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File Ref.No.4794/GA - IV - J1/2012/CU UNIVERSITY OF CALICUT

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File Ref.No.4794/GA - IV - J1/2012/CU UNIVERSITY OF CALICUT
File Ref.No.4794/GA - IV - J1/2012/CU
UNIVERSITY OF CALICUT
Abstract
Scheme and Syllabus of MSc programme in Fish Processing Technology under Credit Semester
System (CUCSS-PG-2010) for affiliated colleges - Implemented with effect from 2013 admission -orders issued.
G & A - IV - J
U.O.No. 6914/2013/CU
Dated, Calicut University.P.O, 20.12.2013
Read:-1. U.O.No.GAIV/J1/1373/08 dated 23.07.2010.
2. Item No:1 of the minutes of the meeting of the Board of Studies in Aquaculture Dtd:
27/03/2012
3. Item No 4 of the minutes of Faculty of Science dated 16/11/12
4. Item No II G of the minutes of Faculty of Science dated 30/07/13
5. Orders of Vice-Chancellor in the file number 36207/ GAIV/J1/2013/CU on
06/9/2013 .
ORDER
Credit Semester System (CUCSS-PG-2010) has been introduced for the PG programmes of all
affiliated colleges of this University with effect from 2010 admissions vide paper read as (1) above.
Vide paper read as (2) above, the Board of Studies in Aquaculture has approved the syllabus
of MSc Fish Processing Technology programme under CUCSS- PG 2010. And as per paper read
as 3 and 4 above the, Faculty of Science and Academic Council have recommeded to approve the
syllabus.
The Vice-Chancellor has approved the syllabus for implementation as per the reference cited
5th. Sanction has therefore been accorded for implementing the scheme and syllabus of M.Sc Fish
Processing Technology programme under CUCSS-PG –2010 for affiliated colleges with effect from
2013 admission.
Orders are issued accordingly.
Scheme and Syllabus of Fish Processing Technology programme appended. The same is also
available in the University website.
Muhammed S
Deputy Registrar
To
1) The Principals of all affiliated Colleges offering M.Sc. Fish Processing Technology
2) CE/Enquiry
3) Information centres/DR III (Exams)/EG-I/ DR PG/Tabulation section/GAI ‘F’ ‘G’ sections/
4) Digital wing (with a request to upload in University website/GAII/GAIII/SF/FC
Forwarded / By Order
Section Officer
UNIVERSITY OF CALICUT
Regulations, Eligibility, Scheme and Syllabus For
M. Sc. Fish Processing Technology and Quality Control (CSS)
(Effective from 2012 Admission onwards)
All the general rules and regulations laid down by the University of Calicut for PG
(CSS) Curriculum 2012 for affiliated colleges shall be applicable.
I.
ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA.
Those students who possess B.Sc. Degree in Zoology, Botany, Aquaculture, Industrial Fish
and Fisheries, Microbiology, Biochemistry, Food Processing Technology and Life Sciences
as Core/Main subject with Zoology/ Botany/ Chemistry/ Biochemistry/ Computer Sciences/
as Complementaries/subsidiaries are eligible for admission to this programme.
II.
PROGRAMME AND SCHEME OF EXAMINATIONS
1. M.Sc. Fish Processing Technology and Quality Control, programme shall have 3 core
courses and 1 core practical course each in 1st and 2nd semesters and 1 core course, 1 core
practical course and 2 elective courses in 3rd semester. The 4th semester will be entirely
dedicated for project work/ dissertation and in-plant training in any seafood processing
plant. Viva-voce, evaluation of project work/ dissertation and evaluation of performance
during in-plant training will be conducted at the end of 4th semester.
2. There shall be external university examination of 3 hour duration for each theory courses
at the end of the each semester, to be conducted after the completion of 80 working days.
3. Each theory and practical course shall have 4 credits.
4. Practical examinations shall be conducted by the university at the end of even semester
5. Each practical examination is of 4 hour duration and shall carry 4 credits each.
6. Project / dissertation evaluation and viva-voce shall be conducted at the end of the
programme only. Practical examination, project / dissertation evaluation and viva voce
shall be conducted by two external examiners.
7. Project / dissertation, combined field mapping and viva voce shall carry 4 credits each.
Combined field studies and study tours may be carried out at any time during the entire
period of the programme.
8. Each theory question paper may contain 14 short answer types, of weightage 1, 7 short
essays out of 10 questions of weightage 2. Two long essays out of 4 questions of
weightage 4.
III.
EVALUATION AND GRADING
The evaluation scheme for each course shall contain two parts (a) Internal evaluation
and (b) external evaluation. 25% weightage shall be given to internal evaluation and the
remaining 75% to external evaluation therefore the ratio and weight age between internal
and external is 1: 3. Both internal and external evaluation shall be carried out using direct
grading system.
1
Internal evaluation: The internal evaluation shall be based on predetermined transparent
system involving periodic written tests, assignments, seminars and attendance. in respect
of theory courses and based on written tests, lab skill/records/viva and attendance in
respect of practical courses. The weight age assigned to various components for
internal evaluation is a follows.
Components of Internal Evaluation
Component
Weightage
A
Assignment
1
B
Seminar
1
C
Attendance
1
D
Test paper
2
To ensure transparency of the evaluation process, the internal assessment grade awarded
to the students in each course in a semester shall be published on the notice board at least
one week before the commencement of external examination. There shall not be any
chance for improvement for internal grade.
The course teacher shall maintain the academic record of each student registered for the
course, which shall be forwarded to the University, through the college Principal.
External evaluation: The external Examination in theory courses is to be conducted
by the University with question papers set by external experts. The evaluation of the
answer scripts shall be done by examiners based on a well-defined scheme of valuation.
The external evaluation shall be done immediately after the examination preferably in a
Centralized Valuation Camp.
Photocopies of the answer scripts of the external examination shall be made available to
the students for scrutiny on request and revaluation/scrutiny of answer scripts shall be
done as per the existing rules prevailing in the University. Awarding of a higher grade
after revaluation may be given only after a second revaluation.
