and Taft Equations. Study of fast reactions. Flash photolysis. Flow
Techniques. Relaxation methods.
Books suggested
Reaction Kinetics, Vol. II by K.J. Laidler, McGraw Hill.
Kinetic and Mechanism by A. A. Frost and R. G. Pearson, John'Wiley.
Physical Chemistry by F Daniels and RA Alberty, Wiley.
l.
2.
3.
UNIT
- IV. Adsorption
Physisorption, Chemisorption. Langrnuir adsorption Isotherm - Statistical derivation.
The B E T equation - Determination of surface area of adsorbents. Heat of adsorption.
Adsorption of esters and determination of heat of adsorption.
Adsorption from solution surfaces. The Gibbs equation. Experimental investigation
of monolayers. Formation of unimolecular surface films of spreading oils - structue
of surface films. Surface tension and detergents.
UMT - V. Colloids
Stnrctrue and stability of colloids. Micelles.. The electic double layer. The
electrokinetic potential or zetapotential. Derivation of the equation for zetapotential.
Importance of zeta potential. Brownian movement and Avogadro number.
Determination of molecular weight of polymers. Ultra centrifuge, osmotic pressure,
viscosity and light scattering methods. Colloidal electrolytes. Ionic micelles.
IINIT -
VI.
Catalysis
Hbmogeneous catalysis. Theory of homogeneous catdlysis. Acid-base catalysis.
Bronsted catalysis laws. Specific and general acid catalysis. Enryme catalysis.
1)t)
37
l"
('
Michaelis-Menten Mechanism. Catalysis by co-ordination complexes. Auto
catalysis. Oscillating reactions. Heterogeneous catalysis - theory. Adsorption and
catalysis. Surface catalysis of bimolecular gas phase reaction (e.g. 2CO + Oz - 2CO2).
Langmuir-Hinshelwood Mechanism. Eley-Rideal Mechanism. Industrial
Applications (brief mention).
0
G
Q
f
f
References:
1. The Physics and Chemistry of surfaces, M.K. Adam. Dover Publications.
2. Physical Chemistry of surface. A. W. Adamson, Wiley Interscience.
3. Colloid Science, A.E Alexander and F. Johnson, Oxford University Press.
4. Introduction to Colloid Science, J. Mysells, Wiley, Interscience.
5. Textbook of Physical Chemistry, S. Glasstone.
UNIT
UNIT
e
T
f
(
Nuclear and Radiation Chemistry - I (10 hours)
Nuclear reactions : T1pes, conservation, reaction cross section compound nucleus
theory, specific nuclear reactions, photonuclear and thermonuclear reactions, Nuclear
fission: Fission Process, fission fragments, mass and charge distibution, fission
energy, theory of nuclear fission.
- VII.
f
t
t
VI[.
Nuclear and Radiation Chemistry - II (10 hours)
Radiochemical techniques: Neutron activation analysis. Radiation Chemistry: The
interaction of radiation with matter-processess responsible for energyless range and
range energy relations, methods of detection and measurement of radiation. Elements
of physical and chemical radiation effects in solids, radiation chemistry of water and
aqueous ferrous sulphate solution. Radiation dosimety- Fricks dosimeter
calculation of absorbed dose. Szilard-Chalmers effect.
-
"(
t
i
(
6
I
References:
1. G. Friedlander and J.W. Kennedy, Nuclear and Radion Chemistry.
2. S. Classtone, Source Book on atomic energy.
3. J.B. Rajam, Atomic Physics.
4. Vanderwerf, Radioactive Isotopes.
5. M. Haissinsky, Nuclear Chemistry and its applications.
6. N W T Spinks and R K Wonds, An Intoduction to Radiation Chemisty.
7. Friedlander and J.W. Kennedy Nuclear and Radiation Chemistry.
(
{
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
6
6
6
,6
6
0
Qc>
u,
I
(Jniversity of Calicut - M.Sc. Applied Chemistry - Syllabus
(80 hours)
scmester IV - Elective Paper XIII(a). Bioinorganic chemistry
bulk and
LINIT I: Elemental
trace metal ions.
affecting the stabil
biocheriical studies.
factors
ounds in
(10 hows)
'
UNIT II: Role of alkali and alkaline earth metal in biological systems, io_nophores
role of calcium,
and passive transport, sodium pump and active transport: structural
tr*Jp"rt of calcium, iot u- andextra cellular calcium binding proteins. (10 hours)
en transport by heme proteins' hemoglobin
III:
and myog
hemovanad
UNIT
carieri
hemerythrin, hemocyanin and
exes of iron and coPper as oxygen carriers'
(10 hours)
proteins
UNIT fV: Electron transport in biology - structure and function of copper
in electron transport p.orrrr, cytochromes, iron-sulphr'u proteins, synthetic models'
(10 hours)
UNIT V: Metaloenzymes and electron carrier metalloproteins - Zn(lD and Mg(II)
P450, catalase'
containing enzymes: Redox enzymes: Iron enrymes - cytochrome
copper enrymes
peroxidasi,
-Brz
and
coenzyme.
