UNIVERSITY OF CALICUT (Abstract) M.A Islamic Studies (CUCSS) – in affiliated colleges– revised syllabus – I to IV –Semesters with effect from 2011 admission (applicable to II to IV semester of 2010 admission also) implemented– approved - - orders issued. _______________________________________________________________________________ GENERAL AND ACADEMIC BRANCH-IV B SECTION No: GAIV/B1/6062/05 Dated, Calicut University. P.O., 18.11.2011 Read: 1. U.O No.GA IV/J1/1373/08 dated 23-07-2010. 2 U.O of even No.dated 17-09-2010 and 06.01.2011 3 Minutes of the meeting of the Board of Studies in Islamic Studies held on 20.06.2011 (item No.1) 4 Orders of theVice-Chancellor in the file of even no. dated 08/08/2011. 5 Letter dated 05.09.2011 from the Chairman Board of Studies in Islamic Studies 6 Orders of the Registrar in file of even No dated 18.11.2011. ORDER Vide paper read 1st above, Calicut University Credit Semester System has been introduced at PG level in affiliated colleges of Calicut University with effect from 2010 admission onwards. Vide U.O read 2nd above, the Ist semester syllabus and II to IV Semester of M.A Islamic Studies (CUCSS) in affiliated colleges, was implemented with effect from 2010 admission, subject to ratification by Academic Council. Vide paper read 3rd the Board of Studies in Islamic Studies resolved to revise and approve the syllabus of the Ist semester of MA Islamic Studies with effect from 2011 admission. The Vice Chancellor after having considered the matter and in view of urgency has approved Item No. 1 of the minutes of the meeting of the Board of Studies in Islamic Studies held on 20.06.2011 subject to ratification by Academic Council. The Chairman vide paper read fifth has further clarified that the syllabus of II to IV semesters of MA Islamic Studies will be applicable for 2010 admission also. The Registrar vide paper read sixth above has approved the clarifications forwarded by the Chairman, Board of Studies in Islamic Studies on 05.09.2011. Sanction has therefore been accorded for implementing the revised syllabus of M.A Islamic Studies CUCSS in affiliated colleges, with effect from 2011 admission, subject to ratification by Academic Council. The syllabus of II to IV MA Islamic Studies will be applicable for 2010 admission also. Orders are issued accordingly. The syllabus is uploaded in the University Website www.universityofcalicut.info. Sd/ASSISTANT REGISTRAR (G&AIV) For REGISTRAR To, The Principals of all colleges offering M.A Islamic Studies. Copy to:- PA to CE/Ex/EG/DR-AR PG Sn./PG Tabulation Sn/Library/System Administrator with a request to upload the syllabus/GA I ‘F’ Sn/SF/DF/FC. Forwarded/By Order 2 M A DEGREE IN ISLAMIC STUDIES SCHEME AND REGULATIONS Under Credit Semester system for P G Curriculum 2011 for Affiliated Colleges. Name of the course: MA DEGREE IN ISLAMIC STUDIES This is the detailed syllabus for the revised MA Degree in ISLAMIC STUDIES. This semesterised post graduate programme in Islamic studies has been modified according to the need of the fast changing world. One of the unique features of this course designed for various levels of study is the special thrust on the need to create considerable efficiency in the history of islam and its importance. With the completion of this course the students will become well versed in islamic studies and will get a good command in it. The syllabi cover the prominance of islamic culture and civilization and a thorough knowledge of the personalities engaged from the pre- islamic period of ignorance to the the modern age. This prgramme is indented to expose the students to new horizons of knowledge that a student of islamic studies should know, the need and significance of islamic studies in the modern world. ELIGIBILITY OF ADMISSION. As per the University rules and regulations regarding P.G Admission. DURATION OF THE PROGRAMME 4 Semesters in 2year, with 2 semesters in each year. Each semester will have 90 instructional days with 5 hours of instructions each day under five day week system, ie 450 hours of instruction per semester. Semester: end examination will be held outside the 90 regular instructional days. OUTLINE OF COURSES (PAPERS) AND SCHEME OF EXAMINATION 4 Courses (papers) in each semester. Total number of courses 16 (4x4) 4 Credits for each course Besides these courses, there will be one Dissertation / Project during the entire course 3 S No Code Course Compon ent 1 IS 1 C 01 Core Course 2 IS1 C 02 IS1 C 03 Core Course Core Course IS 1 C 04 Core Course 3 4 Name of Course Cr edi ts Exam Internal Extern al Exam Duration 4 25 % 75% 3 Hours IS IC02 LIFE AND 1 TIMES OF THE PIOUS CALIPHS. IS IC03- THE FOUNDATION 1 OF ISLAMIC CULTURE 4 25 % 75% 3 Hours 4 25 % 75% 3 Hours 1 IS IC04- THE UMAYYAHS OF DAMASCUS AND SPAIN 4 25 % 75% 3 Hours IS 1C01 LIFE AND TIMES OF THE HOLY PROPHET Seme Instr ster u.. Hour s 1 SCHEME OF EVALUATION Evaluation of all the semester papers will be done in 2 parts, viz, Continuous Internal Assessment and External Evaluation 25% marks will be set apart for Continuous Internal Assessment and 75% marks for External Evaluation. The entire course (4semesters) will have a grading system. Continuous Internal Evaluation 25% marks for Continuous Internal Evaluation will be distributed as follows Attendance 5marks Assignment (1) 6marks Test paper (2) 8marks (not less than 2) Seminar (1) 6 marks (presentation of paper) Total 25 marks Attendance Marks Below 75% Nil Between 75% and 79% 2marks Between 80%and 89% 3marks Between 90% and 100% 4marks Attendance shall be marked in every class and consolidated at the college office at the end of every semester. Assignment: One assignment for each paper Test paper : A minimum of two tests for each paper of which the best performance will be counted for internal evaluation in each semester. Seminar : One seminar for each paper ; marks to be awarded on the basis of the script (3marks) and presentation (2marks) Seminar is Compulsory The assignment / seminars/ test papers will be held at regular intervals to be notified in advance by each Institution. These will be marked and returned to the students 4 week before the completion of the classes for that particular semester under the seal and signature of the head of the Institution and the co-ordinator for internal evaluation. External Evaluation Theory papers There will be double valuation for the semester end papers. The average of two valuation will be taken for awarding the score except where there is a variation of more than 10% between the two valuations. In such cases a third valuation will be held and the average of the score in the third valuation and the score nearest to it in the to earlier evaluations will be taken for calculating the final score. There will be no further revaluation. Project report/ Dissertation The project reports/ dissertation will be valued by two teachers on the Viva board for 80 marks. In case there is a variation of more than 10% a third valuation as mentioned above will be resorted to. Distribution of 100 marks allotted for dissertation will be as follows: Methodology/ Tools 10marks Content 40 marks Presentation 20 marks Answering question (Viva) based on dissertation 20marks Originality 10 marks Total 100 marks Final Comprehensive Viva-voce Viva-voce will be conducted in the forth semester A team consisting external and internal examiners will hold the same for 50 marks covering topics in the four semesters. Time Schedule for valuation of Semester papers and publication of results. The valuation of answer scripts and distribution of mark lists for each semester will be done within two months from the completion of the semester examinations. Pass requirements The pass minimum for each paper will be 40% with separate minimum of 40 % for external evaluation. There