Direct Grading System
1. Direct Grading System based on a 5 - point scale is used to evaluate the performance
(External and Internal Examination of students)
Letter Grade
Performance
A
B
C
D
E
Excellent
Very good
Good
Average
Poor
2
Grade
Point
4
3
2
1
0
Grade Range
3.50 to 4.00
2.50 to 3.49
1.50 to 2.49
0.50 to 1.49
0.00 to 0.49
2. Each course is evaluated by assigning a letter grade (A,B,C,D or E) to that course by
the method of direct grading. The internal (weightage =1) and external weightage
=3) components of a course are separately graded and then combined to get the
grade of the course after taking into account of their weightage.
3. An aggregate of C-grade (when external and internal put together) is required in each
course for a pass and also for awarding the degree.
4. A student who fails to secure a minimum grade for a pass in a course will be
permitted to write the examination along with the next batch.
1V. Grievance Redress Mechanism for internal evaluation
There is provision for grievance redresses at four levels- first at the level of teacher
concerned; second, at the level of Department committee consisting of the Head of the
Department, Departmental Coordinator and the teacher concerned; third, at the level of the
College committee consisting of the Principal, HOD and member of the College council
nominated buy the Principal each year, and also a student member of that class nominated by
the HOD. And fourth, at University level committee consisting of the Pro-vice chancellor,
chairman-PG board of studies of subject expert nominated by the Vice-Chancellor,
Controller of the Examination and the Convener of the Examination standing Committee.
College or Department Level complaints will be filed within one week of the publication
of the results and the decision taken within the next two weeks. Appeals, if any, on such
decision shall be filed in the University level committee within a period of one week and
decision taken within one month for the date of the submission of complaints. The time
schedule in regard to the grievance redresses will be announced by the colleges concerned
and the University in advance.
For university level complaints, a fee, as fixed by the Syndicate from time to time, will be
levied from the students.
Normalization of continuous internal evaluation may be done by the university when there is
inflation of grades in internal evaluation. The grades will be scaled down proportionately if
the variation between the internal and external evaluation exceeds 40%.
V. Evaluation of Project Report/ Dissertation
Dissertation will be valued by two examiners who conduct the practical examination
(external) at the time of 4th semester. Distribution of 10 weightage allotted for
dissertation will be as follows
Methodology
Content
Presentation
Answering question
Originality or overall outlook
Total
2 Weightage
4 Weightage
1 Weightage
1 Weightage
2 Weightage
10 Weightage
3
VI. In-Plant Training
All the students need to undergo an intensive training in any seafood processing plant
for a period of 3 months. The supervisor in-charge shall evaluate the students based on
their knowledge and capability to work as quality managers. The performance will be
valued externally with following criteria.
Attendance
Technical Knowledge
Leadership quality
Skill in handling crisis
Total
2 Weightage
4 Weightage
2 Weightage
2 Weightage
10 Weightage
4
UNIVERSITY OF CALICUT
M. Sc. Fish Processing Technology and Quality Control
Course Structure, Scheme & Syllabus (Credit Semester System)
I Semester
Course
Course
Code
Core
FPT 1 C01
Core
FPT 1 C02
Core
FPT 1 C03
*Practical
FPT 1 C04P
Course Title
L
Harvest and Post
Harvest Handling of
Fish
Food safety in Seafood
Industry
Fish Biochemistry and
Spoilage
Seafood Microbiology
& Biochemistry
5
Exam
Duratio
n
3 hrs
5
3 hrs
25
75
4
5
3 hrs
25
75
4
3 hrs
25
75
4
Total
16
P
10
Internal
(%)
Externa
l (%)
Credit
s
25
75
4
Credits
II Semester
Course
Course
Code
Core
FPT 2 C05
Core
FPT 2 C06
Core
FPT 2 C07
*Practical
FPT 2 C08P
Course Title
L
Freezing Technology in
Seafood Plants
Thermal Processing of
Fishery Products
Operation Management
of Fish Processing Plant
Fish Processing
Technology
5
Exam
Duratio
n
3 hrs
5
3 hrs
25
75
4
5
3 hrs
25
75
4
3 hrs
25
75
4
Total
16
P
10
Internal
(%)
Externa
l (%)
Credit
s
25
75
4
Credits
III Semester
Course
Course
Code
Core
FPT 3 C09
Elective
FPT 3 E01
Internal
(%)
Externa
l (%)
Credit
s
5
Exam
Duratio
n
3 hrs
25
75
4
5
3 hrs
25
75
Cho
ose
one (4
credits
)
Course Title
L
Quality Control,
Inspection and
Certification in Seafood
Economics and
Marketing in seafood
5
P
Elective
FPT 3 E02
Elective
FPT 3 E03
Elective
FPT 3 E04
Elective
FPT 3 E05
Elective
FPT 3 E06
*Practical
FPT 3 C11P
Packing and Labelling
of Fish and Fishery
products
Cured and Dried Fishery
Products
Fishery by-products and
Value addition
Storage &
Transportation of
Fishery products
Seafood Export and
Trade
Quality Control in
Seafood Processing
5
3 hrs
25
75
5
3 hrs
25
75
5
3 hrs
25
75
5
3 hrs
25
75
5
3 hrs
25
75
3 hrs
25
75
4
Total
16
10
Cho
ose
one (4
credits
)
Credits
IV Semester
Course
Course
Code
Internal
(%)
Externa
l (%)
Credit
s
Dissertation/Project
Work (To be completed
within this semester)
In-plant Training
(Full-time training for 6
months)
25
75
4
100
8
Viva-Voce
25
75
4
Total
16
Course Title
L
P
Exam
Duratio
n
Credits
Total Credits for the whole Programme
L – Lecture hours; P – Practical Hours (Hour distribution in a week)
* Examination will be conducted at the end of even semesters.
6
64
I SEMESTER
FPT1 C01 - HARVEST AND POST HARVEST HANDLING OF FISH
Unit I
Fisheries resources of India, potential and trends in fish production. PFZ, EEZ and FAO’s code
of conduct of responsible fisheries. Marine capture fisheries, fishery of commercially important
pelagic and demersal fishes, crustaceans and molluscs. Oceanic and deep sea fisheries resources.