- o*id*.,
tyrosinase, superoxide dismutase' Vitamin
(10 hours)
-
Ferritin, tansferring and'
of metals,
siderophores, ceruI-oplasmin. Uetat deficiency and diseases, toxic effect
for diagnosis,
and role of Li and it i1 biological syst:ms. Metal complexes used
UNIT VI: Storage and transport of metal ions
chemotherapy and anticancer
drugs.
(10 hours)
UNIT VII: Bioenergetic, ATP cycle, glucose storage, phosphate tranlfer, pynrvate
I
kinuse, creative kinise ATP as-molybd"rroenzymes. Chlorophyll, photosystems
and
II, model systems of water splitting and COz reduction. (10 hours)
UNIT VIII: Biochemical nitrogen activation - nitrogenases, structure and activity of
Fe-Mo nitrogenases and nitrog"n**, model systems. Inorganic pollutants in natural
of
water - chemical speciation oIHg, As, Pb, Cd, Se and Sb. Plants as accumulators
elements - Indicator plants,
Biominerals.
(10 hours)
REF'ERENCES
1.
2.
3.
4.
S.
6.
7.
8.
F.A. Cotton and G, lhlkinson, Advanced Inorganic Chemistry, 5'h edition'
J..E. Huheey, Inorganic Chemislry - Principles of Structure and Reactivity.
KF. Purcell and K.C. Kotz, Inorganic Chemistry'
D.E. Fenton, Bioinorganic Chemistry.
Chenistry.
Oxford,1976'
v
(Jniversity of Calicut - M.Sc' Apptied Chembtry - Syllabus
paper XIII(b). Environmental Chemistry (Elcctivc)
Scmcstcr IV - Elcctive
(80 hours)
by physical'
Dnvironment : segments of environment. Soil formation
chemical and biological weathering' C
UNIT
I:
IJNIT
II:
cation and
ol
fjJi**
rvpes
automobi
,
I
L
f
UNIT UI: Water Pollution: Sources o
industries, tanneries, detergenes, etc' E
t
F
l
i
)
3
l
b
$
t(*
F
s
r
h
!
h
t'
h
water.
water supplies. ISI standards for drirking
(10 hotus)
REFERENCES
l.
Z.
4.
HW Gehm and J'I' Bergman (eds')'
Handbook of water Resources and Pollution control,
Principles of Water Quality Contol' THY Tobbutt'
Environmental Chemistry, A'K' De'
of agsicultural
UNIT IV: Soil pollution: Effect of fertilizers on soil utilisation
detection
pesticides
and
sotrces
Classification,
wastes
Solid
incineration, .o*potritry u.roUit and an
oiplastics and other solid wastes.
wastes - gobar gas,
and measurement, thermal
\
(10 hours)
its harmful
LNIT V: Radiation in the environment: Mode of radiation decay and- radioactive
effects in the environment. The nuclear fuel cycle. Transportation .of
in soil' Effects of
materials. Radioactive waste management. Radio-nuclides
plants: Chernobyl
Ionizing radiation. Effects on ..o-ryJtems. Accidents in atomic
of radiation. Effects on ecoand Thiee mile island disasters. tvtittrods of detection
(10 hours)
,yrt.-. Beach sands of Kerala and radiation'
v
I
tu
in soil'
landfill'
recycling
es
+3
REFERENCES
l.
Cleaning our Environmenl - A Chemical Perspective, American Chemicals Society, 1978,
2.
hapter 8.
Radiation protection, J. Shapiro,
UNIT VI. Environmental Toxicolory: Chemical factors which influence toxicity.
Toxicological testing methods. Acute, prolonged and chronic toxicities. Biological
effects of arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, carbon monoxide and cyanide,
carcinogens.
(10 hours)
REFERENCES
l.
2.
3.
Essentials of Toxicologt, T.A. Loomis.
Industrial Toxicologt, A. Hamilton & H.L. Lardy.
Environmental Chemistry, A.D. De.
UNIT VII. Analysis of pollutants: Sampling techniques of air, water and soil
samples analysis
of
N & P monitoring
SOz, NOz, CO, Ozone. Determination
methods.
of DO, COD, BOD, TOC,
(8 hours)
LIMT VIII: Instrumental methods in Environmental Chemical Analysis (Principles
of the Methods only): (a) Neutron activation. analysis O) Anodic stripping
voltammetry (c) Atomic absorption spectrometer (d) X-ray fluorescence (e) Infrared
spectrometry (f) Chemiluminescence (g) Gas chromatography mass spectrometry ft)
(12 hours)
Ion-selective
electrodes.
REFERXNCES
t.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Inslrumental Methods of Chemical Analysis, G.W. Ewing.
Erruironmental Chemistry, B.K. Sharma & Kgur.
