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PHYSIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY UNIVERSITY OF CALICUT SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION BSc Counselling Psychology

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PHYSIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY UNIVERSITY OF CALICUT SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION BSc Counselling Psychology
SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION
UNIVERSITY OF CALICUT
SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION
BSc Counselling Psychology
(2011 Admission onwards)
III Semester
Complementary Course
PHYSIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY
Question Bank & Answer Key
Choose the correct Answer from the bracket.
1. ____________ are the basic units of communication in the nervous system.
a.Cells
c. Axons
b. Neurons
d.Dendrites
2. ______________ help neurons by providing nutrition, removing waste products,
and enhancing the speed of communication between neurons.
a. Axons
b. Dendrites
c. Glial cells
d. Cell body
3. The three basic components of the neurons are ____________, ___________ and
____________.
a. Cell body, Glial cells and Axon
c. Axon, Cell body and Synapse
b. Dendrites, Axon and Glial cells
d. Cell body, Axon and Dendrites
4. The _________________ is a white, fatty covering made up of glial cells that
increases the rate at which neural messages are sent.
a. Glial cell
b. Endocrine
PHYSIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY
c. Axon terminal
d. Myelin sheath
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5. Within the neuron, information is communicated in the form of brief electrical
messages called _______________.
a. Myelin sheath
c. Action potential
b. Synapse
d. Neurotransmitter
6. The _______________ is the minimum level of stimulation required to activate a
particular neuron.
a. Stimulus threshold
b. Action potential
c. Synaptic transmission
d. Neurotransmission
7. At the end of the axon are several small branches called ______________.
a. Action potential
c. Axon terminals
b. Dendrites
c. Cell body
8. The synaptic vesicles contain chemicals called _______________.
a. Synaptic gap
b. Neurotransmitter
c. Interneurons
d. Myelin sheath
9. ________________ is the process by which neurotransmitter molecules detach
from a postsynaptic neuron and are reabsorbed by the presynaptic neuron so
they can be recycled and used again.
a. Inhibitory
c. Action potential
b. Excitatory
d. Reuptake
10. Our ability to perceive, feel, think, move, act and react depends on the delicate
balance of ___________________ in the nervous system.
a. Neurotransmitter
c. Neurons
b. Nervous cell
d. Brain
11. _______________ stimulates muscle contractions and is involved in memory
functions.
a. Acetylcholine
c. Dopamine
b. Norepinephrine
d. Serotonin
12. ________________ is involved in a number of functions, including movement,
attention and learning and abnormal levels are involved in some mental
disorders.
a. Acetylcholine
c. Dopamine
b. Norepinephrine
d. Serotonin
PHYSIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY
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13. _________________ is involved in sleep, moods and emotional states, including
depression.
a. Acetylcholine
c. Dopamine
b. Norepinephrine
d. Serotonin
14. ________________ has been implicated in some mental disorders and is involved
in activation of neurons throughout the brain and in the process of learning and
memory retrieval.
a. Acetylcholine
b. Norepinephrine
c. Dopamine
d. Serotonin
15. _________________ usually communicates inhibitory messages to other neurons
and helps balance and offset excitatory messages.
a. Gamma-aminobutyric
c. Dopamine
acid (GABA)
d. Serotonin
b. Norepinephrine
16. ______________ are neurotransmitters that regulate pain perception and are
involved in the positive emotions associated with aerobic exercise.
a. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)
c. Endorphins
b Norepinephrine
d. Serotonin
17. Prozac works by inhibiting the reuptake of __________________, increasing the
availability of this neurotransmitter in the brain.
a. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)
c. Dopamine
b. Norepinephrine
d. Serotonin
18. _______________ is a highly specialized cell that communicates information in
electrical and chemical form.
a. Neuron
c. Chromosome
b. Nerve cell
d. Nervous
19. _______________ is the primary internal communication network of the body;
divided into the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system.
a. Nervous system
c. Brain
b. Endocrine
d. Neuron
20. _______________ is a type of neuron that signals muscles to contract or relax.