Inland capture fishery resources and production in India. Fisheries in major riverine systems,
estuaries, reservoirs and lakes of India. Cold water fisheries of India.
Unit II
Fishing Crafts and Gears: Classification of fishing crafts; Dimensions and design of boats; Safety
and stability of fishing boats; Care and maintenance of boats; Fishing accessories and deck
equipments; Types of marine engines. Fishing methods of India. Modern commercial fishing
methods- trawling, purse seining, gill netting and long lining. Classification of gears Care and
preservation of fishing gears.
Unit III
Hygienic handling of fish on board fishing vessel and on shore, Manufacture and storage of ice,
Quality of ice, Use of ice for handling, transportation and processing of fish, Quality of water to
be used in fish processing, Chlorination of water, Refrigerated sea water for fish preservation.
Insulated containers for fresh fish transportation.
Unit IV
Pre-treatment of fish washing, gutting, filleting, beheading, peeling, deveining etc. Simple
mechanical refrigeration systems. Ice plants, chilling, supper chilling, refrigerated and chilled
seawater. Freezing, slow freezing, quick freezing, types of freezers, freezing time, freezing
of fish and shell fish. Anti-oxidant treatment-Glazing of fish-Types of glazing- Packaging and
packaging materials for frozen fish and shrimps. Storage life, transportation and marketing.
Unit V
Sanitary and phytosanitary requirements for maintenance of quality during post harvest handling
of fish. Quality management of fish and fishery products. Processing engineering, refrigeration
cycle, cold store, processing unit construction and management; Water budgeting; Waste
management. Sanitation in processing plants and Quality control of fresh and processed fish and
fishery products.
Suggested readings
1. Anthony T. Tu
Handbook of Natural toxins.
2. Balachandran, K.K
Post Harvest Technology of fish and fish products.
3. Connell, J. J
Control of fish quality.
4. Fennema, K, Powrie, WD & Marth, EH
Low Temperature Preservation of Foods and
Living Matter.
5. Gopakumar K.
Text Book of Fish Processing Technology.
6. Hall, G.M
Fish Processing Technology..
7. Hui,YH.,. Pierson MD, & Gorham RJ.
Food borne Disease Handbook. Seafood and
7
Environmental Toxins.
8. Huss, HH., Jakobsen, M.& Liston, J
Quality assurance in the fish industry.
9. John, DEV
Food safety and toxicity.
10. Krenzer, R
Fish inspection and quality control.
11. Sen DP
Advances in Fish Processing Technology.
12. Vincent K.O & Joel E.R
Principles of Total Quality.
13. Jhingran V.G.
Fish and Fisheries of India
14. Jhingran V.G. and Talwar S.K.
Fisheries of India (Vol 1 & 2)
15. Bal J and Rao S.R.
Fishes of India
16. Hameed M.S & Bhoopendranath M.R.
Modern Fishing Gear Technology
17. Santhanam S.
Fisheries Science
18. Bensam K.
Development of marine Fisheries Science in India
19. Sathiadas P.K.
Production and Marketing management of marine fishes of India
20. Sreekrishna, Y. & Shenoy L.
Fishing Gear and Craft Technology.
FPT1 C02 – FOOD SAFETY IN SEAFOOD INDUSTRY
Unit I
Microbiological standards in seafood industry. Source of microorganism to fish-Sanitary
measures adopted to reduce microbial load in fish. Microbiology of fish and some fishery
products. Intrinsic and extrinsic parameters that affect microbial growth. Food borne nonbacterial infections and intoxications: Aflatoxins, patulin, ochratoxin and other fungal toxins
found in food, toxin producer, source, nature of toxin, toxicity and significance in foods.
Unit II
Public health microbiology- Food borne pathogens: Emerging food-borne pathogens. Waterand borne diseases. Bacteria of public health significance in fish/fishery products/environments
Salmonella, Clostridia, Staphylococcus, E. coli, Streptococcus, Vibrio, Aeromonas, Listeria,
Yersinia, Bacillus. Methods for Detection: Rapid detection and indirect detection methods of
pathogens and parasites. Laboratory techniques for detection and identification of food poisoning
bacteria.
Unit III
Total plate count Coliforms-concept- indicator organism-MPN estimation-isolation and
identification-faecal coliforms. Salmonella-Isolation and identification. Vibrio- Isolation
and identification. Streptococcus- Isolation and identification. Listeria spp isolation and
identification. Pseudomonas aeroginosa, General understanding about different microbiological
methods. (FDA, CFIA, FSIS, NACMSF, AOAC).
Unit IV
Quality control of Laboratories. Good Laboratory Practices (GLP), ISO/IEC 17025. Types of
laboratories, General requirements for a food laboratory. (Lay out, Environmental requirements,
Safety requirements etc) Food borne diseases-Food infection and food intoxication. Botulism.
Typhoid and Paratyphoid, Clostridium perfringens, Listeriosis. Sources and transmission of
bacteria in foods: human, animal, environmental reservoirs; cross-contamination.
8
Unit V
Antimicrobial systems and food preservation: ecological concepts: Lactoperoxidase. Nisin,
Lysozyme, Bacteriocins. Packaging and modified atmosphere on the microbiology and shelf life
of fishery products. Norms for using antimicrobial systems in food processing and preservation.
Food Safety, Risk analysis. Potential health hazards and risks associated with fish products.
Predictive modeling in quality and safety assurance of fishery products.
Suggested readings:
1. Chincheste, C.O and Graham, H.D.
Microbial safety of Fishery products,
2. Frasier, W.C and Westhoff,D.C
Food Microbiology ,
3. Jay, J.M. Van Nostrand.D.
Modern Food Microbiology
4. Amerine,M.A, pangborm,R.M
Principles of sensory evaluation of food
5. Connell.J.J
Control of fish Quality,
6. Sali A.J.
Fundamental Principles of Bacteriology
7. Schlegel
General Microbiology
8. Maat A.G. and Wiley A
Microbial Physiology
9. Pelezar Read and Chan
Microbiology
10. Collins C.H. and Lyns P.M.
Microbiological Methods
11. Lengeler
Biology of Prokaryotes
12. Cary. J.W., Linz, J.E. & Bhatnagar, D.
Microbial Food Borne Diseases.