Cleaning our Erwironmenl - Chemical Perspective, American Chemical Society, 1978.
Environmental Chemistry,L.l4r. Moore and E.A. Moore.
Environmental Control ond Public Health, W. Hall and M. Kegnes.
ErruironmentalChemistry,S.K.Banarii,l994.
-1
!l4
er
I
,1
(
l+l+
{-
Calicut University - M.Sc. Applietl Chemistry - Syllabus
Semester IV. Elective Paper
XIII(c) - Natural Products Chemistry (80 hours)
UNIT - I. Essential oil and aromatics (10 hours) : Cultivation, collection, storage
and uses of plants of medicinal importance. Isolation and study of the important
constituents of: Lerhon grass oil, Lemon oil, Cintonella oil, Citrus oil, Ajowan oil,
Campnor oil, Palmarosa oil, Rosemary oil, patchouly oil, pepperminit oil, turpertine
oil, Sandalwood oil, Lavender oil, Geranium oil, vetiver oil, Rose oil, civer, Musk,
Ambergris oil, Essential oils of Turmeric and Ginger. Oleoresin - preparation of
Oleoresin - Oleoresins of pepper, Chilly, Ginger and Turmeric.
REFERENCES
1.
l. VI Ernest Guenther, Robert K Krieger Publishing Company, New
York,1972.
Organic Chemistry: I.L. Finar, Vol. II.
The essential oils Vol.
2.
UNIT II. Terpenoids: Chemistry and structure of the following (Synthesis and
structural elucidation excluded) Classification of terpenes - isoprenJrule - Carvones,
Menthol, Limonene, Zingiberine alpha Thujene car-3-ene, car2-ene, carone,
caryophylline, alpha-Pinene, camphor, citral, Famesol, Bisaboline, Eugenol,
Abietic acid, Squalene, amyrin,
B-amyrin.
(10
hours)
REF'ERENCE
1.
2.
3.
Organic Chemistry, Vol. No. 2, IL Finar.
The Chemistry of Terpenoids Ed. by Newman.
The chemistry of Terpenoids by A.R. pinder.
UNIT
III.
Sterioids: Classification and isolation of steriods. Synthesis of the
following Cholesterol, Ergosterol, Ergocalciferol, oesterone, Diosgenine,
Oestradiol, Estriol, Androsterone, Testosterone, Progestrone, Cholic acid. Co-rtisone
and
(10 hrs)
Corticosterone.
REF'ERENCE
l.
2.
3.
Fieser and Fieser, ,Steroids,.
'Chemistry of the steriods,Shoppe.
Relevant chapterfrom I.L.
Final Vol. II.
UNIT IV. Alkaloids: Nomenclature, classification, Isolation chromatographic and
other techniques of purification. Detailed study of the following. -Moqphine,
Reserpine, Tylophorin and Lysergic
acid.
REF'ERENCES
1.
2.
3,
4.
5.
Alkaloids by Bentley
The alkaloids by Manske Holmes.
The Plant alkaloids, Henry.
Natural products Chemistry Vol I & II Kodansi
Relevant chapters from Final Yol.
It
r
(10 hours)
UNIT V.Anthocyanins: Introduction, General Nature and Structure of
Anthecyanidine (cyanidin chloride) Flavone, flavanone, Flavonol (Quercetin)
Isoflavone (Diadezein) and
chalcone.
(10 hours)
REF'ERENCES
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Bentley, The Natural Pigments, Interscience
Geissman (ed.) the Chemistry ofJlavenoid compounds (Pergamon).
Berfeld (ed) Biogenesis of Natural compounds (Pergamon)
Harboine, Comparative Biochemistry of Flavonoids Academic Press, I967.
Finar
II Ch.
VoL
15.
UNIT VI. Prostaglandins: Chemistry of Prostaglandins - Isolation classification,
structure elucidation and synthesis of PGE, PGF, PGA & PGB groups of
prostaglandins.
(10 hours)
REFERENCES
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
UNIT
Pine Hendricl<son et al. ch.17.
Geissman (ed.) the Chemistry offlavenoid compounds (Pergamon)
Brefeld (ed) Biogenesis of Natural compounds (Pergamon).
Harboine, comparative Biochemistry of Flavonoids Academic Press, 1967.
Finar VoLII. Ch.
VII.
15.
Biosynthesis
of
terpenoids (mono
(cholesterol) and alkaloids (Nicotine, Moriphine and
&
diterpens only) steriods
Ephedrn)
(10 hours)
REFERENCES
1.
2.
Secondary metabolism, J. Mann, 2nd Edn. 1987.
Relevant chapter of I.L. Finar.
IINIT
VIII.
: Structures
chlorophyll.
Haemin and Chlorophyll
Chemistry of haemin and
REFERENCES
1.
2.
Final Yol. II
Biochemistry by Leneingher
4b
and Synthesis of porphyrins.
