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File Ref.No.4794/GA - IV - J1/2012/CU UNIVERSITY OF CALICUT
File Ref.No.4794/GA - IV - J1/2012/CU
UNIVERSITY OF CALICUT
Abstract
Scheme and Syllabus of MSc programme in Aquaculture and Fishery Microbiology under Credit Semester
System (CUCSS-PG-2010) for affiliated colleges - Revised and implemented with effect from 2013 admission
- orders issued.
UNIVERSITY OF CALICUT (G & A - IV - J)
U.O.No. 5080/2013/CU
Dated, Calicut University.P.O, 26.10.2013
Read:-1. U.O.No.GAIV/J1/1373/08 dated 23.07.2010.
2. U.O.No.GAIV/J1/4660/2010 dated 24.09.2010.
3. U.O.No.GAIV/J1/4660/2010 dated 01.04.2011.
4. Item No:1 of the minutes of the meeting of the Board of Studies in Aquaculture Dtd:
26/06/2013
5. Remarks of the Dean, Faculty of Science dated 29/8/13
6. Orders of Vice-Chancellor in the file of even number on 27/9/2013 .
ORDER
Credit Semester System (CUCSS-PG-2010) has been introduced for the PG programmes of all affiliated
colleges of this University with effect from 2010 admissions vide paper read as (1) above. The Board of
Studies in Aquaculture restructured the syllabus of M.Sc Aquaculture and Fishery Microbiology in tune with
the Credit Semester System 2010 and the syllabus for the same was implemented vide University Order read
as 2 & 3 above.
Vide paper read as (4) above, the Board of Studies in Aquaculture has approved the revised syllabus of
MSc Aquaculture and Fishery Microbiology programme under Calicut University Credit Semester System PG
2010 and forwarded the revised Syllabus. And as per paper read as 5 above the Dean, Faculty of Science
has recommeded to approve the syllabus.
Vide Paper read as 6 above the Vice-Chancellor ,in view of exigency, approved the syllabus
for implementation subject to ratification by the Academic Council. Sanction has therefore been accorded for
implementing the scheme and syllabus of M.Sc Aquaculture and Fishery Microbiology programme under
Calicut University Credit Semester System -PG –2010 for affiliated colleges with effect from 2013 admission.
Orders are issued accordingly. Scheme and Syllabus of M.Sc Aquaculture and Fishery
Microbiology programme appended. The same is also available in the University website.
Anuja Balakrishnan
Assistant Registrar
To
1) The Principals of all affiliated Colleges offering M.Sc. programme in Aquaculture and Fishery
Microbiology.
Microbiology.
2) Self financing centres of the University of Calicut offering M.Sc programme in Aquaculture and
Fishery Microbiology.
3) CE/Enquiry
4) Information centres/DR III (Exams)/EG-I/ DR PG/Tabulation section/GAI ‘F’ ‘G’ sections/
5) Digital wing (with a request to upload in University website/GAII/GAIII/SF/FC
Forwarded / By Order
Section Officer
1
UNIVERSITY OF CALICUT
Regulations, Eligibility, Scheme and Syllabus For
M. Sc. Aquaculture and Fishery Microbiology (CSS)
(Effective from 2013 Admission onwards)
All the general rules and regulations laid down by the University of Calicut for PG
(CSS) Curriculum 2013 for affiliated colleges shall be applicable.
I.
ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA.
Those students who possess B.Sc. Degree in Zoology, Aquaculture and Industrial Fish and
Fisheries as Core/Main subject with Zoology/ Botany/ chemistry/ Biochemistry/ Computer
Sciences/ as Complementary/subsidiaries are eligible for admission to this Programme.
II.
PROGRAMME AND SCHEME OF EXAMINATIONS
1. M.Sc. Aquaculture and Fishery Microbiology, programme shall have 4 core courses and
2 core practical course each in 1st and 2nd semesters, 2 core course, 2 core practical course
and 2 elective courses each in 3rd and 4th semester. Viva-voce, evaluation of project
work/ dissertation and evaluation of study tour and specimen collection will be conducted
at the end of 4th semester.
2. There shall be external university examination of 3 hour duration for each theory courses
at the end of the each semester, to be conducted after the completion of 80 working
days.
3. Each theory and practical course shall have 4 credits.
4. Practical examinations shall be conducted by the university at the end of each semester
5. Each practical examination is of 3 hour duration and shall carry 1 credit each.
6. Project / dissertation evaluation and viva-voce shall be conducted at the end of the
programme only. Practical examination, project / dissertation evaluation and viva voce
shall be conducted by two external examiners.
7. Project / dissertation, combined field mapping and viva voce shall carry 4 credits each.
Combined field studies and study tours may be carried out at any time during the entire
period of the programme.
8. Each theory question paper may contain 14 short answer types, of weightage 1, 7 short
essays out of 10 questions of weightage 2. Two long essays out of 4 questions of
weightage 4.
III.
EVALUATION AND GRADING
The evaluation scheme for each course shall contain two parts (a) Internal evaluation
and (b) external evaluation. 25% weightage shall be given to internal evaluation and the
remaining 75% to external evaluation therefore the ratio and weightage between internal
and external is 1: 3. Both internal and external evaluation shall be carried out using direct
grading system.
Internal evaluation: The internal evaluation shall be based on predetermined transparent
system involving periodic written tests, assignments, seminars and attendance. In respect
of theory courses and based on written tests, lab skill/records/viva and attendance in
respect of practical courses. The weight age assigned to various components for
internal evaluation is a follows.
2
3
Components of Internal Evaluation
Component
Weightage
A
Assignment
1
B
Seminar
1
C
Attendance
1
D
Test paper
2
To ensure transparency of the evaluation process, the internal assessment grade awarded
to the students in each course in a semester shall be published on the notice board at least
one week before the commencement of external examination. There shall not be any
chance for improvement for internal grade.
The course teacher shall maintain the academic record of each student registered for the
course, which shall be forwarded to the University, through the college Principal.
External evaluation: The external Examination in theory courses is to be conducted
by the University with question papers set by external experts. The evaluation of the
answer scripts shall be done by examiners based on a well-defined scheme of valuation.
The external evaluation shall be done immediately after the examination preferably in a
Centralized Valuation Camp.
Photocopies of the answer scripts of the external examination shall be made available
to the students for scrutiny on request and revaluation/scrutiny of answer scripts shall be
done as per the existing rules prevailing in the University. Awarding of a higher grade
after revaluation may be given only after a second revaluation.
1.
Direct Grading System
Direct Grading System based on a 5 - point scale is used to evaluate the performance
(External and Internal Examination of students)
Direct Grading System
Letter Grade
Performance
Grade Grade Range
Point
A
Excellent
4
3.50 to 4.00
B
Very good
3
2.50 to 3.49
C
Good
2
1.50 to 2.49
D
Average
1
0.50 to 1.49
E
Poor
0
0.00 to 0.49
2. Each course is evaluated by assigning a letter grade (A,B,C,D or E) to that course by
the method of direct grading. The internal (weightage =1) and external weightage
=3) components of a course are separately graded and then combined to get the
grade of the course after taking into account of their weightage.
3. An aggregate of C-grade (when external and internal put together) is required in each
course for a pass and also for awarding the degree.
4
4. A student who fails to secure a minimum grade for a pass in a course will be
permitted to write the examination along with the next batch.
1V. Grievance Redress Mechanism for internal evaluation
There is provision for grievance redresses at four levels- first at the level of teacher
concerned; second, at the level of Department committee consisting of the Head of the
Department, Departmental Coordinator and the teacher concerned; third, at the level
of the College committee consisting of the Principal, HOD and member of the College
council nominated buy the Principal each year, and also a student member of that class
nominated by the HOD. And fourth, at University level committee consisting of the
Pro-vice chancellor, chairman-PG board of studies of subject expert nominated by the
Vice-Chancellor, Controller of the Examination and the Convener of the Examination
standing Committee.
College or Department Level complaints will be filed within one week of the
publication of the results and the decision taken within the next two weeks. Appeals,
if any, on such decision shall be filed in the University level committee within a period
of one week and decision taken within one month for the date of the submission of
complaints. The time schedule in regard to the grievance redresses will be announced by
the colleges concerned and the University in advance.
For university level complaints, a fee, as fixed by the Syndicate from time to time,
will be levied from the students.
Normalization of continuous internal evaluation may be done by the university
when there is inflation of grades in internal evaluation. The grades will be scaled down
proportionately if the variation between the internal and external evaluation exceeds
40%.
V. Evaluation of Project Report/ Dissertation
Dissertation will be valued by two examiners who conduct the practical examination
(external) at the time of 4th semester. Distribution of 10 weightage allotted for
dissertation will be as follows
Methodology
2 Weightage
Content
4 Weightage
Presentation
1 Weightage
Answering question
1 Weightage
Originality or overall outlook 2 Weightage
Total 10 Weightage
VI. Specimen Collection
All the students need to collect specimens based on the assignment given to them and
neatly displayed with a short description after proper preservation and identification.
The specimen collection will be valued externally with following criteria.