a. Interneurons
c. Motor neurons
b. Sensory neurons
d. Excitatory
PHYSIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY
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21. _______________ is the part of a neuron that contains the nucleus.
a. Axons
b. Dendrites
c. Glial cells
d. Cell body
22. ________________ is a brief electrical impulse by which information is
transmitted along the axon of a neuron.
a. Myelin sheath
b. Synapse
c. Action potential
d. Neurotransmitter
23. _______________ is a chemical messenger manufactured by a neuron.
a. Myelin sheath
b. Synapse
c. Action potential
d. Neurotransmitter
24. ______________ is the long, fluid-filled tube that carries a neuron's messages to
other body areas.
a. Axon
b. Dendrite
c. Glial cell
d. Cell body
25. ________________ is the point of communication between two neurons.
a. Myelin sheath
b. Synapse
c. Action potential
d. Neurotransmitter
26. _________________ are the tiny pouches or sacs in the axon terminals that
contain chemicals called neurotransmitters.
a. Synapses
b. Synaptic vesicles
c. Synaptic gaps
d. Postsynaptics
27. _________________ is a neurotransmitter that is involved in the regulation of
bodily movements and thought processes.
a. Gamma-aminobutyric
c. Dopamine
acid (GABA)
d. Serotonin
b. Norepinephrine
28. ________________ is the neurotransmitter that inhibits brain activity.
a. Gamma-aminobutyric
c. Dopamine
acid (GABA)
d. Serotonin
b. Norepinephrine
29. ______________neurons communicate information from one neuron to the next.
a. Interneurons
b. Sensory neurons
PHYSIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY
c. Motor neurons
d. Excitatory
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30. The ________________ is a tiny space between the axon terminal of one neuron
and the dendrite of an adjoining neuron.
a. Synapse
b. Synaptic vesicle
c. Synaptic gap
d. Postsynaptic
31. _____________ are made up of large bundles of neuron axons.
a. Neurons
b. Nerves
c. Chromosomes
d. Cell bodies
32. ________________ refer to simple, automatic behaviors that are produced by the
spinal cord and occur without involvement of the brain.
a. Spinal reflexes
b. Presynaptic
c. Action potential
d. Resting potential
33. A chemical substance that mimics the action of a neurotransmitter at a receptor
site is ________________.
a. Endorphins
b. Antagonist
PHYSIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY
c. Agonist
d. Serotonin
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34. ________________ is a chemical substance that inhibits the effect normally
produced by a neurotransmitter at a receptor site.
a. Endorphins
b. Antagonist
c. Agonist
d. Serotonin
35. Some evidence suggests that the severe memory loss characteristic of person
suffering from Alzheimer's disease results from a degeneration of cells that
produce ____________________.
a. Acetylcholine
b. Norepinephrine
c. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)
d. Serotonin
36. Additional evidence indicates that ___________________ also serve to
intensify positive sensations- for example, the "runner's high" many people
experience after vigorous exercise.
a. Endorphins
b. Antagonist
c. Agonist
d. Serotonin
37. Abnormal levels of ____________________ have been implicated in sleep and
eating disorders.
a. Serotonin
b. Norepinephrine
c. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)
d. Endorphins
38. Degeneration of ___________________ producing neurons has been linked to
Parkinson's disease.
a. Serotonin
b. Norepinephrine
c. Dopamine
d. Endorphins
39. Dopamine produced by neurons located in a region of the brain called the
_______________.
a. Suprachiasmatic nucleus
b. Substantianigra
c. Corpus callosum
d. Cerebral cortex
40. When an action potential reaches the axon terminal, synaptic vesicles move
toward the _____________________.
a. Cell body
b. Cell membrane
c. Nucleus
d. Dendrites
41. Within the axons of the neuron are _________________, which are held in
storage-like vesicles until they are released when the neuron is stimulated.
a. Neurotransmitters
b. Synaptic vesicles
PHYSIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY
c. Dendrites
d. Cellbodies
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42. The ______________ is the most basic signal in the nervous system which
consists of a rapidly moving wave of depolarization that travels along the
membrane of the individual neuron.