(10 hours)
a
Calicut University - M.Sc. Applied Chemistry - Syllabus
Semester IV. Elective Paper
XIII(d) - Synthetic Organic Chemistry (80 hours)
UNIT - I. Asymmetric synthesis
Enantiomerfu excess and diasteriomeric excess. Strategt and classificatioin
of methods -Use of chiral substrates, awciliaries, reagents, and asymmetric
catalysis in asymmetric synthesis.Use of enzymes in asymmetric synthesis.
REFERENCES
l.
J.Clayden, N.Grearcs, S.Warner and
2.
j.
UNIT
P.
Wothers, Organic Chemistry,
@ord
University
Press.
KKMaceie, D.M.Smilh and RA Aitken, Guide to Organic synthesis, pp.3l1-344, Longman.
E.L.Eliel, S.H.Wilen, Stereochemistry of Organic compounds, Jolm lYiley and Sons.
II.
Synthetic strategy:
Formation of carbon-carbon bond: Principle, disconnections and s5mthons,
electrophilic and nuclephilic carbon species. Base catalyzed condenstaion:
Mannich base as intermediates in organic synthesis. Four centre reactions:
Diels-Aider reaction, 1,3 -Diploar additions.
Fonnation of carbon-nitrogen Bond: Nucleophilic nitrogen and electrophilic
carbon, electophilic nitrogen and nucleophilic carbon, Beckmann
rearrangement, Skraup syntehsis, Bischler -Napieralski reaction.
Formation of carbon-halogen bond - Allylic halogenation by NBS, NCS, and
MS, Photochemical and electrochemical methods of organic synthesis, some
illustrative examples.
(10 hro
REFERENCES
Principles of Orgonic Synlhesis by R.O.C. Norman
Advanced Organic Chemistry by J. March
1.
)
UNIT III. Biotransformations in Organic Chemistry
lntroduction to biocatalysis, advantages and disadvantages of biocatalysis.
Biocatalytic applications- Hydrolytic reactions, Co-factors in oxidation
reduction reactions. Addition elimination reaction , Glycosyl transfer
reactions, formation of C-C Bond. Enzyme reactions in organic solventsester synthesis, lactone synthesis, amide synthesis.
REFERENCE
1.
2.
3.
K.Faber, Biotransformations in Organic Chemistry, Springer.
P.Y.Bruice, Organic Chemistry, Prentice Hall.
.R.B.Silver man, Organic Chemistry of eruyme catalysed reactions, Academic Press.
47
UNIT
IV.
Multistep syntheis strategies
Synthetic studies on Reserpine, Atropine, Testosterone, 11-oxotestosterone,
Prostaglandin E, Penicillin, Cephalosporin, Polyoxygenated flavones,.
Carryophyllin, Chloroquin, Sulphamethoxole.
(10 hours)
REF'ERENCE
t.
2.
i.
Norman R.O.C., Principles of Organic Synthesis.
Finar IL Longman.
Krishnaswamy N.R, Chemistry of Natural Products, University Press.
UNIT V. Catalysis.
Catalysed synthetic processes, including heterogeneous
catalysts, a brief description of phase transfer catalysis, misceller catalysis, organic
reactions in organized media, polymer supported reagents and biocatalysts in
organic
synthesis.
(10 hrs)
REFERENCE:
Narang, Mathur and Williams, Polymer as qid in Organic Chemistry, Academic press, 1980'
UNIT VI. Newer areas of Organic Chemistry
Principles of green Chemistry, examples of green processes, molecular
devices and nanotechnology, Organoc conductors, Plymeric conductors and
molecular wires, synthesis using solventless or alternate media conditions such as
ionic liquid, microwave and sonochemistry'
UNIT
VII.
ChemistrT of Bio Molecules.
Synthesis of Adenosine, ADP and ATP, synthesis of DNA strands. Vitamins
and their chemical structure and bio-functions, Synthesis of Vitamin A, B1,
P,2,86 and C. Menifield synthesis of peptides.
REFERENCE:
1.
2.
P.Y.Bruice, Organic Chemistry, Prentice Hall
LL.Finor, Organic Chemistry Vol.2, Longman.
48
Chemistry'Syllabus
Calicut (Jniversity - M'Sc' Applied
SemesterIV.ElectivePaperXIII(e).PolymerChemistry(80hours)
(12 hours)
UNIT - I. Methods of Polymerization
Mechanism' types and Kinetics
(a) Step reaction (condensation) Polymerization:
condensation' Ring versus chain
of condensation polymerization. f,"i.tfu.iA reaction polymerization - gelation'
formation. Bifunctio'nai-A r"rym.,i";;it"p weight ditttibution, Ring scission
olr.*ution, rrior.."rl
gelpoint
- .xp.ri**:tJ,
polymerization'
polymerization, vinyl
ntal methods in VinYl
of PolYmerizalton -
of temPerature
polymerization'
(c) Ionic Polymerization:
Mechanisms, Kinetics, Livi
distribution. Transfer and
and
^-r D-^-a
Propagation
and
pressure on chain
,^equillibria'
ic PUuUon
ol'
Molar
mass
cationic polymerizatiorr
'
activated polymerization'
Mechanism, Kinetics" Radiation
UNITII.MethodsofPolymerization.Il(L2hours)
Catalysts,
(a) C'ordination Chain Polymerization: Zieg|et. Natta
Mechanism,
iiinetics - Ring Opening polymerization'
(b)
#;
PolY
of c
-burpt
ff:il:.':?::JHH"Lu
radicals. potymerization in
and
and
homogeneous and
polfruizatio;, Pu11. polymerization and polymer
p"iyt*ization mono and heterodisperse
heterogeno* ,v*rnr.
