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QUESTION BANK SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-1

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QUESTION BANK SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-1
QUESTION BANK
DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-1
Core Course of BSc Counselling Psychology
III semester
(CUCBCSS 2014 Admission onwards.)
SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION
UNIVERSITY OF CALICUT
Prepared by:
Eldhose N.J.
Dept. of Psychology
University of Calicut
Scrutinized by:
Dr. Baby Shari P A
Associate Professor
Dept. of Psychology
Calicut University.
SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY III SEM
1. Who is credited with conducting the first systematic study of developmental
psychology?
a) Charles Darwin
b) Jean Piaget
c) John Bowlby
d) Lev Vygotsky
2. One among the options is not dominated in the field with their extensive theories of
human development.
a) Jean Piaget
b) Lev Vygotsky
c) John Bowlby
d) B F Skinner
3. The id is the part of our personality which is made up of ……………. drives.
a) Basic
b) Unconscious
c) Instinctual
d) Conscious
4. Erik Erikson (1902-1990) proposed a theory of development which emphasized the
role of ………………….. .
a) Cognitive and behavioural factors in development
b) Cognitive factors in development
c) Social and cultural factors in development
d) Emotional factors in development
5. Stages of psychosocial development: industry versus inferiority
a) 6 to 11 years
b) adolescence
c) young adulthood
d) middle adulthood
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6. Stages of psychosocial development: Basic trust versus mistrust
a) 1 to 3 years
b) birth to 1 year
c) 3 to 6 years
d) 6 to 11 years
7. Watson wanted to create an objective science of psychology and he believed that
………………. events should be the focus of the study.
a) experimental
b) directly observable
c) inner mental
d) cognitive
8. Bronfenbrenner's bioecological model of human development include
a) Microsystem, Mesosystem, Exosystems, Macrosystem, Chronosystem
b) Microsystem, Mesosystem, Ecosystem, Macrosystem, Chronosystem
c) Exosystems, Microsystem, Mesosystem, Macrosystem, tetrosystem
d) Microsystem, Nanosystem, Exosystem, Macrosystem, Chronosystem
9. As per Piaget children's ………….. development is progressing through four stages.
a. Physical
b. Emotional
c. Cognitive
d. Functional
10. Sensorimotor stage of development is lasting from …………….. of age.
a. birth to about 2 years
b. about 2 to 7 years
c. about 7 to 11 years
d. about 12 to 15 years
11. Vygotsky emphasis the role of ……………………… in development of a child.
a) Cognitive element
b) Environment
c) Social interaction
d) Parents
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12. Which is the developmental stage in Eriksons theory represent 1 to 3 years
a. Autonomy vs. shame
b. Initiative vs. guilt
c. Trust vs. mistrust
d. Identity vs. identity diffusion
13. In which stage of Ericksons development theory an individual develop a sense of
mastery over aspects of one's environment, cope with challenges and increase
responsibility.
a. Autonomy vs. shame
b. Initiative vs. guilt
c. Trust vs. mistrust
d. Identity vs. identity diffusion
14. An unconscious reflex action in newborn child i.e., If their palms are touched, they
will make a very tight fist which is called as.
a. Unconscious reflex
b. Reflection action
c. None of the above
d. Darwinian reflex
15.
Which achievement is considered an important milestone in fine motor
development?
a. top-level reaching
b. palmar grasp
c. finger dexterity
d. balancing
16. ………………. is a decrease in response to a stimulus after repeated exposure to the
same stimulus.
a. Habituation
b. Extinction
c. Discrimination
d. Negative learning
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17. Children are born with reflexes that allow them to suck and grasp and they begin to
follow objects with their eyes. What are these reflexes known as
a. Simple Reflexes
b. Biological reflexes
c. Motor reflexes
d. Primary Circular Reactions
18. Piaget’s had a background in Biology. What he called this theoretical framework?
a. Emotional epistemology
b. epistemology
c. genetic epistemology
d. Social epistemology
19. What was Piaget’s primary interest in human organisms?
a) how knowledge developed
b) how language developed
c) how emotions developed
d) how interpersonal relations developed
20. According Piaget the basic unit with which the cognitive structure is built up is
……………………… .
a) Schema
b) Accommodation
c) Equilibrium
d) Assimilation
21. According to Piaget biologically every living organism would like to remain in the
existing state of ………………………… without being disturbed.