Diversity
2 Weightage
Identification
4 Weightage
Display
2 Weightage
Description
2 Weightage
Total 10 Weightage
5
University of Calicut
M. Sc. Aquaculture and Fishery Microbiology - Course Structure, Scheme &
Syllabus
(Credit Semester System – 2013 Admission onwards)
I Semester
Course
Course
Code
5
AFM 1 C02
Fish Biology &
Fisheries
Aquatic Ecology
Exam
Duratio
n
3 hrs
Core
AFM 1 C01
Core
5
Core
AFM 1 C03
General Microbiology
Core
AFM 1 C04
Seed Production &
Hatchery Management
Fish Taxonomy &
Biology
Instrumentation
*Practica
AFM 1
l
C05P
*Practica
AFM 1
l
C06P
Course Title
L
P
Interna External Credits
l (%)
(%)
25
75
4
3 hrs
25
75
4
5
3 hrs
25
75
4
5
3 hrs
25
75
4
3
3 hrs
25
75
1
2
3 hrs
25
75
1
Total
18
Credits
II Semester
Course
Course
Code
Course Title
L
Core
AFM 2 C07
Fishery Microbiology
Core
AFM 2 C08
Core
AFM 2 C09
Core
AFM 2 C10
Introduction to
Sustainable Aquaculture
Fish Biochemistry &
Genetics
Research Methodology
*Practical
AFM 2
C11P
*Practical AFM 2
C12P
Internal
(%)
Externa
l (%)
Credit
s
5
Exam
Duratio
n
3 hrs
25
75
4
5
3 hrs
25
75
4
5
3 hrs
25
75
4
5
3 hrs
25
75
4
3
3 hrs
25
75
1
2
3 hrs
25
75
1
P
General & Fishery
Microbiology
Biocomputing and
Bioinformatics
Total
18
Credits
III Semester
Course
Course
Code
Course Title
L
Core
AFM 3 C13
Fish Physiology
5
Exam
Duratio
n
3 hrs
Core
AFM 3 C14
Seafood Processing
Technology
Aquaculture Production
Systems
Aquaculture Engineering
5
3 hrs
Elective
AFM 3 E01
Elective
AFM 3 E02
5
P
3 hrs
Internal External Credit
(%)
(%)
s
25
75
4
25
75
4
25
75
Cho
ose
one
4
cred
its
6
Elective
AFM 3 E03
Elective
AFM 3 E04
Elective
AFM 3 E05
Elective
AFM 3 E06
*Practical
AFM 3
C15P
*Practical AFM 3
C16P
Aquaculture Economics
and Extension
Quality Control,
Inspection &
Certification in Seafood
Industrial Microbiology
5
Fishery by-products and
Value addition
Soil and Water Quality
Assessment
Biochemistry
Cho
ose
one
4
cred
its
3 hrs
25
75
3
3 hrs
25
75
1
2
3 hrs
25
75
1
Total
18
Credits
IV Semester
Course Code
Course
Course Title
L
Biotechnology & Molecular
Biology
Disease Diagnosis & Aquatic
Health Management
Live Feed Culture
5
Exam
Duratio
n
3 hrs
5
3 hrs
Core
AFM 4 C17
Core
AFM 4 C18
Elective
AFM 4 E07
Elective
AFM 4 E08
Elective
AFM 4 E09
Elective
AFM 4 E10
Ornamental Fish Breeding &
Rearing
Fish Nutrition & Feed
Technology
Immunology
Elective
AFM 4 E11
Developmental Biology
Elective
AFM 4 E12
Aquatic Pollution &
Toxicology
Fish Processing & Quality
Control
Physiology, Cytology &
Molecular Biology
Dissertation
Field Work & Specimen
Collection**
Viva-Voce
*Practica
AFM 4 C19P
l
*Practica AFM 1 C20P
l
AFM 4 C21Pr
AFM 4 C22Pr
AFM 4 C23V
P
5
3 hrs
Internal External Credit
(%)
(%)
s
25
75
4
25
75
4
25
75
Cho
ose
one
4
cred
its
Cho
3 hrs
25
75
3
3 hrs
25
75
ose
one
4
cred
its
1
2
3 hrs
25
75
1
25
25
75
75
2
2
25
75
2
5
2
Total Credits
Total Credits for the whole Programme
L – Lecture hours; P – Practical Hours (Hour distribution in a week)
* Examination will be conducted at the end of each semester.
24
78
7
** Field work & specimen collection may be carried out anytime during the entire period of the
programme
8
THEORY
AFM 1 C01 - FISH BIOLOGY & FISHERIES
Unit I
Morphology and Sexual dimorphism in fishes and crustaceans. Maturation and spawning in
fishes. Maturity stages, Gonado-somatic index, Fecundity, ova diameter studies, breeding cycles.
Life history of economically important fish species. Age and growth in fish. Methods employed
for age determination. Length-weight relationships. Migration in fishes and crustaceans.
Unit II
Structure of digestive system in fishes, Digestive glands and enzymes. Food and feeding
habits of fishes. Food analysis indices. Respiration-Structure of gills, branchial glands,
respiratory pigments, mechanism of gas exchange. Accessory respiratory organs in fishes and its
significance. Endocrine system,-Pituitary gland in fishes. Endocrine control of reproduction in
crustaceans and molluscs.
Unit III
Fisheries resources of India, potential and trends in fish production. Marine capture fisheries,
PFZ, EEZ and FAO’s code of conduct of responsible fisheries, fishery of commercially
important pelagic and demersal fishes, crustaceans, molluscs and seaweeds. Oceanic and deep
sea fisheries resources. Principles of fish population dynamics. Fish stock assessment models.
Unit IV
Inland capture fishery resources and production in India. Fisheries in major riverine systems,
estuaries, reservoirs and lakes of India. Exploitation of freshwater and marine ornamental fish
resources of India. Types of crafts and gears used in present day fishing . Selectivity of fishing
gears and by-catch reduction devices. Use of modern techniques and equipments for fish finding
and capturing. Fisheries Extension.
Suggested reading
1. Jhingran V.G.
2. Jhingran V.G. and Talwar S.K.
3. Bal J and Rao S.R.
4. Hameed M.S & Bhoopendranath M.R.
5. Santhanam S.
6. Bensam K.
7. Moyle and Cech
8. Matty
9. Hoar and Randall
10. Tandon K.L.
11. Yadav Y.R.
12. Cushing D.H
13. Devaraj,M.
Fish and Fisheries of India
Fisheries of India (Vol 1 & 2)
Fishes of India
Modern Fishing Gear Technology
Fisheries Science
Development of marine Fisheries Science in India
Fishes and Introduction of Ichthyology
Fish Endocrinology
Fish Physiology
Age and Growth in Indian freshwater fishes
Fish and Fisheries
Marine Ecology and Fisheries
Fish Population Dynamics Course Manual
9
14. Nelson J.S.
15. Royce W.F.
16. Bliss D.E.
17. Samuel,C.T.
18. Sreekrishna, Y. & Shenoy L.
19. Talwar.P.K. & Kacker,R.K.
20. Pitcher T.U.
Fishes of the World.
Introduction to Fishery Sciences,
Biology of Crustacean
Marine Fisheries in India.
Fishing Gear and Craft Technology.
Commercial Sea Fishes of India.
Behavior of Teleost Fishes
Supplementary & Advanced Reading
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Nikolsky
Wooran R.J.
CMFRI.
Wootton, R.J.
Prosser C.L.
FAO
Fisheries.
7. ICAR
8. CMFRI
9. CMFRI.
10. CMFRI.
Ecology of fishes
Fish Ecology
The Commercial Molluscs of India.
Fish Ecology.
Comparative Animal Physiology.
Fisheries management. FAO Technical Guidelines for Responsible
Handbook of Fisheries and Aquaculture, ICAR New Delhi: 756 p.
Tuna Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone of India.
Cephalopod Resources of the EEZ of India.
Shell Fish Resources and Farming.
AFM1CO2: AQUATIC ECOLOGY
Unit 1 Introduction to Ecology
Definition, principle and scope of ecology, Classification of aquatic ecology, freshwater, marine and
estuarine. Community concept, types of community, succession process, competition and Coexistence,
types of interactions: predation, parasitism, antibiosis, commensalism, cooperation and mutualism,
population growth. Characteristics of eco system, structure of ecosystem and function of an ecosystem,
population.
Unit 2 Organization of Ecological systems
Ecosystem components, Producers, consumers and decomposer, Food chains, food web and ecological
pyramids, Biotic and abiotic components, Ecological pyramids, Bioaccumulation and biomagnifications,
mass and energy transfer in successive trophical level. Energy and Ecological succession: Flow and
energy fixation, construction of ecological pyramids.
Unit 3 Aquatic Ecology
Major physical and chemical factors (light, temperature, gases, nutrients). Ecological stratification of
freshwater ecosystem, Aquatic biota: phytoplankton, zooplankton, benthos, periphyton, macrophytes, fish
and other animals. Production in lakes, rivers, estuaries and wetlands. Nutrient dynamics in lakes, rivers,
estuaries and wetlands. Eutrophication and water pollution: monitoring and control conservation and
management of lakes, rivers and wetlands.
Unit 4 Marine Ecology
The division of the marine environment – benthic, pelagic, bathyal, littoral. Ocean waters as a biological
environment. Distribution and population of plants and animals. Marine ecology and fisheries potential.
10
Effects of pollution on marine life. Dynamics, Carrying capacity. Abiotic and Biotic environment,
limiting factors, adaptation, Habitat and niche, nature of environment. Littoral Zones: Fauna of intertidal
zones, their distribution and adaptations, ecological importance of mangrove vegetation.
Unit 5 Functions of Ecology
Ecology and Productivity: Biota in different types of zones, its diversity-plankton, nekton, benthos, their
adaptations and productivity, Indian marine territory, Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ). Biogeochemical
cycles: Hydrological cycles, carbon cycle, oxygen cycle, nitrogen cycle, sulfur cycle, phosphorus cycleits importance and applications. Interaction of biotic and abiotic ecological factors. Biodiversity and
diversity indices.