13. Doyle, M.P., Beuchat, L.R.& Montville, T.J.
Food Microbiology
14. Harry W.S.J.R., Paul, J. V. & John, J.L.
Microbes in action.
15. Michael, J. Pelizar, J.R. & Chan, E.C S. Microbiology
16. Samuel, C.P. and Dunn C.G.
Industrial microbiology
17. William, C.F & Dennis C. W.
Food microbiology.
FPT1 C03 – FISH BIOCHEMISTRY AND SPOILAGE
Unit I
Biochemical constituents of fish, crustaceans and molluscs. Biochemistry of fish proteins,
structure of fish muscles, effect of processing on proteins. Non-protein nitrogenous compounds
in fishes. Classification. Sarcoplasmic proteins, Myofibrillar proteins and Stroma proteins . Post
mortem biochemical changes, rigor mortis, K-value, TMAO and its decomposition products,
demethylase. Non-protein nitrogenous compounds: Free amino acids, peptides, nucleotides,
guanidins, urea, quarternary ammonium compounds etc.
Unit II
Seafood lipids: Composition and nutritive value, lipid types and their variations, lipid
fractionation, estimation of lipid fractions, triglycerides, phospholipids, nonsaponifiables
including sterols and vitamins. Fatty acid composition of fish liver and body oils, auto-oxidation
of fatty acids, rancidity, lipasas and phospholipases, pro- and anti-oxidants, oxidation indices,
lipid-protein interactions, oxidized lipids-protein interactions and their impact on quality.
Unit III
9
Definition, classification and biological significance of carbohydrates; Chemical reactions;
stereoisomerisms and mutarotation, structure and properties of monosaccharides, disaccharides,
polysaccharides and mucopolysaccharides. Structure, functions and properties of nucleic acids;
Structure of purines, pyrimidine; DNA and RNA; Flavour and pigments; amines, volatile fatty
acids, carbonyls, sulphur containing compounds, carotenoids, isoprenoids in fish.
Unit IV
Factors affecting spoilage of fish, principles of fish preservation. spoilage of fish during
transportation, onboard handling of fish, sanitary and phyto-sanitary requirements for
maintenance of quality grading of fish, whole fish quality evaluation. Microbial spoilage of fish.
Bacteria of public health Significance contamination and control measures. Microbes that cause
infection to man- Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella sp. Clostridium botulinum, Vibrio cholera,
Escherichia coli, feacal Streptococci.
Unit V
Post mortem changes occurring in fish muscle. Chemical, microbial and enzymatic action
during fish spoilage Stages of fish spoilage- Rigor mortis, Autolysis, microbial changes, Belly
burst, Rancidity. Causative agents for fish spoilage. Role of bacteria in fish spoilage, Effect of
temperature, pH, Oxygen, Salinity etc. on bacterial growth, methods of controlling spoilage.
Spoilage of canned and dried food, Role of moulds in spoilage of cured processed fish products.
Unit VI
Principles and methods involved in the separation and analysis of fish muscle constituents: thin
layer, paper & column chromatography, spectrophotometry, colorimetry, flame photometry,
atomic absorption spectrophotometry, gel electrophoresis. Assessment of fish spoilage.
Organoleptic evaluation on fish and shellfish and organoleptic tests for detection of spoilage.
Instruments used for assessment for quality of fish, electronic nose, rapid assay kits.
Suggested readings
1. George, M.P. & Barbec, W.T.
Seafood effects of Technology and Nutrition.
2. Joe, M. R. & Carrie, E. R
Food protein chemistry.
3. Lehninger, A.L.
Principal of Biochemistry.
4. Michael Eskin N. A.
Biochemistry of foods.
5. Owen, R. F.
Food chemistry.
6. Pare J.R.J. & Belanger J.M.R.
Instrumental Methods in Food Analysis.
7. Pomeranz, Y. & Meloan, C.E.
Food Analysis Theory and Practice.
8. Ranganatha Rao
Textbook of Biochemistry.
9. Regenstein, J. M. & Regenstein C. E.
Food Protein Chemistry.
10. Robert, G. A.
Marine, Biogenic Lipids Fats and oils Vol. II
11. Roy, E. M. & George, J. F.
The sea food industry.
12. Roy, E.M., Geroge, J.F. & Donn, R.W. Chemistry and Biochemistry of marine food
13. Smith, E.L., et al.
The principles of Biochemistry
14. Stewart K.K.
Modern Methods of Food Analysis.
15. Whitaker, J.R. & Tannenbaum
Food Proteins, AVI Publishing Company
16. Balachandran K.K.
Post Harvest Technology of Fish & Fishery Products
17. Govindan T.K.
Fish Processing Technology
18. Chicheste C.O. and Graham H.D.
Microbial Safety of fishery Products
10
19. Amerien M.A. et.al.
Principles of sensory evaluation of Food
PRACTICALS
FPT1 C04P - SEAFOOD MICROBIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY
Microbiology
Basic Microbiological techniques, Sterilisation- dry heat, moist heat, filtration, flaming, UVirradiation, Preparation and sterilisation of media, Bacterial Handling Techniques, aseptic
transfer of microbes, Estimation of bacterial population in water Isolation and maintenance of
pure culture.
Enrichment culture using selective media, Anaerobic culture techniques, Study of morphological
characters, colony morphology, microscopic examination of micro organisms, Staining of
bacteria, gram stain, spore stain, capsule stain Growth of Fungi and yeast, Determination of
mobility. Collection of specimen and identification of various diseased of fish and shell fish,
Isolation and cultivation of pathogenic bacteria.