a. Myelin sheath
b. Synapse
c. Action potential
d. Neurotransmitter
43. _________________ are the small gaps in the myelin sheath surrounding the
axons of many neurons.
a. Neurotransmitters
b. Synaptic vesicles
c. Nodes of Ranvier
d. Glial cells
44. _________________ carry information toward the cell body.
a. Cells
b. Neurons
c. Axons
d. Dendrites
45. _________________ carry information away from the cell body.
a. Cells
b. Neurons
c. Axons
d. Dendrites
46. In many neurons the axon is covered by a sheath of fatty material known as
_____________.
a. Myelin
b. Neurons
c. Glial cells
d. Vesicles
47. _______________ help form a barrier that prevents certain substances in the
bloodstream from reaching the brain.
a. Axons
b. Dendrites
c. Glial cells
d. Cell body
48. Speeds along myelinated axons can reach ____________ miles per hour.
a. 280
b. 270
c. 260
d.250
49. Stimulation, either directly or by chemical messages from other neurons,
produces ___________________, a basic type of signal within neurons.
a. Spinal reflexes
b. Graded potentials
c. Action potentials
d. Resting potentials
50. Damage to the ___________________ surrounding axons can seriously affect
synaptic transmission.
a. Glial cell
b. Endocrine
PHYSIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY
c. Nodes of Ranvier
d. Myelin sheath
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51. In diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS), progressive deterioration of the
_______________ leads to jerky, uncoordinated movements in the affected
person.
a. Myelin sheath
b. Neurotransmitter
c. Nodes of Ranvier
d. Synapse
52. The best-known imaging technique, and the first one developed for wide
spread use, is an x-ray scanning procedure called ________________.
a. MRI scan
c. CT scan
b. PET
d. functional MRI
53. The pseudoscience associated with the study of the skull and personality
became known as ___________.
a. Neuroscience
b. Neuropsychology
c. Bioscience
d. Phrenology
54. The __________ of an organism is the full sequence of genes found on the
chromosomes with the associated DNA.
a. X chromosome
b. b. Y chromosome
c. c. Genome
d. d. Genetics
55. Researchers in the field of human behavior genetics unite __________ and
psychology to explore the causal link between inheritance and behavior.
a. Chromosome
b. Behavior
c. Genome
d. Genetics
56. Researchers in the field of __________________ provide evolutionary
explanations for the social behavior and social systems of humans and other
animal species.
a. Sociobiology
b. Evolutionary psychology
c. Phrenology
d. Anthropology
57. _____________ may play an active role in neural communication by affecting
the concentrations of ions that allow for the transmission of nerve impulses.
a. Myelin
b. Glia
c.Interneurons
d.Soma
58. For every _____________ in the body there are as many as 5,000 interneurons
in the great intermediate network that forms the computational system of the
brain.
a. Sensory neuron
c. Motor neuron
b. Terminal buttons
d. Nodes of Ranvier
PHYSIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY
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59. The reticular formation has long tracts of fibers that run to the ____________,
which channels incoming sensory information to the appropriate area of the
cerebral cortex, where that information is processed.
a.Hypothalamus
b. Pons
c. Medulla
d. Thalamus
60. The __________, which is the largest of the limbic system structures, plays an
important role in the acquisition of memories.
a.Hippocampus
c. Amygdala
b. Thalamus
d. Pons
61. The area where the axon connects to the soma is ______________.
a.Axon hillock
c. Myelin sheath
b. Terminal buttons
d. Nodes of Ranvier
62. When the ___________________is too large to be jumped by the neural
impulse, the signal/information must be passed using chemicals as
neurotransmitters instead of electrical currents.
a. Spinal reflex
c. Action potential
b. Presynaptic
d. Synaptic cleft
63. ______________ is the DNA segments that serve as the key functional units in
hereditary transmission.
a. Chromosome
b. Genotype
c. Phenotype
d. Gene
64. _______________ is the expression of your genetic makeup (eye color, height, hair
color, etc).