a) Accommodation
b) Disequilibrium
c) Assimilation
d) Equilibriu
22. Children of the same age may …………….. in terms of possession of mental abilities
a) Differ
b) Almost same
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c) Equal
d) None of the above
23. Sensory-motor Stage
a) about 2 to 7 years
b) From birth to about 2 years
c) about 7 to 11 years
d) about 12 to 15 years
24. Which stage the child begins to utter words to ask for something rather than just
reaching out to get it
a) Preoperational Stage
b) Concrete Operational Stage
c) Formal operation
d) Sensory motor Stage
25. His thinking becomes more logical and systematic
a. Preoperational Stage
b. Concrete Operational Stage
c. Formal operation
d. Sensory motor Stage
26. The developmental stage in which the child is no longer ego-centric in his thinking.
He does not think of himself as the centre of the external world and does not perceive
the world only from his own standpoint.
a) Formal operation
b) Sensory motor Stage
c) Concrete Operational Stage
d) Preoperational Stage
27. Generalizations and framing of rules by operating in abstract terms become quite
possible at this stage.
a. Formal Operation Stage
b. Formal operation
c. Sensory motor Stage
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d. Preoperational Stage
28. Human languages have a ……………………. structure.
a) Hierarchical
b) Vertical
c) Parallel
d) Long
29. The smallest speech units in a language that can be distinguished perceptually.
a) phonemes
b) Morphemes
c) Grammar
d) Prefix
30. …………………………are the smallest units of meaning in a language.
a) phonemes
b) Morphemes
c) Grammar
d) Prefix
31. …………………… is a system of rules that specify how words can be arranged into
sentences.
a) Syntax
b) Semantics
c) Morphemes
d) Phonemes
32. .…………………. is the knowledge, independent of semantics and syntax etc, of
what kind of response would be appropriate in a given social situation.
a) Semantics
b) Pragmatics
c) Morphemes
d) Syntax
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33. …………………….. is the stage at which the individually meaningless phonemes
are assembled to produce meaningful portions of language, called morphemes.
a) Semantics
b) Morphemes
c) Syntax
d) Pragmatics
34. Attachment theory is the joint work of ……………… and Mary Ainsworth.
a) B F Skinner
b) J Piaget
c) John Bowlby
d) Vygotsky
35. ……………..
is
a
psychological,
evolutionary,
and
ethological
theory
concerning relationships between humans
a) Attachment theory
b) Emotional theory
c) Learning theory
d) Developmental theory
36. Which mostly affects the development of emotional self-regulation?
a) Temperament
b) Learning
c) Perception
d) Motivation
37. In child-to-adult relationships, the child's tie is called the "attachment" and the
caregiver's reciprocal equivalent is referred to as ……………….. .
a) attachment bond
b) care-giving bond
c) relationship bond
d) bonding
38. Who is known as the principle attachment figure?
a) Father
b) Significant others
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c) Mothers
d) Care givers
39. ……………….. is the anticipation or fear of being cut off from the attachment figure.
a. Anxiety
b. Stress
c. Alarm
d. Distress
40. In which stage attachment behaviours such as clinging and following decline and selfreliance increases.
a. Early Childhood
b. Late Childhood
c. Middle childhood
d. Early Adulthood
41. Types of Bowlby’s theory of attachment (Child and caregiver behaviour patterns
before the age of 18 months)
a) Secure, Avoidant, Ambivalent/Resistant & Organized
b) Secure, Avoidant, Ambivalent/Resistant & Disorganized
c) Safe, Avoidant, Ambivalent/Resistant & Organized
d) Safe, Avoidant, Ambivalent/Resistant & Disorganized
42. In which attachment pattern of Bowlby children show a pattern of alternate
aggression and withdrawal?
a) Secure
b) Avoidant
c) Ambivalent/Resistant
d) Disorganized
43. Who extended the Attachment theory to adult romantic relationships?
a) Cindy Hazan and Phillip Shaver
b) J Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth
c) Piaget and Vygotsky
d) None of them
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44. In Freud's view, development is a …………….. process.
a) Continuous
b) Discontinuous
c) Automatic
d) loose
45. In Freud’s oral developmental stage the pleasure is centered around the ……………..
a) Mouth
b) Genitals
c) Faeces
d) opposite sex
46. Freud's theory relied mainly on the use of methods such as
a) Free association, empirical testing, dream analysis & introspection
b) Free association, dream analysis, case study & empirical testing
c) Free association, dream analysis, experiments & testing.
