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hnhÀ¯-\hpw Bi-b-hn-\n-a-bhpw
School of Distance Education
hnhÀ¯-\hpw
Bi-b-hn-\n-a-bhpw
COMMON COURSE IN MALAYALAM
For
BA/B Sc.
II SEMESTER
(2011 Admission onwards)
UNIVERSITY OF CALICUT
SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION
10CALICUT UNIVERSITY.P.O., MALAPPURAM, KERALA,INDIA – 673 635
109
hnh¿Ø-\hpw Bi-b-hn-\n-a-bhpw
1
School of Distance Education
UNIVERSITY OF CALICUT
SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION
BA/B Sc.
II Semester
Common Course in Malayalam
hnh¿Ø-\hpw Bi-b-hn-\n-a-bhpw
Prepared by:
Smt.V.K.Sheeja
Department of Malayalam
Majlis Arts & Science College
Puramannur
Valanchery
Sruitnized by:
Dr. K.M. Priyadarsanlal
Swathi, Malapparamba
Kozhikode - 673009.
Layout: Compputer Section, SDE
(c)
Reserved
hnh¿Ø-\hpw Bi-b-hn-\n-a-bhpw
2
School of Distance Education
Df-f-S°w
t]Pv
samUyqÄ þ1
05-- þ 33
samUyqÄ- þ2
34- - -þ 42
samUyqÄ þ3
43 -þ 47
samUyqÄ - þ- - 4
48 þ 51
amXr-Im-tNm-Z-y-§Ä
52 þ 60
tamUÂ Assk³saâ v
61 þ 62
hnh¿Ø-\hpw Bi-b-hn-\n-a-bhpw
3
School of Distance Education
hnh¿Ø-\hpw Bi-b-hn-\n-a-bhpw
4
School of Distance Education
MODULE I
UNIT-1
hnh¿Ø-\-Øn-s‚-N-cn{Xw
{]mNo\ Imew -ap-X-¬°pXs∂ temIsØ hnhn-[`m-j-I-fn¬ hnh¿Ø\w-\-S∂p h∂n-´p-≠v.
amXr-`mj am{Xw D]-tbm-Kn®p hf¿∂ Hcmƒ°v Nne {]tXyI kml--Ncy-ß-fn¬ DZm: hmWn-Pyw,
sXmgn¬ XpS-ßnb Imcy߃°v A\y-tZ-- i-ßsf kao]n-t°-≠X
- mbn hcpw.- AØcw kml-Nc
- y-ßf
- n¬
hnh¿Ø\w AXym-hiyambnØo-cp-∂p. I®-hS Bh-iy-߃t°m, aX ]c-am-b Bh-iy- ß
- ƒt°m th≠n
Bhn-jI
v c
- n-°s
- ∏´ en]n k{º-Zmbw hym]-Ia
- mbn {]N-cn-®t- XmsS hyXykvX `mj-If
- nse {KŸ kµ¿`-߬
Fgp-Xm\pw Ahsb Xmc-fly-s∏-Sp-Øm\pw kuIcyw e`n®p. \mw C∂-dn-bp∂ hnh¿Ø\w CXns\
XpS-¿∂m-bn-cn-°Ww \S-∏n¬h-∂-Xv. {InkvXp-hn\v 3000 h¿j-߃°pw apºv- A-ko-dnb `cn-®n-cp∂
km¿tKm¨- F∂ N{I-h¿Øn Xs‚ hoc-Ir-Xy-߃ Ako-dn-b≥ `m-jbn-ep≈ imk-\-ß-fn-eq-sS
-hn-fw-_cw sNøp-I-bp-≠m-bn. hn]p-e-amb Ako-dn-b≥ km-{am-Py-Øn¬ Ako-dn-b-\-√mØ `mj-Iƒ
kw-km-cn-°p∂ H-t´sd P\-hn-`m-Kß
- f
- p-≠m-bn-cp-∂p. Ah¿°mbn Ah-cp-sS- `m-jI
- f
- n¬- Cu i
- m-k\
- ß
- ƒ
hnh¿Ø\w sNø-s∏-´p. temI-Øn¬- C-∂-dn-b-s∏-Sp∂ BZysØ hnh¿Ø\ ]cn-{iaw CXm-sW-∂v
I-cp-X-s∏-Sp∂p. CXp t]mse-- {In-kvXp-hn\ v c≠m-bn-cØ™qdp h¿-j߃°p apºp _m_n-tem¨
`-cn-®n-cp-∂- l-Ωp-dm-_n-bpsS imk-\-ßfpw ]e `mj-I-fn¬ {]kn-≤o-I-cn-®n-cp-∂p. F¶nepw {In-kvXp-hn\v
c≠p-\q-‰m≠p apºv Fgp-X-s∏´ {]-kn-≤-amb "tdm-k‰m' inem-im-k-\-amWv \ne-hn-ep≈ G‰hpw ]gb
hnh¿Ø\ amXr-I-bm-bn -C-t∏mƒ I-W-°m-°-s∏-Sp-∂-Xv.
F-∂m¬ ]m›m-Xy cmPy-ß-fn¬ hn-h¿Ø-\-Øn\v H∏w Nn´b-pw- ]m-c-º-cyhpw G¿s∏-´Xv
ss__n- f ns‚ X¿÷a hgn- ° mWv . {Ko°p- I m- c psS hnh¿Ø\ ]mc- º - c y- s Ø - ] n≥Xp- S ¿∂v
tdmam-°m¿ {Ko°p `m-j-bn-ep≈ ]e {KŸ-ß-fpw- em-‰n≥ `m-j-bn¬ X¿÷a sNbvXp. {Ko°p
\mS-I-ßfpw tπt‰m-hn-s‚- Ir-Xn-Ifpw a‰pw XpS¿∂v em‰n-\n-te°v ]e-cpw hn-h¿Ø\w sNbvXp. CXn-\n¬
anI®p \n¬°p-∂Xv {In. ]n. \memw- i-XI
- Ø
- n¬ "skbv‚ v sPtdmw Fgp-Xnb hnh-¿Ø
- \
- a- t- {X. i_vZt-- Ø-°mƒ
Bi-bØ
- n\p {]m[m-\yw- \¬Inb hnh-¿Ø-\s- Ø B
- k
- ]
v Z- a- m°n s- k-bn‚ v Ptdm-ans\ imkv{Xob coXn-bn-ep≈
hnh¿Ø-\-Øn-s‚- kvYm-]-I-s\∂v ]pI-gvØn-h-cp-∂p.
Ko°p-Im¿°pw tdmam-°m¿°pw tijw hnh¿Ø-\Ø
- ns‚ cwK-Øn¬ Imcy-am-bn {- ]-h¿Øn-®X
- vA-d_
- n-If
- m-bn-cp-∂p. {In-. ]
- n. 8,9,10 iX-Iß
- f
- n¬ Ad-_n-Iƒ, kwkvIr-XØ
- n¬ \n∂ G{Xtbm {K\vYß
- ƒ
kz¥w `mj-bn-te°v ]I¿Øn.
Awi-K-Wn-Xw, Pyman-Xn, tPmXn-jw, sshZy-imkv{Xw apX-emb hnj--b-ß-fn-ep≈ {KŸ-ßfpw
Ch-bn¬ s]Sp-∂p. `mc-Xo-b-cpsS {]mNo\ hn⁄m\w ]m›m-Xy¿°v -B-Zy-ambn e`n-®Xv Ad_nbn¬
hnh-¿Ø\w sNbv-XXn-eqsSbmWv. am¿´n≥ eqY¿ em‰n-\n¬ \n∂v P¿Ω≥ `mj-bn-te°v ss__nƒ
hnh¿Ø\w sNbvX-Xn-eqsS hnh¿Ø\Øns‚ ]pXnb bpKw Bcw-`n-®-Xmbn Icp-Xmw, aX-Øns‚
taJ-eb
- n¬ \n∂v hnh¿Ø-\w a
- X \nc-t]£ hn⁄m-\Ø
- ns‚ taJ-eI
- f
- n-te°v AXn-thKw hym]n-®p. C∂v
temI-Øns‚ GsX-¶nepw Hcp tImWn¬ F{X A{]-kn≤ `mj-bnembmepw ]pXnb GsX¶n-epw- A-dnhv
Bhn-jvIr-X-am-hp-I-bm--sW-¶n¬ GXm-\pw-h¿j-߃°Iw -AXv hnh¿Ø-Øn-eq-sS -a-s‰√m `mj-I-fn-epwe-`y-am-Ip∂ ÿnXn h∂ptN¿∂n-´p≠v.
kmln-Xyw, Ie XpS-ßnb cwK-ßf
- nepw Cu {]hWX e`y-am-Wv. cmjv{Sob ]cn-h¿Ø-\ß
- ƒ
`mj-I-fpsS hf¿®-°pw {]kn-≤n°pw hgn sXfn-bn-®n-´p-≠v. AXp sIm≠mWv BZy-°m-eØv {Ko°v,
em‰n≥ `mj-If
- n¬ \n∂v [mcmfw hnh¿Ø\w sNbvXp h∂ Cw•ojv `mj; ]n∂oSv {^©n\pw, P¿Ω\pw,
djy-\pw IqSp-X¬ {]m[m-\yw \¬In-b-Xv. Cw•ojv `mj-°v temIsaºmSpw C{X henb kzm[o\w
D≠mIm\p≈ Imc-W-ß-fn-sem∂v Cw•o-jp-Im¿ temI-Øp≈ F√m `mj-I-fn¬\n∂pw {KŸ-߃
hnh¿Ø-\hpw Bi-b-hn-\n-a-bhpw
5
School of Distance Education
Cw•o-jn¬ hnh¿Ø\w sNøm≥ {ian-®-Xp-sIm-≠mWv "amÿ ]okkv Hm^v thƒUv en‰-td-®¿' F∂
Xe-s°-t´m-Sp-IqSn \mep `mK-ß-fn-em-bn- Cw-•o-jn¬ temI kmln-Xy-Ønse {]ikvX {KŸ-ß-fp-sSkw-t£]w {]kn-≤-s∏-Sp-Øn-bn-´p-≠v.
hnh¿Ø\w `mc-Xob`mj-If
- n¬
`mc-X-Ønse hnh¿Ø\]mc-ºcyw bqtdm-∏n¬ \n∂v Aev]w `n∂-amWv. {]mNo-\-Im-eØv
kwkvIr-X-am-bn-cp∂p `mc-X-Ønse kmwkvv-ImcnI `mj. F∂m¬ C¥y-bnse ¢m- nIv `mj-bmb
kwkvIr-X-Øn¬ hnh¿Ø\߃ Ipd-hm-Wv. a‰p `mc-Xob `mj-I-sfm∂pw A∂v th≠{X hnI-kn-°mXn-cp-∂X
- mbncn°mw A
- X
- n\p Imc-Ww. kwkvIr-XØ
- nse hnh¿Ø\ {KŸ-ßf
- n¬ FSp-Øp-]d- b
- m-hp∂
H∂v ss]im-Nn `mj-bn¬- F-gp-X-s∏´ KpWm-Vys‚ _rl¬ IY-I-fp-sS kwt£-]-ß-fmb, "_rl¬
IYm a-RvPc
- n'bpw "IYm kcn-Xv km-Kc
- '-hp-am-Ip-∂p. F∂m¬ kwkvIrX kmln-Xy-Ønse an°-Ir-Xn-Ifpw
`mc-Xob `mj-I-fn¬hn-h¿Ø-\-ß-fm-bn-´p-≠v. ]Zm\p ]Z hnh-¿-Ø\w apX¬ "`m-hm-\p-hmZw' hsc-bp≈
F√m hnh¿Ø-\ -cq-]-t`-Z-ßfpw Ch-°n-S-bn¬ Im-Wmw.
{]mNo-\-X-bn¬ kw-kvIr-X-tØmSv ASpØv \n¬°p∂ `mc-Xob `mj Xan-gm-Wv. Xangv `mj
hnh-¿-Ø\ {KŸ-Øn\v "hgn-\q¬' F∂-t]-cp -\¬In AXns\ Hcp {]-ÿm\w Xs∂bmbn AwKo-I-cn-®p.
]t£ "-h-S-samgn'bn¬ \n∂v AYhm kwkvIr-X-Øn¬\n-∂v ]-Z-߃ FSp-°p-tºmƒ {Zmhn-Uo-I-cn®v
{]tbm-Kn-°-W-sa∂v hy-h-ÿbpw sN-bvXp.
B[p-\nI `mc-Xob `mj-Iƒ s]mXpth \mep hnh¿Ø\ L´-ßf
- n-eqsS IS∂p t]m∂-Xm-bn-°m-Wmw.
BZy-L-´-Øn¬-kw-kvIrX {KŸ-߃ hnh¿Ø\w sNbvXp. c≠mw L´-Øn¬ t]¿jy≥ Ad-_nXp-S-ßnb hntZi `m-jm-{K-Ÿ-߃ hnh¿-Ø\w sNbvXp. aq∂mw L´-Øn¬- Cw-•ojv ]m›mXy `mjm
{KŸ-ßfpw \memw L´-Øn¬ -C-Xc `mc-Xob `mjm {KŸ-ß-fpw.
ae-bm-fØ
- nse hnh¿Ø\ Ncn{Xw
ae-bm-fØ
- nse hnh¿Ø-\N
- c
- n-{X-Øn-\v \√ ]g-°a
- p-≠.v kwkvIr-XØ
- n¬ \n∂p≈ hnh¿Ø-\a
- mWv
BZyw Chn-sS -D-≠m-b-Xv. CXc `mc-Xob `mj-I-fnepw ÿnXn `n∂-a-√. Hcp ImeØv tI-c-f-Ønse `mjXs∂ Xan-gm-bn-cp-∂pXp sIm≠v Xan-gn¬ ]Zy-cq-]-Øn¬- F-gp-Xn-bn-cp∂ tPymXnjw, sshZyw XpS-ßnb
hnjb-ßf
- n-ep-≈ I
- r-Xn-Iƒ ap≥ Xe-ap-dI
- f
- n-ep≈ ]e-ae
- b
- m-fn-Iƒ°pw a\-]m-Ta
- m-bn-cp-∂p. cmam-bW
- Ø
- n-\pwa-lm-`m-c-X-Øn\pw ]e {]Im-c-Øn¬ ]e-Im-e-ß-fn¬ ]-cn-`m-j-I-fp-≠m-bn. ]Zm\p-]Z hrØm-\p-hrØ
samgn-am‰w, `mKnI IYm-Jym\w, kw£n]vX hnh-cWw F∂n-ß-s\- Im-e-Øn-\-\p-k-cn-®v -A-h-bp-sS
c
- q] `mh-߃ Nn´-s∏-s∏SpØ-hm≥ cN-bn-Xm-°ƒ {ian-®p. "Fgp-Ø—
- s‚ A[ym-flc
- m-am-bW' hnh¿Ø-\a- m-Wv
Cu ]›m-Øe
- Ø
- n¬ FSpØp ]d-tb≠ IrXn. cma-Nc
- nXw, cma IYm-]m´v, IÆ» cmam-bWw F∂nhbpw
{it≤b-amb hnh-¿-ØnX IrXn-Iƒ Xs∂.
Cw-•o-jv˛ ae-bmfw hnh¿Ø\w
]sØmºXmw \q‰m-≠ns‚ a[y-tØmsS Cw-•o-jns‚ kzm[o-\X `mj-bn¬ i‡-am-bn. A°m-eØv
aX-{]-Nm-c-W-Øn\p tIc-f-Øn-se-Ønb ]m›mXy anj-\-dn-am-cp-sS- {]-h¿Ø\-߃ `mj-bpsS hf¿®°p
Imc-W-am-bn. hymI-cW {KŸ-ßfpw \nL-≠p-hpw -\n-e-hm-c-s∏´ D®m-c-Whpw ae-bm-f-Øn-\p -\¬Im≥A-h¿ {ian-®p. ss__nƒ {]N-cn-∏n-°p-∂-Xn\p th≠n-bmWv CXp sN-bvX-Xv. F¶nepw ae-bmf `mj°v
]ptcm-KXnbp≠m°m≥ anjWdn KZyw Imc-W-am-bn.
Ccp-]Xmw \q‰m-≠ns‚ BZy-h¿j-Øn¬ tIc-fØ
- nse tImtfPp hnZym¿∞n-If
- psS ]mTy-{I--aØ
- n¬
Cw-•o-jp Ihn-X°v {][m-\ -ÿm\w D≠m-bn-cp-∂p. sS\n-k¨, tKmƒUv kvanØv, tXmakv t{K,
XpS-ßnb Ihn-If
- psS {]ikvX Ihn-XI
- ƒ ]eXpw hnZym¿∞n-Iƒ lrZn-ÿa
- m-°p-Ibpw Ihn-Xm-hm-k-\-bp≈
bphm-°ƒ Ah ae-bm-f-Øn¬ X¿÷a sNøm≥ {ian-°p-Ibpw sNbvXp.
hnh¿Ø-\hpw Bi-b-hn-\n-a-bhpw
6
School of Distance Education
B[p-\nI Ime-L-´-Øn¬ Ht´sd hntZ-iob `mj-I-fnse Ihn-X-Iƒ Cw-•o-jp hnh¿Ø-\-Øn¬
X¿÷-a -sN-bvX-p h-cp-∂p. djy≥, Pm∏m-\n-kv., B{^n-°≥ XpS-ßnb ]e `mj-I-fn-ep-ap≈ IhnX-I-fpw
hnh¿Ø\w sNøs∏-Sp-∂Xv.
KZy hnh¿Ø-\Ø
- ns‚ afi-eØ
- n¬- BZy hnh¿ØI¿ anj-Wd- n-am¿ X-s∂-bm-bn-cp-∂p. IY-Iƒ,
t\mh-ep-Iƒ XpS-ßn-bh
- m-bm-WmZyw ae-bm-fØ
-- n¬ hnh¿Ø\w sNø-s∏-´X
- .v 1806 ¬ t¢mUn-b≥ _p°m-\≥
ae-bm-f-Øn¬ ss__nƒ X¿÷-abv°v t\XrXzw \¬In. tUm. s_©-an≥ s_bven Cw•o-jn¬ \n∂p
-\m´p `mj-bn-te°v ss__nƒ hnh¿Ø\w sNbvXp. tUm. sl¿Ω≥ Kp≠¿´v, \nL-≠phpw, hymI-cW
- h
- pw,ss_-_nƒ hnh¿Ø-\hpw hgn ae-bmf KZy-Øn-\v i-‡-amb Hc-Sn-Ø-d-bn-´p. Cw•ojp ]Tn® \m´p
]mXn-cn-amcpw-X¿÷-abv°v Hcp-sº-´p. ae-bm-fØ
- nse BZy bm{Xm hnh-cW
- {- K-Ÿa
- m-b h
- ¿Øam\-]p--kvXIw
Fgp- X nb ]mtd- a m- ° ¬ tXm- a m- I - Ø - \ m¿, B¿®p Un°≥ tImin dh: tPm¿÷v amØ≥F-∂n-hcpw hnh¿-Ø\ cwKsØ {]i-kvX-cm-Wv. "Can-t‰-j≥ Hm^v ss{IÃv' "{InkvXzm\p Ic-W-'sa∂
t]cn¬ tXmam IØ-\m¿ X¿÷a sNbvXp. tPm¨ s_\n-bs‚ "]n¬{Knw t{]m{K- n's‚ ae-bmf
`mj°v B¿®p Un°≥ tImin \¬Inb t]-cv ]-c-tZio tamj-bm{X F∂-Xm-Wv.
tIcf h¿Ω-bpsS "AIv_¿', Hcp U®p {KŸ-Øns‚ Cw•ojv ]cn-`m-j-bpsS ae-bmf hnh¿Ø\-am-bn-cp-∂p. \me-∏m´p \mcm-bW
- ta-t\m≥ F. _m-eI
- r-jvW]
- n≈ F∂o c≠p {]i-kvX h
- y-‡n-If
- mWv
]m›mXy kmlnXyw ae-bm-fØ
- n¬ i‡m-am-bn- hn-h¿Ø\w sNøm≥ apt∂m-´p-h∂
- X
- .v hnIvS¿lyq-tKm-bpsS
te an-dm-_n-fns\ "]mh-߃' F∂-t]-cn¬ \me-∏m´p \mcm-b-W-sa-t\m≥ hnh¿Ø\w sN-bvXp. tIkcn
_m-eI
- r-jvW]
- n≈ ]pXnb km-lnXy cq]-ßfpw tIc-fo-b¿°v X¿÷-ab
- n-eqsS ]cn-Nb
- s
- ∏-Sp-Øn-sIm-Sp-Øp.
djy≥ kmln-Xy-Im-c\
- mb tSmƒtÃmbv ZkvXt- bm-hn-kvIn, amIvknw-tKm¿°n abvt°mhnkvIn, t_mdnkv,
]mÿ \m°v F∂n-h-bpsS cN-\-Iƒ a-eb
-- mfw ]cn-N-b-s∏-Sp-∂Xpw X¿÷-a-bn-eq-sS-bm-Wv.
CXc `mc-Xob `mj-I-fn¬ \n∂ ae-bm-f-Øn-te°p≈ hnh¿Ø\w
C-Xc `mc-Xob `mj-I-fn¬\n∂v ae-bm-f-Øn-te°v hnh¿Ø-\Ø
-- ns‚ then-tb‰w D≠m-bXv
tIc-fo-b¿°v t\mh¬ {]kvYm-\-tØm-Sv Xm¬]cyw tXm∂n-b-tXm-sS-bm-Wv. _wKm-fnse k¿K[-\-cmb
_¶nw N{µNm-‰¿Pn, icXv N{µNm-‰¿Pn, cho-{µ\mY tSmtKm¿ F∂o aq∂p t]cpsS t\me-hp-Ifpw IY-Ifpw
]e-cpw -B-h¿Øn®p hnh¿Ø\w sNbvXp. amknIm {]h¿Ø-\-amWv Cu hnh¿Ø-\-߃°v
t{]c-I-am-b-Xv. kn.Fkv. kp{_-“-Wy≥ t]m‰n, "Zp¿tK-i-\-µn\n' hnh¿Ø\w sNbvXv CXn\v XpS°w
Ipdn-®p. _wKm-fn-bn¬\n∂v Cw•o-jn-eq-sSbpw lnµn-bn-eq-sSbpw BWv ae--bm-f-Øn-te°v hnh¿Ø\w
\S-Øp-∂Xv. _wKmfn t\mh¬ -GXpw \√-sX∂v Hcp [mcW tIc-f-Øn¬ D≠m-hm--\p≈ ImcWhpw
Cu hn-h¿-Ø\w X-s∂. Ihn-X-bpsS cwKØv SmtKmdns‚ Ihn-X-Iƒ DZm:˛Ko-Xm-⁄-en am{X-amWv
tIc-f-Øn¬ hf-sc-b-[n-Iw {]ikvvXn t\Sn-b-Xv.
_wKmfn Ign-™m¬ lnµn kmln-Xy-amWv hnh¿Ø-\Ø
- n-eq-sS- a-eb
- m-fØ
- n-te-°p IqSp-Xe
- m-bn h∂-X.v
F∂m¬ km-lnXy ZrjvSym hnh¿Ø\ IrXn-I-fp-sS -FÆw Ipd-hm-Wv. lnµn-bn¬ CtX-hsc
{]kn-≤-s∏-Sp-Øn-bn-´p≈ hnh¿Ø-\-ßfpw ae-bm-f-Øn¬ h∂n-´p≈ hnh¿Ø-\-ßfpw t\m°n-bm¬
hnh¿-Ø-\-Øn-s‚- A-\p-]mXw hfsc sNdp-Xm-Wv. lnµn-bn¬ \n∂v ae-bm-f-tØ-te°p hnh¿Ø\w
sNbvXn-´p≈ hy‡n-I-fn¬ chn h¿Ω, sI.hn. aW-en-°c, A`-b-tZhv, hn.--Un. Ir-jv W≥ \ºym¿,
thWp acp-Xmbn Xp--S-ßn-b-h-cp-sS -t]-c-pIƒ {]kvXm-hy-am-Wv.
ae-bm-fØ
- n¬ imkvv{X cwKØp \S-Øs-- ∏-Sp∂ hnh¿Ø\hpw hne-s∏-´X
- m-Wv. Bcw-`I
- I
- m-eØ
- p
-Fw. cmP-cm-P-h¿Ω, amXyp. Fw. Ipgn then, sFkn. Nmt°m, Sn.sI tPmk^v, ]n.sI tImcp,
sI.kn Nmt°m, tUm. sI `mkvI-c≥ \mb¿ Xp-S-ßn-b-h¿ Cu cwKØv {]i-kvXn-bm¿÷n-®-h-cm-Wv.
hnh¿Ø-\hpw Bi-b-hn-\n-a-bhpw
7
School of Distance Education
c≠mw temI alm-bp-≤-Øn\p tijw hnh¿Ø\w hf-sc-b[
-- nIw Bfp-Iƒ°v tPmen-\¬Ip∂
hrØn-bmbn Xo¿∂p. s]m-Xpsh km£-c-Xz-Ønepw hn-Zym-`ym-k-Ønepw D≠mb hf¿®bpw hm¿Ømhn-X-c-W-Øn¬ h∂p tN¿∂ hnπ-hhpw hnI-kz-c-ambn hcp∂ GI temI at\m-`m-hhpw km-lnXy ]{X
{]h¿Ø\ cwK-ß-fn¬ \ne-hn-en-cp∂ hnh¿Ø\ {]{In-bsb hfsc-b-[nIw hn]p-e-am-°n. tIcf `mjm
C≥Ãn-‰yq-´ns‚ Bhn¿`mhw hn-⁄m\ kmlnXy {KŸ-ß-fpsS hnh¿Ø\ cwK-Øv K-Wy-amb
]ptcm-KX
- n- D-fh
- m-°n. tImcf imkv{X ]cn-jØv t]mep≈ k∂≤ kwL-S\
- I
- fpw CXc {]kn-≤o-Ic
- W
kwL-S-\-Ifpw Cu cwKØv t\´w ssIh-cn-®p.
Z£nW `mjm _p°v {SÃv', "kmlnXy A°m-Zan' XpS-ßn-b- ÿm-]-\-߃ [mcm-fw- Ir-Xn-Iƒ
`mjm¥co-I-c-W-Øn-eqsS \ap°v e`yam°nbn-´p-≠v. Cu BtcmKyI-c-amb {]h-WX Ct∏mg-pw \S∂p
hcp-∂p-≠v.
hnh¿Ø-\hpw Bi-b-hn-\n-a-bhpw
8
School of Distance Education
UNIT-2
hnh¿Ø-\w
"s]mcpƒ \jvS-s∏-SmsX Hcp Bibw -Hcp `mj-bn¬\n∂v as‰mcp `mj-bn-te°v am‰p-∂-XmWv
hnh¿Ø-\w'. X¿P-a, X¿Ppa, hnh¿Ø-\w, ]cn`mj,- sam-gn-am‰w F∂o ]Z-߃ Translation F∂
Cw•ojv hm°n\v ]Icw ae-bm-f-Øn¬ {]Nm-c-ap-≠v. `mj cq]-s∏´ Imew apX¬ ]-cn-`m-jIfpw
kw`-hn-®n-cn-°Ww. e`y-am-b-Xn¬ -sh®v G‰hpw ]pcm-X-\-am-b- hn-h¿Ø\w "tdmsk‰m' (-_n.kn c≠mw
iX-Iw) F∂ inem-te-J-\amsW∂v Ncn-{X-Im-c-∑m¿ I-cp-X-s∏-Sp-∂p
temI `mj-I-fn¬ G‰-hpw -A-[nIw hnh¿Ø-\w -sN-ø-s∏-´n-´p≈ {K\vYw ss__n-fmWv. lo{_q
`m-j-bn¬ Fgp-X-s∏-´n-cp∂ ]g-b-\n-baw blq-Z¿°v BZy-Imeßfn¬ kp{Km-ly-am-bncp-∂n-√. Ah¿°v
a\- n-em-°m≥ th≠n "ss__nƒ' D]-`m-j-I-fn-te-°pw amt‰≠n h∂p. tlma-dpsS HUo-kn- {Ko°n¬
\n∂pw eØo-\n-te°v hnh¿Ø\w sNø-∏-´Xv _n.-kn. 130 emWv. {InkvXp--a-Xw- tem-I-saßpw hym]n®Xv
hnh¿-Ø-\-Øns‚ {]Nm-c-Øn\v hgnsXfn--®p. ss__nƒ temI-Ønse an° `mj-Ifnte°pw X¿Pa
sNø-s∏-´p. ]e `mj-I-fp-tSbpw ]p\-cp-÷o-h-\-Øn\pw I-cp-Øm¿÷n-°-en\pw CXp Imc-Wa-- m-bn.
Ad_n `m-j-I-fp-ambn _‘-s∏´ hnh¿Ø\ {i-a-߃ ]pcm-X\ \K-c-amb _mKvZm-Zn-emWv
\S-∂n-´p-≈-Xv. hn⁄m-\-Øn-t‚bpw kwkv-Im-c-Øn-t‚bpw G‰hpw h-enb tI{µ-sa∂ \ne-bn¬ Cu
\K-c-Øn\v Bbn-c-Øm-≠p-I-fp-sS- N-cn-{X-ap-≠v. hnhn[ `mj-bnse hn{ip-X-amb {KŸ-߃ [mcm-f-am-bnA-d-_n-bn-te°v X¿÷-a-sN-ø-s∏-´p. \ΩpsS ]©-X{¥w IY-bnse Ad-_n-bnse t]cv "Ieoe Za\'
F∂mWv.
{][m\ \n¿∆-N-\-߃
Hcp ]-Z-Øn-t‚tbm hmIy-Øn-t‚tbm {KŸ kµ¿`-Øn-t‚tbm ]pkvI-Øn-t‚tbm A¿∞w
as‰mcp `mj-bn¬ Bhn-jvI-cn-°p-∂-XmWv \nL≠p \n¿∆N\ {]Imcw hnh-¿-Ø\w (Translation).
A¿∞w \ne-\n¿Øn-s°m≠p as‰mcp `mj-bn-te-°p≈ am‰-amWv X¿÷-a.
Dr. tPm¨k¨
Hcp `mjbnse ]mTy-hk
- vXp-hns\ a-s‰mcp `mj-bnse XØp-ey-amb ]mTy-hk
- vXp-sIm≠v BtZiw
sNøp-∂-XmWv hnh¿Ø-\w. ˛
sPkn Iym‰v t^m¿Uv
BZyam-bn A¿∞-Ønepw c≠-a-Xmbn ssi-en-bnepw aqe `mj-bnse ktµ-i-tØ-mSv G‰hpw
ASp-∏-ap≈ Xpey ]mTw -e£y `mj-bn¬ krjvSn-°-emWv hnh¿Ø\w.
˛ bqPn≥ ss\U.
A¿∞w ap≥\n¿Øn-s°m≠v as‰m-cp-`m-j-bn-te°v am-‰p-∂-XmWv hnh¿Ø-\w.
˛ kmaph¬ tPm¨k¨
`mjmim-kv{X-]-c-amb \n¿∆-N\w
hnh¿Ø-\-Øns‚ `mjm-imkv{X hi߃ F∂ {]_-‘-Øn¬(1959) tdma≥ bmt°m_vk¨
Hcp -]-Z-Nn”sØ hyJym-\n-°m-\p≈ aq∂v D]m-[n-Isf ]‰n ]d-bp-∂p.
1. A¥¿ `mjm hnh¿Ø\w (intra lingual translation)
2. `mjm¥c-hn-h¿Ø\w (inter lingual translation)
3. Nn”m-¥c hnh¿Ø\w(inter semiyotic)
hnh¿Ø-\hpw Bi-b-hn-\n-a-bhpw
9
School of Distance Education
H-cp `mjbv°p≈n¬ X-s∂, Hcp-Iq´w ]Z-Nn-”ßsf as‰mcp Iq´w ]Z-Nn-”ßfnte°vkw-{I-an-∏n-°p∂ {]{In-b-bmWv A-¥¿`mjm hnh¿Ø-\w.
(DZm:˛ DZtb t]cq¿kp-∂-l-tZm-kns‚ It\m-\-Iƒ. CXn-se- `m-j 16-˛17 -\q‰m≠pIfnteXmWv.
C∂sØ ae-bm-f-Øn-√n-√mØ ssien-Ifpw {]-tbm-K-ßfpw A∂sØ `mj-bn¬ ImWmw. C∂Ø
hmb-\-°m¿°pw a\- n-em-I-Ws-- a-¶n¬ B {KŸw B[p-\nI ae-bm-f-Øn-te°v hnh-¿-Ø\w sNø-Ww.)
C{]-Im-cw- H-cp `mj-bv°p-≈n¬Xs∂ \S-°p∂ hnh¿Ø-\sØ A¥¿-`mjm hnh¿Ø\w F∂p
]d--bp-∂p.
bmt°m_vk¨ ]d-bp∂ c≠m-asØ X-c-Øn¬s]´ inter lingual transalation \mWvv \mw
km[m-cW hnh¿Ø-\sa∂v hy-h-l-cn-°p-∂-Xv.
aq∂m-asØ hn`m-KØ
- n¬s]-´Xv- Nn”m¥c hnh¿Ø-\a
- mWv (inter semiyotie) Cu hnh¿Ø-\Ø
- n\v
B[p-\n-I- Im--eØv {]k‡n Gdp-Ib
- m-W.v Hcp Nn”-hy-hÿ
- b
- n¬ \n∂v as‰mcp Nn” hyh-ÿb
- n-te-°pff
am‰-am-Wn-Xv. B´-°Y/IY-Ifn, Xnc-°Y/ kn\na F∂o Zzµz߃ Cu hIp-∏n¬s]Spw. "B´-°Y'
kmln-Xy-Øns‚ Nn”-߃ D]-tbm-Kn-°p-tºmƒ, I-Y-I-fn- Zr-iy-I-e-bpsS Nn”-߃ D]-tbm--Kn-°p-∂p.
hnhn[ ]fin-X-∑m¿ \¬In-bn-´p-≈-Xn¬ sh®v kp{K-lhpw {]mtbm-Kn-I-hp-am-b-\n¿h-N\w
tUm. kmap-h¬ tPm¨k¨t‚-Xm-Wv. ""A¿∞w ap≥\n¿Øn-s°m≠v as‰mcp `mj-bn-te°v hnh¿-Ø\
- w.''
hnh¿Ø-\Ø
- ns‚ imkv{Xo-bN
- ¿®-bn¬ aqe-`m-jbv°v "t{kmX-`mj' (Source of language). F∂pw
A-Xm-bXv GXp `mjbn¬ \n∂pw hnh¿Ø-\w- sN-øp-∂pthm B `mjsb t{kmX `mj F∂pw GXp
`mj-bn-te°v hnh¿-Ø\w sNøp∂pthm B `m-jsb "e£y `mj' (Target language) F∂pw ]d-bp-∂p.
t{kmX `mj-bn¬ Bhn-jvI-cn-°-s∏´ Bi-b-ßsf Ign-bp-∂-{X-G-‰-°p-d-®n¬ IqSm-sXbpw e£y
`mj-bp-sS- B-hn-jvI-cW coXn-°v- C-W-ßp∂ coXn-bnepw e£y `mj-bn¬ Bhn-jvI-cn-°p-∂-Xn-\p≈
{]b-Xv∂-amWv hnh¿Ø-\w.
c≠v Xcw hnh¿Ø-\-ß-fm-Wp-≈-Xv. {][m-\-am-bp-w th≠n hcp-∂-Xv.
1. imkv{X-{K-Ÿ-ß-fpsS hnh¿Ø\w
2. kmlnXy {KŸ-ß-fpsS hnh¿Ø-\w.
temIØv F√m-bn-SØpw A\y-`m-j-I-fn¬ \n∂v kz-`mjIfn-te-°p≈ hnh¿Ø-\-amWv A[nIw
ImWp-∂-Xv. CXn\p ImcWw kzm`m-hn-I-am-bn- am-Xr-`m-jm-⁄m\wt]mse Hcmƒ°v CX-c-`m-jm-⁄m\w
D≠m-hpI Npcp-°a
- m-W.v X¿÷-aI
- ƒ A[n-Ihpw kz`m-jm-bn¬ \S-Øp-Ib
- mWv Ffp-∏w. kmln-Xy-Ir-Xn-Isf
kw_-‘n®v CXv IqSp-X¬ icn-bm-sW∂pw ImWmw. Imc-Ww imkv{X-Øn-se∂ t]mse tIhew
hkvXp-X-I-f√, kq£-a-amb `m-h-߃ IqSn CXn¬ ]I¿ØnsbSp-t°-≠-Xp-≠v.
hnh¿Ø-Is‚ G‰hpw {][m\s∏-´- D-]-I-cWw `mjm ⁄m\-am-Wv. AZysØ {i≤ AXn-emWv
]Xn-tb-≠-Xv. aqe `m-j-bn¬ Dd® Adn-hp-≠m-hp-Ibpw AXnse Imcy-߃ kz¥w `mj-bn¬ hymI-c-W
ip≤n-tbmsS ]I¿Øm≥ Ign-hp-≠m-°p-Ibpw thWw. \sΩ kw_-\-[
v n®nS-tØmfw an°-hmdpw
Cw•ojmWv aqe `mj. CXc `m-jm-Ir-Xn-Ifpw Cw•o-jn¬Iq-Sn-bmWv \mw hnh¿Ø\w sNøp-∂-Xv.