Texts/References:
1) E. P. Odum
2) K.M.M. Dakshini
3) M.C. Dash
4) M.C. Molles Jr.
5) V. Ingegnoli
6) E.J. Kormondi
7) Chapman, J.L. & Reiss M.J.
Fundamentals of Ecology, Nataraj Publisher, Dehra Dun.
Principle and Practices in Plant Ecology, CRC, Boston.
Fundamentals of Ecology, Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi.
Ecology- Concepts and Application, McGraw Hill, New Delhi.
Landscape Ecology: a widening foundation, Springer, Bonn.
Concepts of Ecology, Prentice Hall of India, New Delhi.
Ecology Principles and Applications, Cambridge University Press,
London.
8) E.P. Odum &G. W. Barrett Fundamentals of Ecology, Thomson Asia Pvt. Ltd., Singapore.
9) S.V.S. Rana (2005)
Essentials of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Prentice Hall of
India, New Delhi.
10) R.Rajagopalan
Environment And Ecology- EAS105/EAS 20511) R.Rajagopalan
Environmental Studies From Crisis To Cure-2nd Edition12) Alan Scragg
Environmental Biotechnology-, Oxford University Press.
AFM1C03: GENERAL MICROBIOLOGY
Unit I- General Introduction
Scope and importance of Microbiology, Modern concept in Microbiology, Classification of
Microorganisms. Nutritional requirements of microorganisms–general growth media. Microbial
communities in the aquatic environment, kinetics of microbial population, biofilms, Biofouling
and biocorrosion. Microbial interactions– symbiosis, antagonism, commensalism. Routine tests
for identification of microorganisms- morphological, cultural, biochemical and serological.
Unit II- Bacteria
Morphology and ultrastructure, Nutritional types of bacteria, Culture of bacteria- Pure
culture.MPN estimation-isolation and identification of faecal coliforms. Salmonella-Isolation and
identification. Vibrio- Isolation and identification. Streptococcus- Isolation and identification.
Listeria spp isolation and identification. Pseudomonas aeroginosa, General understanding about
different microbiological methods. Quantitative measurement of bacterial growth, isolation,
enumeration, preservation and maintenance of cultures, biochemical characterization, regulation
of bacterial growth, Bacterial enzymes, antibacterial agents.
Unit III- Fungus
11
Fungal classifications, biology of fungi, slime, mould, protist fungi, true fungi, imperfect fungi.
Morphology and ultrastructure of molds, cultivation of molds, some molds of microbiological
interest. Mycotoxins. Techniques for isolation and identification of yeasts and molds.
Unit IV- Virus
Viral morphology and taxonomy, mode of viral entry, virus replication strategies, viral
interference, cytopathic effect, Antiviral agents, viral immunity. Laboratory diagnosis of viral
diseases- Isolation of viruses using cell culture; Purification and characterization of viruses.
Unit V- Instrumentation
Basic methods in water analysis and Microbiology. Light and electron microscopy.
Spectrophotometry- UV-visible, Flame Photometry and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry..
Laminar Flow. Ultracentrifuge. Autoclave. PCR Machine. Electrophoresis. Chromatography
and HPLC. ELISA- Blotting techniques - Southern and Northern blotting. Handling of
instruments and precautions. Databases in biology: Protein, Nucleotide, Literature- Primary,
Secondary. Databases of NCBI, EMBL, DDBJ, KEGG. Protein and DNA Sequence analysis
using common software- Phylo-genetic analysis using Phylip and similar software.
Suggested reading
1. Sali A.J.
2. Schlegel
3. Maat A.G. and Wiley A
4. Pelezar Read and Chan
5. Collins C.H. and Lyns P.M.
6. Lengeler
7. Subbarao
8. Rheinheimer
9. ZoBell
10. Pawar and Diganawala
11. Frobisher et al.
12. Harry W. Seeley, et al.
13. Hawkey P M & Lewis D A
14. Barrow G I & Feltham R K A.
15. Kimberley A.Whitman
16. Kathleen P.T. and Arther T.
17. Ingraham, J.I. et al.
Fundamental Principles of Bacteriology
General Microbiology
Microbial Physiology
Microbiology
Microbiological Methods
Biology of Prokaryotes
Soil Microbiology
Aquatic Microbiology
Marine Microbiology
General Microbiology
Fundamentals of Microbiology
Microbes in Action: A Laboratory Manual of
Microbiology.
Medical Bacteriology: A Practical Approach
Manual for the Identification of Medical Bacteria
Finfish and shellfish bacteriology manual-Techniques
and procedures
Foundation in Microbiology
Introduction to Microbiology
AFM 1 C04 -Seed Production & Hatchery Management
Unit I
Induced breeding in fishes. Seed production technology of carps and tilapia. Management of
hatchery, nursery and rearing ponds. Chinese circular hatchery and its modifications. Hatchery
layout and designing. Recirculating hatchery systems.
12
Unit II
Reproductive biology and life cycle in crustaceans. Induced breeding in prawns and shrimps.
Hatchery production techniques of shrimp. Larval disease. Hatchery production techniques of
Macrobrachium rosenbergii.
Unit III
Natural breeding and seed resources of cultivable crabs, lobsters and molluscs. Seed production
technique of mud crab. Hatchery technology for lobsters. Methods for spat collection. Induced
maturation, spawning and hatchery rearing of mussels, edible oysters and pearl oysters.
Unit IV
Marine and brakishwater fish seed production in India. Marine fish hatchery-general
considerations. Seed production techniques of Sea Bass, Cobia and Groupers.
Unit V
Live feed culture techniques. Mass production of algae for hatcheries. Artemia production
techniques. Culture of zooplanktons for larviculture. Artificial feeds in larviculture.
Suggested Readings
1 Jhingran VG
Fish and Fisheries of India
2 Chonder S.L
Hypophysation of Indian major carps
3 Pillay . T.V.R
Advances in aquaculture
4 Bardach, Rhyther & McLarney Aquaculture
5 V.G Jhingran & Saigal
Cold water fisheries of India
6 Anon,
Hatchery production of penaeid prawn seed
7 Anon
A Guide to prawn farming in India
8 Peteri, S. Nandi & SN. Chowdhury
Manual on Seed Production of Carps. FAO
9 Anon
FISH Seed Production And Distribution In
India - FAO
10 PC Thomas, et al
Breeding and Seed Production of Finfish and Shell Fish
11 P C Thomas
Shrimp Seed Production And Farming
13
Theory
II Semester
AFM 2 C07 - FISHERY MICROBIOLOGY
Unit I
Introduction-Microbiological standards fixed for fish. Encapsulation-Formation of cell
aggregates. Lactics-Acetics-Butrics-Propionics. Proteolytic and putrefactive bacteria-Lipolytic
and saccharolytic bacteria. Mesophiles-Thermophiles and Psychrophiles-Halophiles.
Unit II
Source of micro organism to fish-Sanitary measures adopted to reduce microbial load in fish.
Microbiology of fish and some fishery products. Intrinsic and extrinsic parameters that affect
microbial growth. Micro flora associated with the habitat, body surface and internal organs of
fish and shell fish.
Unit III
Total plate count Coliforms-concept- indicator organism-MPN estimation-isolation and
identification of faecal coliforms. Salmonella-Isolation and identification. Vibrio- Isolation
and identification. Streptococcus- Isolation and identification. Listeria spp isolation and
identification. Pseudomonas aeroginosa, General understanding about different microbiological
methods. (FDA, CFIA, FSIS, AOAC).
Unit IV
Food borne diseases-Food infection and food intoxication.
Botulism. Typhoid and Paratyphoid, Clostridium perfringens, Listeriosis
Sources and transmission of bacteria in foods:from human, animal, and environmental
reservoirs; cross-contamination; food associations.
Suggested Readings:
1. Chincheste, C.O and Graham, H.D.
2. Frasier, W.C and Westhoff,D.C
3. Jay, J.M. Van Nostrand.D.
4. Amerine,M.A, pangborm,R.M
5. Connell.J.J
6. Sali A.J.
7. Schlegel
8. Maat A.G. and Wiley A
9. Pelezar Read and Chan
10. Collins C.H. and Lyns P.M.
11. Lengeler
Microbial Safety of Fishery products,
Food Microbiology
Modern Food Microbiology
Principles of sensory evaluation of food
Control of fish Quality,
Fundamental Principles of Bacteriology
General Microbiology
Microbial Physiology
Microbiology
Microbiological Methods
Biology of Prokaryotes
14
AFM 2 C08- INTRODUCTION TO SUSTAINABLE AQUACULTURE
Unit I
Present scenario and problems: Trends in global and Indian aquaculture; different farming
systems; intensive systems and constraints - environmental degradation and disease outbreaks.
Sustainability and development, Role of aquatic resources in food and nutrition; Aquatic
resource and livelihood systems.
Unit II
Environmental issues: Exotic species introduction; escapement; contamination of indigenous
gene pool; salinization of soil and water; environmental impact; over exploitation of wild stocks;
mangrove deforestation.
Socio-economic issues: Conflicts over water and land use; conflicts of interest between aqua
farmers and fishermen; resistance from local public; anti-dumping duties.
Unit III
Biological constraints in aquaculture, the availability of juveniles, supply of essential nutrients,
control of pathogens and diseases. Guiding principles to sustainable aquaculture development.
Open and closed systems and the principles of water system design. Coastal Aquaculture
Guidelines Source Book, FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries; Guidelines for
Sustainable Aquaculture.