^.
precipitatioo, ,rrffiion--ilJ .t"tfti""
polymers.
B*,: principles' Molecular and-n reactions of polymers:
UNIT III Chemical
of polymers
activity of nrnciona groups' Post reactions
Chemical groupr.
firfing reactions' polymer analogues
Chain Extension, Branching ,oa iott p"fy*tf blends' Functionalization of
I
-exchange
reactions. Polymer Degradation ,.utio*.
polymer-bound reagents'
ion
lesTl'polystrene. P6;",i*. of.
p.tiat ty'itf'esis (SPPS)-merits and demerits'
Immobilized enzymes. Solid phase
,
(10 hours)
and fibers, Thermosets and
polymers, Random, tlock and graft
rs: Plastics, rubbers
.i"Ji*.a
ficpolymers.
(Shours)
polymer solubility' Solubility
,NIT V Polymer solutions: General rule oftoiotion' emthalpy' entropy and
parameters Flory-Hugging treatm;;-;;ry-tt
Unpertubed chain dimension' viscosity
free energy change in polymer ai.toiutili.
{vt\
49
I
---a-
of
polymer solution, osmotic pressure,
swelling
polymers, phase separation in
polymers.
IrNIT Vf Structure,
thermal, opti"a, }".
structure to tt.rl prepertise
transition temperature, Melting temperature
determinations.
of
porymers, fractionation of
(10 hours)
Studies on the
correlation of
-
points.
Experimentar method
of
Glass
their
Method for morecurar weight determination
of porymers. End_group anarysis,
colligative property measurement, concentation'dependence
of colligative
properties, Vapour pressure io-wering,
cryoscopy and osmometry, Light-scattering
method. Ultracentrefugation, solutiJnir.oriiy;;;;l..urar
size, experimental
methods, treatment of data, staudinger
idex. Emp
intrinsic viscosity and molecular siie of polymei'
chrometograph and other chatographic
techniiues in th
IJNIT
(14 hours)
vrr
Polymer degradation: Mgghaniy-of polymer
degradation. Thermar,
mechanica! and photochimical degradations.
oxidati#*d oron. atack. Acid and
base hydrolysis,
Bio-degradation
olporymers.
(4hours)
t NIT vlrr Structure, synthesis and apprications of the
foilowing
a)
b)
cellulose and cellulose based polymers - Native
and modified cotton Rayon,
Cellulose nitate, cellulose u..Lt".
e'
c)
d)
e)
0
g)
olYmers'
Phenol formaldehyde and urea fromardehyde
resins.
Polyamides (N{on) and polyesters (Terylenes)
Caprolate based polymers.
(10 hours)
REFERENCES
t.
Inter Sciences (1976)
2.
1970.
3.
(
4.
(t e68)
J.
chnologt and Manufaclure,, Bulhesworthes
6.
.t
t
lications,1994.
7.
8.
Aids in Organic Chenistry, Acodemic press,
v
go
1
^(
q
I
.L,
,
I
!
,r-.
)
Calicut lJniversity - M.Sc. Appliett Chemistry - Syllabus
catalysis (80 hours)
Semester IY. Elective Paper XIII(f) - Industrial
D
D
s
Characteristic
of
solid surfaces as
Catalysis; use
t
UNIT
D
theory
I
UNIT
a
e
e
c
e
a
I
3
e
e
3
o
a
a
I
General:
e
of
heterogenous catalYsis'
physical adsorption to chemiscribed
Surface structure of solids
rate - kinetics of
physisorption and chemisorption, Adsorption and- reaction
adsorption theory' Kinetic and
heterogenous catalysit i.""tt, catalysis). The
and reactions in pores'
statistilcal derivation of Langmuir isotherm, Diffrrsion
II
(15 hours)
derivation
Multilayer adsorption, The BET isotherm and its Kinetic
application
the
of
details
Measurement of surfa.. u,.u of adsorbents. Experimental
(10 hous)
pore
volume.
and
Determination of pore size
UNIT
of
3gf
III
equation.
Adsorption and Catalysis:
semiconductors - valence bond and el
catalysis by semi .onar.to, - Iocalised i
uNIT
IV
s11]
ln
,r n L^..-^\
(lo
hours)
cararysrs.