Biochemistry
Estimation of total carbohydrates, Extraction and estimation of total lipids in fishes/ crustaceans,
Extraction and estimation of glycogen in fishes. Lipids –Fractionation by TLC and other
chromatographic techniques. Fatty acid composition by GLC, Amino acid analysis by HPLC.
Protein purification methods: (NH4)2SO4/solvent precipitation. Estimation of total proteins
in the fish muscle, Ultracentrifugaion, dialysis & ultrafiltration, gel filtration, electrophoresis,
PAGE and SDS-PAGE, Marine polysaccharides for food use, molecular biology techniques in
fish and bacterial identification, and topical subjects.
II SEMESTER
FPT2 C05- FREEZING TECHNOLOGY IN SEAFOOD PLANTS
Unit I
Freezing: Structure of water and ice, Influence of solutes on the structure of water and ice,
freezing curve for fish. Determination of freezing points from time- temperature plots,
calculation of freezing time, Crystallization, super cooling, crystal growth, eutectic point,
location of ice crystals in tissue, physical changes during freezing.
Unit II
Technological aspects of freezing. Different freezing methods, freezing of fishery products and
the steps involved. Slow freezing vs Quick freezing, Double freezing. Post freezing treatment.
selection of a freezing method, product processing, packaging and different types of freezersAirblast freezers, Contact plate freezers, Spray and Immersion freezers, Other types of freezers,
Freezing time and freezer operating temperatures.
Unit III
11
Chemical treatment prior to freezing: antioxidants, cryoprotectants and other additives, theories
of cryopreservation, glazing. Frozen storage: Physical and chemical changes - freezer burn and
recrystallisation, different types of recrystallisation.
Unit IV
Chemical changes in lipids, proteins and nucleotides, freeze denaturation and theories on
denaturation, changes in pH, bacterial changes, sensory changes, texture, taste, odour, effect of
post-mortem condition on sensory qualities.
Unit V
Filleting of fish, treatments, glazing, packaging and freezing. Processing of prawns, lobster,
squid, cuttle fish, crab etc. for freezing. Freezing of shrimps in different styles like whole, HL,
PD, PUD, CPD, Block and IQF products.
Unit VI
Arrangements within a cold storage, handling and stacking systems, space requirement,
precautions to reduce temperature increase in a cold storage. Different methods of thawing
frozen fish, advantages and disadvantages. Recent advances in fish thawing.
Suggested readings
1. Balachandran, K. K.
Post-harvest Technology of fish and fish products.
2. Cleland C Andrew,
Food Refrigeration Processes,
3. Clucas, I.J., Fish Handling, Preservation and Processing in the Tropics:
4. Fennema,K. et al. Low Temperature Preservation of Foods and Living Matter
5. Fennema, O. R.
Principle of Food Science.
6. Gopakumar K.
Text Book of Fish Processing Technology.
7. Hall G. M.
Fish Processing Technology
8. Regenssein, J.M. & Regenssein, C.E.
Introduction to fish technology.
9. Sen D.P.
Advances in Fish Processing Technology.
10. Rudolf, K.
Freezing and irradiation of fish.
FPT2 C06 – THERMAL PROCESSING OF FISHERY PRODUCTS
Unit I
Principles of thermal processing. Mechanism of heat transfer: conduction, convection, radiation
and dielectric and microwave heating, heat resistance of bacteria and spores, decimal reduction
time, thermal death time, "Z" and "F" values, 12D concept, heat penetration, cold point, can size,
shape, contents etc. on heat penetration, determination of process time. F0 value, cook value, D
value, integrated F value and their inter-relationship. Heating equipment.
12
Unit II
Classification of foods: low acid, medium acid and acidic foods, absolute sterility, statistical
sterility, commercial sterility, pasteurisation and sterilisation.
Unit III
Canning process, steps involved, process flow, additives, HTST processing and aseptic canning,
principles and process details, canning machinery and equipment, canning process for fish/
shellfish, value added and ready to use canned products.
Unit IV
HACCP and Safety of canned foods and unreliability of post process sampling of canned foods
to ensure sterilization. Status of a batch of canned foods identifying CCPs and their monitoring
by specially trained personnel. Thermobacteriology, death of bacteria, autosterilisation
bacteriology of canned/heat processed fishery products, examination of cans and seams.
Unit V
Hurdle technology: Combination with heat, heat and hydrostatic pressure, heat and low pH, heat
and NaCI and nitrite, combination with ionising radiation, irradiation and hydrostatic pressure,
irradiation and NaCI, irradiation and other adjuncts, heat and irradiation, irradiation and low
temperature, low pH and specific acids, low aw and adjuncts like Nisin to reduce severity of heat
processing.
Unit VI
Irradiation: Radiation sources, units, dose levels, radappertization, radicidation, radurization,
effects of irradiation on protein, lipids, vitamins, bacteriological aspects, physical properties,
shelf life and irradiated fish products.
Suggested readings
1. Balachandran, K.K.
2. Gopakumar K.
3. Hall, G.M.
4. Hersom, A. C & Hulland, E. D.
5. Larousse, J & Brown, B. E.
6. Stumbo
7. Thorne, S.
8. Venugopal, V.
9. Warne, D.
10. Zeathen, P.
Fish Canning Principles and Practices.
Text Book of Fish Processing Technology.
Fish Processing Technology .
Canned Foods.
Food Canning Technology.
Thermo Bacteriology in Food Processing.
Food Irradiation.
Seafood Processing.
Manual on Fish Canning.
Thermal processing and quality of foods.
FPT2 C07 – OPERATION MANAGEMENT OF FISH PROCESSING PLANTS
Unit I
Plant design: Fundamentals of processing plant design: Site selection, design and preparation of
layout of processing plants - freezing plant, cold storage, canning plant, dryers etc. Site building,
water supply, equipments and clothing.
13
Unit II
Functions and construction of refrigeration system: Tests and inspection, Operation and
handling, P-H diagram and basic calculation - Application of P-H diagram, size and required
power of compressor, maintenance of refrigerating machine, troubles and causes. Preventive
maintenance of machinery and equipment of fish processing plants, IQF, Canning plant, sausage
plant, artificial dryers, smoking chambers etc., safety controls for freezing and canning plant.