Unit IV
Strategies for sustainability: Sustainability concept; food security; biosecurity; organic farming;
integrated farming; responsible aquaculture; rotational aquaculture; bioremediation; role of
biotechnology, traceability. Application of renewable energy in aquaculture - solar energy, wind,
and tidal energy, Economic viability: export vs. domestic marketing, value addition.
Suggested Reading
1. Beets, W.C.
Raising and Sustaining Productivity of Small-Holder Farming Systems in
the Tropics.
2. Edwards, P & H. Demaine
Rural Aquaculture: Overview and Framework for Country
3. Edwards, P., D.C. Little & H. Demaine Rural Aquaculture.
4. J. E. Bardach:
Sustainable Aquaculture
5. James P& Mc Vey
Handbook of Mariculture Vol. I. Crustacean Aquaculture.
6. Takeo Imai
Aquaculture in shallow seas. Sea culture
7. Bardach, Rhyther, & Mc. Larney. Aquaculture. Farming & Husbandry of freshwater &
Marine Organisms
8. Pillay, T.V.R. & Dill, W.M.A.
Advances in Aquaculture.
9. Pillay. T.V.R. & M.N. Kutty
Aquaculture – Principles and Practices.
10. Takeo Imai
Aquaculture in shallow seas.
AFM 2 C09 FISH BIOCHEMISTRY &GENETICS
Unit I
Biochemical constituents of fish, crustaceans and molluscs. Biochemistry of fish proteins,
structure of fish muscles, effect of processing on proteins. Non-protein nitrogenous compounds
in fishes. Classification. Sarcoplasmic proteins, Myofibrillar proteins and Stroma proteins . Post
15
mortem biochemical changes, rigor mortis, K-value, TMAO and its decomposition products,
demethylase. Non-protein nitrogenous compounds: Free amino acids, peptides, nucleotides,
guanidins, urea, quarternary ammonium compounds etc.
Unit II
Functional properties of seafood proteins: Solubility, emulsification, viscosity, water holding,
stability, gelation, texture profile analysis. Changes in proteins during processing: DenaturationAt high and low temperatures and kinetics, dissociation / aggregation / coagulation, reversibility,
significance to processing and quality. Hydrolysis and hydrolysates: Process and applications,
proteinases.
Unit III
Seafood lipids: Composition and nutritive value, lipid types and their variations, lipid
fractionation, estimation of lipid fractions, triglycerides, phospholipids, nonsaponifiables
including sterols and vitamins. Fatty acid composition of fish liver and body oils, auto-oxidation
of fatty acids, rancidity, lipasas and phospholipases, pro- and anti-oxidants, oxidation indices,
lipid-protein interactions, oxidized lipids-protein interactions and their impact on quality.
Unit IV
Definition, classification and biological significance of carbohydrates; Chemical reactions;
stereoisomerisms and mutarotation, structure and properties of monosaccharides, disaccharides,
polysaccharides and mucopolysaccharides
Unit V
Principles of fish Genetics-, cytogenetics, biochemical genetics, quantitative genetics,
population genetics. Genetic Selection-Mass selection and genotypic selection. Genotypic
selection-types Family selection, sib selection, progeny testing and combined selection. Breeding
principles and Methods-Selective hybridization, interspecific and intraspecific hybridization,
hybrid vigour, inbreeding and cross breeding. Gene manipulation in fish, transgenic fish
production, chromosome manipulation in fishes and shell fishes, triploidy, gynogenesis and
interspecific hybridization. Monosex production, super male and super female fish production
techniques.
Suggested readings
1. Lehninger, A.L.
2. Michael Eskin N. A.
3. Owen, R. F.
4. Pare J.R.J. & Belanger J.M.R.
5. Ranganatha Rao
6. Regenstein, J. M. & Regenstein C. E.
7. Roy, E.M., Geroge, J.F. & Donn, R.W.
8. Smith, E.L., et al.
9. Stewart K.K.
10. Whitaker, J.R. & Tannenbaum.
11. Glick B.R.
12. Singleton
13. Gjedrem, T.
14. Purdom,C.E
15. Alberts,B and others
Principal of Biochemistry.
Biochemistry of foods.
Food chemistry.
Instrumental Methods in Food Analysis.
Textbook of Biochemistry.
Food Protein Chemistry.
Chemistry and Biochemistry of marine food
The principles of Biochemistry
Modern Methods of Food Analysis.
Food Proteins, AVI Publishing Company
Molecular biotechnology
Elementary Genetics
Genetics in Aquaculture
Genetics and Fish breeding
Molecular Biology of the cell 1994
16
16. Peter Proksch
17. Le Gal
18. Thieman WJ
Frontiers in Marine Biotechnology
Marine Biotechnology
Introduction to Biotechnology
AFM 2 C10 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Unit I
Definition, need, process. Research objectives, Research approaches and Research process.
Types of Research: Pure, Applied and Action Research. Kinds of Research: Diagnostic,
Descriptive, Exploratory, Explanatory. Research Ethics – Animal ethics; Human ethics.
Biosafety in research
Unit II
Types of Literature search – use of library, books & journals – Medlines, internet. Review
of Literature. Formulation of Hypothesis. Identification and selection of research problems,
preparation of research proposal. Synopsis.
Unit III
Need for research design. Important concepts relating to design. Features of good design.
Research designs. Basic principles of experimental design. Pre-experimental, CRD and QuasiExperimental designs. Types of research design: Historical design, Descriptive design, case
control, cohort, cross sectional, longitudinal
Unit IV
Data for Research. Collection of Data : Primary Data, Secondary data, Data Collection methods,
Sampling Technique Data Analysis, , tabulations, classifications, Interpretations. Common
softwares for data analysis. Statistics in Research: Specific applications of measures of Central
tendency and Dispersion, Measures of Relationship. Hypothesis Testing and estimation.
Measurement in Research
Unit V
Scientific documents: Research Journal: online journals, Impact factor. Research paper, reviews,
thesis, conference papers and project reports. Publication – role of author, guide, co-authors.
Components of a research articles. Citation styles: Footnotes, abbreviations, Referencing.
Structure of Thesis and Content. Preparing Abstracts. Publishing: submission of manuscript,
Evaluation of research articles, reprints. Report writing. Types of reports and Oral presentation.
Steps in drafting reports. Layout of the Research project. Preparation and submission of
research project proposals to funding agencies.
Recommended Books:
1. RA. Day & Barbara Gastel
2. C.R. Kothari
3. Santosh Gupta
How to Write and Publish a Scientific Paper.
Research Methodology Methods and Techniques
Research Methodology Methods and Statistical Techniques
17
Theory
III Semester
AFM 3 C13 FISH PHYSIOLOGY
Unit-I
Digestion: Alimentary Canal and associated digestive glands (liver, pancreas and gall bladder),
Mechanism of digestion Respiration: Structure and function of gills, Mechanism of respiration,
Haemoglobin - Oxygen Uptake and Dissociation, accessory respiratory organs
Unit-II
Circulation: Blood and its components. Structure of heart and function
Excretion: Structure and function of kidney, nitrogenous end products and pattern
of their excretion. Osmoregulation: Introduction, Osmoregulation in fresh water, marine water
and estuarine fish
Unit-III
Reproduction: Structure and function of Gonads, Reproduction and fecundity
Development: Fertilization, Incubation, Hatching, Larvae and Metamorphosis
Unit-IV
Endocrinology: Fish Endocrine system (structure and functions of pineal, thyroid, pituitary
gland) in fish Hormonal control of Reproduction (oogenesis, spermatogenesis, oocyte
maturation) Pancreatic hormone in fish Gonadotropin releasing hormone Pheromone
communication in fishes Endocrinology of ecdysis in crustaceans
References:
Evans, Devid H. (1998):
Physiology of Fishes.
Hoar, W. S., Randal, D. J. and Farrell, A. P. (1992): Cardiovascular system, Vol. 12, Part 2
Prosser, C. L. (1973):
Comparative Animal Physiology,
Khanna S.S. and Singh, H.R. (2003):
A text book of fish biology and fisheries.
Pandey A.K. and Sandhu G.S. (1992):
Encyclopedia of fishes and fisheries of India
Smith, L.S. (1982):
Introduction of fish physiology.
Yadav, B.N. (1995):
Fish endocrinology
Hoar, W. S. and Randal, D. J. (1993):
Fish endocrinology Vol. I to VII.
Yadav, B. N. (2006):
Fish & Fisheries,
Khanna S.S. (1989):
An Introduction to Fishes.
AFM 3 C14 FISH PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY
Unit I
Fish as raw material for processing. Handling of fish onboard fishing vessels. Structural and
chemical changes associated with postmortem. Factors affecting quality of fresh fish. Chill
storage of fish. Discolouration in aquatic products, Depuration of bivalves. Live fish/shell fish
Transportation to local markets and processing centers.
18
Unit II
General Principles of food preservation. High temperature, low temperature, drying, radiation
and chemicals. Microbial growth in food: intrinsic and extrinsic parameters and means of control
(food formulations, cooking, preservatives, pH. aW)
Unit III
Simple mechanical refrigeration systems. Ice plants, chilling, supper chilling, refrigerated
and chilled seawater. Freezing, slow freezing, quick freezing, types of freezers, freezing
time, freezing of fish and shell fish. Technological aspects of freezing: Methods of freezing,
comparison of various freezing
Unit IV
Preparation of salted fishes, dried fish and smoked fish. Accelerated freeze drying. Canning:
Principles of thermal processing Mechanism of heat transfer, canning in oil and brine. Filleting,
breading etc.
utilisation of fishery wastes such as prawn shell, fish offal, fish meal, chitin,
chitosan. Fish silage.