AXn-\m¬ aqe `mj-bn¬ \√ ⁄m\w D≠m-bn-cn-t°-≠Xv AXym-h-iy-am-Wv. aqe-`mj ⁄m\w
Ign-™m¬- A-Xn-t\-°mƒ X¿-÷-a-°mc\v B-hiyw kz`m-jm-⁄m-\-am-Wv.
t{kmX `mj-bnse kma{Kn e£y-`mj-bn-te°v hnh¿Ø\w sNøp-∂-Xn\v ]e coXn-Iƒ Bhmw.
]Zm-\p-]-Z-X¿-÷a sNøp-I, D≈-S-°-Øns‚ BsI-ØpI e£y `mj-bn-em-°p-I, kzX{¥ambn e£y
`mj-bn¬ Bhn-jvI-cn-°pI F∂n-h-bmWv apJy k{º-Zm-b-߃.
hnh¿Ø-\hpw Bi-b-hn-\n-a-bhpw
10
School of Distance Education
tlm-d-kns‚ \n¿∆-N\ {]Imcw ]Zm\p]Z X¿÷-a-tb°mƒ kz-X{¥ X¿÷-a-bmWv th≠-Xv.
Cu kzmX-{¥yw Zp:kzm-X{¥yw BI-cp-sX∂pw aqe cN-bn-Xm-hn-t\mSv hnizm-kyX ]pe-¿tØ-≠-Xmb
ISa hnh¿Ø-I-\p-s≠∂pw a‰p Nne \n¿∆-N-\-߃ kq-Nn-∏n-°p-∂p.
\√ hnh¿Ø\w kq£va-am-Ip-∂-Xn-tesd hnizm-ky-am-bn-cn-°p-I-bmWv th-≠Xv F∂v hmd-\pw,
(hn-h¿Ø-\-Øns‚ ImX¬ hnizm-ky-X-bmWv F∂v B]-Z-Øn¬ Xs∂ A¥¿`-hn-®n-cn-°p-∂p).
hnh¿ØI≥ aqe{KŸ-Im-cs
- \-t∏mse B-bn-Øo-cWw Abm-sf- A-Xn-ib
- n-°p-Ib
- √ hnh¿ØIs‚ tPmen
F∂v km-ap-h¬ tPm¨k¨ A`n-{]m-bs-- ∏-´n-´p-≠v.
hnh¿Ø-\Ø
- ns‚ km¿∆-eu-InI XXz߃
1.
hnh¿Ø\w aqe-Ir-Xn-bn-se -B-i-b-ß-fpsS kºq¿Æ-amb ]p\¿teJ\w \n¿h-ln-°-Ww.
2.
hnh¿Ø-\-Øns‚ ssienbpw coXnbpw aqey-Ir-Xn-bp-tS-Xn\p Xpey-am-bn-cn-°-Ww.
3.
aqe-Ir-Xn-bpsS kz—-µX ]q¿Æambpw hnh¿Ø-\Øn\v ssIh-cp-I-bpw thWw.
"]p\¿ hnh¿Ø\w sNøp-tºmƒ aqe-]mTw e`y-am-Ip∂ Xc-Øn-ep≈ hnh¿Ø-\-amWv DØ-aw'˛
an®u-Uv.
F∂m¬ hn]-co-Xm-`n-{]mbw {]I-Sn-∏n®n-´p≈hcp-ap-≠v. F{_lmw Iuen-bpsS A`n-{]mbw
CXn-s\bpw DZm-lc
- W
- a
- m-Wv. ""Hcmƒ aqe-Ir-Xn-sb- ]-Zm\p ]Zw-]c
- n-`m-js
- ∏-Sp-Øm≥ {ian-°p-Ib
- m-sW-¶n¬
Hcp {`m¥≥ as‰mcp {`m¥s\ ]cn-`m-j-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂-Xm-bn-´mWv tXm∂pI''.
""hnh¿Ø\w BkzmZ-\m¿∞w hmbn-°m-hp-∂-Xm-bn-cn-°Ww'' F∂mWv ^n√n--tam-dp-sS- a-Xw.
""hniz-kvX-X-bp-sS- ssh-cp-]yhpw hnizkvXXbn√mØ kuµ-cyhpw CXp ]g-samgn t]mse
{]kn-≤-am-Wv. emh-Wym-flI cq]w ssIsIm≠p I--gn™ H∂ns\ emh-Wym-fl-I-amb as‰mcp
cq]-Øn-e-m-°pI km[ya-√. emh-Wym-flIa√mØ hnh¿Ø-\-߃ shdpw hymJym\ßfmWv F∂m¬
]p\-c-h-X-c-W-ß-sf∂ \ne-bn-e√msX kam-\m-hn-jvI-c-W-ß-fp-sS- cq-]-Øn-ep≈ hnh¿Ø--\-߃°v
Bt]£n-Ikm-[y-X-bp-≠v. \√-Xmbn Icp-X-s∏-Sp∂ hnh¿Ø-\-Øn\v Iem-kr-jvSn-sb-∂-\n-e-bn¬
au-enIamb aqey-hp-ap-≠v.''
˛ s_\-sU‰v t{ImtN
CXp-hsc N¿® sNbvX \n¿∆-N-\-ß-f-\p-k-cn®v hnh¿Ø-\-Øn¬ Ah-iyw -th≠ LS-I-߃
kp{Km-lyX, hnizm-kyX, XØp-ey-X, ku-µ-cym-fl-IX, kw£n-]vXX, kq-£vaX F∂n-h-bm-Wv-.
H-gn-hm-t°≠ tZmj-߃ Zpcq-lX Ahn-izm-ky-X, hnkvXmcw kuµ-cy-lo-\X F-∂n-hbpw hn-jb
- a
- \
- p-kc
- n®pw
hmb- \ - ° m- c p- s S - X - c - a - \ p- k - c n®pw hnhn- [ - h n- h n¿Ø- \ - c o- X n- I ƒ kzoI- c n- t °≠n hcpw. Ip´n- I ƒ
th≠n-bm-sW--¶n¬ kw{K-la
- m-Imw, km[m-cW
- °
- m¿°p th≠n--bm-sW-¶n¬ hnizm-kyhpw kp{Km-ly-hp-amb
Ah-X-c-Ww. ]fin-X-∑m¿°pw imkv{X-⁄-∑m¿°pw th≠n ]Zm-\p-]-Zw F∂n-ß-s\.
imkv { Xw, \nb- a w, `c- W w,- F - ∂ n- h bv ° v ]Zm\p ]Z- h n- h ¿Ø\w A\n- h mcy- a m- I p- t ºmƒ
k¿§m- fl - I - k m- l n- X y- Ø n¬ aqe- I r- X n- t bm- S p≈ hnizm- k y- X bv ° p ]pdta. A\p- h m- N - I ¿- ° p≈
ckm-\p-`q-Xn-bmWv hnh-¿Ø\ kz-`mhw \nb-{¥n-°p-∂-Xv. AXn-\m¬- F-√m-Øcw hnj-b-߃°pw F√m
kµ¿`- ß ƒ°pw ]‰nb H‰ imkv { Xob \n¿∆- N - \ w - I - s ≠- Ø m≥ {]bm- k - a m- W v . Bb- X n- \ m¬
Ah-\-hs‚ bp‡n°p Bfl- kwXr-]vXn-°pw- tbm-Pn-®- hn-[-Øn-ep≈ hnh¿Ø\ coXn- kzo-I-cn-°p-∂XmWv G‰hpw bp‡n kw-K-X-am-bn-´p-≈-Xv.
hnh¿Ø-\hpw Bi-b-hn-\n-a-bhpw
11
School of Distance Education
UNIT-3
hnh¿Ø-\w, hymJym-\w,- ]-cm-h¿Ø-\w, ]p\xkrjvSn
DØa hnh¿-ØI
- ≥
Ihn-Isf ]‰n ]d-bp-tºmƒ kwkvIr-XØ
- n¬ Zzn{Xm Gh Ihb: Fs∂mcp sNm√v D≤-cn-°m-dp-≠v.
P≥akn-≤a
- mb IhnXm hmk\ A\p-{Kln-®h
- ¿t° \√ IhnX Fgp-Xm-\mIq F∂m-Wn-Xns‚ Xm¬]-cyw.
hnh¿Ø-\-Øns‚ Imcy-Ønepw CXv-G-Xm≠p icn-X-s∂. hnh¿Ø\w Hcp Ie-bmWv AXn¬ {]tXyI
s
- sh-`hw t\Sn-bh
- ¿°p am{X-amWv \√ hnh¿Ø-I\
- m-Im≥ I-gn-bp-I; kmln-Xy-Øn¬ {]Xy-In®pw IhnXm
hnh¿Ø-\-Øn¬ Cu XXzw XnI®pw {]k‡w Xs∂.
Hcp-Øa hnh¿Ø-I\v D≠m-bn-cn-t°≠ KpW-߃
*
hnh¿Ø-I\v Ccp-`m-jI-fnepw {]mho-Wy-amWv BZyw -th-≠-Xv. c≠p `mj-I-fnepw icn-bmb
Adnh-pw kzm[o-\hpw D≈ Bfns\ am{Xta DØa hnh¿Ø-I\-m-Im≥ I-gn-bq. t{kmX
`mj-bn¬ ]cn-⁄m-\t- Ø-°mƒ e£y `mj-bn--ep≈ kzm[o-\Ø
- n\v hnh¿Ø-\Ø
- n¬ {]m[m\yw IqSpw.
*
s]mXp-th-bp≈ ]mfin-Xyw- hn-h¿Ø-\-Øn\v aXnbm-hp-I-bn-√. F{X-sb{X hnjb-ß-fmWv `mjbn¬ {]Xn-]m-Zn-°p-∂-Xv. DZm: imkv{Xw, kmln-Xyw, KWn-Xw, F∂n-ßs\ Ht´sd Bhm-¥-chn-`m-Kß
- f
- p-ap≠v Hmtcm-∂n-\pw. Bb-Xn-\m¬ CØcw taJ--eI
- f
- n¬ Adnhpw {]mho-Wyhpw t\tS-≠Xv
hnh¿Ø-I\v AXym-h-iy-am-Wv.
*
Hcp-Øa hnh¿-ØI
- \p th≠ kam\y KpWw {]Xyp-Xv]∂ aXn-Xz-am-Wv. kµ¿`a\p-kc
- n®v Imcyw
{Kln-°m\pw AXn-\p-]‰- nb coXn-bn¬ hnh¿Ø-\w \
- S- Øm\pw Ign-bW
- w. Cu {]Xy-ev]∂
- a
- XnXzw
s]s´∂p In´p-I-bn-√. AXn-\pw -]n-∂n¬ \o≠ km[-\bpw A\p-`-hhpw thWw. hfsc
Kl-\hpw hym]-Ih
- p-amb hmb-\b
- n¬\n-∂mWv ]Z-kº
- Øv ssIh-cp-∂X
- .v Xpd-∂ a\ pw IÆp-ambn
]pXnb ]pXnb Adn-hp-Iƒ ssIhcn-°m≥ {ian-°p∂ hnh¿Ø-I\v hnPbw e`n-°p-∂p.
*
hnh¿Ø\w Hcp inev]w sa\-s™-Sp-°p-∂-Xp-t]m-se-bp≈ {]hr-Øn-bm-Wv. AXn¬ F{X-bpw]-cn-{i-an-°mtam A{X-bpw -`w-Kn-h-cpw- A-Xn-\m¬ A≤zm-\n-°m≥ aSn-bn-√m--Ø-h¿°pw am{X-ta
-hn-h¿Ø-\-Øn¬ hn-P-bn-°m≥ ]-‰q.
*
F√m Fgp-Øp-Im¿°pw _m[-I-amb Imcy-am-sW-¶nepw hnh¿Ø-I¿ hn-ti-jn-®pw {i≤n-t°≠
Hcp Imcy-ap-≠v. BIm-hp-∂{X {i≤nv®v F√m an\p°p]Wn---Ifpw Ign-™X-n\p tijw am{Xta
"am‰¿' Xs‚ Iøn¬ \n∂p hnSm-hq. {]q^n¬ t\m°n-sIm≈mw F∂pw hnNm-cn-®m¬ _p≤ntamiam-bn-Xo-cmw.
hnh¿Ø-t\m-]I
- c
- W
- ß
- ƒ
1.
_rl-Ømb t{kmX `mjm \nL≠p
F{X- A-dn-hp≈ hy‡n-bm-sW-¶-nepw Ft∏m-gpw- F√m ]Z-ß-fp-tSbpw A¿∞-a-dn-b-W-sa-∂n-√.
A¿∞- a - d n- ™ mepw e£y- ` m- j - b nse ]cymbw Adn- b - W - a - t √m. AXn- \ m¬ t{kmX `mjbp- s S_r-l-Ømb\nL≠p \n¿_-‘-ambpw thWw.
2.
Zzn `mjm \nL≠p
e£y `mjbn-ep≈ icn-bmb ]Z-߃ I≠p ]nSn-°p-I-bmWv G‰-hpw Zp¿e-`w.. AXn\v A\ptbm-Py-amb Zzn `mjm \nL≠p Xs∂ thWw. \√ Zzn `mjm \nL≠phns‚ klm-b-an-√msX \√
hnh¿Ø\w km[y-a-√.
hnh¿Ø-\hpw Bi-b-hn-\n-a-bhpw
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School of Distance Education
3. ]cymb hn]-co-X-tImiw
]cym-b-]-Z-߃ Adn-™n-cn-s°-≠Xv {][m-\-am-Wv. ]ZßfpsS ]cymbw t]mse hn]-coX ]Zhpw
Btem-Nn® v I-≠p ]nSn®v Fgp-Xm-\p≈ kmh-Imiw e`n-°m-dn-√. Xs∂bpa√ s]-s´∂ptXm∂p-∂-]Zw
icn-bm-hp-I-bp-an-√. Chn-sS-bmWv ]cymb˛hn]-coX ]Z \nL-≠p-hns‚ {]k‡n.
4.
sd^-d≥kv
\n-L≠
- p-°ƒ t]mse AXym-hi
- y-amb as‰mcp d^d≥kv{K-Ÿhpw e£y-`m-jb
- n¬ D≠m-bn-cn-°W
- w.
`mc-Xob `mj-I-fn¬ -A-[nIw C√mØ sd^-d≥kmWv Dt±iyw. Hcp tI{µo-IrX Bib-Øns‚ hnhn[
cq]-߃ {]-I-S-am-Ip∂ ]Z-ßfpsS kw{K-lw. Hcp ]Z-Øns‚ Iogn¬ \¬Ip-I-bm-Wn-Xns‚ coXn.
Aßs\ In´p∂ ]Z-ß-fn¬ \nt∂ tbmPn-®Xv Xnc-s™-SpØv {]tbm-Kn-°m≥ Ign-bpw.
DZm: kvt\lw.
hm’-eyw, {]W-bw, t{]aw, A\p--cm-Kw, Nßm-Øw, kJyw, CjvSw, aa-X, _‘w, XmXv]c-cyw.
F∂o A¿∞-ß-fn¬ kmµ¿`n-I-ambn tbmPn® ]Zw Xnc-s™-Sp-°m≥ "sYkm-dkv' D]-I-cn-°pw.
5.
D®m-c-W -\n-L≠p
t{kmX-`m-jb
- nse ]Z-߃ hninjy AXnse hntZ-iob ]Z-߃ D®-cn-°p∂ coXn a\-kn-em-°m≥
D®m-cW \nL-≠phpw hnh¿Ø-I-s\- k-lm-bn-°pw. t{kmX-`m-j-bn¬ IqSp-X¬ ssh-ZKv[yhpw e£y`m- j - b n¬ ssh- Z - K v [ yw Ipd- h p- a mb hnh¿- Ø - I \v e£y- ` mjm \nL- ≠ p- ° fpw e£ym- ` mjm
hymI-c-Whpw Ft∏mgpw d^-d≥-kn\v e`y-ambncn-°-Ww.
6.
A] i_vZ-t_m-[n\n
hnh¿Ø\ thf-bn¬ hnh¿Ø-I¿- A-dn-bmsX hcp∂ Nne sX‰p-I-fp-≠v. t{kmX `mj-bn¬
a\ v IqSp-X¬ hym]cn°p-∂-Xn-\m¬ AXns‚ kzm-[o\w ImcWw e£y `mj-bn¬ A] i_vZ-߃
{]tbm-Kn-°m≥ km[y-X-IqSpw. A]-i_vZt_m[n\n Cu Ahk--c-Øn¬ {]tbm-Kn-°m-hp-∂-Xm-Wv.
7.
{]mtZ-inI i_vZ-t_m-[n\n
Hmtcm sNSn°pw, Hmtcm- {]m-Wn°pw tI-cf
- Ø
- nse hnhn[ `mK-ßf
- n¬ hnhn[ t]cp-If
- m-Wt- √m.
Ch-bn-te-XmWv ths≠-sX∂v Btem-Nn®v Xocp-am-\n-°Ww. DZm; Yes F∂ ]Zw hnh¿-Ø\w
sNøp- t ºmƒ- ˛ - D - ∆ v , AtX, icn, Bs´, Hm, F∂n- h - b mWv A¿∞w F¶n¬- H mtcm tZi- Ø n\pw
A\p-tbm-tP-b-am-bXv GsX-∂v I-s≠-Øm≥ {]mtZ-inI i_vZ-t_m-[n\n D]-I-m-c-am-Wv.
]m›mXy hnh¿Ø\ kn≤m-¥-߃
hnh¿Ø\w ]uc-kvXy-tZ-iß
- f
- nepw ]m›mXy tZi-ßf
- nepw km[m-cWambn-cp-∂p BZy-ambn
hnh¿Ø\ kn≤m¥w Bhn-jvIcn® ]m›mXy ]fin-X≥ {^m≥knse G‰n-sb≥ tUmse‰v (Etienne
Dolet 1509- 1546). BsW∂p ]d-b-s∏-Sp-∂p. 1540 emWv At±lw Xs‚ kn≤m-¥-߃ Ipdn-®-Xv. B
kn≤m--¥-ßf tUmse-‰n≥ ]©-X-Xz-߃-F∂pw hnfn-°mw.
1.
hnh¿ØI≥ Xm≥ hn-h¿Ø\w sNøp∂ IrXn-bpsS D≈-S-°hpw aqe-te-J-Is‚ Dt±iyhpw
`wKn-bmbn {Kln-®n-cn-°-Ww.
2.
hnh¿Ø-I\v t{kmX-`m-j-bn¬ ]q¿Æ-amb Ah-Km-lw-D-≠m-bn-cn-°Ww A{Xbpw Xs∂
Ah-Kmlw e£y `mj-bnepw thWw.
3.
]Z-Øn\p ]Zw F∂ {Ia-Øn¬ hnh¿Ø\w sN-øm-\p≈ {]hWX Hgn-hm-°-Ww. ImcWw
A- ß s\ sNøp- ∂ - X p- s Im≠v aqe- I r- X n- b psS A¿∞- Ø nepw tIm´w X´p- I bpw AXnse
Ah-X-cW `wKn \jvS-s∏-Sp-Ibpw sNøpw.
hnh¿Ø-\hpw Bi-b-hn-\n-a-bhpw
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School of Distance Education
4.
hnh¿Ø-\-Øn\v D]-tbm-Kn-°p∂ `mj km[m-c-W-{]-Nm-c-Øn-ep-≈-Xm-bn-cn°--Ww.
5.
DNn-Xa
- mb ]Z-ßfpw kap-Nn-Xa-- m-b- ]-Zh
- y-\ym-khpw sIm≠v hn-h¿Ø-I≥ Xs‚ hnh¿Ø-\Ø
- n¬
DNn-X-amb kzc hn-\ym-k-tØm-Sp-Iq-Snb samØØn-ep-≈ -^e {]nXoXn D≠m-°-Ww.
II ss{UU≥ (1680)
hnJymX Ihnbpw \ncq-]-I-\p-amb ss{UU≥ ]Xn-t\gmw iXI-Øn¬ hnh¿Ø-\-Øns‚ aq∂p
ssien-Isf ]‰n hnh-cn-®n-cn-°p-∂p.
1.
sa‰m-t{^kv (]Z-hn-h¿Ø-\w) ]Z-Øn\p ]Zhpw, hcn°p hcn-bp-ambn hnh¿-Ø\w sNøp∂ coXn.
2.
]mcm-t{^kv (]-cm-h¿Ø-\w) Cu hnh¿Ø-\Ø
- n¬ aqe teJ-Is‚ cN-\sb hfsc Ah-[m-\X
- t- bm-sSap-∂n¬ ImWp-Ibpw, A-Xnse ]Z-߃ A¿-∞sØ IqSp-X¬ -A-\p-K-an-°m≥ {ian-°pIbpw
sNøp-∂p.
3.
Can-t‰-j≥ (A-\p-I-c-Ww) Cu hnh¿Ø-\-Øn¬ aqe IrXn-bnse ]ZßtfmSpw A¿∞-tØmSpw
kzmX{¥yw ImWn-°p-∂X
- n-\p-]p-dta aqe-Ir-Xn-bpsS A¥¿KXw Bh-iy-s∏-Sp-∂Xm-bn-tXm-∂n-bm¬
aqe-Ir-Xn-bnse Nne ]Z--ßfpw A¿∞-ßfpw hn´p-I-f-bm-\pw-IqSn hnh¿Ø-I-\v- A-\p-hm-Z-ap-≠v.
III ssS-‰e
- d
- psS XXz{Xbw
kvtIm´p-e≥Up-Im-c-\mb AeIvkm≠¿t^-k¿ ssS‰ve¿ (1790) ]Xn-s\´mw \q‰m-≠nse
hnh¿Ø\ ]fin-X-\m-bn-cp-∂p.
1.
hnh¿Ø\w aqe-Ir-Xn-bnse Bibw kºq¿Æ-amb-pw Ah-X-cn-∏n-°p-∂-Xm-bn-cn-°-Ww.
2.
hnh-¿Ø-\-Ønse teJ\ coXnbpw ssienbpw aqe IrXn-bnse teJ\ coXnbpw ssienbpw
Xs∂-bm-bn-cn-°-Ww.
3.
aqe-Ir-Xn-bnse emfnXyw apgp-h\pw hnh¿Ø-\-Ønepw D≠m-bn-cn-°-Ww.
aqe-Ir-Xn-tbmSp kzmX{¥yw ImWn-°p∂ hnh¿Ø-I¿°v ISn™mWnSp-I-bmWv ssS‰ve-dpsS
Dt±-iyw.
XpeyXm kn≤m-¥-߃ (Principles of Correpondance)
GXp c≠p `mj ]cn-tim-[n-®mepw Ah {]Xo--Iß
- f
- psS A¿∞ Iev]\
- b
- ntem, ]Z_-‘ß
- f
- m-tbm
hmIy-ßf
- m-tbm {- I-as
- ∏-Sp-Øp∂ coXn-bntem, Hcn-°epw A`n-∂ß
- f
- s
- öv kv]j
- vSa
- m-Ipw. A`n∂ß-fmb
]Z߃ C√msX hcp-tºmƒ hnh¿Ø-I\v G‰hpw Xp-ey-amb ]Zw I≠p ]nSnt°-≠n-hc- pw. ASn-ÿm-\]
- c- a-- mbn
XpeyX c-≠p-X-c-Øn-em-Wp-≈-Xv.
cq] XpeyX Formal Equivalence
aqe-`m-jb
- n-kse ]Z-hm-Iy-Nt- µm--e¶-mc
- ß
- s
- f-√mw Bhp-∂{X \ne-\n¿Øn-s°m≠v \n¿∆-ln-°p∂
hnh¿Ø\amWn-Xv. hm°n\p hm°v, hmIyØn\phmIyw, F∂ a´n-ep≈ X¿P-a. aqe IrXn-tbm-Sv
]-c-am-h-[n- hn-izkvXX ]pe¿Øm\p≈ {ia-am-Wn-hn-sS-bp-≈-Xv. Nn-e-t∏mƒ Nne hnh-¿Ø-\-߃
ASn-°p-dn-∏p-Iƒ \¬In-sIm≠v hni-Zo-I-cn-t°-≠-Xmbpw hcpw.
Eg. Great one another with a holy kiss
Fs∂mcp hmIyap-≠v. hnip≤ Npw_-\-Øm¬ At\ym\yw hµ\w ]dbp-hn≥ F∂ ss__nƒ hmIyw.
ss__nƒ]pXnb \nb-aØ
- n¬ an. ]utemkv tdmam-°m¿°vF
- g- p-Xnb teJ-\Ø
- n-ep-≈X
- m-Wv CXv. ]pXnb
\nb-a-Im-eØv- \-S-∏ne-p-≠m-bn-cp∂ Hcp-A-`n-hm-Z\ coXn-bm-bn-cp∂ CXv-; F∂v ASn-°p-dn∏p \¬In
h-n-iZ-o-I-cn-t°-≠n-h-cpw.
hnh¿Ø-\hpw Bi-b-hn-\n-a-bhpw
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School of Distance Education
Ne-\m-flI XpeyX
e£y `mj- b p- s S - k w- k v I m- c - Ø n- \ n- W - ß p- ∂ - h n- [ - Ø n¬ XnI™ kzm`m- h n- I - X - t bmsS
\n¿∆-ln-°s
- ∏-Sp∂ hnh¿Ø-\a
- m-Wn-Xv. kzoI¿Ømhv t{kmX `mj-bpsS kmw-kvIm-cnI khn-ti-jX
- I
- ƒ
Adn- b - W - s a- t ∂m Dƒs°m- ≈ - W - s at∂m D≈ \n¿_‘- _ p≤n Chn- s S- b n- √ . t\csØ ]d™
DZm-l-cWw sh®p-Xs∂ t\m°mw.
Eg. Great one another with a holy kiss
F∂ ss__nƒ hmIyw Living Bible version F∂ {KŸ-Øn¬ shake hands warm with each other
F∂mWp ]cn`m-j-s∏-Sp-Øn-bn-cn°p-∂-Xv.
cq]Xp-ey-Xbpw Ne-\m-fl-I-Xp-eyX-bpw hnh¿Ø-\-Øns‚ c≠p `n∂ {[ph-ßfm-Wv. F√m
hnh¿Ø\ß-fp-tSbpw ÿm\w Cu c≠p {Zph-߃-°n-Sb
- n-em-Wv. cq]-Xp-eyXm ]cn-`mj F∂-Xp-sIm-≠v
]-Zm-\p-]Z ]cn-`m-j. F∂-mWv A¿∞-am-°p-∂-Xv.
hmIym¿∞w am{Xw {]kv‡a
- mb k¿v°
- m¿ DØ-ch
- p-Iƒ, `m-h\
- m-hym-]m-cØns‚ t\-cnb kv]¿iw
t]mepan-√mØ imkv{X teJ-\-߃ kmt¶-XnI hnh-c-߃, DS-ºSn-Iƒ XpS-ßn-b-hbv°v ]Zm-\p-]Z
hnh-¿Ø\w tbm-Pn-°pw. F∂m¬aqe IrXn-bpsS cq]-]-c-amb ISpw]nSpØ-ß-fn¬ \n∂v Hs´ms°
hy‡-am-bXpw, D≈-S-°-Øns‚ {]m[m\yw sImSpØp sIm-≠pf-f-Xp-amb kzX{¥ ]cn-`m-j-I-fmWv
Ne\-\mfl-I- -XpeyX ]pe-¿-Øp-∂-Xv.
]cn-`m-j-bn¬-FSp°p∂ kzmX-{¥y-Øns‚ Af-h-\p-k-cn®v Ne-\m-fl-IX Xpey-X-bv°v c≠p
hn-`m-K߃ I¬-∏n-°mw.
tIkcn _me-Ir-jvW-]n≈ Chbv°v kzmX{¥yw, F∂pw XXzm-\p-cq-]w -F∂pw t]cn-Sp-∂p.
s{]m^ Fkv. Kp]vX≥ \mb¿ \n¿t±-in-°p∂ GI-tZi X¿-÷a (Freetranslation) ]p\:-kr-jvSn
(re-creation) F∂o \ma-IcWßfm¬ Adn-b-s∏-Sp-∂Xpw CXp-s∂.
hnh¿Ø\w
A¥¿`mjm hnh¿Ø\w
cq]-Xp-e-yX
`mjm-¥c hnh¿Ø\w
Nn”m-¥c hnh¿Ø\w
Ne-\m-flI Xpe-yX
]Zm-\p-hn-h¿Ø\w
eg:ssh⁄m-\nI
{KŸw
GIm-tZi X¿÷a
aX-{KŸw
(k-z-X{¥ X¿÷-a)
eg:imIp-¥f ]cn-`mj
taL-ZqX ]cn-`mj
hnh¿Ø-\hpw Bi-b-hn-\n-a-bhpw
]p\krjvSn XX-zm-\p-cq]w
eg:cma-N-cnXw \ncWw
IrXn-Iƒ
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School of Distance Education
UNIT-4
]cn-`m-jbpw kwkvIm-chpw
hnh¿Ø-I≥ b-Ym¿∞-Øn¬ Kuch_p≤ym t{kmX-`m-j-bnse kwkv-Im-c-Øn-s‚-cq]w e£y
`mj-sb∂ am[y-Øn-eqsS Nn{Xo-Ic
- n-°p-Ib
- mWv sNøp-∂X
- .v ka¿∞-\m-bh
- n-h¿Ø-I≥ CXv A\m-bm-tk\
sNøp-∂p-sh-s∂ms° ]d--™mepw bYm¿∞-Øn¬ Hcp `mj-bnse X\Xp kwkvImcw ]e {]tXy-IX
- I
- ƒ
Dƒs°m-≈p-∂-Xn-\m¬ AXn-s\- a-s‰mcp `mj-bn¬ bYm-X-Y-am-bn- A-h-X-cn-∏n-°m≥ hnj-a-am-Wv.
kwkvImcw F∂-]Zw ]e aWvU-e-ß-fnepw A¿∞t`--Z-ß-fnepw {]tbm-Kn-°p-∂p. ]t£
]cn-`mj-bn¬ kwkvIm-cØ
- n-\p≈ ÿm\-sØ-]‰- n- K-l\
- a
- mbn Nn¥n® C≥t-Um¿ ]n©Iv (Indore pinchuk)
F∂p ]fin-X≥ kb‚n-^nIv B‚ v sS°n-\n-°¬ {Sm≥kvtej≥ F∂ IrXn-bn¬ kw--kvIm-csØ
hnkvX-cn®v A]-{K-Yn-®n-´p-≠v. kwkvImcw F∂ io¿j-I-Øn¬ Dƒs∏-Sp-Øm-hp∂ hnj-b-ßsf A©p
hn[-ß-fm-bn-Xn-cn-°mw.
1. ]cn-k-c-hn-⁄m\w (Ecology)
2. kmaq-ly-_‘
-- ß
- ƒ (Social Relations)
3. kmt¶-XnI hnZy (Technology)
4. hnizm-k-ßfpw aqey-ßfpw (Beliefs and values)
5. `mjbpw Iebpw (Language and art)
Ch-sb√mw tN¿∂mWv Hcp `mj kwkm-cn-°p∂ P\-XbpsS kwkvImcw cq]-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂-Xv.
Hmtcm `mjbv°pw X\Xp kwkvIm-c-ap-≠v. X\-Xp- kw-kvIm--c-Øns‚ {]Xo-I-ß-fm-b- ]-Z-߃ hnh¿-Ø\-Øn-\v hgßmdn√.
]cn-k-c-hn-⁄m\w
`uXnI ]cn-k-c-amWv CXnse {]-[m\ LS-Iw, tIc-f-Øns‚ khn-ti-j-X-I-fmb- -Im--b¬, aetbm-cw, tXmSv, IS¬, ]p©-∏m-Sw,-ssI-tØmSv XpS-ßn-bh ]pc-bn-Sw, ]Sn-∏p-c, ]qapJw, XpSßnbh
hoSns‚ `mK-߃, Rm‰p-th-e, tImƒ CS-h-∏m-Xn, XpSßnb {]IrXn {]Xn-`m-k-߃ Ch-sbms° X\n
tIc-fo-ba
- m-Wv.
kmaqly _‘-߃
Cu io¿j-I-Øn¬Io-gn¬ ]e hnj-bß
-- ƒ hcpw. ÿm]-\-߃, Xd, Iq´w, tbmKw XpS-ßn- ]e-Xp-ap-≠v. PmXn Xncn®v Krl-߃°p-t]mepw t]cp amdp-∂p.- a\ C√w aTw XpS-ßn-bh {_m-“W Krlß-tfbpw, Imhv Aº-e-tØbpw Ipdn-°p-∂p.
kaq-l-Ønse D® \oNXzw `mj-bn¬ {]Xn-^-en-°p-∂p. PmXn-bn¬ A[n-jvTn-X-ambXpw `qhp-Sa-ÿ-X-sb-B-{i-bn-®p-amWv Cu D®-\o-N-Xz-߃. Xºp-cm≥, Xncp-ta-\n, P∑n, IpSn-bm≥ ]m´-°m-c≥
ASn-b≥, DSa XpS-ßnb ]Z-߃ Cu hy-h-ÿn-Xn-bpsS kw`m-h\Ifm-Wv. Ch-bpsS kmwKXyw kµ¿`m\p-kr-X-am-Wv.
kmt¶-XnI hnZy
B[p\--nI kmt¶-XnIhnZysb kw_-‘n-®n-S-tØm-fw -ln-µnbpw aeb-m-fhpw Hcp t]mse ]m›mXy-]-Zm-h-en-sb -B-{i-bn-°p-∂p. ]m›mXy ]Zw `mjm en]n-bn¬- F-gp-Xp-tºmƒ c≠p `mj-°m-cpwA¬∏m¬∏w `n∂ cq]-Øn¬ Fgp-Xp-∂-sh∂ A¥-c-ap-≠v.
hnh¿Ø-\hpw Bi-b-hn-\n-a-bhpw
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School of Distance Education
]m--›X
- y-hn-Zy-bnse X¿P-ab
- p-ambn `mjm ]fin-X≥am¿ kz¥w km-t¶-XnI ]Z-߃ \n¿an-®n-´p-≠v.
Ch an°-hmdpw kwkvIr-X {-- ]-`m-hß
- f
- m-Wv. F¶nepw X¬k-a]
- Z- ß
- ƒ Dƒs°m--≈p-tºmƒ Ah-ch
- c
- psS
bp‡n-°-\p-cn®v Awi-]-Z-߃°v IqSp-X¬ Du∂¬ \¬Ip-∂p.
Eg: sSIvt\m-f-Pn˛ kmt¶-Xn-I- hn-Zy ]c-º-cm-K-X-amb km¶-XnI hnZy-]-c-º-cm-K-X-amb F{X-tbmkw-⁄-Iƒ ae-bm-f-Øn¬ D≠v. Irjnsb kw_-‘n®p≈ ]Z--߃°v IW-°n-√. a©mSn, s\√n-°,]-Wa
- nS Ig-©v, ^ew XpS-ßn-bh
- . Ch-sbms° ep]vX{- ]-Nm-ca
- m-sb¶nepw Ft∏m-sg-¶nepw hnh¿-ØI
- s
- ‚ap-ºn-¬ h∂p-s]-Sm-Xn-cn-°n-√.
Cuizc hnizm-khpw aXm-Nm-cß
- f
- n-ep≈ hnizm-khpw `mc-Xo-bc
- psS s]mXp-hmb {]tXy-IX
- b
- m-Wv.
F¶nepw Ah-bpsS _mly cq]-Øn¬ Hmtcm `mj-°m¿°n-S-bn-epw -hy-Xymkw ImWp-∂p.
a.
NmØ≥, amS≥, b£n, adp-X, £p{Z -ssZ-h-߃
b.
IY-I-fn, tImew, ]S-b-Wn, IqØv, sXøw, sI´p ImgvN XpS-ßn-b -t£-{X-I-e-Iƒ.
c.
sN-≠, Xnan-e, CSbv°, sImºv, tN¶n-e, XpS-ßn-b -t£-{X-hm-Zy-߃.
Ch-sb-√mw- X\n tIc-fo--am-b-Xn-\m¬ hnh¿Ø-\-Øn¬ en]y-¥-c-W-a-√msX a‰p-am¿§--hp-an-√.
]g--s©m-√p-I-fn-eqsS {]N-cn-®p-h-cp∂ hyXym-k-߃ ]g-b- ]m-c-º-cy-Øns‚ Nn”-ß-fm-Wv.