a. Chromosome
b. Genotype
c. Phenotype
d. Gene
65. _____________ are the thread-like strands of DNA molecules that form the DNA
segments.
a. Chromosomes
c. Phenotypes
b. Genotypes
d. Genes
66. In the brain and spinal cord, areas that are mostly axons are called
___________ which is possible to differentiate pathways or tracts of these axons.
a. White matter
c. Ganglia
b. Gray matter
d. Nerve
PHYSIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY
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67. Areas that include large number of cell bodies are called __________________.
a. White matter
c. Ganglia
b. Gray matter
d. Nerve
68. When the action potential reaches the axon ending, it causes tiny bubbles of
chemicals called ____________________ to release their contents into the synaptic
gap.
a. Spinal reflex
c. Synaptic vesicles
b. Presynaptic
d. Synaptic cleft
69. The surface of the axon contains hundreds of thousands of miniscule
mechanisms called _______________.
a. Synapses
c. Synaptic gaps
b. Ion channels
d. Postsynaptics
70. The actions of the body’s voluntary muscles are controlled by the
______________, located just in front of the central sulcus in the frontal lobes.
a. Somatosensory cortex
c. Cerebral cortex
b. Motor cortex
d. Amygdala
71. The hypothalamus maintains the body’s internal equilibrium, or ____________.
a. Plasticity
c. Homeostasis
b. Excitatory
d. Resonance
72. The production of new brain cells from naturally occurring stem cells are called
______________.
a. Agenesis
c. Plastic surgery
b. Neurogenesis
d. Brain imaging
73. ________________ are unspecialized cells that, under appropriate conditions, can
be prompted to function as new neurons.
a. Ganglion
c. Stem cells
b. Genome
d. Nerve cells
74. Researchers refer to changes in the performance of the brain as _____________.
a. Plasticity
c. Spontaneity
b. Excitatory
d. Resonance
75. The ___________________ is often called the master gland.
a. Thyroid gland
c. Adrenal gland
b. Pituitary gland
d. Pancreas
PHYSIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY
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76. In females, a pituitary hormone stimulates production of _____________, which is
essential to the hormonal chain reaction that triggers the release of ova from a
woman’s ovaries, making her fertile.
a. Androgen
c. Progesterone
b. Testosterone
d. Estrogen
77.
______________ initiate, maintain and stop development of secondary sexual
characteristics, influence levels of arousal and awareness, serve as the basis
for mood changes, and regulate metabolism.
a. Genomes
c. Endocrine
b. DNA
d. Hormones
78. The ______________ tends to be more analytical; processes information bit by bit.
a. Right hemisphere
c. Occipital lobe
b. Left hemisphere
d. Temporal lobe
79. The _______________ tends to be more holistic; processes information with
respect to global patterns.
a. Right hemisphere
c. Occipital lobe
b. Left hemisphere
d. Temporal lobe
80. One groove called the _____________, divides each hemisphere vertically.
a. Cortex
c. Central sulcus
b. Lateral fissure
d. Brain stem
81. One groove called the _____________, divides each hemisphere horizontally.
a. Cortex
c. Central sulcus
b. Lateral fissure
d. Brain stem
82. In humans, the _________________ dwarfs the rest of the brain, occupying two
thirds of its total mass.
a. Hypothalamus
c. Cerebrum
b. Medulla
d. Thalamus
83. Damage to some areas of the ________________also impairs the ability to
recognize the emotional content of facial expressions.
a. Hippocampus
c. Pons
b. Amygdala
d. Cerebrum
84. When the body temperature drops, the _________________ causes blood-vessel
constriction or minute involuntary movements, commonly refer to as the
“shivers”.
a. Hippocampus
c. Hypothalamus
b. Amygdala
d. Thalamus
PHYSIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY
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85. The ________________ is the largest of the limbic system structures, plays an
important role in the acquisition of memories.
a. Hippocampus
c. Hypothalamus
b. Amygdala
d. Thalamus
86. The _________is a dense network of nerve cells that serves as the brain’s sentinel.
a. Medulla
c. Reticular formation
b. Association area
d. Limbic system
87. The ____ contains structures that collectively regulate the internal state of the
body.