References:
Desrosier N.W. & Treasler D.K
Govindan T.K.
Moorjani M.N.
Brody J.
Chicheste C.O. & Graham H.D.
Amerien M.A. et.al.
Connel J.J.
Anthony T. Tu.
Gopakumar K.
Hall, G.M.
Huss, H. H. et al.
John, D. E. V.
Krenzer, R.
Fundamentals of Food Freezing
Fish Processing Technology
Fish Processing in India
Fishery Byproduct Technology
Microbial Safety of fishery Products
Principles of sensory evaluation of Food
Control of Fish Quality
Handbook of Natural toxins.
Text Book of Fish Processing Technology.
Fish Processing Technology.
Quality assurance in the fish industry.
Food safety and toxicity
Fish inspection and quality control.
AFM 3 E01 AQUACULTURE PRODUCTION SYSTEMS
Unit I
Trends and status of world aquaculture production. Aquaculture practices in different parts of
the world. Criteria for selection of organisms for aquaculture. Criteria for selection of sites for
aquaculture, farms, hatcheries, nurseries. grow outs. Aquaculture systems: Pond culture, cage
culture, pen culture. Recirculating Aquaculture Systems. Traditional, extensive, semi intensive
and intensive aquaculture systems.
Unit II
Preparation and stocking of grow-out ponds and water and soil quality maintenance. Natural and
supplementary feeding. Feed management in Aquaculture. Health management. Integration of
aquaculture with agriculture and animal husbandry, organic aquaculture.
19
Unit III
Aquaculture practices for freshwater fish (Carps, Catfish, Snakeheads). Coldwater Aquaculture
(Salmon, Mahseer, Trouts). Culture of tilapia- GIFT. Marine fish culture (sea bass, cobia).
Unit IV
Culture of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). Shrimp culture (Penaeus monodon,
Feneropenaeus indicus and Litopenaeus vannamei). Culture of molluscs (mussels, oysters, pearl
oysters, clams). Culture of crabs and Lobsters. Culture of aquatic weeds including seaweeds.
Unit V
Diseases in Aquaculture: Viral, bacterial, protozoan and fungal. Probiotics in aquaculture. Good
manufacturing practice (GMP), Responsible Aquaculture, Sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS)
agreement. Harvest and post harvest technology in aquaculture Aquaranching.
Suggested readings
1 Jhingran VG
2 Chonder S.L
3 Pillay . T.V.R
4 Bardach et al
5 V.G Jhingran & Saigal
6 Anon
7 New M.B & Singholka, K.
8 P C Thomas, et al
9 P C Thomas
Fish and Fisheries of India
Hypophysation of Indian major carps
Advances in aquaculture
Aquaculture
Cold water fisheries of India
A Guide to prawn farming in India .
Farming of freshwater prawns FAO Technical Paper 428
Breeding and Seed Production of Fin Fish and Shell Fish
Shrimp Seed Production And Farming
AFM 3 E02 AQUACULTURE ENGINEERING
Unit I
Introduction to technical components of farm designing, future trends in aquaculture
engineering. Aquaculture facilities: planning process, site selection and evaluation, design,
components and construction of tanks, ponds, cages and hatcheries.
Unit II
Water intake and outlet systems- pipe line, water flow and head loss, pumps. Water treatment:
Equipment used for water treatment, filters, ultraviolet light, ozone, heating and cooling and
other processes of disinfection
Unit III
Aeration and oxygenation: design and fabrication of aerators, oxygen injection system.
Recirculation and water use system: definition, components and design. Instrumentation and
monitoring: instruments for measuring water quality.
Unit IV
Feeding systems: different types of feeding equipment, feed control systems, dynamic feeding
systems. Adjustment of pH, removal of particles, Ammonia removal, Disinfection, heating and
cooling equipments in hatcheries.
Unit V
20
Preparation of aquaculture projects, estimation of efficiency, management of pond and hatchery
machineries. New technologies in aquaculture engineering. Tank basins and other closed
production unit.
Suggested Readings
1. Thomas B Lawson
2. Wheaton, F.W.
3. Santhosh Kumar Garg
4. Bose et. al.
5. Odd-Ivar Lekang
6. Pillay, TVR and Kutty MN
7. Michael BT and Thomas L
Fundamentals of Aquacultural Engineering
Aquacultural Engineering
Water supply Engineering
Coastal Aquacultural Engineering
Aquaculture Engineering
Aquaculture: Principles and Practices
Aquaculture water reuse systems
AFM3 EO3 AQUACULTURE ECONOMICS & EXTENSION
Unit I
Production economics- nature and scope, approaches terms and concepts Different production
relationship – factor- product, factor - factor, product-product Farm Management. Risk
and Uncertainty, Productions and Cost Concept. Decision making with no risk, with risk,
Technology, Input use and factor share, Farm business analysis.
Unit II
Economic aspects of different aquaculture production systems in India and abroad. Mathematical
analysis of production relationship – concept of production function, different types,
characteristics, Economics Implications, Economic optimum and Physical Optimum, Decision
make with multiple variables. Economic efficiency in fish production, Yield gap, Yield penalties
and Yield declines.
Unit III
Overview of fisheries and aquaculture sector in India and world; Special characteristics of
fisheries sector and its stakeholders; Understanding extension education, research, and service;
Overview of fisheries research, development and extension systems in India; Scope and
importance of fisheries and aquaculture extension.
Unit IV
Aquaculture extension system - review of extension approach as practiced by DoF, FFDA,
and BFDA; Market led extension approaches; Importance of Information and Communication
Technology (ICT) in aquaculture extension system. Critical review of philosophy, principles,
concepts, and practices of fisheries extension systems and approaches; Teaching, learning and
co-learning.
Unit V
Fisheries extension – advantages and limitations of present welfare and subsidy oriented
extension systems; Development and extension approaches as practiced by public agencies
like Department of Fisheries, KVKs, Agricultural Technology Management Agency (ATMA),
NGOs, FAO, Bay of Bengal Programme (BOBP-IGO), and by the private sector; participatory
fisheries extension approaches.
Suggested Readings
21
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Andrew, P.
Rao, P.S.
Shaug, Y.C.
FAO,
Paul, A.S.
Seijo, J.C. et al.
Rao, T. V.
Ray, G. L.
Supe, S. V.
Fish business management: strategy, marketing
Fisheries economics and management in India.
Aquaculture economics : Basic concepts and methods of analysis
Fisheries technical paper, 351. Economic engineering
Economics
FAO Fisheries technical paper 368. Fisheries bioeconomics
Readings in human resource development.
Extension communication and management.
An introduction to Extension Education
AFM 3 E04 – QUALITY CONTROL, INSPECTION & CERTIFICATION IN
SEAFOOD
Unit I
Introduction to quality control in food processing. Necessity of quality control. Food laws in
India, integrated food law. Quality management, total quality concept and application in fish
trade. Quality assessment of fish and fishery products - physical, chemical, organoleptic and
microbiological quality standards. - sensory evaluation of quality, general testing conditions,
different sensory tests.
Unit II
Fish spoilage- Stages of fish spoilage- rigor mortis- Microbial evaluation of quality. Different
aspects of seafood quality, quality control in fish as a raw material, intrinsic and extrinsic quality
defects. Process water quality, water treatment. Fish plant sanitation, disinfectants, detergents,
Quaternary Ammonium Compounds, cleaning schedule.
Unit III
Public health aspects in seafood- microbial and chemical. Verification of plant sanitation and
personal hygiene (swab tests and ATP monitoring). Factory sanitation and hygiene: National
and international requirements, SSOP, Sanitary and Phytosanitary measures. An overview of
fish inspection in India. Export Inspection Agency- National standards, sanitation and hygiene
control in seafood establishments as required by the regulating agencies
Unit IV
International scenario in seafood inspection and quality control- IQPC, MIQPC, HACCP
and Good manufacturing practices. HACCP principles, practical aspects of planning and
implementation, verification, validation and audit. HACCP based quality control systems in
India. Hazard analysis, preparation of HACCP plan, implementation of HACCP based quality
control systems.
Unit V
National and International standards: ISO 9000: 2000 series of quality assurance system, Codex
alimentarius, USFDA and EU regulations for fish export trade, IDP and SAT formations in
certification of export worthiness of fish processing units, regulations for fishing vessels, preprocessing and processing plants, EU regulations. ISO 22000:2006. Microbial quality standards
for major importing countries like USA, Japan, EEC.
Unit VI
22
Packing of marine products. Nutritional labelling and education act. The US/ International
labelling requirements (Codex/Indian standards for labelling). Food grade packaging materials.
Seafood Export from India- Group-wise, product-wise and country-wise export. Domestic and
export marketing of fish and fishery products, trends, channels, mechanisms, trade and non-trade
barriers.
Suggested Readings
1. Balachandran K.K.
2. Desrosier N.W. & Treasler D.K
3. Govindan T.K.
4. Moorjani M.N.
5. Brody J.
6. Chicheste C.O. & Graham H.D.
7. Amerien M.A. et.al.
8. Connel J.J.
9. Anthony T. Tu.
10. Gopakumar K.
11. Hall, G.M.
12. Huss, H. H. et al.
13. John, D. E. V.
16. Krenzer, R.
17. Sen D. P.
18. Vincent K. et al.
13. Hui,Y.Het al.
Post Harvest Technology of Fish and Fishery Products
Fundamentals of Food Freezing
Fish Processing Technology
Fish Processing in India
Fishery Byproduct Technology
Microbial Safety of fishery Products
Principles of sensory evaluation of Food
Control of Fish Quality
Handbook of Natural toxins.