will be no separate minimum for internal evaluation and no provision for improvement. Classification of Results 5 3.8 to 4 = A+ 3.5 to 3.79 = A 3 to 3.49 = B+ 2.5 to 2.99 = B 2.2 to 2.49= C+ 1.5 to 2.19= C Below 1.5 = D Promotion to higher semester Only a student who has minimum required attendance (75%)(or whose shortage has been condoned by the University for good and sufficient reasons and register for the semester examinations) will be eligible for promotion to higher semester. Students who fail to secure minimum attendance/ condonation by the University may be given one more chance to repeat semester along with the subsequent batch of students after obtaining re admission. Supplementary Examination for failed candidates Candidates who have failed in the semester examination , can appear for the failed papers of a particular semester along with the regular students . Two such supplementary chance ( consecutively ) will be given in each semester. Sl No. Code Course Title of Paper Semester Credit 1 ISIC01 Core Course Life and Times of Holy Prophet 1 4 2 IS1C02 Core Course Life and Times of Pious Caliphs 1 4 3 IS1C03 Core Course The Foundation of Islamic Culture 1 4 4 IS1C04 Core Course The Umayyads of Damascus 1 4 5 IS2C05 Core Course The Abbasid Caliphate 2 4 6 IS2C06 Core Course Islam in Europe-Spain and Sicily 2 4 7 IS2C07 Core Course The trends of Sectarianism 2 4 8 IS2C08 Core Course Intellectual Revolution in the Middle Ages 2 4 6 11 IS3C11 Core Course The Ottomans as World Power 3 4 12 IS3E01 Elective The Revivalist Movement in Islam 3 4 13 IS3E02 Elective Islamic Economics 3 4 14 IS3E03 Elective Muslims and Indian Freedom Struggle 3 4 15 IS4C12 Core Course Islamic Revivalist movement in India 4 4 16 IS4C13 Core Course The Arab World After I World War 4 4 17 IS4C14 Core Course Islam in Modern World 4 4 18 IS4E01 Elective Muslim World in Modern Times 4 4 19 IS4E02 Elective Islamic Political Thought 4 4 20 IS4E03 Elective Muslim Historiography 4 4 M A Degree In Islamic studies Under Credit Semester system for P G Curriculum 2010 for Affiliated Colleges. Detailed Syllabi First Semester IS 1C01 LIFE AND TIMES OF THE HOLY PROPHET UNIT I Credit 1 Arabia, the Cradle of Semites- The nomads- Asabiyah- The North Arabs and South ArabsThe Jahiliyya days- Ayyamul Arab- The Basus War-Poetry- Religious and Social conditionsMacca- Ka’ba- Allah- Geo-political status- The War of Elephant UNIT 2 Credit 1 The Advent of Prophet Muhammed, Ancestry, Harb al Fijar and Hilf al Fudal, Reconstruction of Ka’ba, The Message and the Mission, Propagation, Birth of Muslim community(Ummah), Migration to Abyssinia, Social Boycott of Banu Hashim, Year of Sadness, Visit to Taif, Ascension(Mi’raaj),The Pledges of Aqabah -Emigration to Madina(Hijrah 7 Prophet’s work at Madinah, The Ansar and Muhajirin, Masjid al Quba and Masjidul Nabawi, The Madina Charter, Change of Qiblah, Battle of Badr and Uhd- Expulsion of Banu Qaynuqah- Punishment of Banu Nadhir, Battle of Khandak- The fall of Banu Qurayzah. UNIT 4 Credit 1 Treaty of Hudaybiyah, Invitation to neighbouring states, The Battle of Khaybar, The Battle of Mu’ta, The fall of Makkah, Hunyan, Taif and the Tabuk Expedition- The death of Prophet- Prophet as a ruler, -His reforms BOOKS RECOMMENDED: 1. Ali, S Ameer (1953) The Spirit of Islam, London 2. Ali, S. Ameer(1971) A short History of the Saracens, Cambridge 3. Ali, S. Ameer(1990) Early Islam, Edinburg 4. Cambridge History of Islam(1970) Cambridge 5. Encyclopeadia of Islam (cambridge) 6. Encyclopedia Britanica(latest edition), Leiden 7. Gibb, HAR (1962) studies on the civilization of Islam, London 8. Gibbon, E (1886) Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire 9. Hameedullah (1974) Mohammed Rasoolullah. Hyderabad 10. Hell, J (1962) The Arab Civilization, London 11. Nadwi, Abul Hassan Ali (1987) Islam and the world, Karachi 12. Lewis, Bernad (1985) The Arabs in History 13. Sardar, Ziauddin (1978) Muhammed: Aspects of HisBiography 14. Hitti, Philip K (1970) History of the Arabs, Mac Millan, London 15. Imamuddin S.M (1961) A political History of muslim spaon, Dacca 16. Irwing, W(n,d) Conqust of Granada and Spain 17. Lane Poole, Staneley (1953) The moors in spain, Lahore 18. Lewis, Bernard (1985) The Arabs in History, London 19. Miranda, AH(n.d) The Iberian peninsula and Sicily 20. Nadwi, Riyasat Ali (1950) Tarikh-i-and Andulus, Azamgarh 21. Nadwi, SMA (1948) Tarikh –i-islam, Azamgarh 22. Saunders JJ (1965) A History of Medieval Islam, London 23. Shaban, MA (1971) Islamic History AD 600- 750: A new Interpretation Cambridge 24. Some aspects of the socio-economic and cultural History of Muslim Spain 1965), Leiden 25. The Cambridge History of Islam, Cambridge 26. Watt, WM(1967) A History of Islamic Spain (Edinburgh) 8 IS IC02 LIFE AND TIMES OF THE PIOUS CALIPHS. UNIT 1 Credit 1 Khilafat as an Islamic Political Institution- Khalifah: His qualifications, Rights, Duties, Functions and previlages- Condition of Islamic State and society at the Departure of the Holy Prophet- The question of succession/caliphal issue- ABU BAKR, the Pioneer- His Election and AccessionProblems and challenges- Assessment of Religious, Social, Political, Administrative and Military Achievements. UNIT 2 Credit 1 UMAR, the Architect and Master Builder- His expansion- Consolidation and organization of the State- War with Byzantium and Persia- Institutionalization of Amir-al-Mu’minin, Shura- Diwan, Baytul Mal, Census, Hijra Calendar, Military Boards- His Martyrdom and Last Days, The model administrator , UNIT 3 Credit 1 UTHMAN, the Benefactor and Patience Bearer- Election, Administration, and Socioterritorial expansion- Navy, Army- Ibn Sabae- His Fitna- The Allegations against UthmanMotives- Violence in Madina- Assasination UNIT 4 Credit 1 ALI- His Election- The question of Vengeance of Hadrat Uthman’s Blood- Change of CapitalBattle of Jamal and Siffin- Kharijits, Battle of Nahrwan- Assassination of Ali 9 BOOKS RECOMMENDED: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Abu Yusuf, Yaqub b. Ibrabim (1352 A.H) Kitab-al-Kharaj, Bulaq, Cairo Al-Baladhuri (1958) Futuhal-Buldan, Beriut Al-Baladhuri (1959) Ansab-al-Ashraf, Cairo Al-Masudi(1894) Al Tanbih-wal- Ishraf Leiden Al-Masudi(1927) Muruj-al-Dhahab wa Ma’adin al Jawhar, Cairo 14 6. Al-Mawaridi(1960) Kitabul Ahkamul Sulthania, Cairo 7. Al-Tabari, (1961) Ta’rikh al Rasool wal Muluk, Cairo 8. Ali, S. Ameer (1953) The spirit of Islam, London 9. Ali, S. Ameer (1971) A short History of the Saracens, Cambridge 10. Arnold, T.W (1958) The preaching of Islam, Lahore 11. Arnold, T.W (1965) The Caliphate, Oxford 12. Baksh, S. Khudah (1920) Orient under the Caliphs, Calcutta 13. Baksh, S. Khudah (1930) Islamic Civilization, Calcutta 14. Baksh, S. Khudah (1937) Renaissance of Islam, Patna 15. Cambridge History of Islam (1970) Cambridge 16. Cambridge Medieval History (n.d) Cambridge 17. Encyclopedia of Islam (Latest Edition) 18. Encyclopedia of Britanica (Latest Edition) New York 19.Hussaini, S.A Q (1957) Arab Administration , Lahore 20.Ibn Athir (1220A) Al-Kamil fil-Tharik, Bulaq 21 Ibn Kathir (1404) Al Bidaya wa al Nihaya 22.Ibn Khaldun Kitab-al-Ibar 23.Ibn-Sa’d (1957) Al-Tabaqat-al-Kabir, Beirut 10 IS IC 03 - THE FOUNDATION OF ISLAMIC CULTURE UNIT I –1 Credit 1 The concept of Tawhid-Rububiya,Uluhiya, Asmaa’ wa Sifaat, Significance of Tawhid- Its effects on life- shirk, Eman, Kufr- Munafik Unit 2 Credit 1 Risalath- Brief Hstory of Prophethood- finality of Prophethood and its significance, Sunnath vs Bidath, Prophethood and its significance- The Concept of Akhirath- Necessity of Belief in Akhirath- Barsakh (Khabar)- Hisaab, Meesan- Siraat, Hell and Paradise Unit 3 Credit 1 Qada and Qadar- Its effect on life- The Angels and their Duties- The revealed Books, Quran- The world of Allah- not the creator Unit 4 Credit 1 The practices of two Shahadath- Concept of Ibadath- Salat- Zakath-Sawm- Hajj-Jihad- Minor Shirk, Faasik,- Murtadd-Relation between eman and Amal- Ihsaan- Takwa. BOOKS RECOMMENDED: 1. Imam Hafidh al Hakmee- “The meaning and conditions of La Ilaha Illallah”- Trans Maaz Qureshi 2. Dr. Saaleh bn Fawzan bin Abdullah al Fawzaan: The Aqeeda of Tawheed 3. Muhammed bin Abdul Vahab : “ Explanation of Kalimah of Thouheed.” 