d) Free association, dream analysis, case study & introspection
47. Who proposed the psychosocial theory?
a) Erik Erickson
b) Vygostky
c) Piaget
d) Freud
48. Watson applied ………….. principles of classical conditioning to children's
behaviour.
a) Skinner’s
b) Pavlov's
c) Bandura’s
d) Erickson’s
49. What is the name of the child whom the classical condioning was tested by J.
Watson?
a) Albert
b) Sultan
c) Bob
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d) Ted
50. Who proposed the operant conditioning learning theory?
a) Pavlov
b) Skinner
c) Bandura
d) J. Watson
51. Who among the learning theorist proposed the Modelling principle?
a) Pavlov
b) Skinner
c) Bandura
d) J. Watson
52. Strength of Bandura's social learning theory is its emphasis on particular aspects of
the environment, such as the nature of the ……………. available to children.
a) role models
b) rewards
c) reinforcement
d) rewards and punishment
53. Which is the correct sequence of stages in Piaget's theory of cognitive development?
a) sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational
b) sensorimotor, preoperational, formal operational, concrete operational
c) preoperational, sensorimotor, concrete operational, formal operational
d) preoperational, sensorimotor, formal operational, concrete operational
54. During which stage of cognitive development do children acquire object permanence?
a) sensorimotor
b) preoperational
c) concrete operational
d) formal operational
55. As a child observes, liquid is transferred from a tall, thin tube into a short, wide jar.
The child is asked if there is now less liquid in order to determine if she has mastered:
a) the schema for liquids.
b) the concept of object permanence.
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c) the concept of conservation.
d) the ability to reason abstractl
56. Piaget held that egocentrism is characteristic of the:
a)
sensorimotor stage.
b)
preoperational stage.
c)
concrete operational stage.
d)
formal operational stage
57. According to Piaget, the ability to think logically about abstract propositions is
indicative of the stage of:
a) preoperational thought.
b) concrete operations.
c) formal operations.
d) fluid intelligence.
58. Whose stage theory of moral development was based on how people reasoned about
ethical dilemmas?
a)
Erikson
b)
Piaget
c)
Harlow
d)
Kohlberg
59. To which of Kohlberg's levels would moral reasoning based on the existence of
fundamental human rights pertain?
a) preconventional morality
b) conventional morality
c) postconventional morality
d) generative morality
60. Sam, a junior in high school, regularly attends church because his family and friends
think he should. Which stage of moral reasoning is Sam in?
A) preconventional
B) conventional
C) postconventional
D) too little information to tell
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61. In preconventional morality, the person:
A) obeys out of a sense of social duty.
B) conforms to gain social approval.
C) obeys to avoid punishment or to gain concrete rewards.
D) follows the dictates of his or her conscience.
62. According to Erikson, the central psychological challenges pertaining to adolescence,
young adulthood, and middle age, respectively, are:
A) identity formation; intimacy; generativity.
B) intimacy; identity formation; generativity.
C) generativity; intimacy; identity formation.
D) intimacy; generativity; identity formation.
63. In Erikson's theory, individuals generally focus on developing during adolescence and
then during young adulthood.
A) identity; intimacy
B) intimacy; identity
C) basic trust; identity
D) identity; basic trust
64. After a series of unfulfilling relationships, 30-year-old Carlos tells a friend that he
doesn't want to marry because he is afraid of losing his freedom and independence.
Erikson would say that Carlos is having difficulty with the psychosocial task of:
A) trust versus mistrust.
B) autonomy versus doubt.
C) intimacy versus isolation.
D) identity versus role confusion.
65. What is the response pattern of securely attached children in the Strange Situation
when their mothers return?
A) They tend to ignore their mothers because they are secure about her care.
B) Sometimes they run over to their mothers and sometimes they do not; there's no
consistent pattern in their responses.
C) They tend to run over to their mothers and beg them not to leave again.
D) They tend to go to their mothers for comfort.
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66. Motor development in babies develops in a proximodistal fashion. This is best
described as:
A) From nearest to the center of the body to the farthest from the center
B) From the top of the head to the bottom of the feet
C) From the farthest from the center to the nearest to the center
D) From the bottom of the body to the top of the body
67. According to Sigmund Freud, what is the correct order of the five psychosexual
stages of development?