a. Stem cells
c. Endocrine system
b. Brain stem
d. Limbic system
88. ___________________ has pioneered the use of electrical stimulation to probe
structures deep in the brain.
a. Walter Hess
c. Wernicke
b. Broca
d. Roger Sperry
89. A ____________ is any substance that modifies or modulates the activities of the
postsynaptic neuron.
a. Neurotransmitter
c. Acetylcholine
b. Neuromodulator
d. Serotonin
90. _______________often found in food that has been preserved incorrectly, poisons
an individual by preventing release of acetylcholine in the respiratory system.
a. Botulinum toxin
b. Curare
c. Xanax
d. Prozac
91. ________________ is an antidepressanr drug that enhances the action of serotonin
by preventing it from being removed from the synaptic cleft.
a.Valium
c. Xanax
b. Curare
d. Prozac
92. Anxiety disorders are often treated with benzodiazepine drugs, such as
______________, that increase GABA activity.
a. Valium
c. Xanax
b. Curare
d. Prozac
93. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a devastating disorder caused by deterioration of the
________________.
a. Nodes of Ranvier
c. Substantianiagra
b. Ganglia
d. Myelin sheath
PHYSIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY
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94. During the ______________, the neuron will fire only in response to a stimulus
stronger than what is ordinarily necessary.
a. Absolute refractory period
c. Depolarization
b. Relative refractory period
d. Excitatory period
95. To complete synaptic transmission, the neurotransmitters attach to receptor
molecules embedded in the __________________ .
a. Presynaptic membrane
c. Cell membrane
b. Postsynaptic membrane
d. Synaptic vesicles
96. An action potential begins when the excitatory inputs are sufficiently strong with
respect to inhibitory inputs to depolarize the cell from ______________ millivolts.
a. -70 to -60
c. -70 to -55
b. -75 to -65
d. -75 to -60
97. ________________ have been called the “keys to paradise” because of their
pleasure-pain controlling properties.
a. Dopamines
c. GABA
b. Serotonin
d. Endorphins
98. ______________ is a poison that paralyzes lung muscles by occupying critical
acetylcholine receptors, preventing the normal activity of the transmitter.
a. Valium
c. Xanax
b. Curare
d. Prozac
99. _________________ carries sensory information via afferent nerve fibers from
receptors throughout the body to the brain and conducts information via efferent
nerve fibers from the brain to muscles and glands.
a. Spinal cord
b. Nodes of Ranvier
c. Hippocampus
d. Cell body
100. ____ in the spinal cord that carry information from the brain to muscles and
glands throughout the body.
a. Afferent nerve fibers
c. Hormones
b. Efferentnerve fibers
d. Endocrine
©
Reserved
PHYSIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY
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SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION
ANSWER KEY
1.
B
26. B
51.
A
76.
D
2.
C
27. C
52.
C
77.
D
3.
D
28. A
53.
D
78.
B
4.
D
29. A
54.
C
79.
A
5.
C
30. C
55.
D
80.
C
6.
A
31. B
56.
A
81.
B
7.
C
32. A
57.
B
82.
C
8.
B
33. C
58.
C
83.
B
9.
D
34. B
59.
D
84.
C
10. A
35. A
60.
A
85.
A
11. A
36. A
61.
A
86.
C
12. C
37. C
62.
D
87.
B
13. D
38. C
63.
D
88.
A
14. B
39. B
64.
C
89.
B
15. A
40
B
65.
A
90
A
16. C
41. A
66.
A
91.
D
17. D
42. C
67.
B
92.
A
18. A
43. C
68.
C
93.
D
19. A
44. D
69.
B
94.
B
20. C
45. C
70.
B
95.
B
21. D
46. A
71.
C
96.
C
22. C
47. C
72.
B
97.
D
23. D
48. B
73.
C
98.
B
24. A
49. B
74.
A
99.
A
25. B
50
75.
B
100. B
PHYSIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY
D
14
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