4. Mohammed bin Saalih al Uthaymeen: “Exemplary foundation concerning the beautiful names and Attributes of Allah” Translated by Maaz Qureshi 5. Imam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal. “ Foundation of the Sunnah- Tans. Aboo Abdul Rahiman Fawaaz Ahmad Zumarlee. 6. Mohammed bin Saalih al Uthaymeen: “The tenets of Faith” 7. Imam Ibn Qudaimah al maqdisee. “The Radiance of Faith, A Guide to the Right path” 8. Mohammed As Saleh Al Uthaimin. “The Muslim belief” Trans. Dr. Maneh Al johani 9. Mohammed bin Saalih al Uthaymeen: “The fundamentals of faith” 10. Abdul Rahiman bin Sasir as-sadi. “The explanations of the beautiful and perfect names of Allah” Trans. Abu Rumaysah 11. Ahmed Al- Wasabee “The meaning and pillars of La ilaha Illallah”- Trans. By Shaakir al kanadee 11 IS I C 04 - THE UMAYYAHS OF DAMASCUS UNIT I Credit 1 Rise of Umayyahs to Power- Muawiyah- War with Byzantines- Karbala- Marwan-Abdul MalikAbdullah Ibn Zubair- Waleed- Hajjaj Ibn Yusuf- Conquests- Umar II- Musa ibn Nusayr- Uqba Ibn Nafie. Unit 2 Credit1 Arabisation of the State- Spread of Islam- Condition of Mawalis- Royal life- Capital- Society- The problem of Succession- North Arabs and South Arabs- Dimmis- The Abbasid Revolution and the end of the Dynasty. Unit 3 Credit 1 Intellectual side- Arabic Grammas – Basara and Kufa- Historiography- Oratory- PoetryEducation- Science- Alchemy- Architecture- The Done of the Rock- The Aqsa Mosque- Umayyad Mosque- Qusayr Amrah- Painting- Music. Unit 4 Credit 1 Religious Tradition and Canon Law- Hasan al Basari- Ibn Shihab Al Zuhari- The origin of Irja’- Imam Abu Hanifa- Origin and Spread of Shiism 12 BOOKS RECOMMENDED: 1. Ali, S. Ameer (1971) A short History of the Saracens, Cambridge 2. Amin, Ahmad (1949) Fajr-al-Islam, Lahore 3. Collins, Roger (1989) The Arab Conquest of Spain 710-797, Blackwell, Oxford: 4. Din, A.A (1971) –The Umayyad Caliphate, London. 5. Encyclopaedia of Islam (Latest ed.), Leiden 6. Encyclopaedia of Britannica (Latest Edition) New York 7. Faruqi, IR and Faruqi LL (1986) The cultural Atlas of Islam, Londn 8. Gibb, HAR (1962) Studies on the civilization of Islam, Boston 9. Hotting, GR (1986) The first Dynasty of Islam, the Umayyad Caliphate AD 661-750 London 10. Hitti, Philip K (1953) The Arabs: A short History , London 12. Hitti, Philip K (1970) History of the Arabs, Mac Millan, London 13. Imamuddin S.M (1961) A political History of muslim spaon, Dacca 14. Irwing, W(n,d) Conqust of Granada and Spain 15. Lane Poole, Staneley (1953) The moors in spain, Lahore 16. Lewis, Bernard (1985) The Arabs in History, London 17. Miranda, AH(n.d) The Iberian peninsula and Sicily 18. Nadwi, Riyasat Ali (1950) Tarikh-i-and Andulus, Azamgarh 19. Nadwi, SMA (1948) Tarikh –i-islam, Azamgarh 20. Saunders JJ (1965) A History of Medieval Islam, London 21. Shaban, MA (1971) Islamic History AD 600- 750: A new Interpretation Cambridge 22. Some aspects of the socio-economic and cultural History of muslim Spain(1965), Leiden 23. The Cambridge History of Islam, Cambridge 24. Watt, WM(1967) A History of Islamic Spain (Edinburgh) 13 Semester II IS 2C 05 THE ABBASID CALIPHATE: UNIT 1 Credit 1 The Abbasiya Propaganda- Abu Muslim Al Kurasani- Al Saffah Al Mansur- The real founder of the Dynasty, -Al Mahdi- Al-Hadi- Harun al Rashid- Rise and fall of the Barmakids- The Glory of Baghdad- Al Amin and Al Ma’mun- Intellectual AwakeningMa’mun’s heterodox views Unit 2 Credit 1 Al-Mu’atasim- Formation of Turkish Guards- Al Wathiq-Al Mutawakkil- The later Abbasids- Causes and effects of the decline- Religious policy of the Abbasids- AdministrationSociety- Economy- Foreign contacts- Arts and Architecture. Unit 3 Credit I Petty dynasties- The Idrisids- The Aghlabids- The Tulunids- The Ikshidids- The HamdanidsThe Tahirids- The Saffarids- The Samanids- The Ghaznawids- The Buwayhid- The SaljuqsAlp Arslan, Nizamul Mulk- The Shahs of Khwarizm, The Fatimids. Unit 4 Credit 1 The Crusades- Atabegs of Mosul- Nuruddin Zangi- Salahuddin Ayyubi- Emergence of Mongols, -Hulagu Khan at the Gate of Baghdad- Fall of Baghdad. 14 BOOKS FOR REFERENCE: 1. Al- Azadi, M. Ubaidulla( 1922) Usul al fiqh, Karachi 2. Al- Azami, M.M (2003) The history of the Qur-anic Text from revelation to compilation, Islamic academy, Leicester 3. Al Hilali, Mohammed Taqi ud ddin and Khan, Mohammed muhsin (1996) Interpretation of the meaning of the noble Qur an, Riyad 4. Ali, S. Ameer: (1953) The spirit of Islam, London 5. Ameenul Ahsan Mufti (1962) Tarikh al Fiqh, Delhi 6. Bhat, Abdul Rasheed (1996) Political thought of Shah Waliyullah, Delhi. 7. Encyclopedia of Islam (latest ed.) Leiden 8. Encyclopedia of Britanica (latest ed.) New York 9. Farooqi, I R and Farooqi LL (1986) The cultural Atlas of Islam, London 10. Faruqi, kamal A (1962) Islamic Jurisprudecne, Karachi 11. Fayzee, AAA (1953) Outlines of Muhammedan Law, Oxford 12. Hasan, Ahmed (1953) Early Developments of Islamic Jurisprudence 13. Hitti, Philip K (1970) History of the Arabs, Macmillan, London 14. Hussain, M. Hadi (Tr) (1995) Imam Abu Hanifah, new Delhi 15. Ibn Khaldun (1932) Mukaddimah, Cairo 16. Ibn Khaldun (n.d) Kitab al Ibar 17. Iqbal, Mohammed (1971) Construction of religious thought in Islam, Lahore 18. Jalbani, G,N (1988) Teaching of Hazrat Shah Valiyullahi, New Delhi. 19. Khadduri, Majid (Tr) (nd) Islamic Jurisprudene 20. Khan, Kamaruddin (1985) The political thought of Ibn Taymiah, Islamabad 21. Mahmood, tahir (1987) Personal Law in Islamic Countries, New Delhi. 22. Maududi, S.A,A (1963) Towards understanding Islam, Lahore 23. Maududi, S.A.A (nd) Islamic Law and Constitution, Lahore 15 IS 2C 06 : Unit: I ISLAM IN EUROPE –SPAIN AND SICILY Credit: 1 Political and Social Conditions of Gothic Spain- Conquest of Spain-Tarif, Tariq Ibn ZiyadMusa Ibn Nusayr-Battle of Tours-The Amirate- Consolidation of Umayyad power in SpainAbdul Rahman I, II and III- Ibn Hafsun Unit: 2 Credit:1 The Glory of Cordova- Al Zahra- Industry-Agriculture-Trade-Education, Language and Literature,-Poetry-Historiography-Geography-Astronomy and Mathematics-Botany and Medicine-Philosophy-art and architecture-Transmission of Arab Learning to Europe. Unit: 3 Credit:1 Collapse of Umayyad Power- petty states-The Abbadids-The Murabits- The Muwahhids- The Nasrids- Glory of Granada- Al Hambra- The last days of Granada- Mozarabs- Moriscos Unit 4 Credit: 1 Muslim conquest of Sicily- Muslim attacks on Italy- The Amirate- Norman Conquest- Arab Norman Culture- Transmission of Arab learning to Europe. 16 Books for Reference: 1. Amir Ali: A short history of the Saracens 2. Budget Meaking: The Moorish Empire 3 Carl Brocklemann: History of the Islamic peoples 4. Dozy, R : Spanish Islam 5. H.K Sherwamt: Early Muslim Political Thought 6. Joseph Hell: Arab Civilization 7. Jurji Zaydan: History of Islamic Civilization 8. Jurji Zaydan: Islamic Civilization 9. Khuda Buksh The Empire of The Arabs 10. Khuda Bukhsh & DS Margoliouth: The Renaissance of Islam 11. Lane Poole: The Moors in Spain 12. Lane Poole: Egypt in the middle ages 13. Montgomery Watt: A History of Islamic Spain 14. Moris Lombrd: The Golden Age of Islam 15. Nabin Faris: The Arab Heritage 16. P.K. Hitti: History of the Arabs 17. P.M.Holt & Others: Cambridge History of Islam 18. SA Q Husaini: The Arab Administration 19. T.W Arnold: The Caliphate 17 IS 2C 07 THE TRENDS OF SECTARIANISM Unit: I Credit:1 Prophet Mohammed As a Role Model- Sahabah as a saved sect- Aqeeda (creed) of Ahlu Sunnah wal Jama’- Tabie- Tabul Tabie-Ahmed Ibn Hambal- As’haabul Athaar- SifaatiyaImportance of Naql on Aql- creed on Sifat Dhatiya- Sifat Fieliyya and Uluwullah. Unit:2 Credit:1 Innovators- Khawarij- Main Principles- Shia- Principles of Taqiyyat- Qadariyat- Ma’bad Al Juhani- Jahmiyat-ideologies- Muetazilat- Why call them Muatilat- Abu Ali Al JubaeJabariyat, Qarmatians- Murjiyat-Ilmul Kalam- Ashariat- Acceptance of the Ideologies of Kullabi- Abul Hasan Al Ashari, Maturidi Unit:3 Credit:1 Sufism- Imam Shafie, Ibn Kathir, Ibn Qayyim, Hafiz Dhahabi and Hafiz Muzni against Sufism- Role of Fatimiyya- Ghaus, Qutb, Nujabae, Important Silsilas- Qadiri- ChishtiNaqshabandi-Suhrawardi- Shadhili- Tijaniyah- Bektash- Oveyssi. UNIT-4 Credit-I Ahmadiyah- Mahdavism, Nation of Islam, Submitters, Rashad Khalifah, Druze, BabismBahaism- Quraniyoorn- Dajjal. 