A) Oral, Anal, Phallic, Early, Genital
B) Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency, Genital
C) Anal, Phallic, Latency, Genital, Oral
D) Genital, Oral, Latency, Phallic, Ana
68. Authoritative parents can best be defined as:
A) Parents who befriend their children and do not use discipline
B) Parents who are less controlling and behave with a more accepting attitude
C) Parents who try to control the behavior of their children in accordance with a set
standard of conduct
D) Supportive parents who discuss their rules and policies with their children
69. Which of the following is NOT one of Kohlberg’s stages of moral reasoning?
a) Conventional
b) Unconventional
c) Postconventional
d) Preconventional
70. According to the cognitive developmental perspective of development, the child is
______ and development is _____.
a) passive, continuous
b) active, continuous
c) passive, discontinuous
d) active, discontinuous
e)
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71. Which of the following statements about the heritability of temperament is TRUE?
a) Temperament is only influenced by genetic factors
b) Temperament is not influenced by genetic factors
c) Heritability is demonstrated by MZ twins being more similar than DZ twins
d) Heritability is demonstrated by MZ twin and DZ twins being equally similar in
terms of their temperament
72. By what age do children typically succeed on false-belief and appearance reality
problems?
a) 2 years
b) 3 years
c) 5 years
d) 8 years
73. Which of the following comparisons between Piaget and Kohlberg’s theories of
moral judgement is TRUE:
a) Both agreed that to young children, right and wrong is determined by obedience to
rules and authority figures
b) Both agreed on the number of stages individuals passed through before achieving
mature moral reasoning
c) Both agreed that all normal individuals advance to the highest level of moral
reasoning
d) Piaget believed that development of moral reasoning was continuous, whereas
Kohlberg believed it was discontinuous
74. At what age do children begin to differentiate between others’ emotional distress and
their own?
a) 3-12 months
b) 6-14 months
c) 9-18 months
d) 2 years
75. The realization that all sets of a particular number of objects (e.g. 5) have something
in common is referred to as:
a) Numerical equality
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b) Numerical inequality
c) Subitising
d) Counting commonalities
76. Piaget believed that young infants’ failure to reach for a hidden object indicated that
they:
a) Were no longer interested in the object
b) Were unaware of the existence of the object
c) Were unable to reach the object
d) Were unable to uncover the object
77. At what age do children typically develop gender identity (the ability to label each
correctly)?
a) 1 -1/2 years
b) 2-1/2 years
c) 3-1/2 years
d) 6 years
78. Which of Erikson's Psychosocial Stages characterizes adolescence?
a) Industry vs. Inferiority
b) Intimacy vs. Isolation
c) Identity vs Identity diffusion
d) Initiative vs Guilt
79. The rooting reflex occurs when a:
A) newborn's foot is tickled.
B) newborn's cheek is touched.
C) newborn hears a loud noise.
D) newborn makes eye contact with his or her caregiver.
80. During which stage of cognitive development do children acquire object permanence?
A) sensorimotor
B) preoperational
C) concrete operational
D) formal operational
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81. Piaget held that egocentrism is characteristic of the:
A) sensorimotor stage.
B) preoperational stage.
C) concrete operational stage.
D) formal operational stage
82. In Piaget's theory, conservation is to egocentrism as the stage is to the stage.
A) sensorimotor; formal operational
B) formal operational; sensorimotor
C) preoperational; sensorimotor
D) concrete operational; preoperational
83. In Piaget's stage of concrete operational intelligence, the child acquires an
understanding of the principle of:
A) Conservation.
B) Deduction.
C) Attachment.
D) Object permanence.
84. In a 1998 movie, a young girl finds that a gaggle of geese follows her wherever she
goes because she was the first “object” they saw after they were born. This is an
example of:
A) conservation.
B) imprinting.
C) egocentrism.
D) basic trust.
85. The developmental theorist who suggested that securely attached children develop an
attitude of basic trust is:
A) Piaget.
B) Harlow.
C) Vygotsky.
D) Erikson.
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86. To which of Kohlberg's levels would moral reasoning based on the existence of
fundamental human rights pertain?
A) preconventional morality
B) conventional morality
C) postconventional morality
D) generative morality
87. Which of the following was not mentioned in the text as a criticism of Kohlberg's
theory of moral development?