Text Book of Fish Processing Technology.
Fish Processing Technology.
Quality assurance in the fish industry.
Food safety and toxicity
Fish inspection and quality control.
Advances in Fish Processing Technology.
Principles of Total Quality.
Food borne Disease
AFM 3 E05 INDUSTRIAL MICROBIOLOGY
Unit I
An introduction to fermentation processes - the range of fermentation processes. Microorganisms
used in industrial microbiological processes - the isolation, preservation and strain improvement
of industrially important microorganisms, screening methods, isolation of autotrophic mutants.
Media and materials required for industrial microbiological processes - sources, formulation,
antifoams and optimization.
Unit II
Microbial growth kinetics, batch culture, continuous culture, fed-batch culture, applications
and examples, scale up of fermentation processes. Sterilization of media, fermentor and feeds,
Inoculum development for large scale bioprocesses.
Unit III
Design of a Fermentor: Functions, construction, and maintenance of aseptic conditions.
Control of various parameters, types of fermentors, computer applications in fermentation
technology. Aeration and agitation (Non-newdonian fermentations). Recovery and purification
of fermentation products. Fermentation economics.
Unit IV
Industrial products produced by microorganisms - Enzymes (amylase, proteases), organic acids
(lactic acid, citric acid, vinegar), amino acids (L-lysine, L-glutamic acid), food supplement
23
and hormones. Production of important antibiotics - penicillin, streptomycin, erythromycin,
bacitracin and tetracyclines. Production of Vitamins B12 & Ethyl alcohol, beer & wine. Baker's
yeast production. Microbial transformation of Steroids.
Unit V
Enzyme probes- bio sensors, biochips, biofilms and biosurfactants. Petroleum microbiology
- microbiology and microbial leaching - role of microorganisms in the recovery of minerals
(uranium, copper) from ores. Deterioration of' materials - paper, textiles, painted surfaces,
prevention of microbial deterioration. Biotransformation, biodegradation. Analytical
Microbiology - microbiological assays of Vitamins (riboflavin, B12), amino acids (lysine,
tryptophan) and antibiotics (penicillin and streptomycin).
Suggested readings:
1. Casida. LE
2. Prescott & Dunns
3. A.H. Patel
4. P.F. Stanbury, et al
5. W. Crueger et al
Industrial Microbiology
Industrial Microbiology.
Industrial Microbiology.
Principles of Fermentation Technology
A text book of Industrial Microbiology
AFM 3 E06 FISHERY BY-PRODUCTS AND VALUE ADDITION
Unit I
Nutritional importance of fish meal and quality requirements -Raw material quality and changes
during processing and storage. Production of fish meal - dry and wet process, machinery, control
of quality of products, specifications, packaging and storage.
Unit II
Fish body and liver oils. Nutritional importance of fish oil and methods to impart stability to fish
oils on storage, Unsaponifiables in fish liver oils. Enzyme hydrolysis of fish, fish hydrolysates,
fish peptones, hydrolysates enriched food beverages.
Unit III
Shrimp waste, crab shell and squilla utilisation: Resources and composition, conventional
uses, feeds and manure, conversion to useful materials like chitin, chitosan, glucosamine
hydrochloride, shrimp extract, commercial production, production and use of protein isolates
from squilla and shrimp waste.
Unit IV
Fish protein concentrate: Different methods of production, functional properties, different types
of FPC, texturised products and comparison of FPC to fish meal. Production of fish flour, quality
standards and applications
Unit V
Fish silage: Acid silage and fermented silage, advantages over fish meal, nutritional value of
silage. Fish hydrolysates: Production and utilisation, biochemical composition and importance in
food and nutrition.
Unit VI
24
Miscellaneous by-products: Fish maws, shark liver oil, squalene, ambergris, shark skin, shark
cartilage, isinglass, pearl essence, fertilizer, beche-demer, fish glue, agar agar, alginic acid,
carrageenan. Extraction of collagen from fish processing wastes, properties and application.
Preparation of biological membranes using collagen and chitosan for biomedical applications.
Unit VII
Value Added Products: Present market trends, scope of value addition, Types of value addition,
Important value added products. Coated products – Principles and type of coating, Coating
functions, in gradients, Batter classification, Mechanical properties of batter, Bread crumbs,
Flavorings, Seasonings and Hydrocolloids in coatings, Fat and oils in coated food, Application of
batters and breading to seafood.
Suggested readings
1. Balachandran, K.K.
2. Gopakumar K.
3. Hall, G.M.
4. Hui,Y.H., M.D. Pierson & J.R. Gorham
5. Sen D. P.
6. Wheaton & Lawson
Post Harvest Technology of fish and fish products.
Text Book of Fish Processing Technology.
Fish Processing Technology.
Food borne Disease
Advances in Fish Processing Technology.
Processing Aquatic Food Products.
25
Theory
IV SEMESTER
AFM 4 C17 BIOTECHNOLOGY & MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
Unit I
Nucleic acid : Structural aspects – Components of DNA and RNA, Nucleosides & Nucleotides.
Double helical structure of DNA (Watson - Crick Model). DNA Replication –The Basic Rule
for Replication of all Nucleic acids. The Geometry of DNA. Replication, Enzymology of DNA
replication, Discontinuous Replication, Events in the Replication Fork, Initiation of Synthesis
of the Leading Strand, Bidirectional Replication, Termination of Replication, Methylation of
DNA and Mismatch Repair, Replication of Eukaryotic Chromosomes. Mutation – Occurrence,
kinds of Mutation, spontaneous & induced Mutation, Mutagens, detection of Mutation, Lethal
Mutations, Biochemical Mutations, Phenotypic effects of Mutation, Molecular basis of Mutation,
Significance & Practical applications of Mutation
Unit II
Transcription: Enzymatic Synthesis of RNA Basic features of RNA synthesis, E.coli RNA
polymerase, Classes of RNA molecules, processing of tRNA and rRNA in E.coli, Transcription
in Eukaryotes, Eukaryotic rRNA genes, formation of eukaryotic tRNA molecules, RNA
Polymerases of eukaryotes, RNA polymerase II Promoters, Eukaryotic Promoters for RNA
polymerase III, Hypersensitive sites, Upstream activation sites and enhancers, Splicing
mechanisms, Splicing of tRNA precursors, Splicing of rRNA precursors, Splicing without a
protein enzyme. Translation: Outline of Translation, The Genetic Code, The Decoding System,
Codon Anticodon interaction, The special properties of the prokaryotic Initiator tRNA, Transfer
RNA genes, suppressors, Ribosomes, Protein Synthesis, Complex Translation units, , Inhibitors
and Modifiers of protein synthesis, Protein Synthesis in Eukaryotes.
Unit III
Regulation of activity of Genes and Gene products in Prokaryotes: General aspects of
Regulation, The lactose system and the operon model, The Galactose operon, The Arabinose
operon, The Tryptophan Operon, Relative positions of Promoters and Operators, Regulation of
Translation, Regulation of the synthesis of Ribosomes.
Unit IV
Regulation in Eukaryotes: Regulatory strategies in Eukaryotes, Gene alteration (Gene loss, Gene
amplification, Gene rearrangement: the joining of coding sequences in the immune system)
Transcriptional Control by hormones, Regulation mediated through Transcription factors,
Regulation of enhancer activity, Methylation, Regulation of processing, Translational control.
Unit V
Introduction to recombinant DNA technology, gene cloning, tissue culture ,organ culture, cell
line and its applications, cloning of animals, transgenic animals ,plants, and fishes, stem cells
and its application, application of microbial technology in culture ponds; bioaugmentation,
26
bioremediation, biofertilizers, and probiotics Present status of marine biotechnology, marine
natural products, bioactive compounds from marine organisms,, single cell protein ,bio-sensors,
marine biofilms and biofouling
Suggested reading
1. Lehninger, A.L.
2. Smith, E.L., et al.
3. Glick B.R.
4. Singleton
5. Gjedrem, T.
6. Purdom,C.E
7. Alberts,B and others
8. Peter Proksch
9.
Le Gal
Principal of Biochemistry.
The principles of Biochemistry
Molecular biotechnology
Elementary Genetics
Genetics in Aquaculture
Genetics and Fish breeding
Molecular Biology of the cell 1994
Frontiers in Marine Biotechnology
Marine Biotechnology
AFM 4 C18- DISEASE DIAGNOSIS AND AQUATIC HEALTH MANAGEMENT
Unit I
Basics of fish and shellfish health management: Host-pathogen-environment relationship,
Management of culture systems, Environmental stress. Defence system in fish and shellfish:
Defence systems in fish, innate and acquired immunity, inflammation response to diseases.
Antibody and cell mediated immunity in fish and shellfish.
Unit II
Infectious bacterial and viral diseases: General characteristics, Epizootiology, Diagnosis,
Prevention and treatment. Aetiology, pathogenesis, epidemiology, treatment and control of
viral diseases of finfishes such as EHN, IHN, VER, SVC etc. Major pathogens of commercially
important cultured crustaceans with special reference to shrimp and freshwater prawn such as
WSSV, YHV, TSV, IHHNV, MBV, HPV, BP etc.
Unit III
Parasitic and mycotic diseases: General characteristics, Epizootiology, Diagnosis, Life
cycle, Prevention and treatment. Non-infectious Diseases: Nutritional diseases, water, soil,
environmental parameters and their effects on fish health. Disease in hatcheries and grow-out
systems.