18 Books for Reference: 1. Ahmad, Galwash(1973) The Religion of Islam, Doha 2. Ahmad, Nafis (1945) Muslim Contribution to Geography, Delhi 3. Al-Baladhuri (1959) Ansab-al-Ashraf, Cairo 4. Al-Bukhari, (1962) Al Sahih, Lahore 5. Al- Masudi (1894) Al-Tanbih-wal-Ishraf, Leiden. 6. Al-Masudi (1927) Muruj-al-Dhahab wa Ma’adin al Jawhar, Cairo. 7. Al-Mawaridi (1960) Kitab-al Adkam us Sulltania, Cairo. 8. Al-Muslim ibn Hajjaj (1929) Al Sahih, Egypt. 9. Al-Tabari, (1939) Tarikh-ul Umam wal Mulk, Egypt 10. Al-Tabari, (1961) Tarikh-ul Rusul wal Mulk, Cairo 11. Al- Asadi, M, Ubaidullah, (1922) Usulul Fiqh, Karachi 12. Ali, S. Ameer: (1953) The Spirit of Islam, London 13. Ali, S. Ameer (1971) A short History of the Saracens, Cambridge. 14. Ali, S. Ameer (1990) Early Islam, Edinburgh. 15. Ali, S, Ameer (n.d) Islamic Culture. 16. Arnold, T.W (1958) The Preaching of Islam, Lahore 17. Arnold, T.W (1965) The Caliphate, Oxford 18. Burton, Richard F (n.d) Collection of Quran 19. Encyclopaedia of Islam (Latest ed.) Leiden 20. Encyclopedia Britannica (Latest Ed.) New York 21. Faruqi, I R and Faruqi L.L (1986) The Cultural Atlas of Islam, London 22. Guilame, Alfred (n.d) The traditions of Islam 23. Hameedulla, M (1959) Introduciton to Islam, Paris 24. Hitti, Philip K (1970) History of the Arabs, Mcmillan, London 25. Ibn Khaldun (1932) Mukaddima, Cairo 19 IS 2C 08 INTELLECTUAL REVOLUTION IN THE MIDDLE AGES Unit:1 Credit:1 Development of Philosophy- Role of Greek, Persian and Indian Philosophy- Eminent philosophers in the Muslim world and their thoughts, Al kindi, Farabi, Ibn Sina, Gazzali, Ibn Bajjah, Ibn Rushd, Ibn Maymun, Ibn Maymun, Ibn Arabi, Ibn Khaldun, Ikhwan al Safa Unit:2 Credit:1 Development of Medicine- Public Hygiene- Important Hospitals- Important Physicians and their Contributions- Yuhannna Ibn Masawayh- Hunayn Ibn Ishaq, Jibril Ibn BakhtishuSinan Ibn Thabith Ibn Qurrah- Ali Al Tabari- Al Razi, Al Majusi, Ibn Sina, Al Zahrawi, Ibn Zuhr- Ali Mawsili- Ibn al Nafis Unit: 3 Credit:1 Botany- Important Botanist- Alchemy- Zoology- Physics- Ibn al Haythm: the father of Optics- Geography, Important Geographers and their contributions- Mathematics and Astronomy; Art and Architect, Calligraphy, Education, Important Libraries- Translation Bureaus- Educational Institution and Universities in the Middle Ages. Unit:4 Credit: 1 Muslim Historiography- Geneology, Qur’an- Hadith as a source- Sirah- maghazi, TabaqatImportant Muslim historians and their contributions- Al Tabari- Baladuri- Masudi- Ibn al Athir, Kallikan- Abul Fida- Al Dhahabi- Al Magrizi- Ibn Khaldun- Al Suyuti. Books Recommended: Ahmad, Galwash(1973) The Religion of Islam, Doha Ahmad, Nafis (1945) Muslim Contribution to Geography, Delhi Al-Baladhuri (1959) Ansab-al-Ashraf, Cairo Al-Bukhari, (1962) Al Sahih, Lahore Al- Masudi (1894) Al-Tanbih-wal-Ishraf, Leiden. Al-Masudi (1927) Muruj-al-Dhahab wa Ma’adin al Jawhar, Cairo. Al-Mawaridi (1960) Kitab-al Adkam us Sulltania, Cairo. 20 Al-Tabari, (1961) Tarikh-ul Rusul wal Mulk, Cairo Al- Asadi, M, Ubaidullah, (1922) Usulul Fiqh, Karachi Ali, S. Ameer: (1953) The Spirit of Islam, London Encyclopaedia of Islam (Latest ed.) Leiden Encyclopedia Britannica (Latest Ed.) New York Faruqi, I R and Faruqi L.L (1986) The Cultural Atlas of Islam, London Guilame, Alfred (n.d) The traditions of Islam Hameedulla, M (1959) Introduciton to Islam, Paris Hitti, Philip K (1970) History of the Arabs, Mcmillan, London Ibn Khaldun (1932) Mukaddima, Cairo Ikram, S.M (1964) History of muslim civilization, New York Iqbal, Mohammed (1971) Reconstruction of religious thought in Islam, Lahore Khan, Qamarudheen (1985) The political thought of Ibn Taymiah, Islamabad Mahdi, Muhsin (1957) Ibn Khaldun’s philosophy: a study in the foundations of the science of culture, University of Chicago Press, Chicago. Maududi, S.A.A (1988) Islimi Riyasat, Lahore Muslehuddin, M (n,d) The philosophy of Islamic law and the Orientalists. SEMESTER- 3 IS 3C 09 ISLAMIC JURISPRUDENCE Unit: 1 Credit I The sciences of Qur’an- Revelation, Kalam Allah- Brief History of the Compilation of the Qur-an- Ilmul Qira-ah- Ilm al Asbab al Nuzul- Major classical mufassirin and significance of their works- Al Tabari, Qurtubi, Ibn Kathir, Al Baydhawi. Unit:2 Credit:1 The Sciences of Hadith- Subject Matter and Transmission, Compilation of HadithCategories of Hadith- Some Important narrators- Abu Hurairah- Hazrat Aisha, Amr Ibn al Aas, Anas Ibn Malik, Compilers of Hadith- Imam Malik, Ahmad Ibn Hambal- BukhariMuslim- Abu Dawud- Ibn Majah- Tirmidhi- Nasa’ai- Ibn Hajar Asqalani, Nasir al Din al Albani Uni:3 Credit:1 21 Unit:4 Credit 1 The Schools of Thought- Hanafi School-Maliki School- Shafie school- Hanbali School- Shia Schools- The difference between Taqleed and Itibae Sunna. Books for Reference: Al- Azadi, M. Ubaidulla( 1922) Usul al fiqh, Karachi Al- Azami, M.M (2003) The history of the Qur-anic Text from revelation to compilation, Islamic academy, Leicester Al Hilali, Mohammed Taqi ud ddin and Khan, Mohammed muhsin (1996) Interpretation of the meaning of the noble Qur an, Riyad Ali, S. Ameer: (1953) The spirit of Islam, London Ameenul Ahsan Mufti (1962) Tarikh al Fiqh, Delhi Bhat, Abdul Rasheed (1996) Political thought of Shah Waliyullah, Delhi. Encyclopedia of Islam (latest ed.) Leiden Encyclopedia of Britanica (latest ed.) New York Farooqi, I R and Farooqi LL (1986) The cultural Atlas of Islam, London Faruqi, kamal A (1962) Islamic Jurisprudecne, Karachi Fayzee, AAA (1953) Outlines of Muhammedan Law, Oxford Hasan, Ahmed (1953) Early Developments of Islamic Jurisprudence Hitti, Philip K (1970) History of the Arabs, Macmillan, London Hussain, M. Hadi (Tr) (1995) Imam Abu Hanifah, new Delhi Ibn Khaldun (1932) Mukaddimah, Cairo Ibn Khaldun (n.d) Kitab al Ibar Iqbal, Mohammed (1971) Construction of religious thought in Islam, Lahore Jalbani, G,N (1988) Teaching of Hazrat Shah Valiyullahi, New Delhi. Khadduri, Majid (Tr) (nd) Islamic Jurisprudene Khan, Kamaruddin (1985) The political thought of Ibn Taymiah, Islamabad 22 IS 3C 10 - ISLAM IN INDIA Unit-1 Credit I Indo-Arab Trade Links before the Rise of Islam- Invasion of Sind by Muhammed Ibn QasimThe Gazanavids and Ghoris- Delhi Sultanate- Balban- Alauddin Khilji- Muhammed Ibn Tughlaq- Firoz Shah Tughlaq- Causes of decline- Administration- Society- Amir KhusruZiaudin Barani Unit 2 Credit:1 The Mughal Emphire- Babar, Sher shah, Shah Jahan , Aurangzib- Downfall of MughalsMansabdari system- Indo Islamic Architect- Influence of Islam on Indian SocietyHistoriography. Unit:3 Credit:1 Muslims against the British Rule- Hyder Ali, Tippu Sulthan- Navab Siraju Dawla- RohillasThe Wahhabi Movement- The Fara’adi movement- The revolt of 1857 Unit:4 Credit:1 Islam in Kerala- Origin and spread- Mappilas against the Portuguese- Kunjali marakkarsAli Rajas of Kannur- Mappilas against British Imperialism- Social and Religious Resurgence- 23 Books recommended: 1. Ashraf, K.M (nd) Life and Condition of the People of Hindustan, 2. Basham, A.L (1954) The wonder that was the India, New York 3. Cambridge History of India (n,d) Cambridge 4. Encyclopedia of Islam (Latest Ed.) Leiden 5. Encyclopedia of Britanica (latest ed.) New YorK 6. Habeebullah, A.B.M (1945) The Foundation of Muslim Rule in India, Allahabad. 