Unit III
Effluent treatment: Legislation and standards of effluent discharge, water pollution control
measures in the food industry, waste water treatment process; dissolved air floatation,
sedimentation, chemical treatment, biological treatment, aeration, carbon adsorption, granular
media filtration and sludge handling. Boilers - Classification and selection of boilers, Boiler
mounting and accessories.
Unit IV
Measurement techniques; Sensors, active and passive sensors, characteristic of sensors for the
measurement of temperature, relative humidity, aw value, gel strength, moisture, freshness, pH,
conductivity, DO, redox potential, salinity, air velocity, solar energy and brine concentration.
Instrumentation techniques: General configuration of instrumentation system. Instrumentation
for measurement of aw value, temperature, pH, freshness, gel strength, salinity, brine
concentration. Thermometers: Different types of thermometers, characteristics and application.
Unit V
Principles of fisheries extension. Mechanisms and modes of extension and their impact on
capture fisheries and fisher livelihoods. National and international organisation, institutions and
agencies in fisheries extension. Seafood export promotion and organisations involved. Role of
co-operatives in fisheries.
Suggested readings
1. Chupakhim and Dormenko.
2. Heid & Joslyn.
3. Slade.
4. Wheaton & Lawson.
Fish processing equipments. MIR Publishers.
Food processing operations.
Food processing plants.
Processing Aquatic Food Products.
PRACTICALS
FPT2 C08P- FISH PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY
Filleting of fish, treatments, glazing, packaging, freezing, Processing of Prawns, Lobster, Squid,
Cuttle Fish, Crab etc. in different styles, Packaging and Freezing, Freezing curve, determination
of freezing point. Studies on physical, chemical and sensory changes.
Evaluation of pasteurisation and sterilisation, determination of TDT and F value Examination of
canned foods, can seams, testing sterility, canning operations for different fish/shellfish products.
Double seam profile, Heat Penetration Curve, F0 Value, Z value, Process time, Canning of
table fishes, Bivavles, Crustaceans in different containers, Operation of over pressure autoclave,
14
Canned culinary preparations, Examination of canned fishery products.
Preparation of dried, cured and fermented fish products, examination of salt, protein, moisture
in dried / cured products, examination of spoilage of dried / cured fish products. Preparation of
fish meal, FPC, fish oils, chitin, chitosan, glucosamine hydrochloride, fish maws, isinglass, agar,
alginic acid, , glue, pearl essence, fish sauce. Preparation of fish wafers, fish fingers, cutlets,
pickles etc.
Visit to fish processing plants
III SEMESTER
FPT3 C09 – QUALITY CONTROL, INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION IN
SEAFOOD
Unit I
Introduction to quality control in food processing. Necessity of quality control. Food laws in
India, integrated food law.
Unit II
Quality management, total quality concept and application in fish trade. Quality assessment
of fish and fishery products - physical, chemical, organoleptic and microbiological quality
standards. - sensory evaluation of quality, general testing conditions, different sensory tests.
Unit III
HACCP and Good manufacturing practices. HACCP principles, practical aspects of planning
and implementation, verification, validation and audit. HACCP based quality control systems in
India. Hazard analysis, preparation of HACCP plan, implementation of HACCP based quality
control systems.
Unit IV
Quality evaluation techniques for seafood: Physical, chemical. bacteriological and Instrumental
methods of quality evaluation. Sensory evaluation. Quality standards: National and International
– Codex, USFDA, EU norms, ISO, BIS etc. Standards for fish and fishery products. Seafood
certification systems, IDP and SAT formations in certification of export worthiness of fish
processing units, regulations for fishing vessels, pre-processing and processing plants, EU
regulations. ISO 22000:2006. Marine Stewardship Council, Green certification.
Unit V
National and International standards: ISO 9000: 2000 series of quality assurance system, Codex
alimentarius, USFDA and EU regulations for fish export trade, IDP and SAT formations in
certification of export worthiness of fish processing units, regulations for fishing vessels, preprocessing and processing plants, EU regulations. ISO 22000:2006. Microbial quality standards
for major importing countries like USA, Japan, EEC.
Suggested Readings
15
Amerien M.A. et.al.
Anthony T. Tu.
Balachandran, K.K.
Brody J.
Chicheste C.O. & Graham H.D.
Connel J.J.
Desrosier N.W. & Treasler D.K
Gopakumar K.
Govindan T.K.
Hall, G.M.
Hui,Y.H. et al.,
Huss, H. H. et al.
John, D. E. V.
Krenzer, R.
Moorjani M.N.
Sen D. P.
Vincent K. O. & Joel E. Ross.
Principles of sensory evaluation of Food
Handbook of Natural toxins. Marine Toxins and Venom
Post Harvest Technology of fish and fish products.
Fishery Byproduct Technology
Microbial Safety of fishery Products
Control of Fish Quality
Fundamentals of Food Freezing
Text Book of Fish Processing Technology.
Fish Processing Technology
Fish Processing Technology.
Food borne Disease
Quality assurance in the fish industry.
Food safety and toxicity
Fish inspection and quality control.
Fish Processing in India
Advances in Fish Processing Technology.
Principles of Total Quality.
FPT3 E01- ECONOMICS AND MARKETING IN SEAFOOD
Unit I
Fishery economics: Definition, scope and role. Production economics catch and effort studies –
methodological issues in the estimation of fish catch and fishing effort – dimensions of fishing
effort – costs of and returns from fishing – cost components – employment and earnings of
fishermen in relation to technological options – production function in marine capture fisheries
Unit II
Economic theories and growth models of fish resource development and exploitation; Fishery
resource management; Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY), Maximum and Net Economic Yield
(M/NEY), Optimum Sustainable Yield (OSY), Static Maximum Economic Yield (SMEY),
Dynamic Maximum Economic Yield (DMEY) Socioeconomics – An overview of the socio
economic status of the fisherfolk in India.