AXp-t]mse ]Sn-b-S®p ]nfiw sh°p-I,-- Hm-Om-\n®p \n¬°-pI Gdm≥ aqfpI XpS-ßnb {]tbm-Kß
-- ƒ
kaq- l - Ø nse Nne ]gb aqey- ß - s f- b mWv Hm¿an- ∏ n- ° p- ∂ - X v . C∂h amdn- b n--c n- ° p- ∂ p- s h- ¶ nepw
]g-b-Im-cy-߃ Fgp-Xp-tºmtgm ]gb IrXn-Iƒ hnh¿-Ø\w sNøp-tºmtgm Ah-°p≈ {]m[m\yw
Ah-K-Wn-°m-hp-∂-X-√.
`mj-bpw-I-ebpw
a-e-bm-fw- tI-c-f-sa-∂ -sN-dnb kwÿm-\sØ `mjbm-sW-¶nepw `mjm-t`-Z-ß-tf-sd-bp-≠v.
{]tZ-im-[n-jvTn-Xhpw PmXym-[n-jvTn-Xhpw sXmgn-e-[n-jvT-X-hp-sam-s°-bm-bn-]e ae-bm-f-t`-Z-ß-fpap-≠v.
{]mtZ-in-I-t`-Z-߃ ]cn-`m-j-s]-]-Sp-Øp-hm≥ e-£y-`m-j-bnse GsX-¶nepw Hcp `mK-sØ -U-b-eIvSv
D]-tbm-Kn-°p∂Xn\v {]tXy-I-bp‡n I≠p ]nSn-t°≠n h-cpw. As√-¶n¬ Ain--£n-X-cmb Bfp-Iƒ
km[m-cW kwkm-cn-°p∂ ssien-bn¬ X¿÷a \n¿h--ln-®v kzbw Xr]vXn-t\-tS-≠n-h-cpw.
kwkvIm-c-Øn-s‚ -hn-hn[ LS-I-ß-fn-ep≈ ]Z-߃ hnh¿Ø\w sNø-s∏-Sm-hp-∂-X-s√∂
\nK-a-\Ø
-- n¬ \mw GXm≠v FØn-tN-¿∂ncn°p-∂p. ]t£ Cu \n-K-a\w hnh¿Ø\ {]ÿm-\-Øn-\v
lm-\n-Ic
- a
- m-Wv.
{]-tXyIw Dt±-iy-tØm-Sp-Iq-Sn X\Xp kmwkvIm-cn-I]
- Z- ß
- ƒ t{kmX-`m-jb
- n¬ {]tbm-Kn-®n-´p-s≠-¶n¬
AXn-√m-Xm-Ip--tºmƒ ]-cn-`m-j-bpsS kzm¿∞-IXzw \jvS-s∏Spw. ssien-Iƒ hmNym-¿∞Øn\p-]-Icw
e£ym¿∞hpw hywKym¿∞-hp-amWv [z\n-∏n-°p-∂X
- v. ]Zm-\p-]Z X¿÷a-ssi-en-sb- \-jvSs∏Sp-Øp-Itb
D≈q. imk{X, kmaqly imkv{X {KŸ-ß-fn¬ t{kmX`mj--bnse ]Z-߃ A[n-{]-[m-\-am-Wv.
icn-bmb ]cn-`mj ]Zw In´p-∂n-s√-¶n¬ aq-e]-Zw -X-s∂- ]-cn-`m-j-I-fnepw {]tbm--Kn-°-Ww.
`n∂kw-kI
v m-cß
- sf _‘n-∏n-°p-hm≥ a\p-jy≥ `m-js
- Im≠v krjvSn-°p∂ ]me-amWv hnh¿Ø-\w.C‚¿s\-‰n-s‚- B-hn¿`m-ht- ØmsS ]c-kv]c
- m-ib
- Ø
- ns‚ hn\n-ab
- k
- m-[yX A\-¥a
- mbn h¿≤n-®n-cn-°p-∂p.
A¥¿-tZ-io-b-X-e-Øn¬ -cm-jv{S-߃ XΩn-ep≈ _‘w IqSp-X¬ sa®-s∏-Sp-Øm-\pw -Hcp cmPy-Øns‚
kzXz ap{Z-Iƒ a‰p-cm-Py-߃°pw- ]-cn-N-b-s∏--Sp-Øm\pw hnh¿Ø\w klm-b-I-am-hp-∂p.
hyXykvX cmPy-ßf
- nse hmb-\°
- m¿°p Fgp-Øp-Im¿°pw \ncq-]I
- ¿
- °pw ]c-k]
v cw _‘-s∏-Sm≥
hn-h¿Ø\w klm-bn-°p-∂p. imkv{Xw, -X-Xz-Nn-¥, cm-jv{S-X{¥w XpS-ßnb taJ-e-I-fn-te°pw
hnh¿-Ø-\-Øn\v A]m-c-am-b- km-[yX-I-fm-Wp-≈-Xv. A\y kwkvImcsØ kzmwio-I-cn-®p-sIm≠v
AXns‚ B[n-]-Xy-sØ -sN-dp-°m≥ hn-h¿Ø\w klm-bn-°p-∂p.
hnh¿Ø-\hpw Bi-b-hn-\n-a-bhpw
17
School of Distance Education
`mc-Xs
- Ø-t]mse `n∂ `mj-Iƒ kw-km-cn-°p∂ Hcp cmPyØv Bfp-Iƒ°v ]c-kv]cw CS-]g- I
- m≥
]cn-`m-jb
- √
- msX thsd hgn-bn-√. `mc-XØ
- ns‚ {]mNo\ al-XzsØ C∂pw temIw BZ-cn-°p-∂ps≠¶n¬
AXns‚ ImcWw \ΩpsS ]pcm-X\ {KŸßfpsS -]-cn-`m-j-I-fm-Wv.
hnh¿Ø-\-Øns‚-N-cn{Xw hfsc Zo¿L-am-sW¶nepw 1950 I-fn¬ am{X-amWv Hcp sXmgn¬ F∂
\neb-n¬ hnh¿Ø\w Aw-Ko-Ic
- n-°s
- ∏-Sp-∂X
- v. International Federation of translators F∂ kwL-S\
- b
- psS
ÿm]-\t- Øm-sS-bmWv hnh¿Ø\ kwcw-`ß
- ƒ kPo-ha- m-bX
- .v CtXmsS kmln-Xy-Øn¬\n∂pw kmln-tXy-Xc
hnj-b-ß-fn-te-tIIpw hnh-¿Ø-\-Øns‚ taJe am‰-s∏-´p. B[p-\n-I-Im-eØv Hcp kzX{¥ taJ-e-sb-∂\n-e-bn¬ hnhn[ kwkvIm-c-߃°n-S-bn¬- H-cp-]m-e-am-bpw- G-Io-I-cW i‡n-bm-bpw- h¿Øn-°m≥
hn-h¿Ø-I\p Ign-bp-∂p. hy-XykvX `mj-If
- n-se-gp-Xs
- ∏´ kmln-Xy-Øn-te°v AXv hmXn¬ Xpd-∂n-Sp-∂p.
tdma≥ bm-t°m-_vks‚ A`n-{]m-bØ
- n¬ ""-Hc
- p-`m-jb
- psS hmMvab Nn”߃ sIm≠p \¬Ip∂
hymJym-\a
- mWv hnh¿Ø\w''. Npcp-°Ø
- n¬ hn-h¿Ø-I≥ `mj-Is
- f-b√
- , kwkvIm-cs
- Ø-bmWv hnh¿Ø-\wsN-øp-∂-Xv.
Hcp `mj-bn¬ \n∂p- a-s‰m-cp- `m-jb
- n-se-°p≈ hnh¿Ø\w A\m-bm-ktam- hn-ja
- I
- c
- tam BIp-∂Xv
kwkvIm-cß
-- ƒ XΩn-ep≈ hyXym-kwsIm≠v.
]cn-`m-jb
- psS ]cn-an-Xn-Iƒ
hnh¿Ø--\Ø
- ns‚ e£Ww ]d-bp∂ ÿ-es
- Ø√mw Hcp `mj-bnse kma-{Kn- a-s‰mcp `mj-bn-te-°v
hnh-¿Ø
- \w sN-øp-∂I
- mcyw ]d-bm-dp-≠.v \qdp-iX
- a-- m\w hnh¿Ø-\s
- a∂ k¶ev]w k¶¬]w am{X-am-bnt´
Ccn-°m-dp-≈q. {]tbm-K-Øn¬ CXp an°-hm-dpw- -A-km-[y-amWv. hnh¿Ø\ {]{In-b°v AXnt‚-Xmb
]cn-an-X-I-fp-≠v. sP.-kn. Iym‰v t^m¿Uv hnh¿Ø\ ]cn-an-Xn-Isf `mjn-I-sa∂pw kmw-kvIm-cn-Is-- a∂pw
Xcp Xncn-°p-∂p. A¥n-a-ambn c≠pw Htc Xc-Øn-emWv hnh-¿Ø-Is\ A`n-apJoI-cn-°p--∂-Xv.
hnh¿Ø-\-Øn¬ t{kmX-`m-j-bnse ]Zß-fpsS D®m-cWw AtX t]mse- Nne e£y`mjI-fn¬
{]-Z¿in∏n°p-hm≥ km-[n-°msX hcp-∂p. kwkvIrX `mjm ]Z-߃ X-an-gn¬ Fgp-Xp-tºmƒ- D-≠m-Ip-∂]-cn-anXn CXn\v DZm-l-c-W-am-Wv. kw-kvIr-X-Ønse kp{Ko-h≥ X-an-gn¬ NpIvco-h≥ -B-Wv.
`m-j-bpsS hymI-c-WsØ kw_-‘n®v t\m°p-tºmƒ aqe-`m-j-bnse cq]-߃ -A-tX-t]m-se
-e-£y-`m-j-bn¬ {]-tbm-Kn-°m≥ km[n-°msX hcp-∂-Xpw -H-cp- ]-cn-an-Xn -X-s∂-bm-Wv. t{kmX-`m-j-bn¬
i_vZm-t«jw sIm≠v c≠¿∞w hcm-sa¶nepw AXp- e-£y-`m-jb
- n¬ h-cp-Øm≥ km[n-°n-√. kmwkvIm-cnI
]cn-an-Xnbpw `mjm ]cn-an-Xn-sb-°mƒ IqSp-X¬ {]-I-S-ambn hnh-¿ØIs\ _p≤n-ap-´n-°p∂p. -Nn-e-t∏mƒ
Hcp `mj-bnse \√ -{]-tbmKw as‰m-cp- `m-j-bn¬ A]--cn-Nn-Xhpw t¢i-hp-am-bn-Xo-cmw.
t\mh-enepw IY-If
- n-epw a
- ‰pw CØcw ]cn-an-Xn--Iƒ D≈ ÿeØv {]k-‡`- mKw IYm-LS- \
- bv°pw
a‰pw AXym-hi
- y-ap-≈X
- s
- √-¶n¬ hn´p-If
- b
- m-dp-≠.v ae-bm-fØ
- n¬ \n∂ Cw•ojn-te°v hnh¿Ø\w sNøp--∂
t- \m-he
- n¬ Hcp tIc-fo-b- hn-hmlk-ZybpsS hnkvXc
- n® h¿Æ-\b
- p-sS h
- n-h¿Ø-\w t- h-Ws
- a-¶n¬ H
- g- n-hm-°W
- w.
Hcp \√ hnh-¿Ø-I\v D≠m-bn-cn-t°-≠- tbm-Ky-X-Iƒ
1.
hnj-b-{Km-lyX
2.
aqe-`m-j-bp-tSbpw e£y-`m-j-bp-tS-bpw -L-S-\-bn-ep≈ Ah-Km-lw.
3.
aqe-`m-j-bnse D≈-S-°-sØ- lr-Zy-amb ssien-bn¬
Nn-´-bmbn e£y-`m-j-bn¬ Ah-X-cn-∏n-°m-\p≈ {]Xn-`.
4.
A\p-hm-N-I-\p-ambn hy‡n-]-c-amb _‘w ÿm]n®v lr-Z-b-kw-hmZw \S-Øp-hm-dp≈ Ign-hv.
A¿∞-i-¶-bv°nSw sImSp-°m-sX-
en]y-¥c
- Ww (Trans literation)
Hcp `mj as‰mcp `mj-bpsS en]n-bn¬- F-gp-Xp∂ {]{In-b-bmWv en∏y-¥-c-Ww.
eg: How old are you- F∂-Xns\ lu HmƒUv B¿ bq. F∂ ae-bmfw en]n-bn¬ B°p-∂Xv
en]y-¥-c-W-am-Wv. en]y-¥-c-W-Øn¬ en]n -am-{X-ta -am-dp-∂p≈q `mj am-dp-∂n-√.
hnh¿Ø-\hpw Bi-b-hn-\n-a-bhpw
18
School of Distance Education
UNIT-5
hnh¿Ø-\hpw kmt¶-Xn-I-hn-Zybpw
b{¥ X¿Pa
Iºyq- ´ ¿ `mjm- i m- k v { Xw F∂ \qX\ hn⁄m- \ - i m- J - b psS \m\m- a p- J - a mb hnImkw
ASn-ÿm-\]
- c
- a
- mbn ]d-™m¬ b{¥ X¿P-ab
- psS hnhn-[a
- p-Jß
- sf kv]¿in-°p∂ Kth-jW ]T-\ß
- sf
Bkv]-Z-am-°n-bmWv D≠m-°n-bn-´p≈Xv. 1940 Iƒ°p ap≥]v, kzbw t{]cnX KW-\-Øn\v Bh-iy-amb
kp{]-[m\ LS-Iß
- ƒ Is≠-Øn-°g- n-™n-cp-∂n-√. F¶n-epw, ]cn-`mjm cwKØv ]Xn-hmbn I≠pap-´m-dp≈
]e {]iv\ß
- f
- p-sSbpw ]cn-lmcw b{¥ klm-bt- Øm-Sp-IqSn km[n-°m-hp-∂t- X-bp-≈p F∂v BZy-ambn
Nq≠n ImWn-®Xv 1933 ¬ kvan¿t\mhv t{SmP≥kvIn F∂ djy-°m-c-\m-Wv. F∂m¬ BZy-sam∂pw
P\-k-ΩnXn e`n-°m-Xn-cp∂ Cu Bi-b-Øn\v H∂mw Xe-ap-d-bn¬s∏´ Iºyq-´-dp-Iƒ \S-∏n¬ h∂-Xn-\ptijw 1946 ¬ Hcp-bn¿sØ-gp-t∂¬∏p-≠m-bn. F.-Un. _qØpw hmd≥ hoh-dp-amWv b{¥-X¿÷-a-sb°p-dn-®p≈ B N¿®-I-fn¬ kPo-h-ambn ]¶p-sIm-≠n-cp-∂Xv. 1949 ¬ b{¥ X¿÷-a-I-fpsS km[y-Xbpw
A`n-e-j-Wo-b-X-Ifpw Nq≠n ImWn-®p-sIm≠v hnhn[ cmPy-ß-fnse hnZ-KvZ¿°v "hoh¿' Ab®
satΩmdm≠w b{¥ X¿P-a-bpsS Ncn-{X-Øn¬ \n¿Æm-b-I-amb Hcp hgn-Øn-cn-hm-bn-cp-∂p. 1958
Bb- t ∏m- t g°pw Ata- c n- ° - b n¬ am{Xw Dt±iw 20 hn`n∂ kwL- ß ƒ b{¥- X ¿P- a - s b- ° p- d n®v
Xm¥m-ß-fp-tS-Xmb ]≤-Xn-Iƒ Bhn-jv°-cn-°p-∂-Xn¬ _≤-{i-≤-cmbn Ign-™n-cp-∂p. djy, Cw•≠v
XpSßn b{¥-h-XvIrX ]cn-jv°mcw ap∂n-´p \n∂ a‰p cmPy-ß-fn-tebpw Kth-j-I¿ Cu cwK-tØ°v
Xn°n Xnc°n Ib-dn-h-∂p.
CsXm-s°bmsW¶nepw B ]Xn-‰m-≠n¬ b{¥ X¿P-abv°v Imcy am{X-amb hnIm-k-sam∂pw
D≠m-bn-√. 1957 ¬ tNmwkvIn-bpsS hmIy kwc-N-\-Iƒ (Syntactic structures) F∂ {KŸw {]kn-≤n-IrX-am-Ip-∂-Xp-hsc b{¥ X¿P-a-bpsS hnImkw GXm≠v kpjva-\m-h-ÿ-bn-em-bn-cp-∂p.
\mep L´-߃
NphsS ImWn-°p∂ {]Imcw \mep L´-߃ b{¥ X¿÷-ab
- psS A\p-t]-£W
- ob LS-Iß
- f
- m-Wv.
\nL≠p
]cn-tim-[\
t{kmX
]mT-Øns‚
A]-{K-Y\w
kz-cq-]-hn-\n-abw
e£-y-]m-T-Øns‚
DZv{K-Y\w
{]k-‡-amb Hmtcm t{kmX-]m-Tmw-ihpw t{kmX `mj-bn¬ AwKo-Ir-X-amb ]Z-k-©-b-Øn¬
Dƒs∏-´-XmtWm F∂pw BsW-¶n¬ kwib teiw IqSmsX GXp `mj-W-Øns‚ {]Xn-\n-[n-sb∂pw
Xocp-am-\n-°pI. AXm-bXv Hmtcm t{kmX-]m-Tmw-i-Øn-t‚bpw A\-\yXz ÿm]\w CXmWv b{¥
X¿P-a-bpsS BZy L´-Øns‚ e£yw.
t{kmX-]m-T-Øns‚ kz`mhw
imkv{X kmlnXy IrXn-Itfm Ah-bpsS {]k‡ `mK-ßtfm BWv an°-t∏mgpw b{¥
X¿P- a - ° mbn ssIs°m- ≈ m- d p≈ t{kmX- ] m- T w, b{¥ X¿Pabn¬ t{kmX- ] mTw an°- t ∏mgpw
enJn-X-cq-]-Øn-em-bn-cn-°pw. ImcWw D‡ cq]-tØ-°mƒ enJn-X-cq]w ssIImcyw sNøm-\mWv
b{¥-Øn\v IqSp-X¬ kuI-cyw. enJnX `mjm-cq]w am{X-amWv Ct∏mƒ b{¥ X¿PabpsS ^e-ambn
b{¥Øn¬\n∂p e`n-°m-dp-≈-Xv.
hnh¿Ø-\hpw Bi-b-hn-\n-a-bhpw
19
School of Distance Education
b{¥ {Kmly-cq]w
t{kmX ]mT-Øns‚ b{¥ {Kmly-cq]w sas\-s™-Sp-°p-Ib
- mWv b{¥ X¿Pabnse BZysØ]Sn.
CXn-t∏mƒ ssS∏p sNøp-∂-Xp-t]msebp≈ Hcp {]{In-b-am-{X-am-Wv. B\pImen-I-߃ A®-Sn-°p-∂-Xnt\m-sSm∏w Xs∂ teJ-\-ß-fpsS b{¥ {Kmly cq]-Ønse ]e {]Xn-Ifpw IqSn \n¿Ωn-°m-\mWv
Ct∏m-gsØ ]cn -{i-aw. b{¥ hXvIr-X-amb A®p \nc-Ø-ens‚ kzm`m-hn-I-amb Dt]m-Xv∏-∂-amhpw
CØcw AwKo-IrX ]I¿∏p-Iƒ.
\nL≠p ]cn-tim-[\
b{¥ ]cn- ` m- j m- K - t h- j - W - Ø ns‚ BZy L´- Ø n¬ km[m- c W \nL- ≠ p- ° ƒ Xs∂
Iºyq-´-dns‚ saΩ-dn-bn¬ tiJ-cn®p sh°p-I-bmWv BZyw D≠m-b-Xv.
t{kmX-]m-Tm-]-{K-Y\w
t{kmX-]m-Tm-]-{K-Y\w F∂ c≠mw L´-Øn¬ {][m-\-s∏´ c≠p-Xcw kao-]-\-co-Xn-I-fmWv
]cm--a¿in-°p-∂-Xv.
1)
t{kmX-`mjm hymI-c-Whpw IqSn Iºyq-´¿ t{]m{Km-an¬ Dƒs°m-≈n-°pI. AXy-¥w-i-‡hpw
ka¿Y-hp-amWv Cu coXn. GsX-¶nepw `mjm-hn-⁄m-\nbpw Iºyq-´¿ hnZ-Kv[\pw XΩn-ep≈
kl- I - c Ww ChnsS A\p- t ]- £ - W o- b - a m- b n- Ø o- c pw. Iºyq- ´ ¿ t{]m{Kmw AXy- [ nIw
k¶o¿Æ-am-hp-Ibpw sNøpw.
2)
Iºyq-´¿ t{]m{Km-ans‚ kmam\y kz`mhw Bhp-∂{X ]cn-c-£n-°p-Ibpw AXn¬ Dƒs∏-SmsX
kzX-{¥-ambn \n¬°p∂ ]´n-Ib
- psS cq]-Øn¬ t{kmX `mjm hymI-cWw Npa-°p-Ibpw sNøpI
t{]m{Km-anse \n¿t±-iß
- ƒ°-\p-kc
- W
- a
- mbn Iºyq-´d- n\p ssIImcyw sNtø-≠p∂ kma-{Kn-If
- n¬
H∂v F∂ ]Zhn am{Xta hymI-c-W-Øn\v Cu k{º-Zm-b-Øn¬ D≈p. `mjm hn⁄m-\n°pw
Iºyq-´¿ hnZ-Kv[\pw At\ym-\ym-{in-XXzw Hgn-hm°mw F∂-XmWv Cu k{º-Zm-b-Øns‚
{]I-S-amb sa®w.
kzcq-]-hn-\n-abw
Cu L´-Øn¬ C∂p≈ {]iv\-ß-fn¬ an°Xpw Ime-{I-taW `mjm-]-{K-Y\ kn≤m-¥-߃°v
IqSp- X ¬ sI´p- d ∏p ssIh- c p- ∂ - t XmsS kzb- t ah ]cn- l r- X - a m- h p- s a- ∂ p- t hWw {]Xn- £ n- ° m≥.
t{kmX-˛-e£y `mj-Iƒ At\ym\yw hfsctbsd _‘-s∏-´-h-bm-sW-¶n¬ Cu L´-Øn¬ XcWw
sNøp∂ sshj-ay-߃ FÆ-Øn¬ Ipd-hm-bn-cn-°pw. \n¿±njvS t{kmX-˛-e£y `mj-Isf hnh¿Ø\
\nb-a-ß-fn-eqsS At\ym\yw _‘-s∏-Sp-Øp∂ b{¥ ]cn-`mjm ]≤-Xn-I-fn-emWv an° Kth-j-Icpw
Ct∂mfw {i≤n®p t]m∂n-´p-≈Xv.
lnµn
Xangv
{^©v
ae-bmfw
s]mXp-`mj
P¿Ω≥
djy≥
ssN\okv
Cw-•ojv
e£y]mtTm-Zv{K-Y\w
e£y ]mtTm-Zv{K-Y\w F∂ \memw L´-Øn\pw a‰p L´-߃ t]mse D] hn`m-K-߃
Iev]n-t°-≠n-h-cpw.
hnh¿Ø-\hpw Bi-b-hn-\n-a-bhpw
20
School of Distance Education
1)
Cu°q-´-Øn¬ G‰hpw {][m\w X¿Pabn¬ {]k-‡n-bp≈ Hmtcm t{kmX ]mTmw-i-Øn\pw
ka-aq-ey-amb e£y ]mTmwiw hnhn[ km[y-X-I-fn¬ \n∂p Xnc-s™-Sp-°pI F∂-Xm-Wv.
hymI-cW
- ]
- c- hpw kl-ÿnXn ]c-hp-amb ]e hkvXp-XI
- fpw Cu Ah-kc- Ø
- n¬ ]cn-KW
- n-t°-≠X
- p-≠.v
2)
e£y `mj- b psS kz\na Imfiw, cq]- k z\nam Imfiw, hymI- c Ww F∂n- ß - s \- b p≈
F√m Xe-ßt- fbpw kv]¿in-°p-∂h
- bpw B `mj-bpsS X\Xp {]tXy-IX
- I
- ƒ°n-Wß
- nbhbp-amb
`mj-Wmw-i-߃ bYm-ÿm\w hy\y-kn-®mte e£y ]mTw X´p XS-hp-an-√msX hmbn®p
t]mI-Ø-°-Xm-hq.
3)
A[ym-b-߃. ]pd-߃, Jfin-I-Iƒ hcn-Iƒ apX-emb ]mT hn`m-K-߃ \n¿Æ-bn-°epw e£y
]mTm-]-{K-Y-\-Øn¬ hcp-∂p.
ta¬ hnh- c n® L´- ß - f n¬ Hmtcm- ∂ nepw b{¥Øn\v Gs‰- S Øp Xr]v X n- I - c amw hÆw
\n¿h-ln-°m-\m-hp∂ Npa-Xe
- I
- ƒ°v ]e ]cn-an-Xn-If
- p-ap-≠.v A¿Y i¶bv°v ]gp-Xn-√mØ hn[w ]cn-lc
- n®p
\¬In-bm¬ Iºyq-´-dn\v B \nb-a-߃ A\y-£cw A\p-k-cn®v apt∂m-´p-t]mbn ^ew C∂-Xm-sW∂v
hy‡-ambn Nq≠n ImWn-°m≥ Ign-bpw. F∂m¬ GsX-¶nepwsamcn-SØv ASp-ØX
- mbn sNtø-≠s
- X¥v?
F∂v sXs√mcp kwibw Xe-s]m-°n-bm¬ ]ns∂ b{¥Øn\v Hc-Sn-t]mepw ]ptcm-K-an-°m-\m-hn-√.
X≥aqew ]e b{¥ ]cn- ` mjm kwL- ß fpw b{¥ hXv ° - c Ww `mKn- I - a mbn t]mbm¬t]mepw
t]mcm-bvI-bn√ F∂ Xocp-am-\-Øn¬ FØn-t®¿∂p Ign-™n-´p-≠v.
Cu temI ]cn-⁄m\-Øn-¬ F{X-tØmfw? Fßs\? b{¥Øns‚ [mc-W-bn¬ tiJ-cn®p
sh°m≥ Ignbpw F∂-XmWv b{¥ X¿Pam cwKsØ G‰hpw henb hnj-a-{]-iv\w. ]e-t∏mgpw
b{¥ X¿Pa KpW-Øn¬ {]Xn-£-s°mØv Db-cp-∂n-√.
Iºyq-´¿ hnh¿Ø\w
Iºyq-´¿ t{]m{K-ap-If
- p-]t- bm-Kn®v `mjm-¥c
- o-Ic
- Ww \S-Øp-∂X
- n-\mWv Iºyq-´¿ hnh¿Ø-\s
- a∂v
]d-bp-∂-Xv. a\pjy {]b-Xv\hpw ka-bhpw Npcp°n Imcy-£-aX h¿≤n-∏n-°p-I-sb∂ XXz-amWv
b{¥hXv°-c-W-Øn\p ]n∂n-ep-≈-Xv. Cu hgn-bn¬ A¤q-X-߃ krjvSn® b{¥amWv Iºyq-´¿.
hnh¿Ø-\-Øn-\m-h-iy-amb tkm^vSv shb¿ Xøm-dm-°-emWv Iºyq-´¿ hnh¿Ø-\-Ønse
hnj- a - I - c - a mb IS- º . hnh¿Ø- \ - Ø n- \ m- h - i y- a mb Zzn`mjm \nL- ≠ p, hymI- c W \nb- a - ß ƒ,
hmIy-L-S-\m-co-Xn-Iƒ, ssien-Iƒ F∂nh t{]m{Km-ap-I-fn¬ Dƒs°m-≈n-°-Ww.
Iºyq-´-dn¬ hnh¿Ø\w \S-Øp∂Xv Fßs\?
Iºyq-´-dns\ {][m-\-ambn 1) C≥]p-´v, 2) Hu´v ]p´v, 3) t{]mk- nßv bqWn‰v 4) I¨t{Smƒ
bpWn-‰v, F∂o `mK-ß-fm-Wp-≈-Xv. \mw C≥]p-´n¬ hnh¿Ø\w sNøp∂ `mK-߃ ^oUp sNøp-∂p.
AXv b{¥Øn\-IØv t{]mkkv sNbvXn´v Hu´v ]p´n¬ e£y-`m-j-bpsS am‰-dmbn ]pd-Øp-h-cp-∂p.
t{]mk- nßv hym]m-c-Øn¬ At\Iw {]{In-b-I-fp-≠v. t{]mk-kn-ßns\ \nb-{¥n-°p∂ bqWn-‰mWv
I¨t{Smƒ bqWn-‰v. hnh¿Ø-\-Øn-\p-th≠ klmb hnh-c-߃ AXm-bXv ]cymb ]Z-߃ ssien
\nL-≠p-°ƒ hymI-cW \nb-aß
- ƒ XpS-ßnbhsb√mw tÃm¿ sNøp-∂Xv saΩdn bqWn-‰n-em-Wv. b{¥w
{]h¿Øn-∏n-°p-tºmƒ Bhiyw th≠ hnh-c-ß-sf√mw saΩdn-bn¬ \n∂pw kwL-Sn-∏n®p hnh¿Ø\w
\S-Ø-s∏-Sp-∂p.
Iºyq-´¿ I≠p-]n-Sn-®n´v \m¬]Xp h¿j-am-sb-¶nepw Iºyq-´¿ hnh¿Ø-\-Øns‚ {]h¿Ø\w
Nne {]tXyI taJ-e-I-fn¬ ]cn-anXs∏´n-cn-°p-∂p. bqtdm-]y≥ `mj-Iƒ XΩn-ep≈ hnh¿Ø\w
Iºyq-´d- n¬ Xmc-Xt- ay\ kpK-aa
- m-Wv. Htc Xc-Øn-ep≈ h¿W-ame hmIy LS-\, ]Z-LS- \ F∂n-hb
- p≈
c≠v `mj- I ƒ XΩn¬ Iºyq- ´ ¿ hnh¿Ø\w Ffp- ∏ - a m- b n- c n- ° pw. Cw•o- j n¬\n∂v `mc- X o- b
hnh¿Ø-\hpw Bi-b-hn-\n-a-bhpw
21
School of Distance Education
`- m-jb
- n-te-°p≈ hnh¿Ø\tØ°mƒ Hcp `mc-Xob `mj-bn¬ \n∂pw as‰mcp `mc-Xob `mj-bn-te-°p≈
Iºyq-´¿ hnh¿Ø\w kpK-a-am-Wv.
`mc- X ob `mj- I - f n¬ Iºyq- ´ ¿ hnh¿Ø\w \S- ∏ m- ° m- \ p≈ {][m\ sshj- a y- ß ƒ
C\n]d-bp-∂h
- b
- m-Wv.
1)
AXym-[p-\nI `mjm imkv{X ZrjvSym cNn-°-s∏´ {Iao-Ir-X-amb hymI-c-W-Øns‚ A`m-hw.
2)
Hcp `mj- b nse kmt¶- X n- I - ] Z \nL- ≠ p- ° ƒ, _lp- ` mjm kt¶- X n- I - ] Z \nL- ≠ p- ° ƒ,
]cn-`mjm \nL-≠p-°ƒ XpS-ßn-b-h-bpsS A`m-hw.
3)
am\I kmt¶-XnI ]Z-ß-fpsS A`mhw.
4)
\nb-Xm¿∞-ap≈ ]Z-ß-tfm-Sp-Iq-Snb hmIy-߃ am{Xta hnh¿Ø\w sNøm≥ Ign-bp-I-bp-≈p.
5)
Ihn-Xt- ]mse [z\n-{]-[m-\a
- mb kmlnXy cq]-߃ Cu cq]-Øn¬ ]cn-`mj sNøpI km[y-as
- öp
Xs∂ ]d-bmw.
6)
aqe-Ir-Xn-bnse Bibw ]cn-`m-j-bn-ep-≠m-hn-√. as‰-¥-¶n-ep-am-bn-cn°pw e`n-°p-I. CØcw
kµ¿`-Øn¬ X¿Pa sNtø≠ IrXn {]o FUn-‰n-ßn\p hnt[-b-am-t°-≠n-h-cpw.
7)
b{¥ hnh¿Ø-\-Øn\p tijw hnh¿Ø-I≥ Nne an\p-°p-]-Wn-Iƒ IqSn \S-Øn-sb-¶nte
hnh¿Ø-\-Øn\v ]q¿W-X-bp-≠m-hq.
8)
A¿∞w Xncs™Sp°m≥ Ign-hp≈ Iºyq-´d- n\v ]e-t∏mgpw ]cymb ]Z-ßfpw kµ¿t`m-Nn-Xa
- mb
A¿∞-ßfpw Is≠-Øm≥ Ign™p F∂p hcn-√.
Iºyq-´¿ hnh¿Ø-\-Øn\p `mc-Xob `mj-Isf k÷-am-°m≥ Nne Xøm-sd-Sp-∏p-Iƒ Bh-iy-am-Wv.
1.
_rl-Ømb imkv{Xob ]Zm-hen \n¿an-°-Ww. apΩq∂v h¿jw IqSp-tºmƒ Ch ]cn-tim-[n®v
th≠ hn[w ]cn-jv°-cn-°-Ww.
2.
hnj-b-a-\p-k-cn®v Ffp∏w d^¿ sNøm-hp∂ t]m°‰v sskkv imkv{Xob ]Zm-hen thWw.
3.
imkv{X _ncpZw Ign™v imkv{Xob hnh¿Ø-\Ø
- n¬ ]cn-io-e\w t\Snb hnh¿Ø-Isc t{]m{Kmw
Xøm-dm-°m≥ e`n-°-Ww.
A\n-ta-j≥
Nn”m-¥c hnh¿Ø-\-Øn\p hfsc km[y-X-I-fp≈ Hcp {]tbm-K-ta-J-e-bmWv A\n-ta-j-t‚Xv.
alm-`m-cX
- h
- pw, cmam-bW
- h
- pw a‰p ]pcm-tW-Xn-lm-kß
- fpw A\n-ta-j\
- n-eqsS {]N-cn-∏n-°p-∂p. `mh-\b
- psS
AXn¿Øn-Iƒ°-∏pdw \n¬°p∂ IYm-]m-{Xß-tfbpw kw`-hß
- t- fbpw A\n-ta-j\
- n-eqsS hfsc Ffp∏w
]p\:krjvSn-°m≥ Ign-bpw. tSmw B‚ v Pdn kvss]U¿ am≥ XpS-ßn-b-h-bn¬ Cu A\n-taj
X{¥-ß-fm-Wp-]-tbm-K-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂-Xv.
hnh¿Ø-\hpw Bi-b-hn-\n-a-bhpw
22
School of Distance Education
UNIT - 6
hnhn-[-Xcw hnh¿Ø-\-ß-fpsS {]tXy-I-X-Iƒ
kmln-Xy-hn-h¿Ø\w (k¿Km-flI hnh¿Ø-\w)
km[m-cW IrXn-I-sf√mw am\-I-`m-j-bn-em-bn-cn°pw hnti-jn®v imkv{X, kmaq-ly-im-kv{XIr-Xn-Iƒ Ah-bpsS hnh¿Ø-\-Øn¬ t\cn-Sm-\n-S-bn-√mØ Hcp {][m\ {]iv\w k¿Km-flI kmln-Xyhn-h¿Ø-\-Øn¬ A\p-`-h-s∏-Spw. `mjm-t`-Z-ß-fpsS km∂n-[y-am-W-Xv.
kmln-Xy-Ir-Xn-Iƒ hnh¿Ø\w sNøp-tºmƒ hnh¿Ø-I≥ klr-Z-b-\m-bn-cn-°-Ww. F∂mte
aqe-{K-ŸI
- m-cs‚ `mh\m hnem-kh
- p-ambn XmZmflyw {]m]n-°m≥ X¿P-a°
- m-c\v Ign-bq. GXp-`m-jb
- n-tebpw
DØ- a - I r- X n- I ƒ B`mj kwkm- c n- ° p∂ P\- ß - f psS kwkv ° mc kº- Ø ns‚ Hcp \nkv X pe
\nZ¿i-\-am-bn-cn-°-Ww. ]cn-`m-j-bnepw kmaq-ln-Ihpw kmwkv°m-cn-I-hp-amb B {]tXy-IX tNm¿∂p
t]mImsX ]I¿Øn-Im-Wn-°m≥ Ign-bW
- w. aqe-Ir-Xn-bnse IYm-]m-{X-ßf
- psS kmaq-ly-kh
- n-ti-jX
- I
- fpw
hnizm-km-Nm-cßfpw tZi-t`-Z-a-\p-k-cn®v X¿Pa sNøp∂ coXn A{X icn-b-√. hnIm-c-hn-Nm-c-߃
kam-\-ß-fm-sW-¶nepw AXp {]I-Sn-∏n-°p∂ coXn-bn¬ hyXymkw hcmw. Cu coXn kmaq-ln-Ik-hn-ti-jX
- b
- n¬ \n∂v DS-se-Sp-°p-∂X
- m-bn-cn-°pw. X¿Pa sNøp-tºmƒ aqe-Ir-Xn-bnse Cu kmaq-ln-Ia
- mb
khn-ti-jX
- bv°pw {]mtZ-in-Ia
- mb {]tXy-IX
- bv°pw tIm´w hcmsX ]cn-`mj sNtø-≠Xv AXym-hi
- y-am-W.v
Ihn-Xm-hn-h¿Ø\w
DNn-X-amb ]Z-߃ DNn-X-amb {Ia-Øn¬ hn\y-kn-°p-∂-XmWv Ihn-X. hrØhpw Xmfhpw
{]mk-hp-sa√mw Cu hyXym-ksØ \n¿Æ-bn-°p∂ LS-I-ß-fm-Wv. as‰mcp `mj-bn-te°p am‰ptºmƒ
Cu LS-I-߃ th¿]n-cn-bp-∂p. DZm-l-c-W-Øn\v aµm-{Im-¥-bn¬ Fgp-Xnb Hcp ]Zyw Cw•o-jn-te°v
hnh¿Ø\w sNbvXm¬ Bi-bt- Nm¿® H´pw D≠m-hp-∂n-s√-¶n¬ Xs∂ AXns‚ cq]-LS- \ inYn-ea
- m-hpw.