7. Hardy, Peter (1960) The Historians of Medieval India, London 8. Hussain, Agha Mehdi (nd) Muslim rule in India 9. Hussain, Agha Mehdi : The Rise and Fall of Muhammed Ibn Thuglaq 10. Iqram, S.M and Rashid (1961) History of Islam Civilization in India, Lahore. 11. Iqram, S.M (nd) History of Muslim Civilization 12. Iqram, S.M (nd) History of Muslim Rule in India 13. Islam R (2002) Sufism in South Asia, O U P, Karachi 14. Khan, Zulfikarali (nd) Sher Shah 15. Lal, K.S (nd) Khelji Dynasty 16. Mirza, Vaheed (nd) Life and Work of Amer Khusru 17. Nazim, Mohammed (nd) Mahmood of Ghazna 18. Nizami, Khalik Ahammed (1901) Some aspects of religion and politics in India 24 IS 3C 11 THE OTTOMANS AS WORLD POWER Unit:1 Credit:1 Origin and Growth of Ottoman Power- The Ghazi societies of Asia Minor- The Decline of the Byzantine Empire- Golden age of the Ottomans- Murad II, Muhammed II and conquest of Constantinople- Bayazid II- Salim I and Assumption of Caliphate. Unit: 2 Credit:1 Sulaiman the magnificent- Ottoman Expansion- Administration, Economy- social Institutions- Art and Architecture- Millat Systems- Role of Ulama- Yanicheri- The Decline of the Dynasty Unit:3 Credit:1 The Tanzimat Reforms- Abdul Hameed- Young Turk Revolution of 1908- I world warFormation of the Secular Republic of Turkey- Mustafa Kamal Attaturk- His Anti Islamic Policies Unit:4 Credit:1 Egypt under the Ottoman power- Mamluk’s control- Napoleon’s Conquest- Mohammed Ali and the Rise of Modern Egypt- The Construction of Suez Canal 25 Books for Reference: 1. Bernard Lewis: The Emergence of Modern Turkey 2. E.F.Knight: Turkey’s awakening 3. Edward S Creasy: History of the Ghoman Turks 4. Kenel H. Harpet: Turkey’s Politics 5. Lane Poole S: Turkey 6. PM Holt & Others: Cambridge History of Islam 7. Pani Wittek: The Rise of the Ottoman Empire 8. Philip Price: A History of Turkey 9. S.N. Fisher: The Middle East IS 3E 01 -: REVIVALIST MOVEMENT IN ISLAM (Elective) Unit:1 Credit:1 Meaning and Concept of Revivalism (Tajdeed)- Difference between Revivalism and Modernism- History of Islamic Revivalism- Umar Ibn Abdul Aziz- Imam Ahmed Ibn Hambal- Ibn Taimiyah- Muhammed Ibn Abdul Wahab and Muwahhidun Unit:2 Credit:1 Al Sanusi and Sanusiyah movement- Jamaludheen Afghani and Pan Islamism- Shaik Hasanul Bannah and Ikhwanul Muslimun- Mawdudi and Jama’t e Islami- Salafi Movement Unit 3 Credit:1 Muhammed Abduh- Muhammed Rashid Ridah and Al Manar- Prince Saeed Haleem PashaMahdi Sudani- Sayyid Qutb- Ali Shariati- Ayatullah Qumaini and the Shia Revolution. Unit:4 Credit:1 Arab Nationalism- Abdul Rahman Al Kawakibi- Arab League- Muslim World League (Rabita) 26 Books for Reference: 1. Agwani, M. S. (1986) Islamic Fundamentalism in India, Chandigarh. 2. Ahmad, Aziz (1964) Studies in Islamic Culture in Indian Environment. Oxford. 3. Ahmad. Aziz (1967') Islamic Modernism in India and Pakistan, 1857-1964. Oxford. 4. Ahmad, Qeyamuddin (1966) The Wahabi Movement in India, Calcutta. 5. Ali, Muhammad (1946) Mv Life: A Fragment, Lahore. 6. Baljon, J. M. S. (1964) The Reforms and Religious Ideas of Sir Syed Ahmcd Khan, Lahore. 7. Dar, B. A. (1957) Religious Thought of Sved Ahmed Khan, Lahore. 8. Encyclopaedia of Islam (Latest Edition), Leiden. 9. Encyclopedia Britannica (Latest Edition), New York. 10. Esposito, J. L. (199 U Islam the Straight Path, New York . 11.Esposito, J. L. (1991) Oxford Encyclopaedia of Modern Islamic World. New York 12. Esposito, J. L. (2005) Oxford Dictionary of Islam, New York. 13. Faruq'i, \. R and Faruqi, L. L. (1986) The Cultural Atlas of Islam. London 14. Ghazali, Zainab (1989) Days from My Life. Delhi. 15. Gibb, H. A. R. (1947) Modern Trends in Islam. Chicago. 16. Haq, Mushirul (1970) Muslim Politics in Modern India 1857-1947. Meerut. 17. Hitti, Philip K. (1970) History of the Arabs. Macmillan, London. 18. Hourani, Albert (1969) Arabic Thought in the Liberal Age, 1798-1939. Oxford. 19. Ikram, S. M. (1970) Modern Muslim India and the Birth of Pakistan. Lahore 20. Khan, M. A. (n.d) A History ofFaraidi Movement in Bengal. Dacca. 21. Khan, Qamaruddin (1985) The Political Thought oflbn Tavmivah. Islamabad. 22. Malik, Hafeez (ed.) Idbal: Poet Philosopher of Pakistan. New York. 23. Mawdudi, S. A. A. Tajdid wa Ihya' Din. Islamic Publication, Lahore. 24. May, L. S. (n.d) The Evolution Indo-Muslim Thought after 1857. 25. Mehr, Ghulam Rasul (n.d) Ahmed Shaheed, Ghulam Ali & Sons, Karachi. 26. Mujeeb, Muhammad (1967) Indian Muslims, London. 27. Qutb, Sayyid (1950) In the Shade of the Our'an. New Delhi. 28. Rizvi, S. A. A. (n.d) The Breakdown of Traditional Society. 29. Robinson, F. (1975) Separatism among Indian Muslims (1860-1923). Delhi. 30. Sardar, Ziauddin (1979) The Future of Muslim Civilization. London. 31. Shaikh, M.N.( 1982) Memoirs of Hasan al Banna Shaheed. Delhi. 32. Smith, Wilfred Cantwell (1946) Modern Islam in India. London. 33. Zaman, W (n.d) Iranian Revolution: A Profile. 27 IS 3 E 02- ISLAMIC ECONOMICS (Elective) Unit:1 Credit:1 Objectives of Islamic Economics- Human Welfare- Eradication of Poverty and Abolition of Slavery- Economic references in Qur’an and Hadith- Positive and Negative aspects of Capitalism and Socialism- Economic Philosophy of Islam Unit:2 Credit:1 Distribution of Wealth in Islam- Laws of Inheritance- Sakat, Kharaj, Ushr, Zakat al Fitr, Sadaquah, Aqiqah and Hady- Diyah- Fa’y and Ghanimah, Fidyah and Kaffarah- Mahr and Walimah. Unit:3 Credit:1 Islamic Banking- Mudaraba- Profit- Loss sharing- Interest free Banking- Riba, Its classification and Prohibition- Obstacles in Islamic Banking- Islamic Development Bank, Its Role and Functioning. Unit:4 Credit:1 New Economic World order visualized by Islam- Mutual cooperation and Unity- Free movement of Commodities- The world without interest – Abolition of Unhealthy commercial practices- Human welfare and Environmental Protection – Economic Relations Beyond National Barriers and Opportunities for All. 28 Books for Reference: 1. Chapra, M. Umar (1979) Objectives of the Islamic Economic Order. Leicester. 2 Chapra. M. Umar (1979) The Islamic Welfare State and Its Role in the Economy. Leicester. 3. Encyclopaedia of Islam (Latest Edition), Leiden. 4. Encyclopedia Britannica (Latest Edition), New York. 5 Faruqi, I. R and Faruqi, L. L. (1986) The Cultural Atlas of Islam. London 6. Hitti, Philip K. (1970) History of the Arabs. Macmillan, London. 7. Islamic Development Bank (n.d) Islamic Banking: State of the Art. IslamicResearch and Training Institute, Islamic Development Bank, Jeddah, SaudiArabia. 8. Islamic Development Bank (n.d) Lessons in Islamic Economics. (Vol 2), Islamic Research and Training Institute, Islamic Development Bank, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. 9. Islamic Development Bank (n.d) Principles of Islamic Financing. Islamic Research and Training Institute, Islamic Development Bank, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. 10. Kahf, M. (1978) Islamic Economy. Indiana. 11. Khan, Fahim M. (n.d) Economic Rationality of Islamic Banking. Proceedings of the Seminar on Islamic Banking, The Islamic Foundation, Liecester, UK. 12. Mannan M. A. (n.d) Islamic Economics: Theory and Practice. The Islamic Academy, Cambridge. 13. Mannan, M. A. (1975) Islamic Economics, Lahore. 14. Mannan, M. A. (n.d) Financing Development in Islam. Islamic Research and Training Institute, Islamic Development Bank, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. 15 Mawdudi, S. A. A. (1989) Economic Problems of Man and Its Islamic Solution. Delhi. 