UNIT
such.as silica'
V Catalyst supports - their preparation and structrue; supports
(5 hous)
alumina, zeolite,
carbon.
- silica' alumina,
Role of supports in catalysis - Preparation of supports
of supported
silica - alumina, zeolites, carbon - catalyst -*uf*tott Preparation
sintering'
."t"fy*r; deactivation qflatalysts - poisoning and catalyst fouling
(10 hous)
UNIT
VI
of surface UNIT VII Physical methods - preparation of clean metal surface - study
emission and
low energy electron diffraction - field electron emission, field ion
spectroscopy'
microscopy - photo electon spectoscopy and Auger electon
,3
o
I
3
0
o
a
o
a
.
{
:a
B.
and
(10 hours)
- reductive
Catalysis by organo metallic compounds oxidative addition
- N{ta process elimination and insertion riactions Wacker process Ziegler
process catalytic cracking of
Monsanto pro..r, - rirn r - Tropsch pro..rt, Mobil
(lo hours)
UNIT
VIII
'
petroleum.
REFERENCES
t.
2.
3.
4.'
E.K Rideat, Concepts in Catalysis, Academic Press (1968)
Adsorition and Catalysis, Acadlnic Press (1970)
A. Clark, The theory of
'pauersin
(Ed), Catatysis and Chemical Processes, Blackie and
R. pearce oni w.n
Ltd. (198t)
Edition, John
F.A. Coilon and G. fitilkinson, Advanced Inorganic chemistry, 4th
Sons
ilrilq &
Sors (1980)
5.A.J.B'.Roberston,CatalysisofgasreactionbymealsLogosPressLtd'
by R'B' Anderson (AP)'
W.B. Innes, irpiri^riia ,iioat in Catotyiic ,eseo,ci Vol. I Edit'
6.
.UI\
Calicut University - M.Sc. Applied Chemistry - Syllabus
Semester IV. Elective Paper
XIII(g) - Solid state Chemistry (80 hours)
1.
Theories of the solid state - Free electron theory zone theory Band
theory/classificalion of solids into conductors, insulators, semicondirctors, super
(10 hours)
conductors, extrinsic semi conductors, cariers, hall effect.
UNIT
II.
Electrical properties - conductivity in pure metals - super conductivity
magnetic properties - diamagnetism, para magnetism, ferro magnetism anti-feno
magnetism - temperature effects - point defects, plane defects, Imperfections and
(10 hours)
non-stoichiometry)
UNIT
III.
Thermodynamics of Schottky and Frenkel defects formation. Point
defects equilibria. Interactions between dislocations (brief discussion). The
(10 hours)
movement of matter in solids.
LINIT
UNIT
IV.
UNIT
V. Creation of defects - Doping, compression and Irradiation,
Imperfections and Physical properties of solids - mechanical, electrical,
(10 hours)
magnetic, optical and thermal properties (brief discrssion).
reactivity of solids (brief discussion).
Control of the
(10 hours)
VI. Solid state reactions - Decomposition
reactions of the EPe A (solid)
B(Solid) + C(gas). Processes limiting the rate of solid state reactions. Nucleation,
Nucleus growth (brief discussion).
t NIT
L]NIT VII. Isothermal and non-isothermal decomposition reactions, kinetic analysis
and elucidation of the mechanism of decomposition reactions (brief discussion).
Kinetic Analysis with coats - Red fern, Freemann - calrol and Honowitz -Metzgur
equations.
6
.6
(
(
(10 hours)
VIII.
Instnrmental techniques - Thermogravimetry, Differential Thermal
Analysis, Differential scanning calorimetry. Applications of infrared spectroscopy
mass spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy in the study of solid state
t NIT
reactions.
(
I
(10 hours)
(
(
REFERENCES
I.
2.
3.
4.
j.
6.
7.
8.
L.V. Azarolfi, Inffoduction to solids, McGraw Hill, Nev' York
A.K. Galway, Chemistry of sotids, Science Paperbaclc and Chapman and Hall Ltd., London
,(
(
(t e67)
N.B. Hanna, Solid State Chemistry.
A.R. ltest, Basic Solid State Chemistry, John Wiley & Sons Ltd- (1991).
P.P. Budnikov and A.M. Ginstling, Principles of Solid State Chemistry, Rection in solids,
MaClaren and Sons Ltd., London (1968).
D.A. Young, Ptrysical Chemistry and Chemical Physics Vol. L Decomposition of solids,
Pergamon Press, OxIord (1996)
W.llr. llrendlandt, Thermal Methods of Analysis, Inter-Science, Neu, York (1964)
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B.A. Skoog and D.M. llest, Principles of Instrumenlal
Philadelphia (1980).
Analysis,
Sannde.s College,
,
,
t
t
Calicut (lniversity - M.Sc. Applied Chemistry - Syllabus
D
Scmcstcrl&Il.Practicall.InorganicChemistry
D
D
1.