Unit III
Fisheries Marketing definition and scope, functions of fish marketing, Markets and market
structure, Government and Co-operative in fisheries marketing , integration, marketing
efficiency, marketing cost and price spread, marketing planning, marketing strategy, marketing
research, Marketing infrastructure, Marketing regulations, constraints and approaches to fish
marketing development.
Unit IV
Supply Chain Management Concepts and Evolution, value addition in fish marketing.
Constraints and approaches to SCM in fisheries sector. Vertical integration and its effect on
price determination. Domestic and external markets for fisheries products. Indian fisheries
intervention.
Unit V
16
Developing marketing strategies. Advanced studies of marketing information system and emarketing, fish-business. Dynamics and innovations in fisheries marketing system. Applications
of econometric methods of analysis for the study of market behaviours. Computer application in
marketing management: Market intelligence, its need, analysis and dissemination
Unit VI
Principles of price determination. Price difference and variability, price analysis, price
elasticities, Price determination of fish and fishery products, characteristics of demand and
supply of fish and fishery product, supply responses, seasonality, future trading, price support
measures. Price stabilisation policies
Suggested readings
1. Phillip Kotler
2. Robert E Branson & Norvel,
3. Ian Chaston,
4. Dennis Adeock, et al.,
5. Jolson, M. A.,
6. Amarchand & Varadharajan, B.
7. Phillip Kotler & Gary Armstrong
8. G. E. Shephard.
9. Hamdy, A. Taha
Marketing Management.
Introduction to Agricultural Marketing
Marketing.
Marketing Principles and Practice,.
Marketing Management,
An introduction to marketing,
Principles of Marketing.
Agricultural Price Analysis.
Operations Research: An Introduction.
FPT3 E02 – CURED AND DRIED FISHERY PRODUCTS
Unit I
Free and bound water in foods, water activity and sorption behaviours of foods, storage
characteristics, microbial spoilage, effects of water activity on chemical deterioration, enzymatic
reaction, non-enzymatic browning, lipid oxidation, reaction between lipids and proteins, dry fish,
control of micro-organisms.
Unit II
Principles of drying and dehydration: Psychometrics, drying calculation, constant rate and
falling rate, drying time in air, moisture transport mechanism, natural drying, solar drying and
mechanical drying. Different types of dryers: tunnel drier, vacuum drier, drum drier, solar drier
etc. Freeze drying, preparation and its nutritive value. Dehydration of fish products: dehydration
ratio, precautions to be taken in fish drying; denaturation of fish protein.
Unit III
Cured fish, types of salt curing, use of salt, factors affecting salt uptake by fish, lean and fatty
fish, whole, gutted or split open, type and size of salt crystals, source of salts and impurities in
salts, effect of impurities on salt penetration, temperature of salting.
Unit IV
Smoke curing, chemistry of smoke, composition and properties, smoking methods: cold and
hot method, use of smoke liquids, production of smoke, type of wood used, methods of smoke
generation, carcinogens in smoke, smoke kilns.
17
Unit V
Fermented products: different methods of fermentation, indigenious products and their principles
of preservation. Marinades: Principles; processing of cold, cooked and fried marinades, shelf life
and spoilage. Fish and shellfish pickles: production, shelf life Packaging requirements for dry,
cured and fermented products.
Suggested readings
1.Gopakumar K.
2. Hall, G.M.
3. Hui,Y.H., Merle D.P., & J R. Gorham
4. Oefjen, G.W., Haseky & Peter
5. Sen D. P.
6. Wheaton & Lawson
Text Book of Fish Processing Technology
Fish Processing Technology.
Food borne Disease Handbook.
Freeze drying.
Advances in Fish Processing Technology.
Processing Aquatic Food Products
FPT3 E03 – FISHERY BY-PRODUCTS AND VALUE ADDITION
Unit I
Nutritional importance of fish meal and quality requirements -Raw material quality and changes
during processing and storage. Production of fish meal - dry and wet process, machinery, control
of quality of products, specifications, packaging and storage.
Unit II
Fish body and liver oils. Nutritional importance of fish oil and methods to impart stability to fish
oils on storage, Unsaponifiables in fish liver oils. Enzyme hydrolysis of fish, fish hydrolysates,
fish peptones, hydrolysates enriched food beverages.
Unit III
Shrimp waste, crab shell and squilla utilisation: Resources and composition, conventional
uses, feeds and manure, conversion to useful materials like chitin, chitosan, glucosamine
hydrochloride, shrimp extract, commercial production, production and use of protein isolates
from squilla and shrimp waste.
Unit IV
Fish protein concentrate: Different methods of production, functional properties, different types
of FPC, texturised products and comparison of FPC to fish meal. Production of fish flour, quality
standards and applications
Unit V
Fish silage: Acid silage and fermented silage, advantages over fish meal, nutritional value of
silage. Fish hydrolysates: Production and utilisation, biochemical composition and importance in
food and nutrition.
Unit VI
Miscellaneous by-products: Fish maws, shark liver oil, squalene, ambergris, shark skin, shark
cartilage, isinglass, pearl essence, fertilizer, beche-demer, fish glue, agar agar, alginic acid,
carrageenan. Extraction of collagen from fish processing wastes, properties and application.
Preparation of biological membranes using collagen and chitosan for biomedical applications.
18
Unit VII
Value Added Products: Present market trends, scope of value addition, Types of value addition,
Important value added products. Coated products – Principles and type of coating, Coating
functions, in gradients, Batter classification, Mechanical properties of batter, Bread crumbs,
Flavorings, Seasonings and Hydrocolloids in coatings, Fat and oils in coated food, Application of
batters and breading to seafood.
Suggested readings
1. Balachandran, K.K.
2. Gopakumar K.
3. Hall, G.M.
4. Hui,Y.H., M.D. Pierson & J.R. Gorham
5. Sen D. P.
6. Wheaton & Lawson
7. Windsor, M. & Barlow
Post Harvest Technology of fish and fish products.
Text Book of Fish Processing Technology.
Fish Processing Technology.