ImcWw Cw•o-jn¬ aµm-{Im¥ C√.
IhnX s]mXpth hywKym¿∞ {][m-\-amWv hywKyw ]cn-`mj sNøm-\m-hn-√. hm°n\p hm°v
F∂ IW-°n\p ]cn-`m-j-s∏-Sp-Øp-tºmƒ hmNym¿∞w am{Xta ]I¿∂p In´q. CXmWv Imhy
]cn- ` m- j - b nse {][m\ {]iv \ w. aqe- I r- X n- t bmSv hnizm- k yX ]pe¿Øm- \ m- h n√ F∂p kmcw.
hnizm-kyX ]pe¿Øn-bm¬ ]cn-`mj hnIr-X-am-hpw. ]cn-`mj kpµ-c-am-bm¬ hniz-kvXX C√m-Xmhpw
Ch-bn-sem∂p Xnc-s™-Sp-°m≥ ]cn-`m-j-I≥ \n¿_-‘n-X-\mhpw hnizm-ky-X-tb-°mƒ ]cn-`m-jbv°v
ap≥Xq°w sImSp-°p-I-bmWv ]cn-`m-j-I¿ {]mtbW sNbvXp t]m∂n-´p-≈-Xv.
IhnX hnh¿Ø-\-Øn\v Hcp \nb-a-kw-lnX \n¿an-°pI hnjaw Xs∂. F¶nepw hnh¿Ø\
imkv{Xw Cu hnj-bØ
- n¬ cq]-s∏-Sp-Øn-bn-´p≈ Nne am¿K-tc-JI
- ƒ Ihn-Xm-hn-h¿Ø-Isc klm-bn-°pw.
Ihn-Xm-hn-h¿Ø-\sØ ]e Xc-Øn¬ hn`-Pn-°mw.
(1) in¬]-a-\p-k-cn®v
a. ]Zy-Øn‚ KZy ]cn-`mj
b. ]Zy-Øns‚ ]Zy ]cn-`mj
]Zy-Øns‚ ]Zy-]-cn-`m-jsb ho≠pw aq∂mbn hn`-Pn-°mw.
(1) aqe-`m-j-bnse ]Zyw AtX Nµ- n¬. e£y-`m-j-bn¬ hnh¿Ø\w sNøp-I.
(2) aqe-`m-j-bnse ]Zyw e£y-`m-j-bnse hyXykvX Nµ- n¬ hnh¿Ø\w sNøp-I.
(3) aqe `mj-bnse Nµ v GXm-bmepw e£y-`m-jb
- n¬ ap‡ Nµ- ntem KZy-Ih
- n-Xb
- mtbm hnh¿Ø\w
sNøp-I. an° ]m›m-Xy-I-hn-X-Ifpw Ct∏mƒ ae-bm-f-Øn¬ Cu coXn-bn-emWv hnh¿Ø\w sNøp-∂-Xv.
hnh¿Ø-\hpw Bi-b-hn-\n-a-bhpw
23
School of Distance Education
IYm-Imhyhnh¿Ø-\Ø
- n\v KZy ]cn-`mj ]‰n-bX
- m-Wv. F∂m¬ hnh¿Ø-I¿°v km[m-cW
- b
- mbn
Ihn-X-bpsS hnh¿Ø\w Ihn-X-bn¬ Xs∂ sNøm-\mWv XmXv]-cyw. CXn\v c≠p ssien-I-fp-≠v. H∂v
hcn-°p-hcn As√-¶n¬ Cuc-Sn°v Cuc-Sn. hcn-°p-hcn hnh¿Ø\w ]e-t∏mgpw hnc-k-am-Im-\n-S-bp-≠v.
AXp-sIm≠v hnh¿Ø-I≥ aqe-I-hn-I-fpsS Bibw ]q¿W-ambpw Dƒs°m≠v Xs‚ coXn-bn¬
Bhn-jvI-cn-°p-I-bmWv sNtø-≠-Xv.
(2) hrØm-\p-hrØ hnh¿Ø\w
{]mtbW ]Zyw Cuc-Sn-I-fmbpw NXp-jv]-Zn-I-fmbpw a‰p-amWv cNn-°p-∂-Xv. Cu N´-°q-Sn\v
kwkvIr-X-Øn¬ Nµ v F∂pw Cw•o-jn¬ ao‰¿ F∂pw ]d-bpw. aqe-Ir-Xn-bnse Nµ v Xs∂
hnh¿Ø-\-Ønepw kzoI-cn-°p-∂Xv kq£n-®p-th-Ww. ae-bm-fsØ kw_-‘n-®n-S-tØmfw kwkvIrX
Imhy-]-cn-`m-j-bn¬ hrØm-\p-hØ coXn kzoIm-cy-am-Wv. F∂m¬ lnµn Ihn-Xtbm Cw•ojv
Ihn-Xtbm hnh¿Ø\w sNøp-tºmƒ Cu coXn kzoI-cn-°pI _p≤n-ap-´m-Wv.
e£y-`mjm Nµ- p-]-tbm-Kn-°p-tºmgpw Ipg-∏-an-√m-Xn-√. Ihn-X-bpsS bYm¿∞-hn-h¿Ø\w
]c-Imb {]th-i\
- Ø
- n\v Xpey-am-Wv. ]e-t∏mgpw aqe-Ih
- n-bpsS PohnX Z¿i-\t- ØmsSm hy‡n-Xz-tØmtSm
henb s]mcp-Ø-an-√mØ hnh¿Ø-Is‚ ]cn-`mj ]cn-N-b-s∏-Smw.
Ihn-Xm-hn-h¿Ø-\-Øns‚ \mep ssien-Iƒ ]WvUn-X-\mb temSvam≥ Iev]n-°p-∂p.
1.
Bi-b-{]-[m\ ssien ˛ CXn¬ hnh¿Ø-I≥ Ihn-X-bnse CXn-hrØw AYhm Bibw {][m\-ambn Icp-Xp-∂p. Abmƒ aqe-`m-j-bnse Bibw e£y-`m-jm-Ir-Xn-bn¬ kwt{]-jWw sNøp∂p.
2.
kwc-N-\m-ssien ˛ CXn¬ aqe-IhnX-bnse ]Z-L-S-\bpw a‰pw hnt«-jWw sNbvXv B LS\
hnh¿Ø-\-Ønepw hcp-Øm≥ {ian-°p-∂p.
3.
`mjm {][m\ ssien ˛ aqe Ihn-X-bnse hrØw, ]Zw, Na-Xv°m-cw, Ae-¶mcw XpS-ßn-b-h-bn¬
GsX-¶nepw Ht∂m AXn-e-[n-Itam LS-I-߃ hnh¿Ø-\-Ønepw hcp-Øm-\p≈ {ia-am-Wn-Xv.
4.
kmln-tXy-Xc {][m\ ssien ˛ CXn¬ hnh¿Ø-I≥ Imhy-X-Xz-tØ-°mƒ kmln-Xy-_m-ly-amb
XXz-Øn\p {]m[m\yw I¬∏n-°p-∂p. aX-]-ctam kmaq-lytam a\-im-kv{X-]-ctam Hs°-bmb
XXz-߃ Ihn-X-bn-eqsS kwt{]jWw sNøm-\mWv Cu ssien-bnse {iaw.
IhnX hnh¿Ø\w sNøp-∂-bmfpw Ihn-bm-bn-cn-°p-∂-XmWv DNn-Xw. Ch¿ an°-t∏mgpw kzX{¥
hnh¿Ø-\-amWv \S-Øp-I. Ihn-Xm-hn-h¿Ø-\sØ kw_-‘n®v sshtem-∏n≈n {io[-c-ta-t\m≥
]d-™n-´p≈ A`n-{]mbw {]k-‡a
- m-Wv. "Cw•o-jn¬ aqe-Ir-Xntbm X¿Patbm Bbn ImWp∂ Ihn-XI
- ƒ
ae-bm-f-Ønse ]Z hrØ Xmf-ß-sfm∏n®v X¿Pa sNøm≥ Ign-™m¬ \∂v. ]t£ an°-hbpw
Aß-s\-bp≈ X¿P-abv°v hg-ßp-∂-h-b-√. ae-bmf Ihn-X-bnse `mh-\-bpsS C{µ-Pmew As√-¶n¬
]Z-ssi-en-bpsS C{µ-Pmew X¿Pa Ihn-X-bn¬ tNm¿∂p t]mIp-∂-Xm-bmWv A\p-`-hw.'
IhnX kzm`tht\ hnh¿Ø-\-£-a-a-√. X¿÷a sNøp-tºmƒ \jvS-s∏-Sp-∂-sXt¥m AXmWp
IhnX (Potery is what is lost in translations F∂v Robert Frost.
IhnXm hnh¿Ø-\-Ønse sshj-ay߃
Ihn-Iƒ ]e-t∏mgpw hm°v ssh`hw sIm≠v hmb-\°
- m-cs\ AZv`p-Xs
- ∏-Sp-Øm-dp-≠v. Ihn-If
- psS
Cu NmXp-cyw, ]Z-L-S\ e£-Wm-hy-RvP-\m-Zn-Iƒ sIm≠p \S-°p∂ A¿∞-]p-jv°-e-X, Ae-¶mcw
{]XoI {]tbmKw XpS-ßn-b-h-bn¬ ÿnXn-sN-øp-∂p. hnh¿Ø-I≥ CsX√mw IW-°n-se-Sp-°-Ww.
Bi-b-Øns‚ Imcy-Øn¬ Ccp `mj-I-fp-sSbpw ]›m-Ø-e-Øns‚ A¥cw hnj-aw krjvSn-°pw. Hcp
hnh¿Ø-\hpw Bi-b-hn-\n-a-bhpw
24
School of Distance Education
{]tXyI {]tZ-i-Øns‚ {]Ir-Xn-bpsS ]e khn-ti-j-X-Ifpw Ahn-SpsØ `mj-bn¬ am{Xta `wKn-bmbn
h¿Wn- ° m≥ km[n- ° q. kam\]Z- ß ƒ Is≠- Ø m- \ p≈ {]bm- k hpw Is≠- Ø n- b m¬ Xs∂
Ah-bnse sshIm-cnImw-i-Øns‚ \jvShpw Ihn-Xm-hn-h¿Ø-\sØ {]iv\-Øn-em-°p-∂p.
Eg:-˛ Ipam-c-\m-ims‚ k¶o¿Ø\w F∂ Ihn-X-bnse t«mIw.
N¥-ta-dnb ]qhnepw
i_-fm-`amw ie-`-Ønepw
k¥Xw Ic Xmcn-sb-s∂mcp
Nn{X NmXpcn Im´nbpw
l¥! Nmcp ISm-£-am-e-I-f¿°˛
civan-bn¬ \o´nbpw
Nn¥bmw aWn aµn-c-Øn¬
hnf-ßp-ao-is\ hmgvØp-hn≥.
{]ikvX Ih-bn{Xn kpK-X-Ip-am-cn-bpsS ]cn-`m-j.
Praise be to the lord
The skill of whose hand
Shows itself in the lovely flower
And the colourful wings of the butterfly
Whose glances extend
Down the rays of the sun
And whose dwelling is
in the mind of man
ChnsS Nn¥bmw aWn-a-µncw shdpw "Mind' Bbn Npcpßn t]msb-¶nepw Bi-b-tØmSp\oXn
]pe¿Øm≥ Ihn-Xbv°v Ign-™n-´p-≠v.
KZy-]-cn-`mj
hnh¿Ø-\Ø
- n¬ G‰hpw _p≤n-ap-´p-≈s
- X∂p Icp-Xp-∂Xv Ihn-Xm-hn-h¿Ø-\a
- m-Wv. AXp-sIm≠v
Xs∂ KZy ]cn-`mj Xmc-X-tay\ Ffp-∏-am-sW-∂mWv Icp-X-s∏-Sp-∂-Xv. hnti-jn®v t\mh¬ t]mep≈
k¿Km-fl-I cN-\-Iƒ ]cn-`m-j-s∏-Sp-Øp-tºmƒ Nne-Im-cy-߬ {i≤n-t°-≠-Xp-≠v.
1.
Hmtcm hmt°m hmIytam Bbn-´√ hn`mh\w sNtø-≠-Xv. ]cn-`mjm {]{In-bsb ]e
JWvU-ß-fmbn Xncn-°-Ww. IrXnsb Hscm‰ bqWn-‰mbn I≠p-sIm≠v Hmtcm JWvUhpw
]cn-`m-js
- ∏-Sp-ØW
- w. IrXn-bpsS samØw {]Xo-Xnsb∏‰n-bp≈ t_m[w Ft∏mgpw a\- n-ep-≠m-hW
- w.
2.
ssien°p ]Icw ssien F∂ kao-]\w kzoI-cn-°-Ww. aqe-Ir-Xn-bn¬ Hcp ssien {]tbm-Kn®n-´p-s≠-¶n¬ AXn\p Xpey-amb Hcp ssien e£y-`m-j-bn¬ Is≠-Ø-Ww. aqe-Ir-Xn-bnse
ssien ]Zm-\p-]Z hnh¿Ø\w sNøm≥ \n¬°-cp-Xv.
4.
Ccp-`m-jI
- f
- nepw {]tbm-KØ
- n-ep≈ ]Z-ßfpw {]tbm-Kß
- fpw It≠-°mw. Ah-bpsS D]-tbm-KØ
- n¬
{]tXyIw {i≤n-°-Ww. Fs¥-∂m¬ t{kmX-`m-j-bn¬ Hcp ]Z-Øn-\p≈ A¿∞-Øn-¬ \n∂p
`n∂-amb Hc¿∞-am-bn-cn°mw AtX ]Z-Øn\v e£y-`m-j-bn-ep-≈-Xv.
5.
ss[cy-]q¿∆w \S-Øp∂ Hcp cq]-am‰ {Inb-bm-bn-cn-°Ww ]cn-`m-j.
kztZ-iØv icocw ]q≠v Db¿sØ-gp-t∂¬°p∂ {]{In-b-bm-Wn-Xv.
6.
]cn-`m-j-bn¬ Hcn-°epw hnh¿ØnX IrXnsb Ae-¶-cn-°m≥ apXn-c-cp-Xv.
hnh¿Ø-\hpw Bi-b-hn-\n-a-bhpw
Hcp A\y-hkvXp
25
School of Distance Education
\mSIw, t\mh¬ sNdp-IYm hnh¿Ø\w
KZy-Øns‚ hnhn[ imJ-If
- n¬ \mS-Iw, t\mh¬, sNdp-IY F∂nh {][m\s∏´-Xm-Wv. k¿Km-flI
kmln-Xy-Øns‚ `mK-amb Cu aq∂p imJ-Iƒ°v hnh¿Ø\w Fßs\ km[y-am-Ip∂p F∂pw t\m°mw.
\mSIw:-˛ \mS-Ih
- n-h¿Ø\w IhnXm hnh¿Ø\w t]mse hnj-aa
- m-Wv. \mS-IØ
- n¬ Bhn-jvIr-Xa
- m-Ip∂
PohnX ]›m-Ø-e-hp-ambn `mj _‘-s∏-´n-cn-°p-∂p. Hcp KZy-`mKw ]cn-`m-j-s∏-Sp-Øp∂ AtX
coXn-bn¬ Hcp \mS-I-IrXn ]cn-`m-j-s∏-Sp-Øm-\m-hn-√. Fs¥-∂m¬ \mS-I-Ir-Xn-bpsS hmb\ hyXykvX
Xc-Øn-em-Wv. kw`m-j-W-ß-fn¬ hmIy-ssi-enbpw ]Z-ß-fn-ep≈ Du∂epw kzc-hy-Xym-khpw hfsc
{]m[m-\y-a¿ln-°p-∂p. hmIy-Øn\p hmIyw X¿Pa sNbvXp sh®m¬ t]mc AXv aqe-`m-j-bnse
]Z-L-S-\bpw ssienbpw \¬Ip∂ A¿∞-]pjvSn e£y-`m-j-bnse i‡-amb {]tbmKw sImt≠
hcn-Ib
- p-≈q. kw`m-jW
- s
- sien B‰n-°p-dp-°n-bXpw «njvSh
- p-am-sW-¶n¬ hnh¿Ø\w XZ-\p-kX
- a
- m-IW
- w.
As√-¶n¬ hnh¿Ø-\-Øn¬ \mS-I-Øns‚ i‡n \jvS-s∏-t´-°pw. lmky-\m-S-I-ß-fnse lmkyw
hnh¿Ø-\-Øn¬ \jvS-s∏-Sm-dp-≠v. Ah a‰p `mj-°m-cn¬ Nncn Df-hm-°-W-sa-∂n-√.
\mS-II
- rXn Hcp A]q¿Æ-hk
- vXp-hm-Wv. \mSIw ]q¿WX t\Sp-∂Xv Ah-Xc
- W
- Ø
- n-em-Wv. ChnsS
]cn-`m-j-I≥ t\cn-Sp∂ Hcp {]iv\w \mS-I-Ir-Xnsb Hcp ip≤ kmln-Xy-Ir-Xn-bmbn am{Xw I≠p
]cn-`m-j-s∏-Sp-tØ-W-tam, AtXm IqSp-X¬ k¶o¿Æ-amb Hcp Iem-cq-]-Øns‚ Hcwiw F∂ \ne-]mSp
kzoI-cn-°tWm? F∂-XmWv ae-bm-f-Øn-te°p h∂ ]e \mS-I-]-cn-`m-jIfpw CXn¬ BZyw ]d™
\ne-]mSp kzoI-cn-®n-´p-≈-Xmbn ImWmw. ae-bm-f-Øn¬ {]kn-≤o-I-cn-°-s∏´ BZysØ \mS-I-]-cn-`mj
I√q¿ DΩ≥ ^nen-t∏m-kns‚ "Bƒam-dm´w' BWv. hneyw tjIvkv ]nb-dns‚ "tImaUn Hm^v Ftdgvkv'
F∂ \mS-I-Øns‚ ]cn-`m-j-bm-W-Xv.
t\mh¬, sNdp-IY F∂o KZy-cq-]-߃ Nne s]mXp-L-S-I-߃ Dƒs°m-≈p-∂p. AXp-sIm≠v
hnh¿Ø-\-X-Xz-߃ kam\w Xs∂. A\y-`mjm t\mh-ep-I-fpsS hnh¿Ø\w ae-bmf t\mh-ens‚
hf¿®-bn-¬ \n¿Æm-b-I-amb ]¶v hln-®n-´p-≠v. "]mh-ßfpw' "Imc-a-tkmhv ktlm-Z-c-∑mcpw' a‰p temI¢m-kn-°p-Ifpw hnh¿Ø\w sNbvX-tXmsSbmWv ae-bm-f-t\m-h¬ ]pXn-sbmcp hgn-Øn-cn-hn-se-Øp-∂-Xv.
`mc-Xo-b`- m-jI
- f
- n¬ _wKm-fn-t\m-he
- mWv ae-bm-fØ
- n-te°v G‰-hp-a[
- nIw hnh¿Ø\w sNø-s∏-´X
- v.
F¨]-Xn-tesd hnh¿Ø-I¿ tN¿∂v Ccp-\q-‰n-b≥]-Xn-tesd _wKm-fn-t\m-h-ep-Iƒ ae-bm-f-Øn-te°v
]cn- ` m- j - s ∏- S p- Ø n. Xmcm- i - ¶ ¿_m- \ ¿Pn- b psS "BtcmKy \ntI- X \w' 1961¬ \neo\ F{_lmw
ae-bm-f-Øn-te°p ]cn-`m-j-s∏-SpØn. ]n∂oSv FSpØp ]d-tb≠Xv bp. B¿. A\-¥-aq¿Øn-bpsS
I∂-S-hn-h¿Ø-\-am-Wv. `mc-Xob `mj-I-fn-ep-≠m-bn-´p≈ hntZ-i-km-lnXy ]cn-`m-j-I-fn¬ A[n-Ihpw
aqe-Ir-Xn-bpsS Cw•ojv hnh¿Ø-\-Øns‚ hnh¿Ø-\-ß-fm-Wv.
t\mh¬ hnh¿Ø-\Ø
- n¬ ]mTy-bq-Wn-‰p-If
- m°n hnh¿Ø\w sNøp-Ib
- mWv {]mtbm-Kn-Iw. henb
t\mh-ep-If
- n¬ ]e ÿe-ßf
- nepw hrYm ÿqeX A\p-`h
- s- ∏-Smw. Ah A\p-hm-NI
- ¿°v Atcm-NI
- h
- m-Iy-sa∂v
hnh¿Ø-I\v t_m[y-ap-s≠-¶n¬ Ah Hgn-hm-°p-∂-Xn¬ sX‰n-√.
t\mh¬ hnh¿Ø\w ˛ {][m\ {]iv\-߃
t\mh¬ hnh¿Ø\w {][m-\a- mbpw A`n-ap-Jo-Ic
- n-t°≠n hcp-∂Xv `mjm-]c
- hpw kmwkvIm-cn-Ih
- p-amb
{]iv\-ß-fm-Wv. kmwkvIm-cn-I-amb A¥cw F∂pw hnh¿Ø-I\v sh√p-hnfn Db¿Øn \n¬°p-∂p.
P\-Xb
- psS BNm-cm-\p-jvTm-\ß
- ƒ `£-Wc
- o-Xn-Iƒ, thj-hn-[m-\ß
- ƒ D]-Nm-c]
- Z- ß
- ƒ _‘ kqN-Iß
- ƒ
`qan-im-kv{X-]-c-amb {]tXy-I-X-Iƒ F√mw hnh¿Ø-\-Øn\v hne-ßp-X-Sn-bm-Wv.
t\mh-ense Cu {]bm-k-߃ F√mw Xs∂ sNdp-I-Y-bnepw A\p-`-h-s∏-Sp-∂p. AXn\p ]pdsa
sNdp-IY
- b
- n¬ Im®n-°p-dp-°nb {]tbm-Kß
- fpw Ipdn-°p-sIm-≈p∂ ]Z-ßf
- p-am-bn-cn°pw IYm-Ir-Øp-°f
- psS
{]tXy-Is
- si-en-Ifpw hnh¿Ø-I\v `oj-Wn-bm-Wv. _jo-dn-s‚bpw Fw. Sn.-bp-tSbpw ssien-Iƒ `n∂-am-Wv.
hfsc kw«n-jvSa
- mb ]Z-߃ as‰mcp `mj-bn-te°v A\yq-\a
- mbn hnh¿Ø\w sNøpI t¢i-Ic
- h
- p-am-Wv.
H∏w `mjm-t`Zw sNdp-I-Ym-Ir-Øns\ ]e-t∏mgpw _p≤n-ap-´n-°m-dp-≠v.
hnh¿Ø-\hpw Bi-b-hn-\n-a-bhpw
26
School of Distance Education
UNIT-7
kmln-tXy-Xc hnh¿Ø\w
kmt¶-Xn-I`
- m-jbpw D]-`m-jbpw
kmt¶-XnI `mj-Isf Nne-t∏mƒ sXmgn¬ samgn-I-sf∂pw hyh-l-cn-°m-dp-≠v. ap°p-h-cpsS
`mj, Bim-cn-am-cpsS `mj, J\n-sØm-gn-em-fn-If
- psS `mj XpS-ßn-bh DZm-lc
- W
- ß
- ƒ kmt¶-Xn-I`- m-jsb
`mj-bpsS Hcp ssien-tbmSv Xpe\w sNøm-hp-∂-Xm-Wv. kmt¶-XnI `mj-bn¬ Xs∂ ]e ssien-Ifpw
cq]w sIm≈m-dp-≠v. imkv{X-`m-j-bpsS Nn”w AXnse Hu]-Nm-cn-I-ssien Xs∂. \n¿t±-i-]-´n-I,
]ckyw, t]‰‚ v XpS-ßnb kmt¶-XnI `mjm-co-Xn-Iƒ imkv{X-ssi-en-bn¬ Xs∂ hn`n-∂c- q-]ß
- ƒ krjvSn-°p-∂p.
hfsc kq£va-X-tbmsS hymJym-\n-®n-´p≈ ]Z-{]-tbm-Khpw I¿ΩnWn {]tbm-K-Øns‚ Bh¿Ø-\hpw
imkv{X-`m-j-bpsS {]tXy-I-e-£-W-ambn IW-°m-°mw.
cmjv{S-߃°n-Sb
- n¬ imkv{X-km-t¶-XnI cwK-ßf
- nse _‘hpw kl-Ic
- W
- hpw i‡n {]m]n®p
hcp-∂-Xn-\m¬ kmln-tXy-Xc hnh¿Ø-\-Øns‚ {]m[m\yw h¿≤n®p hcp-∂p. _‘pXzw t]mse Xs∂
cmjv{S-߃ XΩn-epff kv]¿≤bpw hnh¿Ø-\-Øn\v {]tNm-Z-\-am-Im-dp-≠v. bqtdm-∏n-ep-≠mb imkv{Xkm-t¶-XnI ]ptcm-K-Xn-bn¬ hn`n∂ cmjv{S-߃°v ]¶p-≠v.
`mj-bn¬ imkv{X kmt¶-Xn-I-]-Z-߃ ]pXp-Xmbn cq]w sIm≈p-I-sb-∂Xv Bh¿Øn-°p∂
{]{In-b-bm-Wv. imkv{X kmt¶-XnI {KŸ-ßfpw kma-{Kn-Ifpw hnh¿Ø\w sNøp∂ coXn-sb-∏‰n
Nn¥n-°p-tºmƒ \mw GXp-Xcw kma{Kn hnh¿Ø\w sNøp-∂p-sh∂pw B¿°p-th≠n sNøp-∂psh∂pap≈ {]iv\-amWv BZy-ap-Zn-°p-∂-Xv. kma-{Kn-Iƒ c≠p-X-c-ap-≠v.
(1) XnI®pw kmt¶-XnIw
(2) efnX imkv{X {KŸw (Popular Science)
efn-X-im-kv{X-{KŸw hnh¿Ø\w sNøp-tºmƒ hnh¿Ø-I\v IqSp-X¬ kzmX-{¥y-ap-≠v.
A\p-hm-N-I¿°v kp]-cn-Nn-X-amb ]Z-߃ D]-tbm-Kn-°mw. Ah-bn¬ kmt¶-Xn-I-]-Z-߃°p ]pdsa
A¿[-km-t¶-XnI ]Z-ßfpw kmam-\y-]-Z-ßfpw BImw. CØcw hnh¿Ø-\-Øn-¬ kp{Km-ly-Xbpw
`mj-bpsS Hgp°pw AXy-¥m-t]-£n-X-am-Ip-∂p.
imkv{X-{K-Ÿ-ß-fn-eqsS khn-ti-j-`m-jm-ssien ]e-t∏mgpw hnh¿Ø\w ZpjvI-c-am-°pw.
Cw•o-jnse imkv{X-km-t¶-XnI {KŸ-߃ `mc-Xob `mj-If
- n-te°v ]Zm-\p-]Z- h
- n-h¿Ø\w sNøp-∂X
- n\v
{][m\ XSkw; c≠p Xcw `mj-I-fnepw hmIy-L-S-\-I-fpsS A¥cw Xs∂-bm-Wv. imkv{X-`m-j-bn¬
Hcp kzc-am-{X-t]mepw A\m-h-iy-ambn tN¿°m≥ ]mSn-√. imkv{X-km-t¶-XnI ]Z-ß-fpsS A¿∞w
{Kln®v AXn\p ]‰nb e£y-`m-jm-]Zw I≠p ]nSn-°p-I, ZpjvIcw Xs∂.
F¶nepw imkv{X kmt¶-Xn-I-]-Z-߃ ae-bm-f-Øn-te°v t\cn´v kzoI-cn®v X¬k-a-coXnbn¬
hnh¿Ø\w sNøp-I-sb-∂Xv ]q¿Æ-ambpw bp‡n-klw Xs∂. imkv{X kmt¶-XnI {KŸ-ß-fp-sSbpw
kma-{Kn-If
- p-sSbpw hnh¿Ø-\Ø
- n\v hy‡n-If
- psS kw`m-h\ hfsc hne-s∏-´X
- m-Wv. imkv{X-hn-h¿Ø\w
Hcn-°¬ sNbvXp-I-gn-™m¬ AXv ]n∂o-sSm-cn-°epw ]cn-jvI-c-W-Øn\p hnt[-b-a-s√∂v hnNm-cn-°-cp-Xv.
]e am\-Z-WvU-߃ D]-tbm-Kn®v aqt∂m At©m h¿j-߃ IqSp-tºmƒ Ch ]cn-tim-[n-t°-≠Xpw
]cn-jvI-cn-t°-≠-Xp-am-Wv.
`c-W-`mj
`c-W-Øn-\p-]-tbm-Kn-°p∂ `mj-bmWv `c-W-`m-j. tIc-f-Ønse `c-W-`mj ae-bm-f-am-Wv.
tIc-f-Ønse `c-W-`m-jsb \mev Ime-L-´-ß-fmbn Xncn-°mw.
hnh¿Ø-\hpw Bi-b-hn-\n-a-bhpw
27
School of Distance Education
1.
Xangv kzm[o-\-ap≈ ae-bm-fhpw kwkvIr-X-]-Z-ß-fpw [mcmfw CS-I-e¿Øn D]-tbm-Kn-®n-cp∂
BZy-Im-e-L-´w.
2.
U¬ln, ssakq¿ XpS-ßnb ÿe-ß-fnse `c-WsØ A\p-I-cn®v t]¿jy≥ Ad_n ]Z-߃
CS-I-e¿Øn FgpXn h∂ c≠mw L´w. Cw•o-jnepw t]¿jy-\n-ep-amWv tIc-f-Ønse `cW-IqSw
Fgp-Øp-IpØv \S-Øn-bn-cp-∂-Xv. AXn\v {]tXyIw DtZym-K-ÿ≥am-cp-≠m-bn-cp-∂p. AØcw
Fgp-Øp-Ip-Øp-Iƒ A∏-t∏mƒ X¿÷a sNbvXv ae-bm-f-Øn¬ tcJ-bm°n kq£n-°p-Ibpw
sNbvXp.
3,
{_n´ojv `cWw C¥y-sbm-´p°v ÿm]n-X-am-b-tXmsS tIc-f-Ønse `c-W-Iq-Shpw Cw•ojv BbnXo¿∂ Ime-L-´-amWv aq∂mw-L-´w.
4.
]gb `c-W-`mj GXm≠v ad-∂p-sh∂v Icp-Xnb L´-Øn¬ ae-bmfw ho≠pw `c-W-`mjbmbn
AwKo-I-cn-°-s∏-´p. AXn-\-\p-k-cn®v `c-W-tc-J-Iƒ ae-bm-f-Øn-se-gp-X-W-sa∂ Bh-iy-ap-Zn-®p.
AXn\v hnh¿Ø\w A\p-t]-£-Wo-b-am-bn-Xo-cp-Ibpw sNbvXp.
`c-W-`m-j-bpsS hnh¿Ø\ {]iv\-߃
`c-W-`m-j-bpsS hnh¿Ø-\-Øn¬ {]mtbm-Kn-I-ambn hcp∂ {]iv\-߃ At\-I-ap-≠v.
1. ]Z-߃, (2) hmIy-ssien (3) N´-°qSv F∂o aq∂v io¿j-Iß
- f
- n¬ Chsb t{ImUo-Ic- n-°m-sa∂v
tXm∂p-∂p. `c-W-`m-j-bn¬ hcp∂ ]Z-߃ Xs∂ aq∂p hn[-ap≠v.
a.
kmam-\y-hy-h-lmc `mj-bn-ep-≈Xpw AtX A¿∞-Øn¬ {]tbm-Kn-°p-∂-Xp-amb ]Z-߃.
b.
hyh-lm-c-`m-j-bnepw `c-W-`m-j-bnepw {]tbm-Kn-°-s∏Sp∂psh-¶nepw `c-W-`m-j-bn¬ hyXykvXm¿∞-Øn¬ {]tbm-Kn-°p-∂-h.
c.
`c-W-cw-KØp am{Xw {]tbm-Kn-°p-∂h.
`c-W`- mj, XnI®pw kmt¶-Xn-Ia
- m-Wv. kmln-Xy-`m-jb
- nset]mse `c-W`- m-jb
- n¬ ]cym-b]
- Z- ß
- fpw
Ae-¶m-c-ßfpw a‰pw A\p-h-Z-\o-b-a-√. ]q¿W-]-Z-ß-fpsS hnh¿Ø-\-Øn¬ hnj-a-an-√. Ah-bpsS
kw£n]vX cq]-Øn\v kw£n]vX hnh¿Ø\w thWw. \nb-a\
- n¿Ωm-Ww, `cWw \oXn-\ymb \n¿h-lWw
XpS-ßnb cwK-ß-fn¬ ]pXnb ]pXnb BIvSp-Iƒ°pw a‰pw cq]w \¬Ip-tºmƒ Ah-tbm-S-\p-_-‘n®v
Ht´sd ]pXnb ]Z-߃ hcpw. Ah-bv°p-S-\p-S≥ X¿Pa I≠p ]nSn-°p-∂Xv {]bm-k-ambn hcpw.
hnh¿Ø-\-Øn¬ hcp∂ Cu {]iv\-߃ ]cn-l-cn-°m≥ `cW i_vZm-h-en-bn¬ hnh¿Ø-\am¿K tcJ hni-Zo-I-cn-®n-´p-≠v.
1.
[mcmfw {]N-cn-®n-´p≈ Cw•ojv ]Z-߃ ae-bm-f-Ønepw kzoI-cn-°p-I.
2.
ae-bm-f-Øn¬ \S-∏n-em-bn-´p≈ icn X¿÷a kzoI-cn-°pI ˛ {]Nm-c-Øn-en-s√-¶nepw X°-Xmb
ae-bmf ]Zw kzoI-cn-°m≥ {ivan°p-I.
3.
tI{µ-K-h¨sa‚nse imkv{X-km-t¶-XnI ]Zm-hen IΩo-j≥ ]WvUn-X≥amsc sIm≠v Xømdm°n sh® ]Z-߃ an°-hmdpw kzoI-cn-°p-I. ae-bm-f-ssi-en°v tNcm-ØXv Dt]-£-n°p-I.
aoUnb {Sm≥kvtej≥ -˛ hnh¿Ø-\hpw am[y-a-ßfpw
C¥y-bn¬ G‰-hp-a[nIw hnh¿Ø\w \S-°p-∂Xv ]{X-ß-fn-em-Wv. Znh-tk\sbt∂mWw
Bbn-c-°-W-°n\p t]Pp-Ifpw ]cn-`m-jbv°v hg-ßmØ \nc-h[n ]Z-ßfpw Npcp-ßnb kabw sIm≠v
Ah¿ ]cn-`m-js
- ∏-Sp-Øp-∂p. `mj-bn-en-√mØ \nc-h[n ]Z-ßfpw {]tbm-Kß
- fpw \nanjw {]Xn-sb-t∂mWw
X¤-h-ß-fmbpw X’-a-ß-fmbpw h∂p sIm≠n-cn-°p-∂p. ]{Xw, tdUn-tbm, sSen-hn-j≥ Ch
{]h¿Øn-°p-∂Xv GsX-¶nepw {]tXyI hn`m-KsØ Dt±-in®√ F√m P\-ß-tfbpw Dt±-in-®m-Wv. Hcp
hnh¿Ø-\hpw Bi-b-hn-\n-a-bhpw
28
School of Distance Education
]{X-{]-h¿Ø-I\v Abmƒ°n-jvS-ap-≈Xv CjvS-ap-≈-h¿°pth≠n Fgp-Xm≥ km[n-°n-√. hmbn-°p∂
F√m-h-tcbpw {]oXn-s∏-Sp-Ø-Ww.