16. Muslehuddin, Mohammad (1969) Insurance and Islamic Law. Islamic Book Service, New Delhi. 17. Muslehuddin, Mohammad (1982) Economics and Islam. Delhi 18. Muslehuddin, Mohammad (1993) Banking and Islamic Law. Islamic Book Service, New Delhi. 19. Qasim b. Sallam, (1935) Kitab al Amwal, Cairo 20. Qudama b. Jafar Baghdad;, (1889) Kitab al Kharaj. Brill. 21. Qureshi, Anwar Iqbal (1974) Islam and the Theory of Interest. Lahore. 22. Qutb, Sayyid (1950) In the Shade of the Our'an. New Delhi. 23. Outb. Sayyid (1970) Social Justice in Islam. New York. 24. Rehman, Afzal-ur (n.d) Economic Doctrines of Islam. Islamic Publications Limited, Lahore. 25. Sadeq. A. H. M. (1995Hslamic Economics. Delhi. 26. Siddiqi, Abdul Hameed (1969) The Origin and Development of Muslim Institutions, Karachi. 27. Siddiqi, Mohammad Nejatullah (n.d) Banking without Interest.' 28. Siddiqi, Mohammad Nejatullah (n.d) Recent Theories of Profit. Bombay. 29. Siddiqi, Muhammad Nejatullah (1970) Some Aspects of Islamic Economy. Lahore. 30. Siddiqi, Muhammad Nejatullah (1981) Muslim Economic Thinking. Leicester. 31. Usmani, Dr M. Imran Ashraf(n.d) Meezan Bank's Guide to Islamic Banking. 32. Yaqub b. Ibrahim (1302 A. H.) Kitab al Kharaj. Cairo 29 IS 3 E 03-MUSLIMS AND INDIAN FREEDOM STRUGGLE (Elective) Unit:1 Credit:1 Role of Ulama in the 1857 Revolt- Failure of 1857 Revolt and British Attempt of Muslims Genocide- British Policies towards Muslims- Sir Sayyid Ahmed Khan and the progress of Muslim Education- Maulana Muhammed Qasim Nanutawi and Rashid Ahmad GangohiChiragh Ali- Altaf Husayn Hali Unit:2 Credit:1 Rise of Muslim Nationalism- Foundation of Indian National Congress- Rise of Hindu Revivalist Movement- Urdu Defense Society- Muslim Education Conference- Partition of Bengal – Birth of Muslim League- Separate Electorate- Malabar Rebellion of 1921 Unit :3 Credit:1 Jamiat ul Ulama, Khilafat Movement and non-co-operation movement- Gandhiji’s PoliciesCommunal Riots- Emergence of Jinnah- Congress Ministries of 1937- Deliverance Day observed by Muslims. Unit :4 Credit:1 Iqbal’s Allahabad Address- Chandhary Rahmat Ali’s Scheme- Pakistan Resolution of 1940Emergence of Muslim League as a strong political Entity- Creation of India and PakistanRole of British , Congress, Muslim League- Hindu organisations and Extremists in the Partition. 30 Books for Reference: 1. Allana, G. (1967) Quaid-i-Azam: The Story of a Nation. Lahore. 2. Allana, G. (1968) 'Pakistan Movement: Historic Document, Karachi. 3. Ambedkar, B. R. (1945) Pakistan or Partition of India, Bombay. 4. Azad, Abul Kalam (1959) India Wins Freedom, New York. 5. Aziz, K. K. (1968) Life and Works of Amir Ali, Lahore. 6. Aziz, K. K. (1972) The Indian Khilafat Movement 1915-1933, Karachi. 7. Aziz, K. K. (1988) The Making of Pakistan: A Study in Nationalism. New Delhi. 8. Baljon, J. M. S.(1964) The Reforms and Religious Ideas of Sir Seyd Ahmad Khan 9. Encyclopaedia of Islam (Latest Edition), Leiden. 10. Encyclopedia Britannica (Latest Edition), New York. 11. Faruqi, Ziya-ul-Hasan, (1963) The Deoband School and the Demand for Pakistan. New York. 12. Gopal, Ram (1959) Indian Muslims: A Political History (1858-1947). Bombay. 13. Graham, G. F. I. (1909) Life and Works of Sir Sved Ahmed Khan. London. 14. Hamid, A. (1971) Muslim Separatism in India, Oxford. 15. Hayat, Sikandar (1998) Aspects of the Pakistan Movement. Islamabad. 16. Ikram, S. M. (1970) Modern Muslim India and the Birth of Pakistan. Lahore. 17. Iqbal, Jawid (1971) Ideology of Pakistan. Lahore. 18..Jalal, Ayesha (1985) The Sole Spokesman: Jinnah, the Muslim League and theDemand for Pakistan, Cambridge. 19. Kaura, Lima (1977) Muslims and Indian Nationalism: Emergence of the Demand for India's Partition, New Delhi. 20. Keith, A. B. (1937) Constitutional History of India. Oxford. 21. Malik, Hafeez. (1963) Muslim Nationalism in India and Pakistan. 22. Metcalf, Barbara Daly, (1982) Islamic Revival in British India: 23. Minault, Gail ((•972) The Khilafat Movement, New Delhi. 24. Nichols, Beverley (1944) Verdict on India. London. 25. Qureshi. 1. H. (n.d) The Struggle for Pakistan. Karachi. 26. Qureshi, L H. (n.d) UIema in Politics. 27. Sardar, Ziauddin (1979) The Future of Muslim Civilization. London. 28. Seervai, H. M. fl989) Partition ofjndia: Legend and Reality. Bombay. 29. Shakir, Moin (1970) Khilafat to Partition. Delhi. 30. Soomro, M. Q. (n.d) Muslim Politics in Sindh 1938-1947 Jamshoro. 31. Waheed-uz-Zarnan and Saleem Akhtar, M. (1993) Islam ii South Asta, Islamabad. 32. Wassey, Akhtarul (1978) Education of Indian Muslims: A Study of the All- India Muslim Educational Conference 1886-1947. New Delhi. 33. Wolpert, Stanley (1984) Jinnah of Pakistan. New York. 34. Yusuf, K. F. (1990) Pakistan Reso.ution Revisited. Islamabad. 35. Zaman, W. (1978)) Towards Pakistan. Lahore. 31 SEMESTER 4 IS 4 C 12 ISLAMIC REVIVALIST MOVEMENT IN INDIA Unit 1 Credit 1 Influence of Islam on Indian Culture- Thinkers and movements in Indain sub continentSayyid Ahmad Sir Hindi- Shah Waliullah- Shah Abdul Aziz- Shah Ismail- Sayyid Ahmad Berelwi and Mujahideen- Haji Shariatullah and Faraidi Movement- Titu Muyan- Inayat Ali and Wilayat Ali Unit 2 Credit 1 Sayyid Ahmad Khan and Aligarh Movement- Ali Brothers and Khilafat movementMawdudi and Jamat-e-islami- Jam-i-yathul Ulama-e-Hind, Ahle Hadith- Tableegh Jama’at Unit 3 Credit:1 Centres of Islamic Learning- Aligarh Muslim University- Jamia Millia- Nadwathul UloomDarul Uloom Deoband- Jamiya Salafiyya, Banaras. Unit 4 Credit 1 Thinkers- Allama Iqbal- Abul Kalam Azad- Inayathullah Mashriqi- Abdul Hasan Ali NadwiChalilakath Kunjahammed Haji- Makti Thangal- Shaik Hamadani Thangal- Vakkam Moulavi- K.M.Moulavi 32 BOOKS RECOMMENDED: 1. Abu Sulayman, Abdul Hamid (1993) Crisis in the Muslim Mind, International Institute for Islamic Thought, Herndon, Virginia. 2. Abu Su/ayman, Abdul Hamid (1993) Towards an Islamic Theory international Relations: New Directions for Methodology and Thought, International Institute for Islamic Thought, Herndon, Virginia. 3. Ahmed, Akbar S. (1992) Postmodernism and Islam: Predicament and Promise. Routledge, London. 4. Ahmed, Akbar S. (1993) Living Islam: From Samarkand to Stornoway. BBC Books, London. 5. Ahmed, Akbar S. (2002) Discovering Islam: Making Sense of Muslim Historyand Culture Routledge, London. 6. Ahmed, Akbar S. (2003) Islam under Siege, Vistaar, New Delhi. 7. Ahmed, Akbar S. and Donnan Hastings (ed.) (1994) Islam, Globalisation and Postmodernity, Routledge, London. 8. Ahmed, M.J. (2002) The Shade of Swords: Jihad and the Conflict between Islam and Christianity, Routledge, London. 9. Ali, Tariq (2002) The Clash of Fundamentalisms: Crusades, Jihads and Modernity, Verso, London and New York. 10. Ali, Tariq (2006) Bush in Babylon. Leftword. New Delhi. 11. Armstn ng, Karen (2000) The Battle for God: Fundamentalism in Judaism, Christianity and Islam. HarperCollins, London. 12. Creasy, Edward (1961) History of the Ottoman Turks. Beirut. 33 IS 4 C 13- THE ARAB WORLD AFTER I WORLD WAR Unit:1 Credit 1 Saudi Arabia-Arabian Peninsula as Ottoman Territory- Sharif Husayan as KhalifaMohammed Ibn Abdul Wahab- First Saudi State- Second Saudi State. Unit:2 Credit 1 The Third Saudi State- Treaty of Jeddah- Discovery of Oil- Treaty of Taif- Ibn Saud- Faisal , Khalid, Fahad, Abdullah,- Foreign policy, Law and Order- King: as the custodian of the two Holy cities- Relations with the Muslim World. Unit 3 Credit 1 The Palestine Problem- Zionism- Establishment of Israel- Arab-Israeli Conflict- Palestine Liberation Organization- Hamas- Intifada- Oslo Accord and Palestine Authority- Yasar Arafat. Unit 4 Credit 1 Fertile Crescent under mandate- Hashimite kingdom of Jordan- Role in the Arab Israel Conflict- Lebanan: role in the Arab –Israel conflict- Hisbullah- Syria, Ba’ath Party- Role in the Arab-Israel Conflicts. 