Food borne Disease
Advances in Fish Processing Technology.
Processing Aquatic Food Products.
Introduction to Fishery Byproducts, Fishing
FPT3 E04 – PACKING AND LABELLING OF FISH AND FISHERY PRODUCTS
Unit I
Food packaging, its purposes and procedures; technological aspects of packaging fishery
products; packing of fresh and frozen fish for consumers; packaging for transport, shipping and
institutional supplies; packaging standards for domestic and international trade.
Unit II
Packaging materials; basic films and laminates, their manufacture and identification; resistance
of packaging materials; development of protective packaging for fishery products.
Unit III
Methods of testing for packaging materials for their physical properties; containers and their
testing and evaluation; package designs; resistance of packages to hazards in handling; transport
and storage.
Unit IV
Modified atmosphere packaging, controlled packaging and aseptic packaging. Flexible packing,
retort pouch processing of fish and fishery products principles and techniques. Combination and
synergistic effects.
Unit V
Labelling and printing of packaging materials. Labeling requirements - national and
international, legislation on labeling. Labeling for product traceability. Type of labeling for
organic foods, specific foods like organic foods, GM foods, irradiated foods, vegetarian and nonvegetarian foods. Label design specification – size, colour.
Unit VI
Nutritional labelling and education act. The US/ International labelling requirements (Codex/
Indian standards for labelling). Food grade packaging materials. Major nutrients Minor nutrients,
Essential nutrients. Antinutritional factors.
19
Suggested Readings:
1. Balachandran K.K.
2. Desrosier N.W. and Treasler D.K
3. Govindan T.K.
4. Moorjani M.N.
5. Brody J.
6. Chicheste C.O. and Graham H.D.
7. Amerien M.A. et.al.
8. Connel J.J.
Post Harvest Technology of Fish and Fishery Products
Fundamentals of Food Freezing
Fish Processing Technology
Fish Processing in India
Fishery Byproduct Technology
Microbial Safety of fishery Products
Principles of sensory evaluation of Food
Control of Fish Quality
FPT3 E05 - STORAGE AND TRANSPORTATION OF FISHERY PRODUCTS
Unit I
Fish as raw material for processing: Body structure, physical properties, shape, specific weight,
bulk weight, angle of slip, weight composition. Factors affecting quality of fresh fish: intrinsic
and extrinsic factors. Post-harvest Fishery losses, Methods to reduce losses during storage and
transportation.
Unit II
Changes in Fish muscle during freezing and in the cold storage- ice crystal formation, shrinkage,
driploss, organoleptic changes, freezer burn, texture, protein denaturation, nutritional changes,
enzyme denaturation, declaining of bacterial load, discolouration.
Unit III
Layout and factors to be considered during storage- Chute, raw material receiving room,
chill room, processing hall, working table and utensiles, freezers, cold storage, machinery,
ventillation, measures for controlling flies and animals, lighting, potable water and ice, toilet
facilities, laboratory etc.
Unit IV
Types of fish storage. Functions of cold storage, Types of cold storage. Chill storage and frozen
storage. Heat load calculation, storage methods. insulated boxes and insulation thickness,
different types of ice, physical, chemical, microbiological and sensory changes during chill
storage, iced storage shelf life, cold shock, physical,chemical and sensory methods of analysis.
Unit V
Various types of fish transport systems. Transportation: Live fish/shell fish, Transportation
of raw fish to local markets and processing centres, Improvements needed in transportation,
Refrigerated transport systems, Classification of transport vehicles, Cold chain.
Suggested readings:
Aitken, A., et al.
Balachandran, K. K.
Connell, J. J.
George, M. Hall.
Gopakumar K.
Sen D. P.
Fish handling and processing.
Post harvest technology of fish and fish products.
Advances in fish sciences and technology.
Fish processing technology.
Text Book of Fish Processing Technology.
Advances in Fish Processing Technology.
20
FPT3 E06- INSTRUMENTION IN FISH PROCESSING AND ANALYSIS
Unit I
Microscopy-Working principles of light microscopes (dark field and light field), fluorescent
microscope, phase contrast microscope, and electronic microscope (TEM, SEM)
Unit II
pH meter, oxygen temperature probes, refractormeter, Spectrophotometry- UV-visible, Flame
Photometry and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry.
Unit III
High performance liquid chromatography and Chromatographic separation methods.
Electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing. Immuno electrophoresis
Unit IV
Blotting techniques - Southern and northern blotting. ELISA- Indirect ELISA
Unit V
PCR-Principles and application in Fisheries for disease diagnosis. Microarrays- Principles
Suggested reading
1.
Macleod A.J.
2.
Anand C.
3.
Dtermann H.
4.
CRC series (vol I – III)
5.
Connell J.J.
6.
Jones A, Read R and Weyers J
7.
Choudhary R.
Instrumental methods of food analysis
Instrumental methods of chemical analysis
Gel Chromatography
Thin Layer Chromatography
Advances in Fishery Sciences and Technology
Practical Skills in Biology
Biochemical Techniques
PRACTICALS
FPT 4 C14P- QUALITY CONTROL IN FISHERIES
Organoleptic analysis of fish and shell fish, Determination of total bacterial count in fishery products,
Estimation of indicator bacteria and pathogens in fishery products. Isolation and identification of E. Coli,
Staphylococcu, Vibrio, Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, Faecal streptococci, and Clostridium.
Reactions in Triple Sugar Iron, Lysine Iron Agar, Indole. Methyl Red, Vogus-Proskauer and Citrate
(IMVIC) test. Urease test, Agglutination using polyvalent sera, Analysis of indole, total nitrogen, trimethyl
amine (TMA)
Analysis of filth and other extraneous materials from sea food, Analysis of ice, water and fish contact
surfaces, Estimation of percentage chlorine in hypochlorate solution, Peroxide value of fish oil, acid value
or free fatty acids of fish oil and refractive index of fish oil.
21
SEMESTER IV
Dissertation/Project Work (To be completed within this semester)
In-plant Training (Full-time training for 3 months)
22
Fly UP