X¿P-a-°m-c\v Xe-th-Z-\-bp-≠m-°p-∂Xpw Cw•o-jn-em-bmepw ae-bm-f-Øn-em-bmepw {]tXyI
]cn-⁄m-\a
- n-√m-Øh
- ¿°v ]nSn-In-´m-ØX
- p-amb F{Xtbm Bi-bß
- fpw hm°p-Ifpw Zn\w {]Xn-sb-t∂mWw
]{X-ß-fnepw tdUn-tbm-bnepw kn\n-a-bnepw a‰pw X≈n-°-f-b-dp-∂p-≠v. Aº-c-∏n-°p∂ thK-X-bn-emWv
imkv{X-Øn-s‚bpw kmt¶-Xn-Ih
- n-Zy-bp-sSbpw hf¿®. F∂m¬ sRmSn-bn-Sb
- n¬ hf¿∂p sIm≠n-cn-°p∂
imkv{X-Øn-\-\p-K-X-ambn `mj-bn¬ hf¿®bp≠m-hp-∂n-√. CXv am[ya taJ-e-bnse hnh¿Ø-\-tØbpw
kmc-ambn _m[n-°m-dp-≠v.
EG: Tamil Nadu goes dry F∂-Xn\v Xan-gv\m-´n¬ D{K-hcƒ® F∂v ]cn-`mjs∏Sp-Øn-bn-´p-≠v.
hnh¿Ø-\-Øns‚ s]mXp-Xm-Xv]-cy-߃
X¿÷-a-bn¬ ]e-co-Xn-Ifpw k{º-Zm-b-ßfpw ]cn-`m-j-Is‚ Z¿i-\-a-\p-k-cn®pw IrXn-bpsS
{]tXy-IX
- I
- f
- \
- p-kc
- n®pw Bh-iy-ambn hcpw F¶nepw A\n-tj-[y-amb Nne ASn-ÿm\ {]am-Wß
- f
- p-≠v.
1.
aqe-]m-T-Øns‚ cq]-L-S\ ]mtS XI¿°m-Xn-cn-°p-I.
IY, IhnX \mS-Iw, t\mh¬ F∂n-ß-s\-bp≈ hnhn[ kmln-Xy-cq-]-߃°v AXn-t‚-Xmb
cq]-L-S-\-bp-≠v. Ah XI¿°m≥ ]mSn-√.
aqe-{K-Ÿ-Im-cs‚ ImgvN-]m-sS-s¥-∂Xp icn-bmbn [cn-°msX X\n°p a\- n-emb ]mTw am{Xw
[ndpXn ]nSn®p X¿P-Pa sNøp-∂Xv ]e-t∏mgpw hn]-co-X-^ew krjvSn-°pw.
3.
aqe-]m-T-im-e-Iƒ kºq¿Æ-ambn ]cn-`mj sNøp-I.
]cn-`m-jb
- n¬ XnI®pw A{]-k‡
- a
- mb Nne hm°p-Itfm {]tbm-Kß
- tfm hn´p-If
- t- b≠n ht∂-°mw
F∂-√msX IrXn-bpsS ssPh-L-S-\sb De-°p∂ `mK-ß-sfm∂pw hn´p-I-f-b-cp-Xv.
Hmtcm `mjbv°pw AXn-t‚-Xmb ssien-Ifpw {]tbm-K-ß-fp-ap-≠v.
`mj-bn-te°v hnh¿Ø\w sNøp-∂Xv kml-k-am-bn-cn-°pw.
5.
Ah AtX-]Sn as‰mcp
kt{Km-{X-˛k
- º
- ¿°-`m-jI
- ƒ XΩn-ep≈ hnh¿Ø-\Ø
- n¬ aqe-]m-T]
- Z- t- Imiw Ign-hXpw \ne-\n¿Øp-I.
kvtXm{X`mj-bnse Hcp ]Z-Øn\v e£y-`m-j-bn¬ AtX A¿∞-am-Wp-≈-sX-¶n¬ B ]Zw
]cn-`m-j-bn¬ kzoI-cn-°-Ww.
]n≥]-cn-h¿Ø\w (Back translation/Round trip trasnslation)
Hcp `mj-bn-te°v hnh¿Ø\w sNø-s∏´ Hcp ]Z-tØsbm {]tbm-K-tØtbm ]mT-tØtbm
aqe-`m-jm-]m-TsØ B{i-bn-°msX Xncn®v AtX `mj-bnse°v hnh¿Ø\w sNøp∂ {]{In-b-bmWv
]n≥hn-h¿Ø-\w. hnh¿Ø-\-Øns‚ kq£vaX ]cn-tim-[n-°m-\p≈ Hcp D]m-[n-bm-Wn-Xv. k¿Km-flI
IrXn-Iƒ C{]-Imcw ]n≥hn-h¿Ø\w sNbvXm¬ aqe-IrXntbmSv ASp-∏-ap≈ ]mTw Iq´pI \t∂
{]bm-ka
- m-bn-cn-°pw. ae-bm-fØ
- n-ep≈ Hcp IhnX Cw•o-jn-te°pw hnh¿Ø\w sNøp-∂p F∂p-sh-°p-I.
Cu hnh¿Ø-\-Øn¬ Xs∂ hrØw {]mkw XpSßn ]eXpw \jvS-s∏-´n-cn-°pw. Cu hnh¿ØnX
]mTsØ as‰m-cmƒ aqe IrXnsb B{i-bn-°msX aqe-`m-jb
- n-te°p ]cn-`m-js
- ∏-Sp-Øn-bm¬ A Ihn-Xb
- psS
BZn-a-cq]w In´p-I-bn-√. F∂m¬ aqe-IrXn A∏msS \jvS-s∏-´p-t]m-bn-´p≈ kml-N-cy-Ønepw
]n≥hn-h¿Ø\w klm-b-I-c-am-Wv. Ncn{X tcJ-Iƒ imk-\-߃ F∂n-h-bpsS ]cn-`mj ]e-t∏mgpw
e`y-am-bn-cn-°pw. ]t£ aqe ]mTw \jvSs
- ∏-{´n-°pw. AØcw kµ¿`-ßf
- n¬ aqe-]mTw ]p\:krjvSn-°m≥
]n≥hn-h¿Ø\w D]-I-cn-°pw. b{¥-]-cn-`m-j-bpsS hnizm-kyX ]cn-tim-[n-°m\pw ]n≥hn-h¿Ø\w
KpW-I-c-am-Wv.
hnh¿Ø-\hpw Bi-b-hn-\n-a-bhpw
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School of Distance Education
UNIT-8
hnh¿Ø\ coXn-Iƒ
hnh¿Ø\ {]{In-bb
- psS B¥-cn-Ia
- mb Bibw F√m-bn-SØpw s]mXpsh H∂q Xs∂. F¶nepw
hnh¿Ø-\-im-kv{X-Øn¬ CXns‚ hnhn[ hn`m-K-ß-sf-∏‰n hnh-cn-®n-´p-≠v.
am[y-a-a-\p-k-cn®v ˛ 3 hn[w.
1)
{]XoIm-{inXw
`mj \ΩpsS a\- n¬ \n∂v ]pd-s∏-Sp∂ Bi-bß
- ƒ sIm≠v \n¿Ωn®XmW-t√m. Htc `mj-bn¬
]Zy- Ø n¬ ]d- ™ - I mcyw KZy- Ø nepw adn®pw hnh- c n- ° m- h p- ∂ - X m- W v . CØcw hnh¿Ø\w
GI-`m-jm-a-b-am-sW-¶nepw H∂p as‰m-∂ns‚ hnh¿Ø\w Xs∂. CXns‚ GI `mjn-X-sat∂m
A¥¿ `mjn-I-sat∂m hyh-l-cn-°-Ww.
ASp-ØXv H∂n-e-[nIw `mj-I-fnse Imcy-߃ ]c-kv]cw hnh¿Ø\w sNø-em-Wv. CXmWv
kmam-t\y\ hnh¿Ø-\-sa∂v hyh-l-cn-°-s∏-Sp-∂-Xv. DZm: Cw•o-jn¬ \nt∂m lnµn-bn¬ \nt∂m Hs°
ae-bm-f-Øn¬ D≈ hnh¿Ø\w Cu hn`m-K-Øn¬s]-Sp-∂p. CXns\ ssZz `mjnI hnh¿Ø\w F∂p
]d-bmw.
aq∂m-asØ hnh¿Ø\w `mjsb am{X-am-{i-bn-°msX Bi-bm-hn-jvØ-c-W-Øn-\p-X-Ip∂ a‰p
{]Xo-I-ßsf IqSn B{i-bn-°p-∂p. DZm: ImfnZmks‚ t«mIsØ chn-h¿Ω Nn{X {]Xo-I-Øn-te°v
hnh¿Ø\w sNøp∂Xpw t\mh¬ \mS-I-am-°p-∂-Xpw. CXn\v A¥:]Xo-Im-flIw F∂p ]d-bp-∂p.
2.
`mjm-{inXw
`mjm-{inX hn`-P-\-Øn¬ A¿∞m-[n-jvTnXw F∂pw cq]m-[n-jvTn-X-sa∂p c≠p hn`m-K-ß-fp-≠v.
B¿∞m-[n-jvTn-X-amb hnh¿Ø\w c≠p {]Im-c-Øn-ep-≠v.
1) enJnX hnh¿Ø\w (Translation)
2) hmNnI hnh¿Ø\w (Interpretation)
IS-em-kn¬ km[m-cW sNøm-dp-≈Xv enJnX hnh¿Ø-\w. hmNnI hnh¿Ø\w ]e-t∏mgpw
Aev]w hyJym\w AYhm hnt«-jWw IqSn Dƒs°m-≈p-∂p. c≠p hn`n-∂-`m-j-°m¿ aq∂m-a-sXm-cphs‚ klm-b-tØmsS Bi-b-߃ ssIam-dp∂ {]{In-b-bm-Wn-Xv.
`mjm cq]sØ (cq-]m-[n-jvTnX hnh¿Ø-\-sØ) ASn-ÿm-\-am°n 1. ]Zy-hn-h¿Ø-\w, 2. KZy
hnh¿Ø\w F∂n-ßs\ c≠p hn`m-K-ß-fp-≠v.
3.
teJ-\m-{inXw
teJ-\m-{inXsa∂ hn`m-K-Øn¬ t{kmX-`m-j-bnse Nne-]-Z-ßfpw t]cp-Ifpw a‰pw e£y-`m-jbn¬ hnh¿Ø\w sNøpI km[y-a-√. Ah e£y `mj-bpsS en]n-bn¬ Fgp-XpI am{Xta Xc-ap-≈p.
AXp-sIm≠v Xs∂ c≠p Xc-Øn-em-Imw.
1.
en]y¶\w
2.
en]y-¥c
- W
- w.
en]y-¶-\-Øn¬ t{kmX-`m-j-bnse ]Z-߃ \mw tIƒ°p∂ D®m-cWa\p-k-cn®v
DZm:
Bonafid
˛ t_mWm-]n´v
malafid˛ tae-]n´v
Alibi
hnh¿Ø-\hpw Bi-b-hn-\n-a-bhpw
˛ Bep∏n
30
School of Distance Education
en]y-¥c
- W
- Ø
- n¬ t{imX-`m-jb
- nse ]Z-߃ Ah-bpsS en]n Nn”-߃°p-]I
- cw e£y-`m-jb
- nse
en]n Nn”-߃ D]-tbm-Kn®v Ah-Xc
- n-∏n-°p-∂p. ]e-t∏mgpw t{kmX-`m-jb
- nse en]n {]Xn-\n-[o-Ic
- n-°p∂
h¿Ww e£y `mj-bn-en-√m-sX-hc
- mw. AhnsS e£y `mj-bnse h¿Æ-߃ sIm≠v Xr]vXn-s]-tS-≠n-hc
- pw.
en]y-¥c
- W
- Ø
- ns‚ imkv{Xob cq]w A¥m cmjv{S [z\n en]n D]-tbm-Kn®v {]tbm-Kn-°m-hp-∂X
- m-W.v
GXp `mj-bn-tebpw {]tXy-I-en]n Nn”-߃ IqSp-X-embn D]-tbm-Kn®v GXv `mj-bn-tebpw D®m-cWw
kwc-£n-°m-hp-∂-Xm-Wv.
t{kmX-`m-j-bnse B{ibw e£y-`m-j-bn-te°v hnh¿Ø\w sNøp-I-bmWv hnh¿Ø-\-Øns‚
ImXm-emb {]h¿Ø-\w. `mjbv°v c≠p `mK-ap-≠t√m i_vZw, A¿∞w. hnh¿Ø-\-Øn¬ Ch-bn¬
GXn\v F{X {]m[m\yw \¬Ip-∂p-sh-∂X
- n-\\
- p-kc
- n®v hnh¿Ø-\Ø
- n\v A©p hn`m-Kß
- ƒ Iev]n-®n-´p-≠v.
1. i_vZm¿∞ hnh¿Ø\w ( Literal translation )
2. ]Zm-\p-]Z hnh¿Ø\w (Word for word translation)
3. Bib hnh¿Ø\w (Faithfull translation)
4. kzX{¥ hnh¿Ø\w (Free translation)
5. Bi-b-cq-]m-¥-cWw (Adaptation)
1.
i_vZm¿∞ hnh¿Ø\w (Literal translation)
hnh¿Ø-\-Øns‚ G‰hpw km[m-c-W-amb coXn CXm-Wv. CXn¬ t{kmX-`m-j-bnse ]Z-ßtfm
hmIy-ßtfm hnSmsX Ah-bpsS Bibw e£y `mj-bnse hmIy-LS- \ A\p-kc
- n®v Ah-Xc
- n-∏n-°p-∂p.
2.
]Zm-\p-]Z hnh¿Ø\w (Word for Word translation)
hnh¿Ø\sa∂p tIƒ°p-tºmƒ s]´∂v Hm¿Ω-bn¬ hcp-∂Xv ]Zm-\p-]Z hnh¿Ø\amWv.
]Zm-\p-]Z hnh¿Ø\Øn¬ t{kmX-`m-jb
- nse hmIy-LS- \
- m-{I-ahpw IqSn thW-sa∂v sX‰n-≤c
- n-°m-dp-≠v.
Aß-s\-b√ aqe `mj-bnse ]Z-ßf
- psS A`n-[m¿∞-aX
- p-t]mse hnh¿Ø\w sNøpI Ft∂ A¿∞-ap-≈p.
imkv{Xw, \nb-aw, aXw F∂nh kw_-‘n® {KŸ-ßf
- n¬ CXp-Iq-Sntb Ign-bq. F∂m¬ kmln-Xy-Øn¬
CXp ]e-t∏mgpw ]cn-lm-ky-am-bn-Xo-cpw. hnh¿Ø\w ]Tn-°p∂ Bcw-`-L-´-Øn¬ hcp-∂-XmWo coXn.
3.
Bib hnh¿Ø\w (Faithful translation)
t{kmX-`m-jb
- nse IrXn-bpsS Bibw e£y-`m-jb
- n¬ sX‰p-Iq-Sm-sXbpw sX‰n-≤c
- n-∏n-°m-sXbpw
Ah-X-cn-∏n-°p∂ coXn-bmWn-Xv. CXn¬ t{kmX-`m-j-bnse ssien-Iƒ XpS-ßn-bh Nne-t∏mƒ amdmw.
t{kmX-`m-j-bnse c≠pw aq∂pw hmIy-߃ e£y-`m-j-bn¬ H∂m-t°-≠nbpw Nne-t∏mƒ adn®pw hcmw.
CXn-s\ms° A\p-a-Xn-bp≈ coXn-bmWv Bib hnh¿Ø\w . F∂m¬ imkv{X-Ir-Xn-I-fn¬ Cu coXn
Bim-ky-a-√.
4.
kzX{¥ hnh¿Ø\w (Free translation)
Bib hnh¿Ø-\hpw kzX-{¥-hn-h¿Ø-\hpw XΩn¬ t\cnb hyXym-kta D≈p. t{kmX-`mjm
cq]-tØmSv hnh¿ØI≥ ImWn-°p∂ kzmX-{¥y-Øns‚ Afhp h¿≤n-°p-tºmƒ AXp kzX{¥
hnh¿Ø-\a
- m-Ip-∂p. t{kmX-`m-jb
- nse {][m-\s
- ∏´ Bibw \jvSs
- ]-SmsX kz¥w ssien-bn¬ \S-Øp∂
hnh¿Ø-\-amWv kzX{¥ hnh¿Ø-\w. kzX{¥ hnh¿Ø-\-Øn¬ aqe IrXn-bnse Nne hmIy-ßfpw
a‰pw hn´-I-f-™p-sh∂p Xs∂ hcmw. Bib hnh¿Ø-\-Øn¬ aqe-Ir-Xn-bpsS `mK-߃ hnSmt\m
{Iaw amdmt\m A\p-hm-Z-an-√. kzX{¥ hnh¿Ø-\-Øn¬ c≠pw kw`-hn-°mw. CXn¬ {]m[m\yw e£y`m-j-bnse hmb-\-°m¿°p lrZy-amb coXn-bn¬ \√ Hgp-t°msS hnh¿Ø\w sNøp-I-bm-Wv. t\mh¬
hnh¿Øn\v A\-tbm-Py-amb coXn IqSn-bm-Wn-Xv.
hnh¿Ø-\hpw Bi-b-hn-\n-a-bhpw
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School of Distance Education
5.
Bib cq]m-¥-cWw (Adaptation)
t{kmX-`m-j-bnse IYbpw a‰pw e£y-`m-j-bn-te°v hnh¿Ø\w sNøp-∂-Xn-t\m-sSm∏w
tZi ]{Xm-[n-If
- psS \ma-cq-]ß
- fpw a‰pw e£y-`m-jm-\p-kr-Xa
- mbn hnh¿Ø\w sNøp-Ib
- mWv CXnse coXn.
DZm: "HYt√m' F∂ IrXn "Zpc-¥-i¶' F∂ t]cn¬ \S-Ønb hnh¿Ø-\w.
Cu hn`m-K-Øn¬s]´ hnh¿Ø\w Hcp ÿeØp hf¿∂ sNSnsb as‰mcp ÿe-tØ°v ]dn-®p\-Sp-∂X
- p-t]m-se-bm-W.v ]pXnb ÿeØv A\p-Iq-ea
- mb Imem-hÿ
- bpw hf-hp-an-s√-¶n¬ sNSn hmSn-°c
- n-bpw.
AXp-t]mse cq]m-¥-c-W-Øn¬ t]cpw Ducpw am{Xw am‰n-bm¬ t]mcm IY apgp-h\pw ]pXnb
`mj-bnse kwkv°m-c-Øn\p tbmPn® coXn-bn¬ amt‰-≠n-hcpw. Cu hnh¿Ø\ coXn Ct∏mƒ Ne®n{X
cwKØv [mcmfw ImWmw. Cw•ojv lnµn, kn\naIfpsS cq]m-¥-cWw ae-bm-f-Ønepw hcm-dp-≠-t√m.
hnh¿Ø- \ - Ø ns‚ ta¬]- d ™ A©p coXn- I - f n¬ GXmWp th≠- s X∂v kµ¿`hpw
HuNn-Xy-hp-a-\p-k-cn®v hnh¿Ø-I≥ \n›-bn-°p-∂p.
hmNm-hn-h¿Ø\w
hnh¿Ø-\-sa∂ ]Zw sIm≠v km[m-cW hnh-£n-°p-∂Xv enJnX hnh¿Ø-\-am-Wv. F∂m¬
hmNm hnh¿Ø-\hpw enJnX hnh¿Ø\w t]mse Xs∂tbm AXn-e-[n-Itam {]m[m-\y-a¿ln-°p-∂p.
sFIy-cm-jv{S-kw-LS- \
- b
- psS tbmK-߃, hnhn-[c
- m-jv{S-ßf
- nse Xe-h≥amcpsS IqSn Imgv®I
- ƒ, cmjv{Sob
{]Nm-c-W-tbm-K-߃, aX-{]-`m-j-W-߃, hntZ-iob `mjm kmln-Xy-Im-c≥amcpsS {]kw-K-߃
XpS-ßn-b-h-sb√mw hmNm hnh¿Ø\w Bh-iy-s∏-Sp-∂p.
hmNm hnh¿Ø\w F∂ imkv{Xob kw⁄bv°v km[m-cW kw`m-j-W-Øn¬ ]cn-`mj F∂
kw⁄bpw D]-tbm-Kn-°mw.
Bip hnh¿Ø\w
as‰mcp `mj-bnse {]kwKw X¿Pa sNbvXp ^en-∏n-°p-∂Xv ZpjvI-camb Imcy-am-Wv. CXn¬
hnh¿Ø-I≥ BZy-ambn {]kw-K-Is‚ `mj-am-{X-a√ {]kwK hnj-bhpw {]kw-K-Is‚ `mjm ssien,
D®m-c-W-coXn F∂n-h-bp-ambn ]cn-Nn-X-\m-I-Ww. AXp sIm≠mWv cmjv{S-Ønse {][m-\n-Iƒ
hntZ-iØp t]mIp-tºmƒ kz¥w Zzn`m-jn-Isf sIm≠p-t]m-Ip-∂-Xv. {]kw-K-Is‚ `mj-bn-se-∂-t]mse
Xs∂ t{imXm-°-fpsS `mj-bn¬ hnj-b-a-h-Xn-cn-∏n-°m≥ Zzn`m-jn°v Ign-b-Ww. B e£y-`mj shdpw
A®Sn `mjm-bm-IsX t{imXm-°ƒ°v lnX-amb `mjm-co-Xn-bn¬ D≈-Xm-bn-cn-°-Ww.
Bip hnh¿Ø\w AY-hm {]kwK hnh¿Ø\w c≠p coXn-bn-ep-≠v.
1)
khn-cma X¿Pa
{]kwKnI≥ Ign-hXpw sNdp hmIy-߬ am{Xw {]tbm-Kn-°p-∂X
- n¬ {i≤n-°p-Ibpw hnh¿Ø-I\v
kwkm- c n- ° m- \ mbn CS- ° nsS Xm≥ kwkm- c n- ° p- ∂ Xv \n¿Øn- s h- ° p- I bpw sNøp- ∂ p. D‡
am[y-aØ
- n-eqsS BZyw t{kmX-`mjm {]kw-Khpw DS≥Xs∂ AXp e£y-`m-jb
- n-eq-sSbpw tIƒ°m-\n-Sh
- c
- nI
F∂-XmWv CXns‚ ^ew. an° cmjv{Sob t\Xm-°fpw aX-{]-hm-NI
- cpw CjvSs
- ∏-Sp∂ am¿§hpw CXp-Xs
- ∂.
2)
Ahn-cma X¿÷a
X´pw XS-hp-an-√msX t{kmX {]kw-Kw, AXns‚ Ah-km\w hsc \o≠p-t]m-Ip-∂p. G‰hpw
HSp-hn¬ hnh¿Ø-I≥ e£y-`m-j-bn-te-°p≈ {]kwK X¿÷a CS-sIm≠pw \n¿ØmsX e£y-`mj
am{Xw Adn-bm-hp∂ t{imXm-°ƒ°p-th≠n Ah-X-cn-∏n-°p-∂p. kz¥w {]`m-jWw apgp-an-∏n-®n´v
{]kw-K-thZn hnh¿Ø-I-\p-th≠n ]q¿Æ-ambpw Hgn™p sImSp-°p-Ibpw Bh-iy-am-sW-¶n¬ ÿew
hnh¿Ø-\hpw Bi-b-hn-\n-a-bhpw
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School of Distance Education
hnSp-Ibpw sNøm-\p≈ kzmX{¥yw t{kmX-{]-kw-K-I-\p≠v F∂-XmWv Cu k{º-Zm-b-Ønse sa®w.
hnh¿Ø-Is‚ Npa-Xe ChnsS `mcn-®X
- m-Wv. t{imXm-°f
- psS ap≥]n¬ AhnNn” [mc-amb Hcp {]kwKw
Ah-Xc
- n-∏n-∏n-°p-∂X
- n-s\m∏w aqe{]`m-jW
- Ø
- nse Bib KXn-tbmSp \oXn ]pe¿Øp-∂X
- nepw Atß-b‰w
{i≤n-t°-≠-Xp-≠v. Npcp-s°-gpØpw X\n°p kz¥-amb ]e kt¶-X-ß-fp-]-tbm-Kn®pw Xøm-d-°p∂
Iqdn-∏p-Iƒ CØcw kµ¿`-ß-fn¬ hnh¿Ø-I\p klm-b-I-am-bn-cn-°p.
{]Xy£ hnh¿Ø\w
Hcp `mj-bn¬ \n∂v as‰mcp `mj-bn-te°p t\cn´p samgn-am‰w \S-Øp-∂Xv {]Xy£ hnh¿Ø-\w.
DZm: Imfn-Zmk imIp-¥fw 1789 ¬ hneyw tPm¨kv Cw•o-jn-te°v hnh¿Ø\w sNbvXp.
]tcm£ hnh¿Ø\w
Hcp hnh¿ØnX IrXn-bn¬ \n∂v as‰mcp `mj-bn-te-°p≈ hnh¿Ø-\-sØ-bmWv ]tcm£
hnh¿Ø\w F∂p ]d-bp-∂-Xv.
DZm: Imfn-Zmk imIp-¥fw 1879 ¬ hneyw tPm¨kv Cw•o-jn-te°p hnh¿Ø\w sNbvXp. Cu
hnh¿ØnX ]mTsØ Bkv]Z- a
- m°n 1971 ¬ tPm¿Pv t^md-ÿ B Ir-Xn-bpsS P¿Ω≥ `mjm-hn-h¿Ø\w
cNn-®p. tPm¨ t^md-ÿ \S-Ønb Cu {]{Inb ]tcm£ hnh¿Ø-\-Øn\v DZm-l-c-W-am-Wv.
hnh¿Ø-\hpw Bi-b-hn-\n-a-bhpw
33
School of Distance Education
MODULE II
UNIT-9
A{]m-]y-amb Hcp hnXm\w
_jo¿ IrXn-I-fpsS hnh¿Ø\w \n¿h-ln-°th X߃°v t\cn´ hnhn[ {]iv\-߃ Cu
]qkvXI
- Ø
- ns‚ Ah-Xm-cn-Ib
- n¬ Bj¿ hnkvXc
- n-°p-∂p-≠v. Hcp \n›nX `mj-bpsSbpw kmwkvIm-cnI
kml-N-cy-Øn-s‚bpw D¬]-∂-amb k¿§m-flI kmlnXyw as‰mcp `mj-bn-tebv°pw kmwkvIm-cnI
kml-N-cy-Øn-tebv°pw ]I-cp-tºmƒ km[m-cW t\cn-Sm-dp-≈h Xs∂ Ch-bn¬ ]eXpw. Chbv°
Bhp-∂{X {]K¬`-ambn ]cn-lm-c-߃ Is≠-Øn-bn-cn-°p∂p F∂-Xn-et{X Bj¿ sNbvX Cu
hnh¿Ø\w bYm¿∞-Øn¬ \nkvXq-e-am-hp-∂-Xv.
F∂m¬ Cu ]cn-lm-cß
- ƒ, Ch Is≠-Øm-\p≈ ]fin-tXm-]n-Xa
- mb bXv\ß
- ƒ-˛F
- √mw A¥na
hni-I-e-\Øn¬ \sΩ \bn-°p-∂Xv aqe-Ir-Xn-bpsS \nkvXp-eX F∂ Awi-Øn-tebv°p Xs∂. H‰
Zrjv S m¥w am{Xw kv ] ¿in- ° mw. kplv d bpw aPoZpw Xß- f psS kwhm- Z - ß - e n¬ kz—- µ - a mbn
D]-tbm-Kn-®p-t]m-cp∂ kw-t_m-[\
- b
- p-≠t- √m. 'sNdp-°≥' F∂pw "s]Æv' F∂pw Ch _mey-Im-ek
- J
- n-bnse
B kµ¿`-߃°p \¬Ip∂ `mh-cpNn H∂p khnti-j-a-t{X. `mh-Øns‚ Cu cpNntbm CXp
cq]-s∏-Sp-Øp∂ `mj-bpsS ebtam hnh¿Ø-\Ø
- n¬ FØn-∏n-Sn-®n-´n-√. FØn-∏n-Sn-®n-´n√ F∂-Xn-cn-°s´
AXn-\p≈ bXv\w \S-∂nt´ C√ F∂pw hnNm-cn-t°-≠n-bn-cn-°p-∂p. "sNdp-°≥' "s]Æv' c≠pw,
kmam-\y-am-bn, {]Ya ]pcp-j-\n¬ ]cm-a¿i-Øn-t\m, hnh-c-W-Øn-t\m, Hs° DX-Ip∂ ]Z߃ Ft∂
[cn-°q. Chsb EPp-hmbn am[ya ]pcp-j\n¬ kwt_m-[\
- I
- ƒ F∂ \nebv° am‰n D]-tbm-Kn-®n-cn-°p-Ib
- mWv
_jo¿. Cß-s\-sbmcp `mjm-X{¥w "_mey-Im-e-kJn' Dƒs°m-≈p-∂-Xmbn \mw Hcp ]t£
{i≤n-®n-cn-°b
- n-√.
sX‰n-≤c
- n-°c
- p-Xv. Cu hnh¿Ø\w ]cym-]vXa
- √ F∂p hcp-Øm≥ h√ ]gpXpw tXSn-∏n-Sn-°p-Ib
- √
Fs‚ D∂w. GXv k¿§m-flI IrXn-bpsS F{X {]K-e-`-amb hnh¿Ø-\hpw, IrXn F{X-am{Xw
k¿§m-fl-I-amtWm B A\p-]m-X-Øn¬, A]-cym-]-flm-hm≥ hn[n-°-s∏-´n-cp-∂p F∂v sXfn-bn-°m≥ Hcp
DZm-l-cWw D∂-bn-°pI F∂Xv am{X-am-Wv. kmwkvIm-cnI kml-N-cy-Øns‚ kwK-Xn-sbms° t]ms´
`mjm {]tbm-KØ
- n-tebv°v km[m-cW
- b
- n¬°hn™ Nne km{µ-XI
- fpw khn-ti-jX
- I
- fpw Bhm-ln-°pI
F∂-XmWv k¿§m-fl-I-X-bpsS Ak-µn-Kv[-amb Hcp e£-Ww. `mhn-bn¬ Imap-Io-Im-ap-I-∑m-cmb
hf-cm-\n-cn-°p∂ apJy IYm-]m-{X-ßf
- mb kplvdbpw aPoZpw ap≥Iq-´n-Xs∂ _mey-Ønse Ifn-tØm-gc
- mbn
Ah-Xc
- n-∏n-°p-I. CXns‚ `mh-\m-iq-\y-amb A\p-jvTm\w Ne-®n-{X-ßf
- n¬t]mepw I≠p-sh¶nepw AXns‚
sshckyw CXns\ _m[n-®n-´n-√. Cu Ah-XmcW kt¶-X-Øns‚ kc-f-X-t]m-se-Øs∂ km^-eyhpw
hnkva-b-I-c-amb Hc-\p-`-h-ambn Ah AhnsS \sΩ k‘n-°p-∂p.
hnS¿Øp-I-bm-sW-¶ntem : XqS-°-Øn¬ kplvd-bp-sSbp aPo-Zn-s‚bpw kwt_m-[-\-bo-eqsS
kv^pcn-°p∂ kz®-µX
- , HSphnesØ Zpc-¥Ø
- ns‚ kzc-ho-Nn°v XnI®pw hncp-≤s
- a-t∂mWw \n_-‘n-®n-´n-t√,
\n]p-Wa
- mb B kwhn-[m-\Ø
- ns‚ s]mcp-fS- °w Fs¥ms° hni-Zo-Ic
- n-t°-≠n-bn-cn-°p-∂p. hnh¿Ø\w
DtØ-Pn-∏n®v IuXp-I-tØmsS aqe-Ir-Xn-bn-eqsS ho≠pw IS-∂p-t]m-b-t∏mƒ D≈n-Ø-S™ Hcp kwKXn
H∂p kv]¿in-®p-t]m-hmt\ Dt±-in-®p-≈p. aqe-Ir-Xn-tbmSv Xmc-Xa
- y-s∏-Sp-Øp-tºmƒ ]e D¬]-∂ß
- ƒ°pw
samØ-Øn¬ k`-hn-°p-∂pXv CXp-Xs∂. A{Xbpw kzm`m-hn-I-am-bn, A\-\y-amb kmc-fy-tØm-sS.
k¿§m- fl - I Xzw km£m¬I- c n- ° p∂ Nne hnXm- \ - ß sf a‰p am¿K- ß - f n- e psS FØn- ∏ n- S n- ° m≥
hnh¿Ø-\hpw Bi-b-hn-\n-a-bhpw
34
School of Distance Education
bXv\n-°-bm-Wt√m Dt]m-ev]-∂-߃ sNøp-∂-Xv. CØcw bXv\-Øn\v A]-cym-]vX-X-Iƒ t\cn-SpI
F∂Xv H´pw Akm-[m-c-W-a-√. Cu hkvXpX ka¿∞n-°p∂ as‰mcp ZrjvSm-¥-am-hp-∂p. "_mey-Ime
kJn'°v Bjdpw Iq´cpw tN¿∂v Xøm-dm-°nb H∂m-¥cw X¿÷-a-.
(1) ? hnh¿Ø\w bYm¿∞-Øn¬ \nkvXq-c-am-hp-∂Xv Ft∏mƒ?
Hcp \n›n-X`- m-jb
- psSbpw kmkw-Im-cnI kml-Nc
- y-Øn-s‚bpw Dev]∂
- a
- mb k¿§m-flI kmlnXyw
as‰mcp `mj-bn-te°pw kmwkvIm-cnI kml-N-cy-Øn-te°pw ]I-cp-tºmƒ km[m-cW t\cn-Sm-dp-≈h
Xs∂ Ch-bn¬ ]e-Xpw. Chbv° Bhp-∂{X {]K-ev`-ambn ]cn-lm-c-߃ Is≠-Øn-bn-cn-°p∂p
F∂-Xn-emWv hnh¿Ø\w bYm¿∞-Øn¬ \nkvXq-e-am-hp-∂-Xv.
(2) ? "sNdp-°≥', "s]Æv' F∂ hm°v "_mey-Im-ek
- Jn'bpsS `mh-LS- \
- b
- n-te°v {]th-in-°m≥
Fßs\ {]tbm-P-\-s∏-Sp∂p?
"sNdp-°≥', "s]Æv' F∂ hm°v Ch \n¿t±-in-°p∂ kz—-µ-bp-≠-t√m, AXp Xs∂ Cu
t\mh-ens‚ Bcw-`sØ Ahn-kva-c-Wo-b-am-°p∂ A\p-`q-Xn. "sNdp°' F∂ H‰-hn-fn-bn¬ kplvd-bpsS
hy‡nXzw apgp-h≥ HXp-°n-h®
- n-´p-≈X
- m-bmWv. aPo-Zns\ "sIm®m°n' AS°n \n¿Ø¬, Ipkr-Xn, `oj-Wn-˛C
- ß
- s\
amdn- a mdn ]e `mh- O m- b - I fpw AXn¬ Xpfp- º n- s b- Ø p- ∂ p. HSp°w Ah- f psS {]W- b - Ø ns‚
hnZyp-Xv{]-kcw sIm≠v AXv XpSn-°m\pw XpS-ßp-∂p. CXp-t]mse {]k-cn-∏p≈ Hcp hy‡n-Xz-tØmSv
Npsh-sSm-Øp-t]m-tI≠ B Dt±-iy-tØmsS aPoZv k{i≤w Hcp-°n-sb-Sp-°p∂ s]mcp-Ø-Øns‚ i_vZcq-]-at{X "s]Æv' F∂ hnfn.
(3) ? "shdp-sX-b√ CXp-t]m-semcp at\m-lm-cnX Xm≥ as‰mßpw I≠n-´n√' F∂v amcm¿
km£y-s∏-Sp-ØnbXv. kml-Ncyw hy‡-am-°p-I.?
`mhn-bn¬ Imap-Io-Im-ap-I-∑mcmbn hf-cm-\n-cn-°p∂ apJyI-Ym-]m-{X-ßsf ap≥Iq´n Xs∂
_mey-Ønse Ifn-tØm-g-cmbn Ah-X-cn-∏n-°p-I. Gsd-°m-e-am-bns√ \ΩpsS t\mh¬ Hcp h¿Æm-{i-a[¿Ωw t]mse Cu ]Xnhv ]men®p hcp- ∂ p. CXns‚ `mh- \ m- i q- \ y- a mb A\p- j v T m\w
Ne-®n-{X-ß-fn¬t∏mepw I≠p I≠p \ap°v sshckyw P\n-®n-cn°pw F∂Xv hmkvX-hw. ]t£,
"_mey-Im-e-kJn' Bh¿Øn-®p- hmbn-°p-tºmƒ Adn-bm-dm-hp-∂p, CØcw sshckyw AXns\
_m[n-®n-´n√ F∂v. Cu Ah-X-cW kt¶-X-Øns‚ kc-f-X-t]m-se-Xs∂ km^-eyhpw hnkva-b-I-c-amb
Hc-\p-`-h-ambn AhnsS \sΩ k‘n-°p-∂p. Cu kml-N-cy-Øn-emWv amcm¿ km£y-s∏-Sp-Øn-b-Xv.