0
Separation. and identification of four metal ions
U' Mo' Li'
farniliar eiements linre W, Tl, Se, Te, Ce, Th, V, Zr,'li'
Qualitative AnalYsis
of which two are less
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3.
Quantitative Estimation
EDTA-Mg, Zn,
Volumetric determinations of the following cations using
Ca, Ni, Co, Al, Ba, Cu and Fe and Hardness of water'
- Cu'*,
estimation of binary mixtures.of metal ions in solution
Separation and
Ni2, Fe3*, 2tlt,c**,M{*,CrzOtz,Ba'*, Ag', etc.
Estimation of three cations when present together'
Analysis of ores, alloys, cement, fertilizer and soil
REFERENCES
'
2.
,,
,.
t
A.I.
Inorganic analysis.
Voget, A, Text book of Macro and Semimicro Qualitative
V.V. Rimanuian, Inorganic Semimicro qualitative Anallsb'
A.l. Yogel, A Text Boik of Quantitative Inorganic Analysis'
D.p. Aiarwal and R.C.
i*-"no,
Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Practicals.
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Calicut University - M,Sc. Apptied Chemistry - Syltabus
Semester
1.
I & II
.
Practical
Il.
,
Organic Chemistry
I
Laboratory Techniques: Methods of separation and purification of organic
4
compounds - fractional, steam and low-pressure distillation, fractional crystallisation
and sublimation.
f,
2. Qualitative Organic Analysis:
("
Separation and identification of the components
of organic binary mixtures by Semimicro analytical techniques.
n,
Analysis of about Ten mixtures, of some of which containing compounds with more
than one functional group.
3. Organic Preparations: Preparations
of about fifteen organic compounds (at
least six double state - including photochemical reactions) illustating important
synthetic methods and reactions, such as Friedel - Crafts reaction, Perkin, ReimerTiemann, Sandmeyer, ild Canntzzaro reactions, Claisan, aldol and benzoin
condensations. Selective reduction in polynino aromatic compoinds, dizocoupling,
phthalein fusion etc.
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6
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6
d
6
g
4. Quantitative
Organic Analysis: Estimation of nitrogen by Kjeldatrl methods,
estimation of hydroxyl and carbonyl, groups, determination of iodine number and
saponification value of oils. Estimation of reducing sugar, amines, phenols, esters,
vitamins (A and C), Drugs (Aspirin, Paracetamol).
6
f
,,1
RXFERENCES
U
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Fiester, Experimenls in Organic Chemistry
Mann and saunders, Practical Organic Chenistry.
Dey, Sitaraman and Gaindachari, A laboratory manual of Organic Chemistry.
Cheronis an Fatrikin semi-micro organic analysis.
A.L.Vogel, Qualitative Organic Analysis.
P.G. Singh D.S. Gupta and K.S. Bojpal, fuperimental Organic Chemistry, Yolumes I and II,
8.
R. Srinivasan, Ed. Photochemical synthesis volumes,
A.l. Yogel, A test book of Practical Organic Chemistry.
1980.
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(lniversily of Culicut, M.Sc. Applied Chenistry
-
Syllabus
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i.i
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Semester
Physical Chemistry
- I (80 hrs)
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UNIT I
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2.
curve method.
Molecular weight - from depression of transition point - cooling curve method.
Molecular weight - cryoscopic method. water/benzene.
l.
I.JNIT
)
KzHgI+ reaction in water and determination
V
Potentiometry
Electrode potentials of 7n and Ag electodes in 0.1 M and 0.001
at25oC and determination of standard potentials.
l.
2.
3.
4.
o
c
c
5.
I
6.
o
o
Mean activity coefficient
.
VI
M solutions
of an electrolyte at different molalities by EMF
method.
Dissociation constant of acetic acid by potentiometric titration method.
Determination
strength
the given HCI solution by differential
potentiometric titration.
Dissociation constant of acetic acid in DMSO, DMF, acetone and dioxin by
titating with NaOH.
of
of
Potentiometrictitation.
i)
iD
UNIT
t*
Cryoscopic study of 2KI + HgIz
of concentration of KI solution.
l.
o
o
tl
cooling
Conductivity Experiments
Equivalent conductance of weak acid - verification of Ostwald's dilution law
- calculation of dissociation const.
Equivalent conductance of stong electolytes (KCD. Verification of Onsagar
equation.
Activity coefficient of Znin 0.002M ZnSOc using Debye-Huckel limiting law.
3.
4.
Solubility product of sparingly soluble salts (AgCl, BaSO+).
5.
Conductance titrations. HCI vs NaOH, (HCl + HOAc) vs NaOH AgNO3 vs
KCI.
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-
UNIT IV
tL
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Naphthalene
Molecular weight
3.
UNIT III
- Using solid solvent. Biphenyl -
1.
|',
f
Heat of solution from solubility data (Ammonium oxalate, succinic acid).