34 Books for Reference 1. Ali, Tariq (2002) The Clash of Fundamentalisms: Crusades. Jihads and Modernity, Verso, London and New York. 2. Antonier, George (1953) The Arab Awakening, London. 3. Bangash, T. (1994) Iran - Iraq Relations, Peshawar. 4. Cambridge History of Iran (1968) Cambridge. 5. Clot, Andre (n.d) Life and Times of Suleiman the Magnifident, Saqi Books. London. 6. Creasy, Edward (1961) History of the Ottoman Turks. Beirut. 7. Encyclopaedia of Islam (Latest Edition), Leiden. 8. Encyclopedia Britannica (Latest Edition), New York. 9. Esposito, John L. (1992) The Islamic Threat: Myth or Reality? Oxford University Press, New York. 10. Esposito, John L. (2002) Unholy War: Terror in the Name of Islam. Oxford University Press, New York. 11. Eversley, Lord (1959) The Turkish Empire, Lahore. 12. Faruqi, I. R and Faruqi, L. L. (1986) The Cultural Atlas of Islam. London 13. Fisher, S. N. (1960) The Middle East: A History. Lahore. 14. Frye, Richard N. (1951) The Near East and the Great Powers. Cambridge. 15. Gibb, H.A.R. & Bowen H. (1950) Islamic Society and the West. London. 16. Gibbon, E. (1886) Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, London. 17. Gibbon, H. A. (1916) The Foundation of the Ottoman Empire. Oxford. 18. Hiro, Dilip (2002) War without End, Routledge, London. 19. Hitt'i, Philip K. (1970) History of the Arabs. Macmiilan, London. 20. Huntington, Samuel P. (1996) The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order. Simon and Schuster, New York. 21. Izetbegovic, AlijaAli (1993) Islam between East and West. American Trust Publications, Indianapolis. 22 .Jybcr, A. H. (1913) The Government of the Ottoman of the Time ofSulcvman the Magnificent, Cambridge. 23. Kirk, George E. (1960) A Short History of Middle East from the Rise of Islam to Modern Times, New York. 24. Lane Poole, Staneley (n.d) Turkey. Lahore. 25. Lenezowsky, George (1967) The Middle East in World affairs. New York. 26. Lewis, Bernad (1998) The Multiple Identities of the Middle East. Schocken Books,New York. 27. Lewis, Bernard, (1968) The Emergence of Modern Turkey. Oxford. 28. Marlow (1960) Arab Nationalism and British Imperialism, London. 29. Pehlvi, M. Raza (n.d) The Shah's Story (An Autobiography), London. 30. Said, Edward W. (1978) Orientalism. Penguin Books, New York. 36. Shaw, Stanford J. (1976) History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey, Vol. 1. (1280-1808), Cambridge University Press. 37. UNESCO (n.d) History of the World Vol.1 - V. 38. Unsal, Behcet Turkish Islamic Architecture. London, 1959. 39. Wilber, Donald N. (n.d) Iran: Past and Present. 40. Zaman, W. (n.d) Iranian Revolution: A Profile. 35 IS 4 C 14-- ISLAM IN MODERN WORLD Unit: 1 Credit:1 Afro-Americans- Negro Ghettos in North America- Black Muslims of America- Origin and spread- The Moorish science Temple- Nation of Islam and Elija Muhammad – Malcolm XTransition to Islamic Mainstream- Islamic Society of North America- (ISNA)- International Institute for Islamic Thought (IIIT) Unit 2 Credit 1 America and Modern World- The media war against Islam- Jewish/Zionist control of Global Media and Hollywood- Islamophobia- Freemasonry- The collapse of Twin Towers of world Trade Centre and its effects- policies of Obama Unit 3 Credit 1 The Muslims of Central Asia- Position of Muslims under Czarist Regime- Central Asia on the eve of the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917.- Basmachi movement and Enver Pasha- Socioeconomic and Religio-cultural condition in the Soviet Republics- Emergence of Independent Muslim states- The struggle in Chechnya Unit 4 Credit 1 The Maghrib- Morocco- French Protectorate- Ghazi Abdul Karim- Isthiqlal PartyIndependence- Polisario Movement- The F.L.N. Lybiya- The Sanusi movement –British Occupation- Transition under Ghaddafi. 36 Books for Reference 1. Dani. A. H. (2002) Central Asia Today 2. Encyclopaedia of Islam (Latest Edition), Leiden. 3. Encyclopedia Britannica (Latest Edition), New York. 4. Esposito, John L. (1992) The Islamic Threat: Myth or Reality? Oxford University Press, New York. 5. Esposito, John L. (2002) Unholy War: Terror in the Name of Islam. Oxford University Press, New York. 6. Eversley, Lord (1959) The Turkish Empire. Lahore. 7. Faruqi, I. Rand Faruqi, L. L. (1986) The Cultural Atlas of Islam. London 8. Fukuyama, Francis (1998) The End of History and the Last Man. Bard, New York. 9. Fukuyama, Francis (2006) America at the Crossrroads: Democracy, Power and the Neoconservative Legacy, Yale University Press. 10. Gibb, H.A.R. & Bowen H. (1950) Islamic Society and the West. London. 11. Gibbon H. A. (1916) The Foundation of the Ottoman Empire, Oxford. 12. Haley, Alex (n.d) The Auto Biography ofMalcolm-X. 13 Hii-o, Dilip (2002) War without End. Routledge, London. 14. Hitti, Philip K. (1970) History of the Arabs, Macmillan, London. 15. Huntington, Samuel P. (1996) The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order, Simon and Schuster, New York. 16. Ibn Khaldun (1969) The Muqaddimah: An Introduction to History, translated by Franz Rosenthal, Princeton University Press, Princeton. 17. Izelbegovic, Alija Ali (1993) Islam Between East and West. American Trust Publications, Indianapolis. 18. Khan, M. A. Muqtedar, (2002) American Muslims: Bridging Faith and Freedom. Amana Publications, Beltsville, Maryland. 19. Lewis, Bernad (1998) The Multiple Identities of the Middle East. Schocken Books. New York. 20. Mohamed, Mahathir (2001) Islam and the Muslim Ummah, Prime Minister's Office, Putrajaya, Malaysia. 21. Nasr, Seyyed Hossein (2002) The Heart of Islam: Enduring Values of Humanity. HarperSan Francisco, New York. 22. Rashid, Ahmed (2000) Talibart: Militant Islam, Oil and Fundamentalism in CentralAsia. Yale University Press, New Haven and London. 23. Said, Edward W. (1978) Orientalism. Penguin Books, New York. 24. Said, Edward W. (1993) Culture and Imperialism. Chatto and Windus, London. 25. Sardar, ^iauddin (1979) The Future of Muslim Civilization. London. 26. Sardar, ^.iauddin and Davies, Merryl Wyn (2002) Why Do People Hate America Icon Books Limited, Cambridge. 27. Segesvary, Victor (2000) Dialogue of Civilizations: An Introduction to Civilizational Analysis, United Press of America, Lanham, Maryland. 28. Shaw, Stanford J. (1976) History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey, Vol. 1. (1280-1808), Cambridge University Press. 29. Zakaria, Fareed (2003) The Future of Freedom: Illiberal Democracy at Home. Viking Books, New York. 37 IS 4 E 01- MUSLIM WORLD IN MODERN TIMES (Elective) Unit 1 Credit:1 The muslim world at the end of 19th century- Ottoman empire at the Receiving End. The rise of nationalism- Pan-Turkism- Zia Gokalp- Pan-Islamism- Turkish war of Liberation- Birth of Turkish Republic- Post Kamalist Turkey- Islamic Revival Unit 2 Credit:1 Egyptian Nationalism- Col. Ahmad Arabi- British Occupation of Egypt- Sa’d Zaghlul – The Wafd Party- The Ikhwanul Muslimun- Military Coup of 1952- Formation of Egyptian Republic- Nationalization of Suez Canal- Gamal Abdul Nasar- Egypt- Israel War- Camp David Accord- Islamic revival Unit 3 Credit 1 Anglo- Russian Imperialism in Iran- Muzaffaruddin Shah- Establishment of Pahlavi Dynasty- Muhammed Riza Shah Pahlavi- Muhammed Musadaq- Nationalisation of Oil Industry- Revolution under Ayathulllah Qumayni- Ahmed Najad. Unit 4 Credit:1 World War I and British Mandate over Iraq- King Faisal- British Occupation- Military Coup of 1958- Saddam Hussayn- Confrontation of Iraq with Iran, Kuwait and America- American Occupation-Unending Civil War. 38 BOOKS RECOMMENDED: 1. Abu Sulayman, Abdul Hamid (1993) Crisis in the Muslim Mind, International Institute for Islamic Thought, Herndon, Virginia. 2. Abu Su/ayman, Abdul Hamid (1993) Towards an Islamic Theory international Relations: New Directions for Methodology and Thought, International Institute for Islamic Thought, Herndon, Virginia. 