Imhy-hn-h¿Ø\w ˛ \nco-£-W-߃
tZi-aw-Kew cma-Ir-jvW≥
""ASp-Ø-Sn-sh®p sXm´-phm≥ t\m°p-tºmƒ
AI-te-bv°p-]mbpw shfn-®ta \ns∂
icn°p kmXzn-I-°-dp-I-tbIn Rm≥
sacp-°p-hm≥ t\m°pw acn-°p-thmfw''.
]n. Iq™n-cm-a≥ \mb¿
H∂v
`mh-\-bpsS kXy-߃ {]Im-in-∏n-°p-hm≥ {ian-°p∂ kmln-Xy-Ir-Xn-I-fn¬ hnh-¿Ø\
£a-a-√mØ Hcp-]mSv Awi-߃ D≠m-bn-cn-°pw. ]e hm°p-Iƒ°pw ]Icw shbv°m-\p-≠m-In-√.
hnh¿ØnX IrXn Idp-∏nepw shfp-∏n-ep-ap≈ Hmbn¬s]-bn‚nwMv t]mse-bm-Wv. hnh¿Ø-\-Øn¬
hnh¿Ø-\hpw Bi-b-hn-\n-a-bhpw
35
School of Distance Education
aqe-Ir-Xn-bpsS Cg-s\-bvØn\v am‰w h∂n-´p-≠m-hpw. aqe-cq-]-Øns‚ c⁄-\bv°v Hs´ms° am‰hpw
h∂n-cn-°pw. Ihn-bpsS `mh-\sb A{X-Xs∂ ]nSn-s®-Sp-°m≥ Ign-™n-cn-°n-√. IrXn-bpsS tI{µ-Øn-te°v
\bn-°p∂ Hcp-]mSv hni-Zmw-iß
- f
- p-≠v. Ahsb apgp-h≥ GtIm-]n-∏n-°p-∂X
- mb sFIy-amWv hnh¿Ø-I≥
D≠m-t°-≠-Xv. IrXn-bpsS tI{µ-_n-µphpw AXn-te°v ]ms™-Øp∂ Cg-Ifpw hnh¿Ø-\-Øn¬
\jvSs
- ∏-SmsX t\m°-Ww. GsXmcp IrXn-bpsS hnh¿Ø-\Ø
- n¬ hf-bv°tem Xncn-°tem th≠n-hc
- pw.
A\y-`m-j-I-fn-ep≈ hnNm-c-co-Xn-Iƒ tXm∂-ep-Iƒ, `mj-W-߃ F√mw aqS¬a-™mbn apºn¬
\n¿°p-∂p-≠m-hpw. B `mjm-kw-kvIm-c-ßse th≠ hn[-Øn-e-dn-bm≥ ]‰m-Ø-Xp-sIm-≠mWv Cßs\
tXm∂p-∂X
- v. aqe-Ir-Xn-°pw X\n°pw CS-bn-ep≈ aqS-en\v \nZm-\a
- m-bs
- X-s¥∂v Is≠-ØW
- w. Aßs\
AXv th≠p-thmfw sXfn-™m¬Ø-s∂bpw hnh¿Ø-I≥ kz¥w `mj-bpsS kΩ¿±-ß-fn¬ \n∂p
hn´p-s]m-bv°q-Sm. kz¥w `mj F{X-tØmfw Dƒs°m-≠n-´p≠v F∂-XmWv {]iv\w. kz`m-j-bnse
{]tXyI kwth-Z-\-co-Xn-Iƒ Adn-bmw. AXm-bXv Hcp `mhw F¥p-sIm-≠mWv C∂ coXn-bn¬
{]I-Sn-∏n-®n-´p-≈Xv F∂ At\z-j-W-hpw AXns‚ Is≠-Øepw BZyta sNbvXn-cn-°-Ww.
BZy- a mbn H∂pw A¥na hn[n- b - s √- ∂ - d n- b - W w. Hmtcm Ime- L - ´ hpw AXn- t ‚- X mb
{]k-cn-Ø-eq-sS-bmWv Ihn-Xsb t\m°p-∂-Xv. a\p-jy-N-cn-{X-Ønse am‰-߃°-\p-k-cn®v AXns‚
\ne-I-fnepw \ne-]m-Sp-I-fnepw am‰w hcp-∂p. Ime-Øn-eq-sS-bmWv IrXn-bpsS ]ptcm-K-a-\w. Ihn-X-bnse
hm°p-Iƒ thdn´p ImW-cp-Xv. {]tXyI coXn-I-fnepw Ne-\-hn-ti-j-W-Øn-ep-amWv Ihn-X-bpsS "C^Iv‰v
IpSn-sIm-≈p-∂-Xv. `mh-ap-{Z-I-fp-sSbpw \n\-hp-I-fp-sSbpw {]tXy-Iamb hgn-bn-eqsS Hmtcm Ihn-Xbpw
A\p-`hw ]I-cp-∂p-≠v. Hcp `mhw as‰mcp `mh-Øns‚ XpS¿®-bm-Wv. `mh-amWv Poh≥ F∂v
ap≠-t»cn; hnh¿Ø-Is‚ BZysØ Npa-Xe Ihn-X-bnse XpSn∏pw anSn∏pw Adn-b-em-Wv.
aqe-Ir-Xn-bp-am-bp≈ a\-s∏m-cp-Øw, _‘-]m-iw, D≠m-bm¬ hnh¿Ø\w BÀm-ZI
- c
- a
- m-bn-Øo-cpw.
F√mw-Im-eß
- f
- n-sebpw F√m Fgp-Øp-Im-cp-sSbpw `mh-{]-Im-i\
- ß
- e
- psS kwbp-‡a
- mWv temI kmln-Xyw.
kz`mjm Ncn-{X-sØ-∏-‰n-bp≈ Xncn-®-dn-hmWv hnh¿Ø-\sØ hnP-bn-∏n-°p-∂-Xv. A\y-`m-jm-IrXn
hnh¿Ø\w sNøpw-aptº hnh¿Ø-I≥ kz`m-jsb hna¿i-\-_p-≤n-tbmsS A]-{K-Yn®p a\- n-em-°Ww. hm°pw ssienbpw \nNs∏-Sp-Øm≥ {ian-®m¬ t]mcm. Ah-bpsS A[o-i≥ Xs∂-bm-h-Ww.
Ihn a\- ns‚ am¿§-߃ hnNn-{X-ß-fm-sW∂pw At\I am¿§-ß-fp-s≠∂pw ]d-bm-dp-≠v. Cu c≠pw
Adn-bp-∂Xv Ihn Xs∂-bm-Wv. AXp-sIm-≠mWv Ihn-Xm-hn-h¿Ø-I≥ Ih IqSn-bm-h-W-sa∂v ]d-bp-∂Xv.
kmlnXy hnh¿Ø-\sØ s]mXpshbpw Ihn-Xm-hn-h¿Ø-\sØ {]tXy-In®pw IW-°n-te-SpØv
Xmsg-]-d-bp∂ 5 Imcy-߃ {i≤n-°Ww
1.
IrXnsb ˛ ]mTsØ H∂n®p ImW-Ww. GsX-¶nepsamcw-iØ
- n¬ am{Xw Du∂n-bm¬ hnh¿Ø\w
`mKn-Ia
- mhpw aqe-]m-TØ
- nse ÿe-˛]
- m-cº
- c
- y-˛`- m-jm-LS- I
- ß
- s
- fbpw am‰-an-√msX e£y-`m-jb
- n¬
sIm≠p-h-cm≥ {ian-°-Ww.
2.
aqe-]m-TØ
- ns‚ kwth-Z\
- a
- q-ey-sØbpw aqe-]m-TØ
- ns‚ A¿∞-sØbpw e£y-`m-jb
- n¬ sIm≠ph-cm≥ km[n-°-Ww.
3.
aqe-]m-T-Ønew ÿe-˛-Im-e-˛-]m-c-º-cy-L-S-I-߃ kwkvImc _‘-am-Ip-∂-tXm-sSm∏w LS-\m-]c-hp-am-bn-cn-°pw. Ahsb th¿Xn-cn-®-dn-bm≥ km[n-°Ww.
hnh¿Ø-\hpw Bi-b-hn-\n-a-bhpw
36
School of Distance Education
4.
aqe `mj-bpsS kmln-Xy-]m-c-º-cy-Øn-\n-W-ßp∂ Hcp cq]-Øn¬ thWw e£y-`m-j-bn¬
hnh¿Ø\w sNøm≥.
5.
aqe-{K-Ÿ-°m\v Xs‚ IrXn-bpsS {]ta-bsØ \n¿∆-ln-°p-hm≥ Ign-™-{]-Imcw Xs∂ e£y-`mj-bnepw Zo£n-°-Ww.
c≠v
samgnbpw s]mcpfpw XpSn-°p∂ XØp-ey-Nn-”-ß-fpsS {]Im-i-\-amb hnh¿Ø-\-Øn¬ hy‡n,
kaq-lw, tZiw, Imew, `mj, A[n-Imcw F∂o LS-I-߃°v A\n-hm-cy-ÿm-\-am-Wt√m D≈-Xv.
ae-bm-f-kw-kvIm-c-Øns‚ Du¿÷-ap≈ Ihn-X-Iƒ Cw•o-jn-te°v samgn-am‰w sNø-tºmƒ khn-tij
[z\n-Iƒ Ign-bp-∂{X kw{I-an-∏n-°p-hm≥ t\m°-Ww. ]e-t∏mgpw Imhy-{]-I-c-W-ß-fntem ]Z-߃°v
A¿∞w \nb-X-am-hn-√. A\p-`-h-k-µ¿`-Øn¬ \n∂v {]k-cn-°p∂ A¿∞-ßsf I≠-dn-™m-te, e£y`m-j-bpsS lrZ-b-Øn¬ B hmKvkvtXm-`-ßsf sIm≠p-h-cm≥ Ign-bq. {]Xy-£-]-tcm£ Xe-ßsf
'kvIm\nMv' sNbvXv, i_vZh
- ym-]m-cØ
- ns‚ hnXm-\ß
- f
- n-epsS XnI™ `mhp-I\
- m-bn-Øs∂ hnh¿Ø-I\pw
k©-cn-t°-≠-Xm-av. Ihn-bpsS AS-bm-f-hm-Iy-߬ hnk-t¶-X\w sNøm≥ aqe-e-£y-`m-j-I-fpsS
kmln-Xym-h-t_m-[hpw thWw.
ae-bm-f-sØ-t∏m-ep≈ {]mtZ-inI `mj-I-fn¬ \n∂v temI-`m-j-bmb Cw•o-jn-te°v hnh¿Ø\w
sNøp-tºmƒ aqe-Ir-Xn-bpsS `mjm-[n-jvTn-Xtam ssieo-]c
- tam kmwkvIm-cn-Itam Bb k¶o¿Æ-Xb
- msI
]cn-l-cn-°m≥ {ian-°-Ww. Npcp-°-Øn¬ c≠p `mj-I-fp-sSbpw ioe-kw-kvIm-c-ß-sfbpw Hmtcm
Ihn-Xb
- p-sSbpw tI{µo-Ir-Xk
- Ø
- s
- bbpw Xncn-®d- n-bm≥ Ign-bp-∂X
- n-epsS am{Xta hnh¿Ø\w hnP-bn-°p.
aq∂v
]c-kv]-c-[m-c-W-bv°p≈ hgn-bmWv hnh¿Ø-\w. hnh¿Ø-\hpw krjvSn-bm-Wv. aqe-`m-j-bnse
Ihn-Xsb e£y-`m-j-bnse ]pXn-sbmcp krjvSn-bm-°n am‰m-\mWv hnh¿Ø-I≥ {ian-°p-∂Xv ChnsS
Ihn Xs∂-bm-hWw hnh¿Ø-I≥. hnh¿Ø-\-{]-{In-b-bn¬ am‰-߃ Bh-iy-ambn hcpw. AsX√mw
e£y-`m-j-bpsS Po\n-b- p-sIm≠v \nd-th-‰-s∏-Spw. Hcp ]t£, Xß-fpsS `mj am{Xw Adn-bm-hp∂
e£y- ` m- j m- h m- b - \ - ° msc Dt±- i n- ® p- ≈ - X mWv hnh¿Ø\w. hnh¿ØnX IhnX Ah¿s°mcp
"Hdn-Pn-\¬' Ihn-X-bmbn A\p-`-h-s∏-S-Ww. aqe-I-hn, aqe-`m-jm-hn-Z-Kv≤≥ F∂n-h-cp-ambn N¿® sNbvXpw
IhnX sNm√n-t°´pw kwi-b-߃°v ]cn-lmcw tXSnbpw thWw hnh¿Ø\w sNøp-hm≥. \n¿±n-jvSI-hn-Xb
- psS Bg-ßf
- n-te°v FØn-t®-cm≥ Cu A`n-ap-Jß
- ƒ A\p-t]-£W
- o-ba
- m-Wv. AXm-bXv kº¿°`m-j-bmb Cw•o-jns‚ klm-b-an-√msX aqe-`m-j-bn¬ \n∂v t\cn´v hnh¿Ø\w sNø-Ww.
Hcp `mj-bnse Ihn-bpsS Ihn-Xsb ]cn-`m-js
- ∏-Sp-Øp-∂Xv CX-c`- m-jb
- nse Ihn Xs∂-bm-hW
- w.
kv{SKm-thƒUv "t]mbv‰vkv ao‰v' Aß-s\-bmWv hnh¿Ø\w sNøp-∂-Xv. aqe-`m-j-bnse IhnX AtX
Xmf-Ønepw eb-Ønepw e£y-`m-jb
- n-te°v Bhm-ln-°p-∂p. Hcp `mjm-Ih
- n-bpsS apJ-Øp-\n∂p Xs∂
as‰mcp `mjm-Ihn A¿∞-`m-hß
- ƒ hnh¿Ø\w sNbvsX-Sp-°p-∂p. Cw•o-jn-s‚tbm CX-c`- m-jI
- f
- p-tStbm
CS-\n-e{- ]-h¿Ø\w sNdnb tXmXnte \S-°m-hp. Cßs\ t\m°p-tºmƒ, H‰-°n-cp-∂p≈ Ihn-Xm-hn-h¿Ø\w
A{X ^e-{]-Z-a√ F∂p ImWmw. sshZyp-tXm-]-I-c-WsØ \∂mbn {]h¿Øn-∏n-°p∂ sÃ_n-sse-k¿
t]msebmWv Hcp \√ hnh¿Ø-I≥. aqe Ihn-Xsb e£y-`m-jm-i_vZßfn¬ en]y-¥cw sNbvXv
AXnse e£y- ` m- j m- k am- \ - a mb ]Z- ß epw LS- \ - I fpw I¬∏- \ - I fpw Is≠- Ø n- b n- ´ p- t hWw
X¿÷-a-s°m-cp-sº-Sm≥.
kmkvIm-cn-I-amb {]tXy-I-X-fm¬ sX∂n-¥y≥ Imhy-kw-kvIm-c-߃ sshNn-{Xy-am¿∂-XmWv
Xan-gn\pw ae-bm-fØ
- n\pw XΩn¬ `mjm-im-k{v X-]c- a- mbn AIew Ipd-hm-W.v a‰p-≈h
- b
- °v AIew IqSp-Xe
- m-W.v
(1) ? Ihn-X-bpsS C^Iv‰v IpS-sIm-≈p-∂Xv FhnsS?
hnh¿Ø-\hpw Bi-b-hn-\n-a-bhpw
37
School of Distance Education
{]tXy-I-co-Xn-I-fnepw Ne-\-hn-ti-j-Øn-ep-amWv Ihn-X-bpsS C^Iv‰v IpSn-sIm-≈p-∂-Xv.
(2) ? aqe-Ir-Xn-bp-ambn Hcp a\-s∏m-cp-Øw, As√-¶n¬ _‘-]miw D≠m-bm¬ hnh¿Ø\w
BÀm-Z-I-c-am-bn-Øo-cpw. Cßs\ Bfl-_‘w D≠m-Ip∂ IrXn-Iƒ ]e-t∏mgpw A\p-I-c-W-Ønt\m
A\p-am-\-Ønt\m t{]cn-∏n-°p-∂p.Imc-W-sa¥v?
h¿Ø-am-\Ø
- nse kµ¿`-Øn\p ]mI-Øn¬ aqe-Ir-Xnsb am‰n-∏W
- n-bp-hm-\mWv A\p-hm-Z\
- {- ]-{Inb
DXp-I-∂p-Xv. ]g-b-Ir-Xn-bn¬ \mƒ°p-\mƒ Dudn-h-cp∂ ka-Im-en-Imw-i-ßsf
h¿Ø-am-\-Ønse
kµ¿`-Øn\v ]mI-Øn¬ aqe-Ir-Xnsb am‰n-∏W
- n-bp-hm-\mWv A\p-hm-Z\
- {- ]-{Inb DX-Ip-∂X
- .v ]g-bI
- r-Xn-bn¬
\mƒ°p-\mƒ Dudn-hc
- p∂ ka-Im-en-Imw-iß
- sf Is≠-Øp-Ib
- m-Wn-hn-sS. ]gb A\p-`h
- t- em-Iß
- ƒ°pw
]pXn-bh
- bv°pw XΩn¬ kmayw Is≠-Øp-∂t- XmsS ]gb Ihn-Xb
- nse A\p-`h
- sØ ]pXnb A\p-`h
- a
- m°n
kwth-Zn-∏n-°m≥ Ign-bp-∂p.
(3) ? hnh¿Ø- I ≥ A\p- I ¿Øm- h √; F∂m¬, A\p- I - c - W - Ø n- s \- ∂ - X p- t ]m- e p≈ Hcp
t{]cI-i‡n Abmƒ°p-≠m-hWw. Cßs\ ]d-bm≥ Imc-W-sa¥v?
as‰mcp Ihn-bpsS k{º-Zm-b-tØm-Sp≈ \nb-{¥n-X-amb Iog-S-߬ at\m-`m-h-am-bn-cn-°Ww AXv.
hnh¿Ø-\-X-Xn-s\-Sp-°p∂ IhnX Xs‚-Xmb Hcp Is≠-Øm-em-hp-tºmƒ hnh¿Ø-I\v BÀm-Zn-°m≥
Gsd hI-bp-≠v. CXv Xs‚ A\p-`-h-am-Wt√m F∂-Xs{X B Is≠-ج. aqe-Ir-Xnsb am\n-°p-hm≥
hnh¿Ø-I¿°v ]e-t∏mgpw Ign-bm-dn-√. kz¥w `mj-sIm-≠p≈ Hcp IS-∂m-{I-a-W-Øn-\mWv ]e
hnh¿Ø-\-Icpw {ian-°p-∂-Xv.
(4) ? A\p-hmN-I¿°mbn temI-ho-£-W-Øns‚ AXn-cp-Isf CØn-cn-sb-¶nepw X≈n-am-‰p-hm≥
Ihnbmb hnh¿Ø-I\p Ign-bp-∂p. hni-Zo-I-cn-°p-I?
aqe- I r- X n- b psS ]mt‰¨, Bgw, Cg- b - S p∏w apX- e m- b - h sb hnh¿Ø- I ≥ am\n- ° - W w.
AXn-\-\p-k-cn-®v, Xs‚ ioe-am-bn-´p≈ `mjm-co-Xn-bn¬ \n∂v Abmƒ amdm≥ Xøm-dm-h-Ww. Nne-t∏mƒ
Xs‚ ssiensb ]cp-°-\m-tI-≠n-h-cpw, Db¿tØ-≠n-h-cpw. Imhy-Ir-Xn-bnse {ZpXtam aµtam
Ak-atam Bb Ne-\sØ Bhn-jv°-cn-°m-\nXv Bh-iy-am-Wv. aqey-˛-e-£y-km-ln-Xy-߬°n-S-bn¬
H´pw Akm-[m-cW
- h
- p-a√ ]cn-Nn-Xh
- p-a√ F∂ hn[-Øn¬, hnh¿Ø-\sØ ÿmbn-bm-°p-∂X
- n-emWv Gsd
{]bm-kw. amXr-`m-j-bn¬ ]pXn-sbmcp i‡n Dƒs°m-≈p-hm≥ {ian-°p∂ hnh¿Ø-I-\mWv CXv
km[n-°p-∂-Xv. Xs‚ `mjsb am‰p `mh-{]-h¿Ø-\-߃°p IqSn D]-tbm-Kn-°p-∂-Xp-aqew ˛ {]tXyI
am\- k n- I m- h - ÿ - I fpw A{]- X o- £ n- X - a mb Dƒ°m- g v N - I - f pw, ioen- ® - d n- ™ n- ´ n- √ mØv \n\- h p- I fpw
Bhn-jI
- c
- n-°p-∂X
- p-aq-ehpw˛ A\phmNI¿°mbn temI-ho-£W
- Ø
- ns‚ AXn-cpIsf CØn-cn-sb-¶nepw
X≈n-am-‰p-hm≥ Ihn-bmb hnh¿Ø-I\p Ign-bp-∂p. Nß-ºp-sb-t∏m-ep≈ Ihn-Iƒ sNbvXXv AXm-Wv.
(5) ? kmln-Xy-hn-h¿Ø-\sØ s]mXp-shbpw Ihn-Xm-hn-h¿Ø-\sØ {]tXy-In®pw IW-°n-seSpØv 5 Imcy-߃ {it≤-b-am-Wv. Ah GsXms°?
1.
IrXnsb ˛ ]mTsØ ˛H-∂n®pImWWw GsX-¶n-ep-sam-cw-iØ
- n¬ am{Xw Du∂n-bm¬ hnh¿Ø\w
`mKn-I-am-Ipw. aqe-]m-T-Ønse ÿe-˛-Im-e-˛-]m-c-º-cyw-˛-`m-jm-L-S-I-ß-sfbpw am‰-an-√mØ e£y`m-j-bn¬ sIm≠p-h-cm≥ {ian-°-Ww.
2.
aqe- ] m- T - Ø ns‚ kwth- Z - a q- e y- s Øbpw aqe- ] m- T - Ø ns‚ A¿∞- s Øbpw e£y- ` m- j - b n¬
sIm≠p-h-cm≥ km[n-°-Ww.
3.
aqe- ] m- T - Ø nse ÿe- ˛ - I m- e - ˛ - ] m- c - º - c y- L - S - I - ß ƒ kwkv I m- c - _ - ‘ - a m- I p∂tXmsSm∏w
LS-\m-]-c-hp-am-bn-cn-°pw. Ahsb th¿Øn-cn-®-dn-bm≥ km[n-°-Ww.
hnh¿Ø-\hpw Bi-b-hn-\n-a-bhpw
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School of Distance Education
4.
aqe-`m-j-bpsS kmln-Xy-]m-c-º-cy-Øn-\n-W-ßp∂ Hcp cq]-Øn¬ thWw e£y-`m-j-bn¬
hnh¿Ø\w sNøm≥.
5.
aqe- { K- Ÿ - I m- c \v Xs‚- I r- X n- b psS {]ta- b sØ \n¿∆- l n- ° p- h m≥ Ign- ™ - { ]- I mcw Xs∂
e£y-`m-j-bnepw Zo£n-°-Ww.
hnh¿Ø-\-£-aX
hn.-B¿. {]t_m-[-N-{µ≥
]p©n-cn-°m\pw kwkm-cn-°m\pw a\p-jy-\p≈ Ign-hmWv Ahs\ a‰p Pohn-I-fn¬\n∂p
th¿Xn-cn-°p∂ {]I-S-amb c≠p khn-ti-j-X-Iƒ. Ch-bn¬ ]p©n-cn-bpsS LS-\, [¿Ωw, hnt«-j-Ww,
kwt«-j-Ww, h¿§o-I-cWw CXymZn hnj-b-߬ ssIImcyw sNøp∂ Hcp hn⁄m-\-hn-`mKw Ct∂mfw
hnI-kn®p h∂n-´n-√. F∂m¬ kwkm-cn-°m≥ a\p-jy-\p≈ Ign-hns‚ hnhn-[-h-i-߃ k\n-jvI¿jw
imkv{Xo-b-ambn ]cn-tim-[n-°p∂ Hcp hn⁄m-\-hn-`mKw Dcp-Øn-cn™p hf¿∂p-h-∂n-´p-≠v. AXmWv
`mjm-im-kv{Xw.
`mjm-im-kv{X-Øns‚ ImgvN-∏m-Sn¬ \n∂p t\m°p-tºmƒ `mj-W-Øn\pw Ht∂m AXn-e-[n-Itam
[¿Ωw D≠m-bn-cn-°pw. kuI-cym-hn-jvIm-c-]-cw, kmaq-lnIw F∂n-ßs\ hyh-t—-Zn-°mw. hnh¿Ø\w
F∂ {]{In-bbv°v G‰hpw Ffp∏w hg-ßn-sIm-Sp-°p∂ `mj-W-[¿Ωw ktµ-i-]-c-X-bm-Wv.
hhn¿Ø\w sNøm-hp-∂-sX∂pw sNøm≥ høm-Ø-sX∂pw c≠p hIp-∏n-I-fn-embn ]mT-ßsf
th¿Xn-cn-°p-∂Xp bp‡n-kl
- P
- a
- √
- . hnh¿Ø-\£
- a
- X F∂ KqWw Hmtcm ]mT-Ønepw Gdntbm Ipdt™m
ImWpw F∂p am{Xw, kmwkvIm-cnIw F∂p hnti-jn-∏n-°m-hp∂ hnh¿Ø\ sshj-ay-Øn\v
DZm-l-c-W-߃ GXv `mjmZzµzw ]nc-tim-[n-®mepw [mcmfw ImWpw. hnh¿Ø\ sshj-ay-Øns‚
`mjm-]-c-amb hi-sØ-°p-dn-®m-tem-Nn-°p-tºmƒ BZyta {i≤m-hn-j-b-am-hp-∂Xv Hmtcm `mjbv°pw
Gsd-°qsd X\Xv F∂p ]d-bm-hp∂ kz\-hy-h-ÿ-bn¬\n∂p t]m∂p-h-cp∂ hrØw, {]mkw, Xmfw
A\p-Xm\w apX-emb LS-I-ß-fp-ambn _‘-s∏´ {]tXy-I-X-I-f-t{X.
IYbpw, t\mhepw \mS- I - h p- s ams° X¿÷a sNøp- t ºmƒ hnh¿Ø- I \v ]cn- l mcw
ImtW-≠p∂ {]iv\-߃ C\nbpw ]e-Xp-ap-≠v. Imew, ÿew, kaqlw F∂o Xe-ß-tfmSp _‘-s∏´
`mjm-t`Z-k-hn-ti-j-ßfpw ssienbpw coXnbpw aqe-]m-T-Øn\v AXn-t‚-Xmb ]e {]tXy-I-X-Ifpw
kw`m-h\ sNbvXn-cn-°pw. h¿§o-I-c-W-]-c-ambn aqe-˛-e-£y-`m-j-Iƒ XΩn¬ kmayw h¿≤n°pw tXmdpw
hnh¿Ø-\ -ka aqey-X-Iƒ I≠-Øm≥ Ffp∏w IqSpw. AY-hm. hnh¿Ø-\-£-aX h¿≤n°pw; adn-®pw.
ae-bm-f-Øn¬ \n∂pw Xan-gn-te°pw X¿÷a sNøp-∂-Xn-t\-°mƒ sshjayw lnµn-bn-te-°m-Ip-tºmƒ
Gdpw; Cw•o-jn-te-°m-hp-tºmƒ HXp ]ns∂bpw h¿≤n-°p-sa∂p hcp-∂-Xn-\p≈ `mjm-]-c-amb ImcWw
CXm-Wv.
? `mjm-imkv{Xw F¥mWv? `mjm-im-kv{X-Øns‚ ImgvN-∏m-Sn¬\n∂p t\m°p-tºmƒ GXp
`mj-W-Øn\pw Ht∂m AXn-e-[n-Itam [¿Ωw D≠m-bn-cn-°pw. Ah GsXm-s°.?
]p©n-cn-°m\pw kwkm-cn-°m\pw a\p-jy-\p≈ Ign-hmWv Ahs\ a‰p Pohn-I-fn¬ \n∂p
th¿Xn-cn-°p∂ {]I-S-amb c≠p khn-ti-j-X-Iƒ. Ch-bn¬ ]p©n-cn-bpsS LS-\, [¿Ωw, hnt«-j-Ww,
kwt«-j-Ww, h¿§o-I-cWw CXymZn hnj-b-߃ ssIImcyw sNøp∂ Hcp hn⁄m-\-hn-`mKw Ct∂mfw
hnI-kn®p h∂n-´n-√. F∂m¬ kwkm-cn-°m-\p≈ a\p-jys‚ Ign-hns‚ hnhn[ hi-߃ k\n-jvI¿jw
imkv{Xo-b-ambn ]cn-tim-[n-°p∂ Hcp hn⁄m\ hn`Kw Dcp-Øn-cn™p hf¿∂p-h-∂n-´p-≠v. CXmWv
`mjm-im-kv{Xw.
hnh¿Ø-\hpw Bi-b-hn-\n-a-bhpw
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School of Distance Education
ktµ-ih
- n-\n-ab
- ]
- c
- w, kzXzm-hn-jvIm-c]
- c
- w, kmaq-ln-Iw, Bh¿÷-\]
- c
- w, kuµ-cym-hn-jvIm-c]
- c
- w,
F∂n-h-bmWv [¿Ω-߃.
(1) ? IYbpw t\mhepw \mS-I-hp-sams° X¿÷a sNøp-tºmƒ hnh¿Ø-\-I\v ]cn-lmcw
ImtW-≠p∂ {]iv\-߃ GsXms°?
Imew, ÿew, kaqlw F∂o Xe-ß-tfmSp _‘-s∏´ `mjm-t`-Z-hn-ti-j-ßfpw ssienbpw
coXnbpw aqe-]m-T-Øn\v AXn-t‚-Xmb ]e {]tXy-I-XIfpw kw`m-h\ sNbvXn-cn-°pw. Ah-sb√mw
e£y-`m-j-bn¬ {]Xn-^-en-∏n-°pI an°-hmdpw Akm-≤y-hp-am-bn-Øo-cpw. cma-cm-Pm-_-l-±q¿, Cµp-te-J,
sNΩo≥ F∂o IrXn-I-fnse kw`m-j-W-߃ Cw•o-jn-te°v X¿÷a sNøp-tºmƒ Cw•o-jns‚ Hcp
am\-I-cq-]-amsW kzoI-cn-t°-≠-Xv. AtXm Hmtcm kµ¿`-Øn\pw A\p-tbm-Py-amb `mjm-t`-Zhpw
ssienbpw coXn-bp-sams° Cw•o-jn¬ Dt≠m F∂-t\z-jn®v Ah {]tbm-Kn-°m≥ hnh¿Ø-I≥
{ian-°-Wtam F∂-XmWv Chn-SpsØ {]iv\w.
(2) ? Cw•o-jn-te°v X¿÷a sNøp-tºmƒ ]ns∂bpw {]iv\ß
- ƒ h¿≤n-°p-sa∂p hcp-∂X
- n-\p≈
`mjm-]-c-amb ImcWw F¥mWv?
h¿§o-Ic- W
- ]
- c- a- mbn apey-˛e
- £
- y-`m-jI
- ƒ XΩn¬ kmayw h¿≤n-°pw-tXmdpw hnh¿Ø-\k
- a- a- q-ey-XI
- ƒ
Is≠-Øm≥ Ffp∏w IqSpw; AYhm hnh¿Ø-\-£-aX h¿≤n°pw; adn®p ae-bm-f-Øn¬ \n∂p
Xan-gn-te°p X¿÷a sNøp-∂-Xn-t\-°mƒ sshjayw lnµn-bn-te-°m°ptºmƒ AXp ]ns∂bpw
h¿≤n-°p-sa∂p hcp-∂-Xn-\p≈ `mjm-]-c-amb ImcWw CXm-Wv.
kmwkvIm-cnIw F∂p hnti-jn-∏n-°m-hp∂ hnh¿Ø\ sshj-ay-Øn\v DZm-lc
- W
- ß
- ƒ hy‡-am-°p-I.
DZm-l-c-W-߃ GXv `mjm-Zzµzw ]cn-tim-[n-®mepw [mcmfw ImWm≥ km[n-°pw. "KW-]-Xn°p
Ipdn-°¬,' "Acbpw Xebpw apdp-°¬', "Xnc-»o-e-bp-b-cepw hogepw', "tIfn-s°m-´v,' "H∂-cbpw ap≠pw',
"apd-s∏Æv', "Xmen-s°´v' apX-emb {]tbm-K-߃ as‰mcp `mj-bn-te°p ]I¿∂p-sIm-Sp-°p-∂-sX-ßs\
F∂m-tem-Nn-°p-tºmƒ \ap-°-\p-`-h-s∏-Sp-∂Xv hnh¿Ø\ sshj-ay-Øns‚ kmwkvIm-cn-I-hiam-Wv.
"She is my friend' F∂v Cw•o-jp-Im-\-\mb Hcp bphmhp ]d-bp-tºmƒ AXn≥ A¥¿`-hn-°p∂
A¿∞- Ø n¬ Hcwiw am{Xta "Ahƒ Fs‚ kv t \ln- X - b mWv ' F∂ X¿÷- a - b n¬ \n∂p
ae-bm-fn-Iƒ°p a\- n-em-Ip.
IYm-hn-h¿Ø\w ˛ Nne kao-]-\-߃
hn.-Un, IrjvW≥ \ºym¿
P\-ßsf H∂n®p tN¿°m≥ G‰hpw i‡-amb am[yaw kmln-Xya-sW-¶n¬ `mc-Xob `mj-If
- nse
hninjvS IrXn-If
- psS ]c-k]
v c hnh¿Ø\w Bhpw AXns‚ G‰hpw {][m\ IÆn. IYm-hn-h¿Ø-\h
- p-ambn
G‰hpw {i≤n-t°-≠Xv aqe-IrXn Xs∂-bm-Wv. e£y-`m-j-bnse hmb-\-°m-cpsS A`n-cp-Nn-b-dn™v
Ah¿°v kzoIm-cy-ab IrXn-bm-hWw hnh¿Ø-I≥ sXsc-s™-Sp-t°-≠-Xv. kz¥w A`n-cp-Nnbpw
CjvSm-\n-jSv ß
- fpw Xo¿®-bmbpw Cu sXsc-s™-Sp-∏ns\ kzm[o-\n-°msX hcn√. F¶nepw hmb-\°
- m-cs‚
a\:imkv{Xw IqSn Adn-™n-´m-hWw IrXn kzoI-cn-t°-≠-Xv.
IY Xnc-s™-Sp-Øp-I-gn-™m¬ A\p-hmZw hmßpI F∂ IS-º-bmWv ]ns∂ IS-t°-≠-Xv.
IYI-fpsS Imcy-Øn¬ ]Zm-\p-]Z- hn h¿Ø-\a
- m-W.v ]t£, GXp `mj-bn-te°v sNøp-∂pthm B `mj-bpsS
{]IrXn A\p-k-cn®p hmIy-L-S\ D≠m-°-Ww. ]e-bn-SØpw kzmX{¥yw Imt´-≠n-h-cpw. HuNnXyw
{]tbm-Kn-t°-≠n-h-cpw. aqe-te-J-I-t\mSv Bhp-∂-{X \oXn ]pe¿Øn-s°m≠v e£y-`m-j-bpsS {]IrXw
A\p-k-cn®p hnh¿Ø\w sNøp-I-bmhpw A`n-e-j-Wo-bw. 'tem°¬ If¿' F∂p \mw ]d-bp-∂Xv
hnh¿Ø-\hpw Bi-b-hn-\n-a-bhpw
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School of Distance Education
kmwkvIm-cnI ss]Xr-I-sØ-bm-Wv. hnh¿Ø-\-Øn¬ Ign-hXpw ASn-°p-dn-∏p-Iƒ Hgn-hm-°p-I.
Kth-j-W-Øn¬ Ah CjvSw-t]mse sImSp-°mw. hnh¿Ø\w Ccp `mj-I-fnepw ]mfinXyw
Ah-Im-i-s∏-Sp∂Xnse {]tbm-K-߃ ImWmw. kuI-cym¿∞w AXv Hgn-hm-°n-s°m≠v _m°n-bp≈
`mKw hnh¿Ø\w sNbvXm¬ aXn F∂p Icp-Xp-cp-X.v Ign-hXpw ]q¿Æ-amb hnh¿Ø-\a
- mWv sNtø-≠X
- .v
hnti-jn®pw IY-I-fpsS Imcy-Øn¬.