UNIT II
t
no
T
I & IL Practical III.
Mixture of chloride and iodide
Mixttre of HCI and HOAc
Chemical Kinetics:
Specific reaction rate of acid catalyzed hydrolysis of methyl acetate.
Temperature coefficient and energy of activation of hydrolysis
acetate. Determination of Arrh ,nius param'eters.'
l.
2.
9s-
of
methyl
.
4.
5.
3
method)'
aponifi cation ethyl acetate (titration/-conductance
by polarimetry'
Inversion of cane t'g* in presence of HCI
Iodination of acetone - determination of order'
q?
s
UNIT VII.
AdsorPtion (3 exPeriments)
isotherms'
v.riricuiion of Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption
acid/oxalic acid using Freundlich and
crlcetic
.on..no*i*
of
Determination
Langmuir adsorPtion isotherms'
l.
2.
I-INIT VIII
Phase
1.
2.
3.
4.
equilibria
system
Phase diagram of a simple eutectic
ptrase
of a binary solid systim forming a compound
system' Aniline-water system
;iar.
Phenol-water
paii of partially miscible
Ternary liquid system *iir, on
water'' etc')'
benzene-water, acetone-chloroform-
liquids' (DMS'-
REFE,RENCES
Hill'
QUESTToN PhAPEL
in
a batch shall be given
v
unit'
different questicn from different
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:::::::ffi ; l^ L,,.,,,,
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A n a,y
si
s
Section A
L
Preparation and elemental analysis
of
metal complexes, characterization by
spectroscopic, magnetic and thermal methods.
il.
Synthesis and characterisation of a few (a) organometallic compounds and (b) Cis trans isomers.
m.
Determinations by solvent extraction, ion-exchange and paper, thim layer and column
chromatography and Gas Chromatography.
t
6
IV.
Electroanalytical methods
:
Analysis using electogravimetry,
coulometry,
potentiometry, conductometry and polorography.
o
s
V.
Spectroanalytical methods : spectophotometry, Fluorimetry, Flame photometry and
AAS and IR, NMR and Mass Specta.
B
VL
Thermal Methods : TGA and DTA.
a
References:
{)r
Section B
0
o
a
VII. Computer Applications in Chemistry
[The experiment consists of nriting a computer prograrnme in BASIC for a problem of
chemical interest and its execution using a computer in the presence of the examiner. The
student shall submit a hard copy of the programme and the results for evaluation.]
s
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
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6,
9.
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10.
11.
'
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Determination of empirical formula of hydrocarbons.
Calculation of dipole moments of disubstituted benzenes
Calculationofdelocalizationenerry.
Determination of lattice energy of ionic crystal using Born Lande equation .
Determination of solubility of sparingly soluble salts
Determination of half life & average life of a radio active element
Determination of molecular weight of an organic compound
Determination of first ten enerry levels of i) an electon ii) a helium atom iii) carbon60 and iv) a particle of mass I pg confined in a one-dimensional box of length 100 nm
and comparison of energy spacing ofthese systems.
Calculation of the wave functions of a particle confined in a one-dimensional box of
length 100 nm for n = l, 2, 3,200 and 500 by uniting a BASIC programme, and
construction of probability density plots of these functions using a spread sheet
prograrnme (e.g., excel).
Comparison of the tanslational quantum numbers calculated for i) an electon ii)
helium atom iii) carbon-60 and iv) a l-pg particle confined in a one-dimensional box
of length 100 nm at room temperature (E = n2h2l8ma2 = kTlZ).
Determination of Arrhenius parameters of acid hydrolysis of methyl acetate by the
method of least squares by rrririting a BASIC prograrnme. (Necessary kinetic data data
are provided.) .
52
"t
12.
Verification of Langmuir and Freundlisch adsorption isotherms by the method
"t;;;F=
squares by uniting a BASIC programme and determination of adsorption parameters. '
(Necessary adsorption data are provided.)
References
K.V. Raman, Computers in Chemistry, Tata McGraw Hill, 1993.
Wilkens etal., Introduction to Computer Programmingfor Chemistry- Basic Version , Allyn
and Bacon, London, 1981.
K.B. Wiberg, computer Prgrammingfor chemisrs ,Benjamin Inc., NY, 1965.
3.
p.Lykose, Prrtonil Computers in Chemistry, John Wiley and Sons, NY, 1981.
4.
Publishing
S.M. Venit, Programming in BASIC, problem solvingwith structure and style, Jaico
1.
2.
5.
House, Bombay.
6.
7.
N. Subramaniam, Programming in Basic,A.L.Wheeler and Co'
nu*"rt Kumari, Co iputers id thti, applications to Chemisti,Narosa, New Delhi, 2002'
OUESTION PAPER
l.
A (60
Each student is required to answer two questions, one from Section
Marks) and the other from Section B (20 Marks)'
2.
Each student in a batch shall be given separate que
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NAIR
chemistrv (PG)
11,,, o, Calicut
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