Unit IV
Techniques in health management: Microbiological, haematological, histopathological,
immunological and molecular techniques. Disease surveillance and reporting. Disease control
and management: Environment management, chemotherapeutic agents, host management,
prophylaxis- vaccines, adjuvants, immunostimulants and probiotics. Use and abuse of antibiotics
and chemicals in health management. Fish health and quarantine systems. Seed certification, SPF
and SPR stocks - development and applications.
1. Aline, W.
Fish diseases.
27
2.
3.
4.
5.
Schaperclaus, W.
Wedmeyer, Meyer & Smith
Ronald J. Roberts
Carl, J. Sindermann
6.Iwama G. and Nakanishi T.
Environment.
7. Austin, B. and Austin, D.A.
8. Valerie Inglis et al.,
9. Chris Andrews et al.,
10. Felix et al.,
11. Shankar. K.M. & Mohan. C.V
12. Andrews, Excell & Carrington
Fish diseases (Vol. I & II)..
Environmental Stress and Fish Diseases\
Fish Pathology. 2nd Edition.
Principal diseases of Marine Fish and Shelfish. Vol. I & II,
Fish Immune system – Organism, Pathogen &
Bacterial Fish Pathogens (Diseases in Farm and Wild).
Bacterial Diseases of Fish.
The Manual of Fish Health.
Fish Disease Diagnosis and Health Management.
Fish and Shellfish Health Management,
The manual of fish health. Salamander
AFM 4 EO7 LIVE FEED CULTURE TECHNIQUES
Unit I
Natural food and its importance in aquaculture. Nutritional quality of commonly used
fish food organisms. Enrichment and preservation of live feeds. Use of periphyton in
aquaculture.
Unit II
Microalgal Culture: Uses of microalgae in aquaculture. Major classes and genera
of cultured algal species. Algal production; physical and chemical conditions;
growth dynamics; isolation and maintenance of stock cultures. Culture media. Algal
mass culture techniques. Algal production in outdoor ponds. Quantifying algal
biomass. Harvesting and preservation of microalgae. Nutritional value of microalgae.
Bacterioplankton as live feed.
Unit III
Zooplankton culture: Morphology, biology, life cycle and general culture conditions of
live feed organisms; rotifers, cladocerans and copepods.
Zooplankton mass culture
techniques. Nutritional value of cultured zooplanktons. Zooplankton Production and use
of resting eggs of rotifers and cladocerans. Culture of nematods. Mesocosm systems for
live feed production.
Unit IV
Artemia: Morphology, strains, biology, life cycle and ecology of artemia. Use of cysts;
disinfection procedure, decapsulation; hatching. Nauplii and meta nauplii: morphology,
harvesting, nutritional quality, enrichment and preservation. Production and use of
grown artemia; pond production; harvesting and processing techniques.
Suggested Reading
CIFE Publn.
hatcheries,
Training manual on culture of live food organisms for Aqua
28
MPEDA Publn.
Hand book on Aqua farming – Live feed. Micro algal culture
Lavens P.and Sorgelose P. Manual on the production and use of live food for aquaculture.
Sorgelos, P. & Pandian, S. Culture of live food organisms with special reference to Artemia
culture
Tonapi, G.T.
Freshwater animals of India,
Hagiwara, A., et al. Live food in aquaculture
29
AFM 4 EO8 ORNAMENTAL FISH BREEDING & REARING
Unit I
Ornamental fish breeding and rearing-overview. Species for aquarium trade- freshwater and
marine. Status of world trade of ornamental fish. Concept of quality and varieties in aquarium
trade. Farming of ornamental fishes.
Unit II
Biology, sexing, courtship, breeding, larval rearing and mass production of freshwater
ornamental fishes- Live bearers, Goldfish, Barbs, Gouramy and Angelfishes. Breeding of Koi
Carps. Indigenous freshwater ornamental fishes of India.
Unit III
Marine ornamental fishes in aquarium trade. Status of marine ornamental fish breeding.
Breeding of Anemone fish and damsels. Methods of collection and rearing of marine ornamental
fishes from natural habitats. Impact of marine ornamental fish collection and hatcheries on reef
ecosystem.
Unit IV
Ornamental invertebrates in aquarium trade. Marine invertebrate rearing systems. Culture
and maintenance of corals. Keeping of echinoderms and ornamental crustacenas in aquariums.
Sponges and opisthobranchs in aquariums. Marine aquarium management. Biological and
chemical processes in aquariums. Setting up of aquariums.
Unit V
Brood stock management of ornamental fishes. Common diseases and their control.
Conditioning, packing, transport and quarantine methods. Common aquarium plants. Agencies
involved in popularisation and extension of ornamental fish culture in India. Economics of
ornamental fish farms.
Suggested Reading:
1.
Biswas. S.P., et al
2.
Ramachandran.A,
3.
Madhusoodana kurup et al
4.
Jhingran,V.G.
5.
Bijukumar,A.
6.
Rath,A.K.
7.
Santhanam, et.al.
8.
Murthi.V.S.
9.
Butting.B., et al.
10.
Oliver, K
Ornamental fishes of North East India : An Atlas
Breeding, Farming and Management of Fishes,
Ornamental Fish - Breeding, Farming and Trade
Fish and Fisheries of India.
Rearing of Aquarium Fishes.
Freshwater Aquaculture,
AManual of Freshwater Aquaculture
Marine ornamental Fishes of Lakshadweep
Marine Aquarium Industry and conservation.
Marine Ornamental species; collection and Conservation
30
AFM 4 EO9 FISH NUTRITION & FEED TECHNOLOGY
Unit I
Food and feeding behaviour of fishes and prawns. Digestive system and digestive physiology of
fishes and crustaceans. Nutritional evaluation of live feeds.
Unit II
Nutritional requirements of cultivable species and their sources.
Bioenergetics in fishes.
Dietary components in aquaculture feeds. Protein nutrition, Lipid nutrition, Carbohydrate
nutrition, Vitamin nutrition and Minerals nutrition. Larval nutrition, Brood stock nutrition and
Feed additives
Unit III
Proximate principles in feeds. Classification of feed ingredients: energy source & protein
source, Evaluations of ingredients quality. General principle of feed formulation. Different steps
of feed formulation, Methods of feed Formulation. Feeding methods in aquaculture. Feeds for
aquarium fishes.
Unit IV
Type of feeds-Compounded feeds, pellets, crumbles and live feed. micro-encapsulated, microbound and microcoated feeds. Additives in feeds. Live feeds. Shrimp feeds-Starter, grower and
finisher feeds, storage of feeds, exogenous toxins in feeds, aflatoxins nutritional diseases. Feed
manufacturing units and processes: Hydro-stability of feed and their storage and prevention of
spoilage from rancidity, fungus formation and associated toxins. Fish disease vectors in feed and
quality control; Feed value in relation to processing;
Unit V
Methods used in studies of nutrition, digestibility studies and nutritional deficiency studies.
Chemical evaluation of aquaculture feeds. Evaluation criteria: FCR, PER, NPU, EAAI,
chemical score, biological value. Aqua feed industries in India. Economics of aquaculture feed
manufacturing.
Suggested Reading:
1. Halver J.E. 1989.
2. Hepper, B. 1988.
3. Lovell, T., 1988.
Fish Nutrition, Academic Press, San Diego, CA
Nutrition of pond fishes.
Nutrition and Feeding of Fish. Kluwer Academic
Publishers.
4. Halver, J & Hardy, RW.
Fish nutrition. Academic press, London. 824
5. S.S.De Silva & TA Anderson
Fish Nutrition in Aquaculture
6. Lovell, R.T.
Nutrition and Feeding of Fishes
31
AFM 4 E10 IMMUNOLOGY
Unit 1
Basic principles of immune system in fishes and shell fish Organs and cells involved in
immunity, passive immunity, Active immunity, Herd Immunity, Innate immunity Types
of immune response ,Cell mediated Immunity, Humeral immunity, Structure and types of
immunoglobulins, Functions of immunoglobulins, Monoclonal Antibodies, Production and
Applications of Immunoglobulins, Invertebrate immune response
Unit II
Immuno-stimulant, immunomodulation. fatty acid, levanisole, nucleotide, alginates, bovine
lactoferine, etc. on fish/ shellfish immunity and mechanism of their action. Principles of stress
resistance, stress tolerance. Challenge study.
Unit III
Defense mechanisms in fishes. Innate and adaptive/acquired immunity, Cellular and humoral
basis of immunity. Cytokines & Antagonists , antimicrobial and antitumor substances.
Immune responses to infection, inflammation. Compliment System-components & functions.
Compliment activation and regulations. Inflammation & hypersensitivity. Immune system in
relation to parasitic infections.
Unit IV
Cells of the immune system. Cell mediated immunity. T-cells, T-cell receptors, T-cell
maturation, activation, differentiation. Antigens and Antibodies: Structure and functions of
Immunoglobulin, Antibody diversity. Immunodeficiency, Vaccines, methods of vaccination in
fish. Factors influencing immunogenicity.
Suggested Readings :
1. Kindt TJ
2. Paul WP
3. Goldsby R A
4. A. K Abbas and A. H Lichtman
5. Carpenter.
6. Das Gupta
Immunology
Fundamental of Immunology
Immunology
Cellular and Molecular Immunity
Immunology and Serology
Modern Immunology
AFM 3 E11 DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY
Unit I
History of Embryology - Types of egg based on the amount of yolk, distribution, development .
egg membranes gametogenesis : Growth of oocytes - Synthesis and storageof macromolecules
in the oocytes - Nuclear activities during oocytes growth. Hormonal and nervous control of
ovulation.