IY-bpsS io¿jIw Ign-bp-sa-¶n¬ ape-Ønse Xs∂ sImSp-°p-I-bmhpw DNnXw. Nne-t∏mƒ
C°m-cy-Øn¬ Nne kzmX{¥yw {]tbm-Kn-t°-≠n-hc
- pw. ChnsS hnh¿Ø-Is‚ hne-bn-cp-ج {][m-\a
- m-Wv.
kam-\-]-Z-ß-fpsS A`m-hhpw Zzn`mjm \nL-≠p-I-fpsS A]-cym-]vX-Xbpw hnh¿Ø-I\v Ft∏mgpw
{]iv\-am-Im-dp-≠v. kmt¶-XnI ]Z-ß-fpsS ]cn-`m-jnX i_vZm-hen In´m-\p-≠v. ]t£, DZ-b-`mjm
\nL-≠p-°ƒ \ΩpsS `mj-bn¬ Ipd-hm-Wv. ssIsb-gp-Øp-{]Xn Xøm-dm-°-emWv thsdmcp {]iv\w
lnµn {]kn-≤o-I-c-W-°m¿ ssS∏p sNbvXv am‰-dmWv tNmZn-°p-I. tIc-f-Øn¬ lnµn ssS∏nwKv kuIcyw
Xqtemw ]cn-an-X-am-Wv. D≈ ÿe-Øp-Xs∂ AXns‚ \ne-hmcw tami-am-Wv. hnh¿Ø-I¿°pw
_p≤n-ap-´p-≠m-°p∂ thsdmcp Imcy-amWv ]g-s©m-√p-I-fpw, ssien-I-fpw, D≤-c-W-ßfpw a‰pw. Nne
]g-sam-gn-Iƒ°v kam-\a
- mb samgn-Iƒ ae-bm-fØ
- nepw In´pw. ]t£, lnµn-bnse Nne ]g-s©m-√p-Iƒ°v
ae-bm-f-cq-]-߃ C√. \ΩpsS \m´n¬ C¥y≥ `mj-Iƒ XΩn¬ t\cn-´p≈ hnh¿Ø-\-߃ Ct∏mgpw
Ipd-hm-Wv. kº¿°-`m-j-bmb loµn AYhm Cw•ojv hgn-bmWv Hcp `mc-Xo-b-`m-j-bn¬ \n∂pw as‰mcp
`mc-Xob `mj-bn-te°v IrXn-Iƒ ]cn-`m-j-s∏-Sp-Øm-dp-≈-Xv.
(1) ? hnh¿Ø\w Fß-s\-bm-hWw?
hni-Zo-I-cn-°p-I,
]Zm-\p-]Z hnh¿Ø-\tam? AtX Bi-bm-\p-hm-Ztam?
IY-I-fpsS Imcy-Øn¬ ]Zm-\p-]Zw sNømw. ]t£, GXp `mj-bn-te°p sNøp-∂pthm B
`mj-bpsS {]IrXn A\p-k-cn®p hmIy-L-S\ D≠m-°-Ww. ]e-bn-SØpw kzmX{¥yw Imt´-≠n-h-cpw.
HuNnXyw {]tbm-Kn-t°-≠n-h-cpw. aqe-te-J-I-t\mSv Bhp-∂{X \oXn ]pe¿Øn-sIm≠p e£y-`m-jbpsS {]IrXw A\p-k-cn®v hnh¿Ø\w sNøp-I-bmhpw B`n-apJyw aqe-Øns‚ HmP pw kuµ-cyhpw
H´pw tNm¿∂p-t]m-ImsX ]cn-`m-j-bn¬ hc-Ww. aqe-`m-j-bpsS kwkvIm-chpw AXp-]-tbm-Kn-°p∂
{]tZ-isØ Pohn-X{- I-ah
- pw, BNm-ck
- {- º-Zm-bß
- fpw a‰p `mj-bp-tS-Xn¬ \n∂v `n∂-am-Ip-tºmƒ hnh¿Ø-I≥
sh´n-em-hpw.
(2) ? IYm-hn-h¿Ø-\-hp-ambn _‘-s∏´ Imcy-߃ hni-I-e\w sNøp-I.
IYm-hn-h¿Ø-\Ø
- n¬ ASn-°p-dn-∏p-Iƒ Hgn-hm°p-∂X
- mWv \√-X.v IY-If
- psS Imcy-Øn¬ ]q¿Æ-amb
hnh¿Ø-\-amWv th≠-Xv. IY-bpsS io¿jIw Ign-bp-sa-¶n¬ ape-Ønse Xs∂ sImSp-°p-Ibmhpw
DNnXw. Nne-t∏mƒ C°m-cy-Øn¬ Nne kzmX{¥yw {]tbm-Kn-t°-≠n-h-cpw. ChnsS hnh¿Ø-\-Is‚
hnebn-cp-ج {][m-\-am-Wv. ssIsb-gp-Øp- {]Xn Xøm-d-°-emWv IYm-hn-h¿Ø-\-Øns‚ Hcp {]iv\w.
lnµn {]kn-≤o-I-c-W-°m¿ ssS∏p sNbX am‰-dmWv tNmZn-°p-I. tIc-f-Øn¬ lnµn ssS∏nwKv kuIcyw
Xptemw ]cn-an-X-am-Wv. S, ] XpS-ßnb A£-c-ß-fpsS ASn-bn¬ IpØn-Sp-∂-Xns‚ Bhiyw ]e¿°pw
t_m[y-s∏-Sp-I-bn-√. ]g-s©m-√v, ssien-Iƒ, D≤-c-W-߃, XpS-ßnb a‰pw hnh¿Ø\w sNøm≥
{]bm-k-I-c-am-Wv. Nne ]g-sam-gn-Iƒ°v kam-\-amb samgn-Iƒ ae-bm-f-Øn¬ In´pw.
(3) ? XXvÿm-\-ß-fn¬ hnh¿Ø-I≥ at\m-[¿Ωw {]tbm-Kn-°p-∂p. F¥mWv at\m-[¿Ωw?
at\m-[¿Ωw F∂m¬ AXv Hmtcm-cp-Ø¿°pw Hmtcm-∂m-bn-cn-°pw. 'kqcPv sIm Zo]Iv Znhm\m'
F∂ lnµn {]tbm-K-Øn\v "sIm√-°p-Sn-bn¬ Xpin hn¬°pI' F∂ ae-bmfw sNm√v ]‰pw. Dont’ carry
coal to new castele. F∂ Cw•ojv {]tbm-Khpw CtX A¿∞w hcp-∂-Xm-Wv. ape-I-hn-Xm-i-I-e-߃
hnh¿Ø-\hpw Bi-b-hn-\n-a-bhpw
41
School of Distance Education
Nne¿ AtX-]Sn ]Zy-Øn¬ Xs∂ hnh¿Ø\w sNøp-∂p. a‰p-Nn-e¿ KZy-]-cn-`mj \¬Ip-∂p. Nne¿ B
`mKw hn´p-I-f-bp-∂p. kµ¿`-Øns‚ Kuc-h-Øn\v Bh-iy-an-s√∂p I≠m¬ am{Xsa hn´p-I-fm-b≥
]‰p≈p.
(4) ? IYm-hn-h¿Ø-\-Øn\v hnh¿Ø\ in_n-cw, {Sm≥…-t‰gvkv h¿°vtjm∏v F∂ Bibw
F{X-I≠p kzoIm-cy-amWv?
hmk-\m-kº
- ∂
- c
- mb sNdp-∏°
- m¿°p Nne \n¿t±-iß
- ƒ \¬Ip-∂Xv DNn-Xa
- m-Wv. ]t£, h¿t£m∏n¬ IqSn hnh¿Ø-\-Isc hm¿sØ-Sp°mw F∂v hymtam-ln-°p-∂Xv sX‰m-Wv. kmlnXy A°m-Zan
Zn√n-bn¬ kwL-Sn-∏n®, C¥y≥ `mj-I-fnse hnh¿Ø-I¿°pth-≠n-bp≈ c≠mgvN \o≠p-\n∂ h¿°tjm-∏n¬ ]s¶-Sp-Øn´pw hnti-jm¬ H∂pw t\Sn-b-Xmbn Adn-hn-√.
hnh¿Ø-\hpw Bi-b-hn-\n-a-bhpw
42
School of Distance Education
MODULE III
UNIT-10
ssien-Ifpw ]g-s©m-√p-Ifpw
Cw•o-jn¬ \n∂p ssien-Ifpw ]g-s©m-√p-I-fpw- X¿÷a sNøp-tºmƒ kq£n-®n-s√-¶n¬
A]-ISw ]nW-bpw. ]Zm-\p ]-Z- ]-cn-`m-j -]-e-t∏mgpw ]cn-lm-ky-am-bn-Øo-cpw. lmky-k-{am-´mb
hn.-sI. F∂ns‚ Hcp I-Y-bn¬ Hcp IYm-]m{Xw "ChnsS Hsc-ensb aW-°q-∂t√m' F∂v ]d-bp-∂
k
- µ
- ¿`ap-≠v. To smell a rat F∂ Cw•ojv ssien-bp-sS-t\¿ ]cn-`m-jb
- m-Wn-hn-sS X
- a
- m-i- kr-jvSn-°p-∂X
- v.
kwibw tXm∂p∂ kml-N-cysØ kqNn--∏n-°p-∂-XmWv B BwK-e-ssi-en.
acn-°pI F∂¿∞w hcp∂ To kick the bucket F∂ ssien "IYm-]p-cp-j≥ _°‰v X´n-a-dn®p
IS∂p t]mbn' F∂p--a-s‰m-cp-I-Y-bn¬hn.-sI.-F≥. {]tbm-Kn-®n--´p-≠v. At±-l-Øns‚ hnI-S-k-c-kzXn
Bkz-Zn-°-W-sa-¶n¬ Cw•o-jv ssi-en-I-sf-∏‰n kmam\y hn⁄m\w Bh-iy-am-Wv. ssien-I-fn-ep≈
hm°p-I-fpsS A¿∞w tN¿Øp-h-®m¬ ssien-bpsS A¿∞w In´p-I-bn-√.
F√m `mjI-fnepw CXp-Xs
- ∂-bmWp ÿnXn. t\¿ X¿÷a CØcw L´-ßf
- n¬ hnP-bn-°p--Ib
- n-√.
"Iøpw- I-W°pan√msX' F∂ ae-bm-fs
- sien Without hand and mathematics F∂p ]cn-`m-js
- ∏-Sp-Øn-bm¬F-ß-s\-bn-cn°pw? ssien-Ifpw ]gs©m-√p-Ifpw ]cn-`m-j-s∏-Sp-Øp-tºm-ƒ XØp-ey-am-b -a-e-bmf
{]tbm-Kß
- ƒ kzo-Ic
- n-°p-Ib
- mWpNn-Xw. AXp km[y-am-hp-∂n-s√-¶n¬ Bi-bX
- ¿÷a \--SØ
-- p-I. GXm-\pw
-D-Zm-l-c-W-߃:
ssien-Iƒ
To be all eyes
Keeping the wolf from the door
To blow one’s own trumpet
To catch red handed
On-one’s last legs
To smell a rat
At one’s wits end
Diein harness
To take into account
To rip in the bud
Take to heels
Out of hand
To Throw cold wateron
Off and on
To eat one’s words
Worth one’s salt
To meet on halfway
To turn a deaf ear to
By hookl or by crook
To make up one’s mind
hnh¿Ø-\hpw Bi-b-hn-\n-a-bhpw
A¿∞w
-˛
-˛
-˛
-˛
˛
-˛
-˛
-˛
˛
˛
˛
˛
-˛
-˛
˛
˛
˛
-˛
-˛
-˛
IÆn¬ FÆ-sbm-gn-®n-cn-°pI
]´nWn IqSmsX Ign-°pI
Bfl-{]-iwk \S-ØpI
sXm≠n-tbmsS ]nSn-°pI
\mi-Øns‚ h-°Øv
kwi-bn-°m≥Im-c-W-ap-≠m-hpI
DØcw ap´nb
tPmen-bn-en-cns° acn-°pI
]cn-KW
- n-°pI
apf-bnse \p≈n-°-f-bpI
HmSpI
\nb-{¥-Wm-XoXw
\ncp-’m-l-s∏-Sp-ØpI
CShn-´n-Sh
- n´v
]d™Xp hngp-ßpI
sX√-¶nepw {]tbm-P-\-ap-≠m-hpI
HØp-Øo¿-∏m-hpI
Ah-KW
- n--°pI
tb\-tI-\-{]-Im-tc-W(-G-sX--¶nepw hn[-Øn¬)
Xocp-am-\n-°pI
43
School of Distance Education
To Play fast and loose
To be under the thumb of
To burn the candle at both ends
To be at cross- purposes
To compound an offence
Left handed compliment
To crop up
Cross- talk
-˛ hyh-ÿbpw sh≈n-bm-gvN-bp-an√m-sX(-H∂p ]d-bp-I-bpwa-s‰m-∂p-{]-h¿Øn-°p-Ibpw sNøp-I)
-˛ ]q¿Æ-kzm-[o-\Ø
- n-em-hpI
-˛ Aan-X-ambn A[zm-\n®v BtcmKyw \in-∏n-°pI
-˛ At\ym-\yw- sX-‰n-≤-cn-∏n-°pI
-˛ cmPn-bm-hp-I, XΩn¬Xo-cpI
-˛ \nµm-kvXpXn
-˛ A{]-Xo-£n-X-ambn {]Xy-£-s∏-SpI
-˛ Hcp- s S- e nt^m¨ kw`m- j - W - s Ø - h n- L v \ - s ]SpØp∂
thsdm-cp- kw-`m-j-Ww-˛-Iq-k-en-√m-Ø {]-Xyp-Ø-cw.
born with a silver spoon
in the mouth
-˛ hmbn¬ sh≈n-°-c-≠n-bp-am-bn-P-\n-°pI F∂p Xs∂ aebmfØn¬ {]tbm-K-ap-≠v. sFiz-cy-ßfpsS aSn-Ø-´n¬
]d∂p hogp-I, kar-≤n-I-fpsS a[y-Øn¬ P-\n-°pI F∂nß-s\-sbms° CXn∂¿∞w.
To distinguish between
-˛ I√pw s\√pw Xncn-®-dn-bpI c≠p `mj-I-fnepw
Hcp
t]mse D]-tbm-Kn-°p-∂p.
Familiarity breeds contempt
-˛ 1. AXn-]-cn-N-bm-Z-h⁄:
2. ap-‰sØ ap√°v a-W-an√
no smoke without fire
˛ Xobn-√msX ]pI-bn√
Make haywhile the sun shines
-˛ shbn-ep-≈-t∏mƒ I®n-bp-W-ßWw Im‰p≈- t ∏ m ƒ X q ‰Ww/]m-‰Ww X°-ka
- b
- Øp {]h¿Øn°p-I. kml-Ncyw/
Imem-hÿ A\p-Iq-ea
- m-bn-cn°p-tºmƒ sNøp-∂ {- ]hr-Ønk-^-e-am-Ipw. {]bXv\w- e-Lq-I-cn°pw Fs∂ms° [z\n.
Man proposes God disposes
-˛ A\yYm Nn¥nXw Imcyw ssZh-a\
- y-{X-Nn-¥b
- n¬ a\p-jy≥
Hcp Xc-Øn¬ Nn¥n-°p∂p hn[n-a-dn-®mIp-∂p.
to let the cat out of bag
-˛ ]q® ]pd-Øm-Ip-I, ]q-®p-sX-fn-bp-I, hymPw shfn-hm-IpI
Who will bell the cat
-˛ ]q®-°mcp aWn-sI´pw
To break the ice
˛ a™pcp-Ip-I, A]-cn-Nn-XØw AI-‰p-I, AI¬® \oßn
kvt\l-_‘w ]p\-cm-cw-`n-°pI
cannot see the woods by trees
-˛ acw sIm≠p h\w-Im-WmsX/
missing the woods for trees
-˛ acw sIm≠p h\w ImWmsX. h\-`w-Kn- B-kz-Zn°m≥
t]mb Bƒ AXnseHcw-i-amb ac-Øn¬ am{Xw {i≤n®v
ka-{K-tim-`-sb--°p-dn®v [mcW--bn-√m-Xm-b -A-h-ÿ.
C-ß-s\-bp≈ Cw•ojv ssien-Iƒ°p aebmf kam-¥-c-߃ Dt≠m F∂v Btem-Nn®v
Is≠-Øm≥ {ian-°-Ww. C√m-Øh hnh¿Ø\w sNbvXv-A-\p-tbm-Py-am-bXp krjvSn-°m-\m-hptam
F∂pt\m°Ww.
]g-s©m-√n¬ ]-Xn--cn√
kwkvIm-c-Øns‚ kvamc-I-in-e-I-fm-Wp- ]-gs©m-√p-Iƒ. AXn-\m¬]-Zm-\p-]Z X¿÷-a-°v- Ah
H´pw hg-ßn-Ø-cn-I-bn-√. aqe `mj-bnse ]g-s©m-√n\p Xp-ey-amb H∂v e£y`mj-bn¬ Dt≠m F∂v
t\m°p-Itb Xc-ap-≈q. Aßs\ HØp hcmØ kµ¿`-Øn¬ I-gn-bp-∂-{X-Xm-fhpw {]mkhpw Zo£n-®psIm≠v Bi-b -X¿÷a \S-Øp-IbmWpNn-Xw. GXm\pw amXr-I-Iƒ Xm-sg-s°m-Sp-°p-∂p.
hnh¿Ø-\hpw Bi-b-hn-\n-a-bhpw
44
School of Distance Education
All that glitters is not gold
Where there is a will thereis a way
As the seed so the sprout
Many a mickle make a muckle
Study work is the road to success
To error is humanbut to forgive
is divine
No smoke without fire
Familiarity breeds contempt
Toomanycookls spoil the broth
Man proposes, God disposes
No gains without pains
Never cast your pearls
before swine
Faces is index of mind
Might is right
The course of true love
never runs smooth
Time and tide wait for none
Pennywise andpound foolish
Care kills the cat
Be just before you are generous
Nothing venture nothing have
Time is a great healer
The barking dog seldom bites
Still waters run deep
Brevity is the soul of art
A stich in time seves nine
Well begun is half done
-˛
-˛
˛
-˛
-˛
]cn-KW
- n-°pI
thW--sa-¶n¬ N° thcnepw Imbv°pw
hnØp--KpWw ]Øp-KpWw
]e-Xpffn s]cp-sh≈w
]sø-Øn-∂m¬ ]\bpw Xn∂mw
-˛
-˛
-˛
-˛
-˛
-˛
sX‰v a\pjy kl-Pw, £a -ssZ-hn-Ihpw
Xobn-√msX ]pI-bn√
ap‰-sØ-ap-√°v aW-an√
Btf-sd IqSn-bm¬ ]mºp Nmhn√
A\yYm Nn¥nXw Imcyw ssZa-\ytX Nn-¥-tbXv
thZ-\-bn-√msX {]k-hn-°n√
-˛ t]mØns‚ sNhn-bn¬ thZ-tam-X-cpXv
-˛ apJw a\- ns‚ IÆmSn
-˛ Iøq-°p-≈-h≥ Imcy-°m-c≥
˛ Cu-Sm¿∂p hmbv°pa-\p-cm-K -\-Zn°p hnLv\w Iq-SmsØmgp-°-\p-h-Zn-°pI-bn√ ssZhw
-˛ Imehpw Xncbpw Bscbpw ImØp-\n¬°n√
-˛ ISp-Ip- tNm-cp-∂-X-dnbpw B\ tNmcp-∂-X-dn-bn√
˛ Ipfn-∏n-®p -Ip-fn-∏n-®p- Ip-´nsb sIm√pI
-˛ BZyw-\oXn ]ns∂ HuZmcyw
-˛ ssI \\bmsX ao≥ ]nSn-°m-\m-hn√
-˛ Ime-am--tW-‰hpw hen-b-- ssh-Zy≥
-˛ Ipcbv°pw ]´n-I-Sn-°n√
-˛ Bg°-S-en¬- Hm-f-an√
˛ HXp-°-amWv Ie-bpsS Poh≥
-˛ kqNn-sIm-s≠-Sp-ØXv Xqº sIm-s≠-Sp-°m-\n-S-h-c-cpXv
-˛ \∂mbn XpS-ßn-bm¬ ]mXn ]Wn-Xo¿∂p
18
kmt¶-XnI ]Z-߃
`c-W-`mj ae-bm-f-am-°ns°m≠ncn-°p∂ C°m-e-Øv, `c-W-]-c-amb IØn-S-]m-Sp-I-fnepw DØ-c-hp-Ifne-pw- "ÿncw ]p≈n-I-fm-bn -{]-Xy-£-s∏-Sp∂ Nne ssien-I-tfbpw {]tbm-K-ß-fp-tSbpw ae-bm-f-cq-]߃ Adn-™n-cn-t°-≠-Xm-h-iy-am-Wv. HutZym-Kn-I-ambn Aw-Ko-I-cn® ae-bm-f-]-Z-ßfpw {]tbm-K-ß-fpamWv Chn-sS-sIm-Sp-Øn-cn-°p-∂-Xv.
Abide by rules
-˛ N´-߃- A-\p-k-cn-°pI
Abolish
-˛ \n¿Ø-em-°pI
Aboriginal welfare officer
-˛ BZn-hmkn t£a Hm-^o-k¿
Abortive atempt
-˛ hn^-e-{iaw
Above mentioned
-˛ ta¬∏-d™
hnh¿Ø-\hpw Bi-b-hn-\n-a-bhpw
45
School of Distance Education
Abortage
Absolute
Abstract
Absurd Statement
Abusive language
Accomodation officer
Accomplice
According to order
Accredited correspondent
Accusation
Acknowledgement
-˛
-˛
-˛
-˛
˛
-˛
-˛
˛
-˛
-˛
˛
Acquisition
˛
Adhoc committee
˛
Adjudication
Administrative Sanction
Admissiom to bail
Advance Copy
Adverse remarks
Affiliated College
Affidavit
Aofesaid
Aggrived person
Agrarian law
Agreement
Agricultural holding
Agronomy
Air conditioned
Alias
-˛
-˛
˛
˛
-˛
-˛
-˛
-˛
-˛
-˛
-˛
˛
-˛
˛
-˛
Alibi
-˛
Alimony
Allottee
Amendment
Amicable loan
˛
-˛
˛
˛
hnh¿Ø-\hpw Bi-b-hn-\n-a-bhpw
\ncm-I-cn-°pI
tIh-e-am-b, \ncp-]m-[n-I-amb
kmcw, kwt£]w
A_-≤-{]-kvXm-h\
Bt£-]-hm°v
hmk-Imcy B^o-k¿
Iq´p-Ip-‰-°m-c≥
DØ-c-h-\p-k-cn®v
A[n-IrX ]{X-te-J-I≥
tZmjm-tcm]w
]‰p-No´v (c--Pn-ÿ sN-bX
v b
- °
- p∂ X∏m¬ D
- c
- p-∏S- n-It- fm-sSm∏w
hbv°m-dp≈ Im¿Up-Iƒ-Hm¿°p-I)
s]m∂pw hne-bs
v °-Sp-°¬ (s]m∂pw hnebv°p s]m∂p-ambn
_-‘-ta-Xp-an-s√\v Adn-bp-I. \m´n¬ \ne-hn-ep-≈-Xn¬
G‰hpw ap¥nb hnebv ° v `qanbpw - a - ‰ pw- k¿°m¿
ssIh-is∏SpØp∂Xn-\mWp s]m∂pw -hn-e-bvs°-Sp-°¬
F∂p ]d-bp-∂-Xv)
X-Z¿Y-k-anXn (Hcp {]tXyI Bh-iy-Øn\v th≠n--am{Xw
D≈- k-an-Xn)
Xo¿∏m-°¬, \ymb-\n¿Wbw
`c-Wm-\p-aXn (k¿°m-c-\p-a-Xn)
Pmayw A\p-h-Zn-°pI
ap≥Iq¿ tIm∏n
{]Xn-Iq-em-`n-{]m-b-°p-dn-∏p-Iƒ
A\p-_‘ tImtfPv
kXy-hmMv aqew
ta¬∏-d™
]cm-Xn-°m-c≥
Im¿jn-I\
- n-baw
DS-º-Sn, Icm¿
ssIh-i-ap≈ Ir-jn-`qan
Irjn hn⁄m\w
hmXm-\p-Iq-enXw
adp-t]¿ (Alexanmder, alias Chandi"Ae-Ivkm-≠¿ F∂
Nm≠n' F∂p- a-\- n-em-°n-s°m-≈-Ww)
A\y-{X-hmkw (Ip‰w Npa-Ø-s∏-´-h≥ Ip-‰-IrXyw \S∂
ka--b-Øp- a-s‰mcp ÿe-Øm-bn--cp-∂p F∂p≈ hmZw)
Poh-\mwiw
Hml-cn-°m-c≥, {Kml-I≥
t`Z-KXn
]en-ib
-- n-√m-°Sw
46
School of Distance Education
Anmimal husbandry
Animate
Anonymous petition
Anticipated expenditure
Apple of discord
Appraiser
Apprentice
Artificial insemination
Artisan
As in for the time being
As set forth
Assessed value
Assessee
Assigned on lease
Assume powers
Asterisk
Attachment
Ask folr as of right
At par
hnh¿Ø-\hpw Bi-b-hn-\n-a-bhpw
˛
-˛
˛
-˛
˛
-˛
-˛
-˛
-˛
-˛
˛
-˛
-˛
-˛
˛
-˛
-˛
arK-kw-c-£Ww
kPo-h-am-°pI
Dua- -l¿Pn
{]Xo-£nX hybw
Ie-l-Im-cWw
hne-a-Xn-°p∂ Bƒ
]cn-io-e-\m¿∞n
Ir{Xna _oPk-¶-e\w
in¬]n, ssIsØm-gn-ep-Im-c≥
Ct∏mƒ {]m_-ey-Øn-en-cn-°p∂ {]Imcw
hnhn-cn-®n-cn-°p∂ {]Imcw
aXn® hne
\nIpXn Zmb-I≥
]m´-Øn\v Gev]n®p sImSpØ
A[n-Imcw Gs‰-Sp-°pI
\£{X Nn”w
P]vXn
2
-˛ Ah-Im-i-cq-]-Øn¬ tNm--Zn-°pI
˛ ka-aqeyw (sN-°p-I-fnepw a‰pw)
47
School of Distance Education
MODULE IV
hnh¿Ø\w DZm-l-c-W-߃
i. Cw•o-jn¬ \n∂pw ae-bm-f-Øn-te-°p≈ X¿÷a
DZm-l-c-W-߃
1)
Why did you choose India? And of all places in India,why thishell-hole, Calcutta'?(I asked Mother
Teresea).
She let a gentlc smile come everher face. “India was a missionary country. I was sent hedre. And I
love the people of Calcutta. they have a warmth which you don’t see anywhere else”. She told me of an
experience which made the people of Calcuta solovable. “during the floods last year I was bringing victims
to places of shelter. A lady who had never known me brought me hot food in her car. Whereelse in the world
do you come across people like that? “It is obvious that Mother Teresa would have gone to any country to
which she was sent with same unquestioning obediance and worked with the same enthusiasm, for the people
amongst whome she had to live. Since she was sent to India, she assiduously indianised herself. Here was
the first catholic order to adopt the Indian sari,the Indian style of squatting cross-legged on the floor in the
chapel eatingIndian food in the Indianmanner. She taught herself Bengali which she now speaks fluently sand
when India became free she took Indian nationality. (Mother Teresa- Khushwant Singh).
""C≥Uy Xnc-s™-Sp-°m≥ Im-c-W-sa¥v? {]tXy-In®pw C≥Uy-bnse a‰p ÿe--ß-fn¬ sh®v
Cu \c-I-°p-gn-bmb I¬°´''? (Rm≥ a-Z¿ sXc-km-tbmSv tNZn-®p)
Ah-cpsS apJØv Hcp aµ-kvan-Xw- hn-S¿∂p. ""C≥Uy t{]jn-X -{]-h¿Ø\Øn\p≈ Hcp
cmPy-am-bn-cp-∂p. Fs∂ Ab-®Xv Ctßm-´m-Wv. F\n-°m-sW-¶n¬ I¬°´-bnse P\-ßsf CjvSh
- p-am-Wv.
as‰m-cn-S-Øpw- Im-Wm-\n-√mØ Hcp Dujvva-f-`mhw Ah¿°p-≠v.'' I¬°-´m- \n-hm-kn-I-sf- h-fsc
{]nb-¶c
- c
- m-°p∂ Hc-\p-`h
- s
- Ø∏‰n Ah¿ Ft∂mSv ]-d™
p. ""Ign-™h
- ¿j-sØ s
- h-≈s
- ∏m°°meØv
Rm≥ AXn-\n-c-bm-b-hsc A`-b-tI-{µ-Øn-te°v sIm≠p-h-cp∂ tPm-en-bn¬ G¿s∏-´n-cn-°p--bm-bn-cp-∂p.
At∏mƒ F\n°v bmsXmcp ap≥ ]cn-N-b-hp-an-√mØ Hcp h\nX Xs‚ Imdn¬ -F-\n°v NqtSm-sS-bp≈
`£Ww sIm≠p-h-∂p. CØcw Bfp-Isf temIØv at‰-sXmcp ÿe-ØmWv \n߃°v ImWp-hm≥
Ign-bpI''? temI-Øns‚ GXp `mK-tØ-°-b-®mepw aZ¿ tXtck B Xocp-am-\sØ tNZyw sNømsX
A\p-k-c-W-io--e-tØmsS Ahn-sS- t]m-Ip-sa-∂p-≈Xv kv]jvS-am-b -Im-cy-am-Wv. F∂p am{X-a-√, CtX
Bthi-tØmsS Xm≥ sN∂v Xma-kn-°p-∂- cm-PysØ P\-ß-fpsS CS-bn¬ -A-h¿ {]-h-¿Øn-°p-Ibpw
sNøpw. `mc-X-Øn-te°v Ab-°-s∏-´-Xp-sIm≠v Ah¿ {i≤m-]q¿∆w Hcp-`m-c-X-h¬°-c-W-Øn\v kzbw
k∂-≤-bm-bn. `mc-X-Ønse kmcn- X-ß-fpsS thj-Øns‚ `mK-am-°nb BZysØ {InkvXy≥
k\ymkn kaq-l-amWv Ah-cp-tS-Xv. ]≈n-bnse Xd-bn¬ {]m¿∞-\°v N{aw ]nW-™n-cn-°p-I-bpw `m-c-Xo-b -`-£Ww `mc-Xob coXn-bn¬ `-£n-°p-Ibpw Ah¿ sNbvXp-h-∂p. Ah¿ _wKmfn `mj
]Tn-°p-Ibpw Ct∏mƒ kzm-X{¥yw t\Sn-b-t∏mƒ Ah-¿ `mc-X-]u-cXzw kzoI-cn-°p-I-bpw-sN-bvXp.
2.
The decision was not taken (by Subhas Bose) without great hesitation, but once it was taken, nothing
could come in the way. He stole away from his house on one quiet night in the 1914 without informing
his parents. Feeling like a new Budha forsaking family, the comfort she was accustomed to, the certain
prospects of a briliant career, young Subhas started in search of the Master, who would resolve his
hnh¿Ø-\hpw Bi-b-hn-\n-a-bhpw
48
School of Distance Education
doubts and supply his disturbed and restless mind with a new synthesis. While Jawaharlal at that age
still fresh from the play fields of Harrow and was applying himnself to the study of Zoology, Biology
and Chemistry at Trinity College, Cambridge, Subhas be took himself to the Himalayas, the traditional
home of Indian spirtiaulity.
The place of the Himalayas in Indian life still awaits investigation at the hands of Indian Sociology.
About its fauna and flora, its influence on climate and physical, geography we know. But with the exception
of EB.Havell, no eminent scholar has attempted to evaluate the profound debt that Indian phisophy owess to
them. Even Jawaharlal who had never suffered from religious exaltation records in his Autobiography that one
of his still unfulfilled ambitions in life was to visit Mount Kailas, the HImalayan Abode of the gods,(“Subhas
Bose”- Yusuf Meherally).
henb kt¶mNw IqSm-sX-b√ (kp-`mkv t_mkv) B Xo-cp-am-\Ø
- n-se-Øn- b
- Xv. F∂m¬, AsX-SpØp
Ign-™-t∏mƒ ]ns∂ bmsXm∂pw Xs‚ ]mX-bn¬ XS- -߃ krjvSn-°p-hm\ At±lw kΩ-Xn-®n-√v.
1914 ¬ im¥-amb Hcp cm{Xn-bn¬ amXm--]n-Xm°sf A--dn-bn-°m-sX, At±lw ho´n¬ \n∂p Hfn-t®m-Sn.
X\n°v ]cn- N n- X - a mb kp- J - k u- I - c y- ß - t f- b pw - t im- ` - \ - a mb Hcp HutZy- K nI Pohn- X - s Øbpw
IpSpw--_-tØbpw Hcp \ho\ _p≤-s\-t∏mse ]cn-Xy-Pn-®p-sIm-≠v Iu-amc{]mb-°m-c-\mb kp`mkv Xs‚
Kpcp-hns\ tXSn-bp-≈ -bm{X B-cw-`n-®p. Kpcp Xs‚ kw-i-b-߃ ]cn-l-cn-°m-sa∂p {]£p_v[hpw
BIp-e-hp-amb Xs‚ a\- n-\v- Hcp ]pXnb kw«-jWw \¬Ip-sa∂p At±lw Icp-Xn. AtX ka-bw,
B {]mb-Øn¬,"-lmtcm' hnZym-e-b-Ønse Ifn-°fw hn´ Ph-l¿em¬ tIw{_n-UvPnse {Sn\n‰n
Iem-im-eb
- n¬ tN¿∂v P¥p-im-kv{Xw, Poh-im-kv{Xw, ck-X{¥w F∂n-hb
- psS ]-T\
- Ø
- n¬ hym]r-X\
- m-hm≥
XpS-ßp-I-bm-bn--cp-∂p. kq`m--km-Is´, `mc-Xob Bflo-b-X-bp-sS- ]-c-º-cm-KX Bhm-k-ÿ-e-amb
lnam-e-b-Øn-te-°mWv bm{X Xncn-®-Xv.
`mc-Xob kmaq-lnI imkv{X-⁄¿ C
- \
- n-bpw A
- t- \z-jWhnj-ba
- m-t°≠ H-∂mWv lnam-eb
- Ø
- n\v
`mc-Xob Pohn-X-Øn-ep-≈ ÿm\w. Ahn-SsØ kky-ar-Km-Zn-I-sf-∏-‰n-bpw- Im-em-hÿbpsS taepw
`uXn-Ii
- m-k{v X-Øn-t∑-epw a‰pw AXn-\p≈ kzm[o-\s
- Ø-°p-dn®pw \ap-°d- n-hp-≠.v F∂m¬ C.-_n. lm-sh¬
-H-gnsI as‰mcp {]apJ ]fin-X\p `mc-Xo-b XØz-im-kv{X-Øn\v lnam-e-b-tØm-Sp≈ AKm-[-amb
IS-∏m-Sns\ hne-bn-cp-Øp-hm≥ {ian-®n-´n-√. a-XsØ Hcn-°epw A{-X-sbm∂pw {]iw-kn-®n-´n-√mØ
Ph- l ¿em¬ t]mepw, tZh- ∑ m- c p- S , lnam- e - b - Ø nse Bhm- k - ÿ - e - a mb ssIem- k - ] ¿hXwk-µ¿in-°m-\m-hm-ØXv Xs‚ Pohn-XØ
- nse \nd-th-‰s
- ∏-SmØ taml-ßf
- n¬ H
- ∂
- m-sW∂v At±-lØ
- ns‚
Bfl-I-Y-bn¬ tc-J-s∏--Sp-Øn-bn-´p-≠v.
A`ymkw
Xmsg-sIm-Sp-Øn-cn°p∂h ae-bm-f-Øn-te°v X¿÷a sNøpI
1.
As an elder brother Jawahar is perfect. though he is so much olderthan mysister andI, He was never
laid down thelaw to us,as a greatmany elderbrothers do. If he has disaproved opf anything we have done, he
has always talked the matter over with gentless and tact, making us see for ourselves that we were in the
wrong. If we have disagreed, however hurt he may feel,he tries not to show it and never imposes his views on
us. He is not only an adored ‘big brother’ to Swarup and me but a grand friemd and companion who by his
affection and understanding has made himself very precious to us. We kno he is always there, just as Father
was a pillar of strength on whom,we can lean and get support from when weaned by life’s litle problems and
worries. he never offers advice, but is ever willing to help when help and guidance are necessary. he is also a
confidant in whom one can confide without fear of being ridiculed or rebuked. Being so utterly human
hnh¿Ø-\hpw Bi-b-hn-\n-a-bhpw
49
School of Distance Education
himself, he never fails to understand another’s weakness.
(‘With No Regrets;- Krishna Hutheesingh)
2.
One curious feature of the love of sweets is the way in which it declines with age. There seems to be
no reason for this. We still go on eating, and loving the pleasures of the plate, but I imagine that half the
confectioners would go out of business if no one under thirty were allowed to eat sweets. There are hundred
greedy sweet -eaters under age of thirty for one above it. You seldom see middle- aged man peering with a
rapt expression into a especially in france, but he seldom gazes at a sweet- shop as if a -aged man is an
indiffernt to sweet as I am. I know a man of my own age wo can eat chocolate even while he is drinking
whisky-and soda. Women too, nibble sweets afterdinner. But they do not get really excited about them as
the young do. (‘Sweets’-Robert Lynd).