A) It does not account for the fact that the development of moral reasoning is culturespecific.
B) Postconventional morality appears mostly in educated, middle-class persons.
C) The theory is biased against the moral reasoning of people in communal societies
such as China.
D) The theory is biased in favor of moral reasoning in men
88. In Erikson's theory, individuals generally focus on developing during adolescence
and then during young adulthood.
A) identity; intimacy
B) intimacy; identity
C) basic trust; identity
D) identity; basic trust
89. Which of the following theories best exemplifies continuity?
A) Erikson's psychosocial theory
B) Vygotsky's sociocultural theory
C) Piaget's cognitive development theory
D) Kohlberg’s theory of moral development
90. Jean Piaget defined egocentrism as:
A) The belief that young adults don't listen to their parents
B) The idea that preschool children cannot see things from another's
point of view
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C) The understanding that young children cannot learn outside of a
structured classroom
D) The idea that young children are selfish and grow out of it over time
91. Monica is extremely neat and orderly. She cannot stand it when people touch things
on her desk. She also has a problem lending money to even her closest friends. Freud
would say she is stuck in what psychosexual stage?
A) Oral
B) Anal
C) Phallic
D) Latency
92. According to Erik Erikson, what is one major conflict teenagers deal
with
during
the
identity
versus
role
confusion
stage
of
psychosocial
development?
A) Finding a more purposeful life as an adult
B) Achieving personal satisfaction
C) Reflecting on previous life challenges
D) Finding intimacy by developing loving relationships
93. According to Erik Erikson, as a young adult you are most interested in developing:
A) Initiative
B) Integrity
C) Trust
D) Intimacy
94. As children begin their elementary school years, they enter Erikson's stage of:
A) Trust versus Mistrust
B) Autonomy versus Doubt
C) Initiative versus Guilt
D) Industry versus Inferiority
95. In preconventional morality, the person:
a) obeys out of a sense of social duty.
b) conforms to gain social approval.
c) obeys to avoid punishment or to gain concrete rewards.
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d) follows the dictates of his or her conscience.
96. Which of the following is a similarity between the cognitive developmental theory of
Piaget and the moral developmental theory of Kohlberg?
A) Both theories stress the importance of changes in thinking in their stages.
B) Both believe personality is formed in the first 5 years.
C) Both theories stress the importance of the third stage in the developmental process.
D) Both developed a life span theory and had eight stages.
97. According to social learning theory, gender identity is
I. A process which occurs when young children unconsciously identify with the
same-sex parent.
II. A result of being positively reinforced for acting in ways that conform to male and
female roles.
III. Learned through observing and imitating role models like their parents.
A) I only
B) II only
C) III only
D) II and III only
98. Which of the following theories best exemplifies continuity?
A) Erikson's psychosocial theory
B) Vygotsky's sociocultural theory
C) Piaget's cognitive development theory
D) Kohlberg's theory of moral development
99. Which of the following reflexes is not a reflex infants enter the world equipped with?
A) Sucking
B) Swallowing
C) Stepping
D) Licking
100.
Temperament is best defined as:
A) Personality traits inherited from biological parents
B) Learned behavioral tendencies of a young child
C) Physical and emotional characteristics of a newborn child and young infant
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D) Psychological and physiological personality traits a young child models from his
or her environment
Answers
1 a
2 d
3 c
4 c
5 a
6 b
7 b
8 a
9 c
10 a
11 c
12 a
13 b
14 d
15 b
16 a
17 a
18 c
19 a
20 a
DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY
21 d
41 b
61 c
81 b
22 a
42 d
62 a
82 d
23 b
43 a
63 a
83 a
24 a
44 b
64 c
84 b
25 b
45 a
65 d
85 d
26 c
46 d
66 a
86 c
27 d
47 a
67 b
87 a
28 a
48 b
68 d
88 a
29 a
49 a
69 b
89 b
30 b
50 b
70 d
90 b
31 a
51 b
71 c
91 b
32 b
52 a
72 c
92 a
33 a
53 a
73 a
93 d
34 c
54 a
74 b
94 d
35 a
55 c
75 a
95 c
36 a
56 b
76 b
96 a
37 b
57 c
77 b
97 d
38 c
58 d
78 c
98 b
39 a
59 c
79 b
99 d
40 c
60 b
80 a
100 d
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