3. Ahmed, Akbar S. (1992) Postmodernism and Islam: Predicament and Promise. Routledge, London. 4. Ahmed, Akbar S. (1993) Living Islam: From Samarkand to Stornoway. BBC Books, London. 5. Ahmed, Akbar S. (2002) Discovering Islam: Making Sense of Muslim Historyand Culture Routledge, London. 6. Ahmed, Akbar S. (2003) Islam under Siege, Vistaar, New Delhi. 7. Ahmed, Akbar S. and Donnan Hastings (ed.) (1994) Islam, Globalisation and Postmodernity, Routledge, London. 8. Ahmed, M.J. (2002) The Shade of Swords: Jihad and the Conflict between Islam and Christianity, Routledge, London. 9. Ali, Tariq (2002) The Clash of Fundamentalisms: Crusades, Jihads and Modernity, Verso, London and New York. 10. Ali, Tariq (2006) Bush in Babylon. Leftword. New Delhi. 11. Armstn ng, Karen (2000) The Battle for God: Fundamentalism in Judaism, Christianity and Islam. HarperCollins, London. 12. Creasy, Edward (1961) History of the Ottoman Turks. Beirut. IS 4E 02 – ISLAMIC POLITICAL THOUGHT (Elective) Unit 1 Credit 1 Islamic Principles of State and Society- Prophethood and Khilafat – The structure of Islamic Government – Difference between Nationality and Islamic Brother Hood- Rights of a Ruler in the Islamic State- Duties of Citizens to the Ruler- Walae’, Barae’ Unit 2 Credit:1 Functions and Objectives of an Islamic State,-Objectives of Armed Jihad-Conditions of Jihad, The importance of Islamic Shariat- Allah- The Law giver- Difference Between Khilafat and Mulukiyat- Role of Ulama in the State. Unit 3 Credit 1 The Shia Concept of Imamat and Khilafat – Principles of Ahlusunnah on the matter of khilafat- The Importance of Baia’t- Thoughts of Ahmed Ibn Hanbal- Ibn Taymiyyah on relations concept of the ideal society. Unit: 4 Credit 1 A critical study of Tauhidul Hakimiyat of Abul Ala Maududi- His conepts on Deen- Ibadat- 39 BOOKS RECOMMENDED: 1. Ahmad, Aziz (1967) Islamic Modernism in India and Pakistan, 1857-1964. Oxford. , 2. Ahmed, Sayed Riaz (1976) Maulana Maududi and Islamic State. Lahore. 3. Ali.S. Ameer (1953) The Spirit of Islam. London. 4. Arnold. T. W.(1981) The Legacy of Islam. Oxford. 5. Bhat, Abdul Rashid (1996) Political Thought of Shah Wali-u Allah. Delhi 6. Black, Antony (2003) The History of Islamic Political Thought, Edinburgh. 7. Charles (1955) An Arab Philosophy of History. London. 8. Encyclopaedia of Islam (Latest Edition), Leiden. 9. Encyclopedia Britannica (Latest Edition), New York. 10.Esposito, J. L. (1991) Islam the Straight Path. New York. 11.H.Esposito, J. L. (1991) Oxford Encyclopaedia of Modern Islamic World Islam.New York. 12. Esposito, J. L. (2005) Oxford Dictionary of Islam. New York 13. Faruqi, I. R and Faruqi, L. L. (1986) The Cultural Atlas of Islam. London 14. Hitti, Philip K. (1970) History of the Arabs. Macmillan, London. 15. Ibn Khaldun (1969) The Muqaddimah: An Introduction to History, translated by Franz Rosenthal, Princeton University Press, Princcton. 16. Iqbal, Muhammad (1971) Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam. Lahore. 17. Jalbani, G. N. (1988) Teachings ofHazrat Shah Waliyullah , New Delhi. 18. Khan, Qamaruddin (1985) The Political Thought of Ibn Taymiyah. Islamabad. 19. Mahdi, Muhsin (1957) Ibn Khaldun's Philosophy: A Study in the Foundation of the Science of Culture, University of Chicago Press, Chicago 20. McDonald, D. B. (1963) Development of Muslim Theology, Jurisprudence and Constitutionalist Theory, Lahore. 21. Muttahari, Murtaza (1985) Society and History, Tehran. 22. Nasr, Seyyid Hossein (1964) Three Muslim Sages, Cambridge: 1964. 23. Nasr, Seyyid Hossein (1966) Ideals and Realities in Islam, London. 24. Nasr, Seyyid Hossein (1970) Science and Civilization in Islam, New York. 25. Rosenthall, E. I. J. (1962) Political Thought in the Medieval Islam. Cambridge. 26. Sardar, Ziauddin (1979) The Future of Muslim Civilization. London. 27. Siddiqi, Abdul Hamecd (1969) The Origin and Development of Muslim Institutions, Karachi. 28. Zakaria, Rafiq (1993) Iqbal: The Poet and the Politician. New Delhi 40 IS 4 E 03 – MUSLIM HISTORIOGRAPHY(Elective) Unit: 1 Credit:1 Influence of Islam on the Development of Historical consciousness- Muslim Historical Materials- Inscriptions of Epigraphs- Dam of Ma’arib- The Torah and New TestamentAyyamul Arab- Diwan al Arab-Poetical Traditions in Islamic period- Qur-an- HadithGenealogy- Khabar- Tabaqat- Seerah- Maghazi- Taniq (annals) Unit 2 Credit 1 Major Muslim Historians- Ibn Ishaq- Al Waqidi- Ibn Hisham- Ibn Sa’d- Al Tabari- Al Baladhuri- Al Masudi- Miskawayh- Al Katib al Baghdadi- Ibnal Athir- Ibn Kallikan- Abul Fida- Al Dhahabi- Ibn al Khatib-Al Magrizi- Al Suyuti Unit 3 Credit 1 Arab Philosophy of History- Ibn Khaldun- His Life and works- Sociology and understand History- Nature of Society- Climatic conditions- Al Asabiya: Meaning and ImplicationsHistory as a cycle- ‘Al Umran’ science of human culture Unit 4 Credit 1 Origin and Development of Indo-muslim Historiography- Minhaj Siraj Jansjani- Amir Khusru- Ziauddin Barani- Sahiruddin Muhammed Babur- Abdul Qadir Badauni- Abul FazlGulbadan Beegam- Farishta. 41 Books for Reference: 1. Al- Tabari (1939) Tarikh-ul Umam wal-Muluk. Egypt. 2. Al- Tabari, (1961) Ta'rikh al Rusul wal Muluk. Cairo 3. Ali, B. Sheikh (1978) History: Its Theory and Method, New Delhi. 4. Ali. S. Ameer (1953) The Spirit of Islam. London. 5. Ali, S. Ameer (1971) A Short History of the Saracens. Cambridge. 6. Ali, S. Ameer (1990) Early Islam. Edinburgh. 7. Ali, S.Ameer (n.d) Islamic Culture. 8. Ashraf, Syed All (1980) Koranic Concept of History. England. 9. Bloch, Marc (1959) The History. London. 10. Carr, E.H. (1961) What is History?. London. 11. Charles (1955) An Arab Philosophy of History, London. 12. Collingwood, R.G. (1906) The Idea of History. Oxford. 13. Duri, A. H. (1979) The Rise of Historical Writing Among the Arabs. Delhi. 14. Encyclopaedia of Islam (Latest Edition), Leiden. 15. Encyclopedia Britannica (Latest Edition), New York. 16. Faruqi, I. R and Faruqi, L. L. (1986) The Cultural Atlas of Islam. London Flint (1969) History of the Philosophy of History. Edinburgh. 17. Faruqi, Nizar Ahmed (1979) Early Muslim Historiography. Delhi. 18. Galbraith, V.H. (n.d.) An Introduction to the Study of History. London. 28. Gawronsky, Donald V. (1969) History: Meaning and Methods. USA. 19. Hardy, Peter (1960) Historians of Medieval India. London. 20. Hegel (1952) The Philosophy of History. New York. 21. Hitti, Philip K. (1970) History of the Arabs. Macmillan, London. 22. Issawi, Charles (1955) An Arab Philosophy of History. London. 23-Mahdi, Muhsin (1957) Ibn Khaldun's Philosophy: A Study in the Foundation of the Science of Culture. University of Chicago Press, Chicago 24. Margolioth, D. S. (1930) Lectures on Arab Historians. Calcutta. 25. Muttahari, Murtaza (1985) Society and History. Tehran. 26. Phillips, C.H. (1961) The Historians of India, Pakistan and Ceylon. London. 27. Phillips, Ragby (Latest Edition) Culture and History. California. 28. Plankhanev, G. V. (1946) The Materialistic Conception of History. Moscow. 29. Rasul, M. Ghulam (1968) Origin and Development of Muslim Historiography. Lahore. 30. Rosentha), E. 1. J. (n.d) History of Muslim Historiography. Leiden. 31. Shariati, Dr. Ali (1979) On the Sociology of Islam. Berkeley. 32. Siddiqi, Abdul Hameed (n.d) Interpretation of History. Lahore 33. Siddiqi, M. Mazheruddin, (1993) The Koranic Concept of History. Islamic Research Institute, Islamabad. 34. Spenglar. Oswald (1954) Decline of the West, London. 35. Stern, Alfred (1962) Philosophy of History and the Problem of Values. Hague. 36. Thompson (1952) History of Historical Writing. New York, 37. Toynbee, Arnold (1947-51) A Study of History, London. 38. Walsh, W. H. (n.d) An Introduction to Philosophy of History.