Unit II
Fertilization : polyspermy - Androgenesis - Egg activation- Electron microscopic and
biochemical aspects - Fertility ofsperm and its in vitro fertilization - artificial fertilization Chemodiffertiation. cleavage, blastulation.
Unit III
32
Gastrulation movements : role of egg cortex - Cellsurface in morphogenesis - Cell adhesion and
cellcommunication. Chemotatic induced aggregation -. Early development stage of fish.
organogenesis, growth and differentiation,
Unit IV
Invertebrate Embryology, Early development - larval metamorphosis and organogenesis in
Crustaceans and Molluscs.
Suggested Readings :
1. Balinsky, B.L.,
An introduction to embryology,.
2. Karp. G. and Berrill, N.J.
Development, McGraw-Hill, New York.
3. Eber, J.D
Interacting system in Development,
4. Grant, P.,
Biology of developing systems, ,
J.W. 1982.
Developmental Biology. MacmillanCo., London.
6. Brachet J.
Introduction to Molecular Embryology.
7. Nagabhushanam
. InvertebrateEmbryology.
8. Gilbert, Scott. F.
.
Developmental Biology..
9. Tyagi, Rajiv and A.N. Shukla, Development offishes.
10. Raven, P.
An outline of developmental physiology,Pergamon.
11. Browder, W.
.
Developmental Biology,
AFM 4E12 AQUATIC POLLUTION AND TOXICOLOGY
Unit I
Water pollution: Types, sources and impacts Surface water, ground water pollution Domestic,
Industrial, agricultural and natural sources
Water Pollution: Assessment and control Pollution due to municipal sewage dumping, industrial
effluent discharge and solid waste dumping- leachate infiltration
Assessment of the level of pollution based on BOD, COD, nitrogen, phosphate and
microbiological analysis, Wastewater treatment: Primary, Secondary and tertiary
Unit II
Biological and chemical factors influencing toxicity inorganic and organic toxicants- entry into
the environment, cycles and residence TimeToxicity of pesticides, insecticides heavy metals,
radioactive minerals, fluriodes, chemical fertilizers etc
Unit III
Toxicants and Ecosystem Toxicants and communities in ecosystem Multilevel trophic
interactions and non-trophic interactions Functional changes in the ecosystem Effect of
interspecific interactions in the environment Bio-concentration, Bio-accumulation and biomagnification and its impactsSensitivity of ecosystems and ecotones
Unit IV
Toxicity Testing and Indicators Principles of toxicity testingMethods of toxicity evaluation at
cellular and molecular level by in vitro and in vivo methodsMonitoring approaches- indicator
populations and indicator species Lacustrine communities as indicators of ecosystem stress
Bacterial, algal and invertebrate microbiotests Bio-sensors and Bio-markers- Concept and
approach, advantages and disadvantages Molecular marker to toxicants- metabolites as
indicators, protein induction, cytochrome P450 enzymes, stress proteins and metallothioneins.
33
Suggested Readings :
Ballantyne B, Marris T and Turner P (ED)
Cairns Jr , J and Niedrelehner B R (Ed)
Casarret and Doull (Ed).
Cockerham L G, B. S. Shane (2008)
Freedman B (Ed)
Landis W G, M.-H. Yu.
Moriarty F
Niesink J M, Dc Vries and Hollinger M R
Nurenberg H W
Ramada F
Richardson M
Sigel A et al
Stina K E and Brown T M (Ed)
General and applied toxicology
Ecological Toxicity testing
Toxicology- The basic science of poisons.
Basic Environmental Toxicology
Environmental Ecology
Introduction to Environmental Toxicology
Ecotoxicology.
Toxicology Principles and Applications
Pollutants & their eco-toxicological significance.
Ecotoxicology
Environmental toxicology assessment.
Organometalics in Environment and Toxicology
Principles of Toxicology
34
PRACTICALS
AFM 1 C05P - TAXONOMY, BIOLOGY & FISHERIES
Taxonomy
•
•
•
Collection and identification of commercially important freshwater and marine fishes
Collection and identification of commercially important crustaceans and molluscs.
Identification of major groups of phytoplankton and zooplankton.
Biology
• Gut content analysis of fishes of fishes with different feeding habits.
• Determination of maturity stages and Gonadosomatic index of commercially important
fishes.
• Estimation of Fecundity and ova diameter.
• Collection and identification of eggs and larvae of economically important fishes and
crustaceans.
• Determination of length weight relationship of fishes and estimation of growth
parameters.
AFM 1 C06P- INSTRUMENTATION
Micrometry- Determination of maturity of fish egg using ovadiameter method
Camera Lucida- Diagrammatic representation of given microscopic sample
Instruments in field survey- pH meter, Refractometer, DO meter & Conductivity meter
(Demonstration)
Spectrometry- Preparation of standard graph for a biochemical compound
Flame Photometry- Determination of concentration of a given metal in the sample
Differential centrifugation (demonstration)
Chromatography- Separation of Amino acids using Paper and Thin Layer Chromatography
Electrophoresis- Separation of muscle proteins through SDS PAGE and DNA electrophoresis
ELISA (Demonstration)
PCR- Amplification of DNA template with primer through RAPD (Demonstration)
AFM 2 C11 P: GENERAL AND FISHERY MICROBIOLOGY
•
•
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•
•
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•
•
Basic microbiological techniques
Sterilisation- dry heat, moist heat, filtration, flaming, UV-irradiation
Preparation and sterilisation of media
Bacterial Handling Techniques, aseptic transfer of microbes
Estimation of bacterial population in water and fish- TPC
MPN
Isolation and maintenance of pure culture
Study of morphological characters, colony morphology, microscopic examination of micro
organisms
35
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Staining of bacteria, gram stain, spore stain, capsule stain
Enrichment culture using selective media- Salmonella, vibrio.
Identification of E. coli, Staphylococcus, faecal streptococci
Growth of Fungi and yeast
Determination of mobility of bacteria
Latex agglutination for identification of bacteria
Antibiotic sensitivity tests.
AFM 2 C12P
BIO COMPUTING AND BIOINFORMATICS
Pictorial representation of morpho metric data of fishes
Estimation of population parameters. Usage of FiSAT and LFDA.
Data analysis using SPSS
Biological data acquisition from databases.
Sequence analysis using software
Development of phylogenetic tree using software
BLAST and FASTA
Molecular visualisation using RASMOL
AFM 3 C15P
•
•
•
•
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•
•
•
•
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AQUAFARM AND HATCHERY MANAGEMENT
Determination of Dissolved Oxygen
Determination of salinity
Determination of Hardness of water
Determination of soil pH and organic carbon content in Soil.
Determination of Nutrients- Nitrates and Phosphates
Determination of Ammonia
Estimation of BOD and primary productivity
Water quality analysis using various equipments.
Collection and identification of cultivable fishes, shrimps and molluscs.
Collection and Identification of predatory and weed fishes
Collection and identification of aquatic weeds and insects
Collection and biochemical evaluation of locally available feed ingredients
Assessment of growth of fish in culture system and FCR.
Aquarium keeping- setting up of home aquarium.
Induced breeding in fishes-Demonstration
Eye stalk ablation in shrimps
Breeding and rearing of common ornamental fishes
Algal culture
Zooplankton culture
Visit to hatcheries and farms to study design and operation
Visit to fish farms, hatcheries and ornamental fish breeding units
Visit to brackish water and marine farm and hatcheries
Visit to various institutes of aquaculture importance.
Design and earthwork Calculation
36
•
•
Estimation of Lime and Nutrient requirements to the aqua farms
Layout and designing of freshwater fish, prawn and shrimp hatcheries
AFM 3 C16 P
BIOCHEMISTRY
1. Estimation of moisture content by hot air–oven method
2. Estimation of crude fat content
3. Estimation of crude protein content by Micro-Kjeldahl method
4. Estimation of total ash content
5. Determination of soluble protein content by Lowry method
6. Estimation of DNA by diphenylamine reaction
7. Determination of RNA by orcinol method
8. Determination of iodine number of a fat sample
9. Determination of saponification value of fats and oils
10. Estimation of glucose in a given sample
AFM 4 C19P: FISH PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY & QUALITY CONTROL
• Preparation of dried, cured and fermented fish products (Demonstration),
• Examination of salt, protein, moisture in dried / cured products,
• Examination of spoilage of dried / cured fish products.
• Preparation of fish meal, FPC, fish oils, chitin, chitosan (Demonstration). Fish maws,
isinglass, agar, alginic acid, glue, pearl essence, fish sauce.
• Preparation of fish wafers, fish fingers, cutlets, pickles etc.
• Organoleptic analysis of fish and shell fish,
• Analysis of indole, total nitrogen, trimethyl amine (TMA).
• Analysis of filth and other extraneous materials from sea food,
• Estimation of percentage chlorine in hypochlorate solution,
• Peroxide value of fish oil, acid value or free fatty acids of fish oil and refractive index of
fish oil.
• Visit to fish processing plants
AFM 4 C20P-PHYSIOLOGY, CYTOLOGY & MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
Enumeration of total RBC, WBC and estimation of haemoglobin content in fish blood
Determination of LC50 for any pesticide and its impact on external morphology of fish RBC
Detection of amylase, protease and lipase activities alimentary canal of fish
Estimation of oxygen consumption in fishes
Determination of rate of ammonia excretion in fishes
Histology and Histochemistry of liver and intestine
Karyotyping of fish chromosome using Giemsa stain technique
Isolation of genomic DNA and RNA from yeast
Northern and Southern Blotting (Demonstration)
Fly UP