3.
How differently yougot through a restaurant-session in Mysore! You took yoiur seat, asked for the
morningpaper and a glass of water-just mark time before you should have Masal Dosai again or idli, or as
you generally felt iunclines (butresisted) both; but indecision could never be an end in itself, and you devised
a further postponement of issues by asking, when the reading of the paper was over, “what have, you”? A
routine question. The waiter would begin a quick recite of the day’s menu-nothing new or starting in it; but
you liked to hear it all over again. It gave you time to make up your mind. Coming from a civilization used
to this pace of life, I felt unequal to the speed of a Broadway Cafeteria. If you hesitated with the tray in hand,
you held up the traffic behind you. (‘overa cup of Coffee’- R.K. Narayan).
4.
It was a grey day, had been indeed a grey week; nothing outside the day’s routines had happened for
some time. My body had gone on dressing and un dressing itself, eating,drinking, smoking,pushing itself into
buses and trains and floundering heavily into chairs. But the rest of me, mind, soul or spirit, appeared to be
on the point of hibernating. There I was then, going about my business dearely this grey morning, when
suddenly passing by a shop window I caught sight of a pair of crimson silk pyjamas. They were not things
meekly soliciting in a shop window, but an event, a challenge, a blast of satorial trumpets. I knew at once tht
my own moment had arrived. There are occassions in a man’s existences when he must make something
happen, must fling a splash of colour into his life, or some part of him, perhaps theboy in him, will perish, flying
broken before the grey armies of age, timidity or boredom. (‘In Crimson Silk’-J.B.Priestry).
5.
Few things are more pathetic than the spectacle of inexperiences travellers, brought upon these myths
desperately doing their best to make external reality square with fable. It is for the sake of the myths and less
consciously, in the name of snobbery that they left their homes, to admit disappointment in the reality would be
to admit their own follishness in having believed the fables and would detract from their merit in having
undertaken the pilgrimege. In thier hearts secretly, they are bored and a little disgustes. But they have been
brought up to believe in the ‘Gay Paree’ where every thing is deliriously exciting. Conscientiously, therefore,
they strive, when they cometo paristo be gay. Night after night the dance hails and the bordless are thronged
by serious compatriots of Emerson and Mathew Arnold, earnestly engaged in tying to see life, bneither very
steadily nor whole, through the ever Thickering mists of champagne. (‘Why Not Stay at Home’? Aldous
Huxley).
hnh¿Ø-\hpw Bi-b-hn-\n-a-bhpw
50
School of Distance Education
ii.
ae-bm-f-Øn¬ \n∂p Cw•o-jn-te-°p≈ X¿÷a
DZm--l-c-W-߃
1)
Xoh-≠n-bn-en-cp∂v amdn amdn Cu tZi-Øns‚ Zriy-ßsf t\m°n-bn-cns° A∂v Fs‚- ap-ºn¬
h∂Xv efn-Xhpw F∂m¬ I√p-t]mse ISp-Ø-Xp-am-b -HcptNmZy-am-Wv. (\mw sI´n-]-Sp-°m-hp-∂)
Cu Hmtcm sIm®p k{am-Py-߃°p-≈n--te°pw AXns‚ ssk\y-Øns‚ Hmtcm ]S-bm-fn-bp-sSbpw
CS-bn-te°pw IqSn Cu a’-cw-h-cp-tºmtgm? \mw \-Ωp-tS-sX∂v Icp-Xp∂ Cu ssk\y-߃
Hcp Znhkw \ni_vZw \ΩpsS ]n∂n¬ \n∂v Hgn™p t]mhp-I-bn-t√,, \mw Ah-cp-sS -_m-[y-Xbmbn amdp-tºmƒ? AYhm AXp \ΩpsS aotX-IqSn Nhp´n IS-∂p-t]m-Ip-I-bn-t√, \mw AXns‚
t\Xm-sh∂ \ne-amdn AXns‚ hgn-bnse XS- -ambn amdptºmƒ? (hn-bkvXw-`w˛ B\-µv)
While I was sitting in the train and looking at the changing views of the country that day, a simple
question but as hard as stone,arose before me. Suppoosethis competition,goes deep down to these little
kingdoms (that we build up)and into the midst of each soldier of this army? Won’t these Armies which we
consider as our own move away silently from behind us one day wehen we become a burden to them? Or,
won’t thye trample over us when we are no more thier leader but only an obstacle in thier path?
2.
Hm¿Øp-t\m-°p-tºmƒ Fs‚ Imcyw alm-I-jvS-am-Wv. Zcn-{Z\pw \n -lm-b\pw ]cmPn-X\pw
B¿-°pw- th-≠m-Øh
- \
- p-ambn Rm\o P∑w apgp-h≥ Ign-bW
- s
- a-∂mtWm ssZhw hnNm-cn-°p-∂Xv?
\nk-lm-b-\mb Hcp- a-\p-jy≥ Pohn-X-Øn¬- C-{X-sbms° kln-t°≠n hcp-∂-Xns‚ bp‡n
F¥mWv? Fhn-sSbpw ]cm-P-b-s∏SpIbmWv Fs‚ A\p-`-hw. H-Sp-hn¬ lrZ-b-Øns‚
apdn-hp-Iƒam{Xw _m°n-bm-Ip-∂p. \∑-If
- p-tS-Xp-am-{X-amb Hcmƒ F∂v Rm≥ Fs∂--∏‰n ]d-bp-tºmƒ
AsXmcp AXn-cp-I-hn™ Ah-Im-i-am-sW∂v Aßv Icp-Xp-∂pt≠m? Xn∑ sNøm≥ a\p-jy-s\
t- {]-cn-∏n-°p-∂X
- m-cmWv? temIw Ipsd--°qSn \∂mbn krjvSn-°m-am-bn-cp-s∂∂v kXy-Øn¬ Ct∏mƒ
Atß°p tXm-∂p-∂nt√? a\p-jys‚ krjvSn-bpsS Imcy-Øn-es-- √-¶nepw B kwibw \ymb-am-sW∂v
Rm≥ hnNm-cn-°p-∂p. a\p-jy≥ Xn∑ sNøp-∂p-s≠-¶n¬ AXns‚ Imc-W-Øn¬\n∂pw DØchm-Zn-ØØn¬ \n∂pw Hgn-™p-am--dm≥- Atß°pI-gn-bp-tam. a\p-jy-\n¬ B Zu¿_-ey-߃
h®-Xm-cm-Wv.
hnh¿Ø-\hpw Bi-b-hn-\n-a-bhpw
51
School of Distance Education
UNIT -11
amXrIm tNmZy-߃
tNmZy-t]-∏¿
SECOND SEMESTER B.A../B.SC. DEGREE EXAMINATION, MAY 2011
(CCSS)
Common Course-8
MA 2A 08 (1) - hnh¿Ø-\hpw Bi-b-hn-\n-abpw
Time: Three Hourse
Maximum: 30 weightage
I F√m tNmZy-߃°pw DØ-c-sa-gp-Xp-I. Hmtcm-∂n-s‚bpw aqeyw (sh-bn-t‰-Pv) 1/2
A icn-bmb DØcw sXc-s™-Sp-sØ-gp-Xp-I.
1. hnh¿Ø-\-Øns‚ ImX¬ hniz-kvX-X-bm-sW∂v A`n-{]m-b-s∏-´Xv:
(a)
sP.-kn. Im‰vt^m¿Uv
(c)
amXyq A¿tWmƒUv
(b) hneyw Iq∏¿
(d) t{]k¿ ssS‰ve¿
2 hnh¿Ø-\-Øn\p≈ Iºyq-´¿ `mj GXv?
(a)
(c)
t_knIv (b) tImt_mƒ
]mkvI¬
(d) temtKmkv
3. ""Hm¿Øp \S-°-W,-ta-sd-®n{Xw
Hm´-s∏-Sp-sa-∂-h¿ ]d™p''
(a)
(c)
\c-_en
iyma-kp-µcn
(b) kzImcyw
(d) hnhm-l-k-Ωm\w
4. h≈-tØm-fns‚ "am∏v' F∂ IhnX Cw•o-jn-te°v hnh¿Ø\w sNbvXXv:
(a) am[h≥ Aø-∏Øv
(c)
(b) tZi-aw-Kew cma-Ir-jvW≥
Aø-∏-∏-Wn-°¿ (d) B¿.-cm-a-N-{µ≥
B ]qcn-∏n-°pI
5. ss__n-fnse ]gb \nbaw Fgp-X-s∏-´Xv -˛˛-˛-˛-˛-˛-˛-˛-˛˛ `mj-bn-em-Wv.
6. kwkvIrX \mS-I-ß-fnse kv{XoIfpw \oN-I-Ym-]m-{X-ßfpw kwkm-cn-°p∂ {]mIrX `mjm`m-K-ß-fpsS kwkm-cn-°p∂ {]mIrX `mjm-`m-K-ß-fpsS kwkvIrX hnh¿Ø-\-Øn\v ˛˛-˛-˛-˛-˛˛
F∂p ]d-bp-∂p.
7. Imfn-Zm-ks‚ A`n-⁄m-\-im-Ip-¥fw ae-bm-f-Øn-te°v BZyw hnh¿Ø\w sNbvXXv ˛˛-˛-˛-˛-˛˛-˛˛ BWv.
8. lcn-i-¶¿ ]¿km-bn-bpsS "cmKv˛hn-cmKv' F∂ IY ˛˛-˛-˛-˛-˛-˛-F∂ io¿j-I-Øo-emWv tIc-f-sUPÃv {]kn≤w sNbvX-Xv.
C H‰-hm-°n¬ DØ-c-sa-gp-XpI:
9. "X¿÷a' F∂Xv GXp `mj-bnse ]Z-amWv?
hnh¿Ø-\hpw Bi-b-hn-\n-a-bhpw
52
School of Distance Education
10. sj√n-bpsS Ode to Skylark F∂-I-hnX "cm∏m-Sn-tbmSv' F∂ t]cn¬ hnh¿Ø\w
sNbvXXv Bcv?
11. ‘Approval’ F∂ ]Zw ae-bm-f-Øn-te°v X¿÷a sNøp-I.
12. "hnh¿Ø-\-Øns‚ `mjm-im-kv{X-`q-anI' F∂ {KŸw cNn-®-Xmcv?
(12 x1/4 = 3 weightag
II Ht∂m ct≠m hmIy-Øn¬ DØ-c-sa-gp-Xp-I. Hmtcm-∂n-s‚bpw aqeyw (sh-bn-t‰-Pv)-˛1
13. t{kmX-`m-j, e£y-`mj Ch Fs¥∂v hy‡-am-°p-I.
14. hnh¿Ø\w F∂ A¿∞-Øn¬ ae-bm-f-Øn¬ {]Nm-c-Øn-ep≈ ]Z-߃ GsX√mw?
15. en]y-¥c
- Ww (Transliteration) F∂m¬ F¥v?
16. A new broom sweeps clean - CXn\p kam-\-amb ae-bmf ssien Is≠-ØpI.
17. Don’t mix drink with driving - Cu ]c-ky-hm-NIw ae-bm-f-Øn-te°p X¿÷a sNøp-I.
18. ""Cu c≠pw Adn-bp-∂Xv Ihn Xs∂-bmWv' ˛ GXp c≠p Imcy-ß-sf-°p-dn-®mWv ChnsS
kqNn-∏n-°p-∂-Xv.?
19. Ic-Øn≥ `qjWw Zm\w; `mcw Xm≥ sshc-tam-Xncw - Cw•o-jn-te°p samgn am‰p-I.
20. "ssh°w apl-ΩZv _jo-dn-s\bpw Fw.-Sn. hmkp-tZ-h≥\m-b-sc-bpw hnh¿Ø\w sNøp-tºmƒ
C°mcyw IqSp-X¬ hy‡-amIpw' ˛ GXp Imcyw?
21. `mj-W-[¿Ω-ß-fpsS Dƒ∏n-cn-hp-Iƒ GsX√mw?
(9 x1 = 9 weightage)
III. GsX-¶nepw A©v tNmZy-Øn\v Hmtcm Jfin-I-bn¬ DØ-c-sa-gp-Xp-I. Hmtcm-∂n-s‚bpw aqeyw
(sh-bn-t‰-Pv)˛- 2
22. {][m-\-s∏´ hnh¿Ø-t\m-]-I-c-W-߃ GsX√mw?
23. hnh¿Ø\w Hcp Iuiew (Craft) BsW∂p ]d-bp-∂-Xn\v ASn-ÿm-\-sa¥v?
24. hnh¿Ø-\-Øns‚ ]cn-an-Xn-Iƒ Fs¥√mw?
25. Ihn-Xm-hn-h¿Ø-I≥ Ihn IqSn-bm-bn-cn-°-W-sa∂p ]d-bp-∂-Xns‚ bp‡n F¥v?
26. tZi-aw-Kew cma-Ir-jvWs‚ A`n-{]m-b-Øn¬ kmln-Xy-hn-h¿Ø-\-Øn≥ {i≤n-t°≠ A©p
Imcy-߃ GsX-√m-amWv?
27. ""Cßs\ amdn amdn ]e `mh-Om-bI
- fpw AXn¬ Xpfp-ºn-sb-Øp∂p'' ˛ GXn¬ amdn-amdnsbØp∂
`mh-Om-b-Iƒ GsX√mw?
28. Cw•o-jn-te°v hnh¿Ø\w sNøp-I.
tIc-fØ
- ns‚ kmwkvIm-cnI Ncn-{X-Øn≥ _p≤-aXw KWy-amb kw`m-h\ \¬In-bn-´p-≠v. F∂m¬
CXns‚ hy‡-amb Nn{Xw cq]-s∏-Sp-Øn-sb-Sp-°m-\p≈ sXfn-hp-Iƒ C∂pw Ae-`y-am-Wv. _u≤k¿h-Ie
- m-ime Xr°-Wm-aX
- n-eI
- Øv ÿm]n-°s
- ∏-´n-cp-∂p-sh-∂Xv Ncn-{X-{]-[m-\y-a¿ln-°p∂ Imcy-am-W.v
hnh¿Ø-\hpw Bi-b-hn-\n-a-bhpw
53
School of Distance Education
(5 x2 = 10 weightage)
IV.
Xmsg sImSp-Øn-´p≈ aq∂p tNmZy-ßf
- n¬ cs≠-ÆØ
- n\v DØ-cs
- a-gp-Xp-I. BZysØ cs≠-Æw
D]-\ym-k-cq-]-Øn¬ DØ-c-sa-gp-tX-≠-h-bm-Wv. Hmtcm-∂n-s‚bpw aqeyw (sh-bn-t‰-Pv)-˛4
19. b{¥-hn-h¿Ø\w F∂m¬ F¥v? b{¥-hn-h¿Ø-\Ø
- ns‚ hnhn[ L´-ßs
- f-°p-dn®v hnh-cn-°p-I.
30. sI.-]n. i¶-cs‚ "A{]m-]y-amb Hcp hnXm\w' F∂ teJ-\-Øns‚ D≈-S°w hni-I-e\w
sNøp-I.
31. ae-bm-f-Øn-te°p hnh¿Ø\w sNøp-I.
Different media have different political views. They are lead by different interests. Still our journalists
generally work with utmost social dedication. They are enthusiastic in brining out the corruption,
disorder, misures, injustice, vulgarity etc. that are seen in the society. This is the reason why dedicated
reporters are subject to most of the allegations. They are always prone to attack.
(2x4=8 weightage)
hnh¿Ø-\hpw Bi-b-hn-\n-a-bhpw
54
School of Distance Education
SECOND SEMESTER B.A../B.SC. DEGREE PROGRAMME
EXAMINATION, APRIL 2011
(CCSS)
Common Course-8 Code: MA2A08 (1)
hnh¿Ø-\hpw Bi-b-hn-\n-abtijnbpw
Answer Scheme
I A.
1.
2.
3.
4.
B.
5.
6.
7.
8
C.
9
10
11
12.
II.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18
19.
20.
21.
22.
b) hneyw Iq∏¿
d) temtKmkv
d) hnhm-l-k-Ωm\w
a) am[-h≥
lo{_q
Omb
tIc-f-h¿Ω hen-b-tIm-bn-Ø-ºq-cm≥
A\m-k-‡n-tbmKw
Ad_n
kpK-X-Ip-amcn
AwKo-Imcw
tUm.-hn.-B¿. {]t_m-[-N-{µ≥
GXq `mj-bn-e≥\n∂v hnh¿Ø\w sNøp-∂pthm B `mjsb t{kmX-`mj F∂pw, GXp
`mj-bn-te°v hnh¿Ø\ sNøp-∂-pthm B `mjsb e£y-`mj F∂p ]d-bp-∂p.
X¿÷-a, ]cn-`m-j, samgn-am-‰w, `mjm-¥-c-Ww, A\p-hmZw apX-em-b-h.
t{kmX-`m-j-bnte ]Z-߃ e£y-`m-j-bnse en]n D]-tbm-Kn®v Fgp-Xp-∂-XmWv en]y¥-c-Ww.
]pØ-\®n ]pc-∏pdw Xq°pw.
aZy-]n®v hml-\-tam-Sn-°-cp-Xv.
tZ-i-aw-Kew cma-Ir-jvWs‚ "Imhy-hn-h¿Ø\w˛ Nne \oco-£-W-߃ F∂ teJ-\-Øn≥\n∂v ˛
Ihn-a-\- ns‚ am¿§-߃ hnNn-{X-ß-fm-sW∂pw hm°n\v At\Iw am¿§-ß-fp-s≠∂pw
]d-bm-dp-≠v. Cu c≠pw Adn-bp-∂Xv Ihn Xs∂-bm-Wv.'
Gift is the ornament of hand; a ring set with diamonds is only a burden.
hn.-Un. IrjvW≥ \ºym-cpsS 'IYm-hn-h¿Ø\w ˛ Nne kao-]-\-߃' F∂ teJ-\-Øn¬ \n∂v
˛ 'tem°¬ If¿' F∂p \mw ]d-bp∂ kmwkvIm-cnI ss]Xr-IsØ AtX-]Sn ]cn-`m-jb
- n¬°qSn
]I¿Øm≥ Ign-s™-∂p-hc
- n√ F∂ Imcyw ssh°w apl-ΩZv _jo-dn-s\bpw Fw.-Sn. hmkp-tZ-h≥
\mb-scbpw hnh¿Ø\w sNøp-tºmƒ IqSp-X¬ hy‡-am-Ipw.
ktµ-in-hn-\n-ab
- ]
- c
- w, kzXzm-hn-jv°m-c]
- c
- w, Bh¿÷-\]
- c
- w, kuµ-cym-hn-jv°m-c]
- c
- w, kmaq-lnIw
F∂n-h-bmWv `mj-W-[¿Ω-ß-fpsS Dƒ∏n-cn-hp-Iƒ.
_rlvØmb t{kmX-`m-jm-\n-L-a≠p, Zzn`m-jm-\n-L-≠p, ]cymb hn]-co-X-]-ZtImiw, sYkm-d-kv,
D®m-c-W-\n-L≠p, A]-i-_vZ-t_m-[-\n-\n, {]mtZ-inI i_vZ-t_m-[n\n F∂n-h-bmWv {][m\
hnh¿Ø-\hpw Bi-b-hn-\n-a-bhpw
55
School of Distance Education
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
hnh¿Ø-t\m-]-I-c-W-߃.
sXmgn-¬, I®-h-Sw, `c-Ww, tImSXn XpS-ßn-b-h-sb√mw hnhn[ hnh¿Ø-\-ta-J-e-Im-Wv.
Ch-bnse Hmtcm-∂n-s‚bpw `mjbv°v Ah-bp-tS-Xmb kmt¶-XnI khn-ti-j-X-I-fp-≠v.
Hmtcm-∂nepw {]h¿Øn-°p∂ hnh¿Ø-I¿°v {]tXyI sshZ-K[
v yhpw AXn-\p-th≠ ]cn-io-e\
- hpw
Bh-iy-am-W.v Cu ImgvN∏
- m-Sn-eqsS t\m°p-tºmƒ hnh¿Ø\w Hcp Iui-ea
- m-sW∂v t_m≤y-am-Ipw.
t{kmX-`m-j-bnse ]Z-Øn\v kam-\-amb ]Zw e£y-`m-j-bn¬ Is≠-Øm≥ Ign-bmsX hcnI ˛
{]mkhpw Xmfhpw CuWhpw as‰mcp `mj- b n- t e°v sIm≠p- h - c m≥ Ign- b m- X n- c n- ° p- I .
{]mtZ- i nI kwkv I m- c - Ø ns‚ ap{Z- I fpw {]mtZ- i nI `mjm- t `- Z - ß fpw hnh¿Ø- \ - Ø n\v
hg-ßm-Xn-cn-°¬ t«jm¿∞-{]-tbm-K-߃ hnh¿Ø-\-£-a-a-√m-Xm-Ip-∂Xv.
Ihn a\- ns‚ am¿§-߃ hnNn-{X-ß-fm-Wv. hm°n\v At\Iw am¿§-ß-fp-≠v. Hcp Ihn°p
am{Xta Ch c≠p a\- n- e m- ° m≥ Ign- b q. AXp- s Im- ≠ mWv Ihn- X m- h n- h ¿Ø- I ≥
Ihn-Iq-Sn-bm-I-W-sa∂v ]d-bp-∂-Xv.
1. ]mTsØ˛Ir-Xn-sb-˛H
- ∂
- n®p ImW-Ww. 2. aqe-]m-TØ
- ns‚ kwth-Z\
- a
- q-ey-sØbpw aqe-]m-TØ
- ns‚
A¿∞-sØbpw e£y-`m-j-bn¬ sIm≠p-h-cm≥ km[n-°Ww. 3. aqe-]m-T-Ønse ÿe-˛-Im-e-˛]m-c-º-cy-L-S-I-߃ kwkvIm-c-_-≤-am-Ip-∂-tXm-sSm∏w LS-\m-]-c-hp-am-bn-cn-°w. Ahsb
th¿Xn-cn-®d- n-bm≥ Ign-bW
- w. 4. t{kmX-`m-jb
- nse kmln-Xy-]m-cº
- c
- y-Øn-\n-Wß
- p∂ Hcp cq]-Øn¬
thWw e£y-`m-j-bn¬ hnh¿Ø\w sNøm≥. 5. aqe-{K-Ÿ-Im-c\v Xs‚ Ir-Xn-bpsS {]ta-bsØ
\n¿∆-ln-°m≥ Ign™ {]Imcw Xs∂ e£y-`m-j-bnepw `o£n-°-Ww.
sI.-]n. i¶-cs‚ "A{]m-]y-amb Hcp hnXm\w'F∂ teJ-\-Øn≥\n∂v ˛ ssh°w apl-ΩZv
_jo-dns‚ "_mey-Ime kJn'sb°p-dn®v ]cm-am¿in-°p∂ `mKw ˛ "sNdv°m' F∂ H‰ hnfn-bn¬
kplvdb
- psS hy‡Xzw apgp-h≥ HXp-°n-h®
- n-´p-≈X
- m-bmWvk D¬^p-√a
- m-hp-∂X
- m-bmWv tXm∂p-I.
Xpey-X-b-h-Im-i-s∏-S¬, aPo-Zns\ "sIm®m°n' AS-°n-\n¿Ø¬, Ipkr-Xn, `oj-Wn-˛-C-ßs\
amdn-amdn ]e `mh-Om-b-Ifpw AXn¬ Xpfp-ºn-sb-Øp-∂p.
]Zm-\p-]Z hnh¿Ø-\-tØ-°mƒ Bi-b-hn-h¿Ø-\-Øn\v {]mapJyw \¬I-Ww.
Iºyq-´-dns‚ klm-b-Øm¬ \n¿∆-ln-°-s∏-Sp∂ hnh¿Ø\amWv b{¥-hn-h¿Ø\w ˛ \nL≠p
]cn-tim-[\
- , t{kmX-]m-TØ
- ns‚ A]-{K-Y\
- w, kzcq-]h
- n-\n-ab
- w, e£y-]m-TØ
- ns‚ hnhn[ L´-߃.
k¿§m-flI IrXn-If
- nse ]e Awi-ßfpw hnh¿Ø\ £a-a√
- . hnh¿Ø-\m-Xo-Xa
- mbn \nev°p∂
Awi-߃ aqe-Ir-Xn-bpsS \nkvXq-e-Xsb shfn-hm-°p-∂p. _jo-dns‚ t\mh-epIfpw Ahbv°v
B¿.-C. Bj¿ Xøm-dm-°nb hnh¿Ø-\s- Øbpw ap≥\n¿Øn sI.-]n. i¶-c≥ C°mcyw ka¿∞n-°p-∂p.
ae-bm-fØ
- n-te°v hnh¿Ø\w sNtø-≠Xv ˛ Bi-bh
- n-h¿Ø-\Ø
- n\v {]tXyI ]cn-KW
- \ \¬I-Ww.
hnh¿Ø-\hpw Bi-b-hn-\n-a-bhpw
56
School of Distance Education
SECOND SEMESTER B.A./B.Sc. (CCSS) DEGREE EXAMINATION, MAY 2010
Common Course
Code MA 2A 08 (1) (Translation and Communication )
- hnh¿Ø-\hpw Bi-b-hn-\n-a-bhpw
Time: Three Hours
Total Weightage: 30
I
F√m tNmZy-߃°pw DØ-c-sa-gp-Xp-I. Hmtcm-∂n-s‚bpw aqeyw (sh-bn-t‰-Pv) 1/4
A
icn-bmb DØcw sXc-s™-Sp-sØ-gp-Xp-I.
1.
]Zy-hn-h¿Ø\w Akw-_-‘hpw Akw-`m-hy-hp-am-sW∂v ]d-™Xv:
(a) amXyp A¿tWmƒUv
(b) sP.-kn. Im‰vt^m¿Uv
(c) hnIvS¿ lyqtKm
(d) kmap-h¬ tPm¨k¨
2.
b{¥-Øn-epsS hnh¿Ø\w \S-Øm-sa∂v BZy-ambn {]kvXm-hn-®-Xv.
(a) kvan¿tWmhv t{SmsP≥kn(b) hmd≥ hoh¿
(c) ssh.-_m¿ hns√¬
(d) bpPn≥ F \nU
3.
Ip´n-Ir-jvW-am-cm¿ cNn® "ssIhn-f°v' GXp hn`m-K-Øn¬s∏-Sp∂ IrXn-bmWv?
(a) hnh¿Ø\w
(b) IhnX
(c) Bfl-IY
(d) \ncq-]Ww
4.
""\mSy-{]-[m\w \Kcw Zcn{Zw
\m´n≥]pdw \∑-I-fm¬ kar≤w''
˛ BcpsS hcn-Iƒ?
(a) ]n.-Ip-™n-cm-a≥ \mb¿
(b) Ip‰n-∏p-dØv tIi-h≥ \mb¿
(c) B‰q¿ chn-h¿Ω
(d) Pn. i¶c Ipdp∏v
]qcn-∏n-°pI
5.
e`yam-b-Xn¬h®v G‰hpw ]pcm-X-\-amb hnh¿Ø\w -˛˛---- ˛-˛-˛-˛˛ F∂ inem-te-J-\-am-Wv.
6.
GXp `mj-bn¬\n∂v hnh¿Ø\w sNøp-∂pthm B `mjsb ˛˛-˛-˛˛ F∂p ]d-bp-∂p.
7.
Imfn-Zm-ks‚ taL-k-tµiw ˛˛-˛-˛-˛˛ F∂ t]cn-emWv Pn. i¶-c-°p-dp∏v hnh¿Ø\w sNbvX-Xv.
8.
"Xncp-h-\-¥-]p-cØv C∂v' F∂ ]{X-]w-‡n-I-fpsS apJy [¿Ωw ˛˛-˛˛ BWv.
H‰-hm-°n¬ DØ-c-sa-gp-Xp-I.
9.
ssh°w apl-ΩZv _jo-dns‚ IrXn-Iƒ Cw•o-jn-te°v hnh¿Ø\w sNbvX BwK-teb kmlnXy-Im-c≥ Bcv?
10.
kmln-Xy-Ir-Xn-fpsS hnh¿Ø\w ]pgp-ßnb kv{Sms_-dn-∏gw t]mse Atcm-NI
- a
- m-sW\v ]d-™Xv
BcmWv?
11.
Amendment F∂ ]tZ ae-bm-f-Øn-te°v hnh¿Ø\ sNøp-I.
12.
"hnh¿Ø\'F∂ {KŸw cNn-®-Xmcv?
II
Xmsg sImSp-Øn-´p≈ tNmZy-߃°v Ht∂m ct≠m hmIy-Øn¬ DØ-cs
- a-gp-Xp-I. shbn-td-dPv 1
13.
hnh¿Ø-\-Øn\v sP.-kn. Im‰vt^m¿Uv \¬Ip∂ \n¿∆-N\w F¥mWv?
hnh¿Ø-\hpw Bi-b-hn-\n-a-bhpw
57
School of Distance Education
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
III
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
IV
29.
30.
31.
A\p-krjvSn (Transcreation) F∂m¬ F¥v?
Bi-b-cq-]m-¥-cWw (Adaptation) Fs¥∂v hy‡-am-°p-I.
Too much of anything is good for nothing - kam-\a
- mb ae-bm-fs
- sien Is≠-Øp-I.
“Kept left” F∂ ]c-ky-t_m¿Unse hmNIw ae-bm-f-Øn-te°p X¿÷a sNøp-I.
tZi-aw-Kew cma-Ir-jvWs‚ A`n-{]m-b-Øn≥ hnh¿Ø-\sØ `{Z-am-°p-∂Xv F¥mWv?
c≠n-s\-Xnsc aq∂p tKmfp-Iƒ°v C¥y ]mIn-ÿms\ tXmev]n®p ˛ Cw•o-jn-te°v samgn am‰p-I.
"tem°¬ If¿' F∂n ]Z-Øns‚ A¿∞w hnh£ F¥v?
]Zm-\p-hm-Z-hn-h¿Ø\w F∂m¬ F¥v?
(9x1=9 weightate)
GsX-¶nepw A©p tNmZy-Øn\v Hmtcm Jfin-I-bn¬ DØ-c-sa-gp-Xp-I. Hmtcm-∂n-s‚bpw aqeyw
(sh-bn-t‰Pv ) 2.
`mc-Xob `mj-I-fn¬ Iºyq-´¿ hnh¿Ø\w \S-∏m-°m-\p≈ {][m\ sshj-ay-߃
Fs¥√mw?
hnh¿Ø-I-\p-≠m-bn-cn-t°≠ {][m\ tbmKy-X-Iƒ Gh?
khn-cm-a-X¿÷a, Ahn-cm-a-X¿÷a Ch XΩn-ep≈ hyXym-k-sa¥v?
""Cß- s \- s bmcp `mj- W - X {¥w "_mey- I m- e - k Jn''' Dƒs°m- ≈ p- ∂ - X mbn \mw Hcp- ] t£
{i≤n-®n-cn-°n√'' GXp `mj-W-X{¥w? hni-Z-am-°p-I.
""kµn-Kv≤m¿∞-X-bmWv hnh¿Ø-Is\ hnj-an-∏n-°p∂ `mjm-]-c-amb as‰mcp sshjayw'' ˛
C°mcyw ka¿∞n-°p-∂-Xn\v teJ-I≥ \¬Ip∂ DZm-l-cWw hy‡-am-°p-I.
Pn. i¶-c-°p-dp-∏ns‚ "KoXm-⁄en' hnh¿Ø-\-Øns‚ ta∑-Iƒ Fs¥√mw?
Cw•o-jn-te°p hnh¿Ø\w sNøp-I.
Ipd®p amk-߃
- °p apºv, ]gb Hcp t\m´p ]qkvXI
- Ø
- n¬ Rm≥ Fs‚ Bfl-IY Fgp-Xp-hm≥
XpS-ßn, F√m a\p-jy¿°pw ]d-bp-hm≥ Ah-c-h-cp-tS-Xmb Hcp Poh-N-cn{Xw ImWp-at√m?
F\n-°p-ant√ temI-tØmSv ]d-bp-hm≥ Aßs\ Nne Imcy-߃. Xo¿®mbpw D≠v.
(5x2=10 weigtage)
Xmsg sImSp-Øn-´p≈ aq∂p tNmZy-ß-fn¬ cs≠-Æ-Øn\v DØ-c-sa-gp-Xp-I. BZysØ c≠p
tNmZy-߃ D]-\ymk cq]-Øn¬ DØ-cs
- a-gp-tX-≠h
- b
- m-Wv. Htcm-∂n-s‚bpw aqeyw (sh-bn-t‰-Pv˛- 4).
hnh¿Ø\w imkv{Xtam Ietbm? kzm`n-{]mbw tcJ-s∏-Sp-Øp-I.
IYm hnh¿Ø-\-Øn¬ kzoI-cn-t°≠ kao-]-\-ß-sf-°p-dn-®p≈ hn.-Un. IrjvW≥ \ºym-cpsS
A`n-{]m-b-߃ t{ImUo-I-cn-°p-I.
ae-bm-f-Øn-te°p hnh¿Ø\w sNøp-I.
Globalisation has been on the move in our country for the past one and half decades. Open market
expansion of import, public sector sales of shares, private sector co-operation and privatization are
the areas gaining strength in the present scenario. Although there have been a few back offs due to
some major resistance, in a deeper perspective neo-liberal policies are being strengthened and expanded
(2x4=8 weightage)
hnh¿Ø-\hpw Bi-b-hn-\n-a-bhpw
58
School of Distance Education
Second Semester B.A. Degree Programme Examination,
April 2010 (CCSS)
Common Course-8
Code:MA2A08(1)
hnh¿Ø-\hpw Bi-b-hn-\n-a-b-ti-jnbpw
Answer Scheme
I. A
1. c. hnIvS¿ lyqtKm
2. a. kvan¿tWmhv t{SmsP≥kvIn
3. d. \ncq-]Ww
4. b Ip‰n--∏p-dØp tIi-h≥ \mb¿
B
5.
tdmsk‰
6.
t{kmX `mj
7.
taLNv-Omb
8. ktµi hn\n-abw
C
9.
B¿. C. hmj¿
10.
lmcn Un t^mdÃv kvanØv
11.
t`Z-KXn
12
tUm. F≥. C. hn-iz--\mY Aø¿
II.
13.
Hcp `mj-bnse ]mTy-h-kvXp-hn--s\ -a-s‰mcp `mj-bnse ]mTy-h-kvXp-sIm≠v BtZ-iw-sN-øp-Isb-∂-XmWvv hnh¿Ø-\w.
14.
hmb-\-°m¿°v IrXn-X¿÷-a-bm-sW∂p tXm∂m-Xn-cn-°p-Ibpw kz¥w-`m-j-bn-se- au-enI
IrXn-sb∂ t]mse hmbn-®p-t]m-Im≥ Ign-bp-Ib
-- pw -sN-bvXm¬ hnh-¿Ø-\w -H-∂m-¥camsb∂p
]d-bmw. AØ-c-Øn-ep-≈-hn-h¿Ø-\sØ A\p-krjvSn F∂p ]d-bp-∂p.
15.
t{kmX- ` m- j - b nse IY- b pw- a‰pw e£y`m- j - b n- t e°p hnh¿Ø- \ w- s N- ø p- ∂ - t Xm- s Sm∏w
tZi-]m-{X-hm-Zn-If
- psS \ma-cq-]ß
- f
- pw a‰pw e£y-`m-jm-\p-kr-Xa
- mbn hnh-¿Ø
- \w sNøp-∂c
- o-Xn-°mWv
Bib cq]m-¥-cWw F∂p ]d-bp-∂-Xv.
16.
A[n-I-am-bm¬ AarXw hnjw
17.
kq£n-°p-I, CS-Xp-hiw tN¿∂p-t]m-hpI
18.
aqe--`m-jm-I-hnbpw e£y-`m-jm-I-hnbpw XΩnepw Nßm-Ø-hpw- k-lm-\p--`qXn \nd™ kwhmZhpw
hnh¿Ø-\sØ `{Z-am-°p-∂-Xv.
19.
India defeated Pakistan by there goals again two
20.
Hcp tZi-Øns‚ kwkvIm-cn-I- ss]-Xr-IsØbmWv "tem°¬ If¿' F∂p ]d-bp-∂-Xv.
21.
aqe-`m-j-bnse ]Z-ß-fp-sS -A-`n-[m¿∞w AXp-t]mse hnh¿Ø\w sNøp-∂-XmWv ]Zm-\p-]-Zhn-h¿Ø-\w.
III
22.
1. {Iao-IrX hymI-cW
- Ø
- ns‚ A`m-hw, 2. kmt¶-XnI ]Z \nL-≠p-°ƒ, ]cn---`mjm \nL-≠p-°ƒ
hnh¿Ø-\hpw Bi-b-hn-\n-a-bhpw
59
School of Distance Education
23.
24.
25
26.
27.
28.
IV
29.
30.
31.
F∂n-h-bpsS A`m-hw, am\I km-t¶-XnI ]Z-ß-fp-sS- A-`m-hw.
1. hnh¿ØI\p aqe-`m-j-bnepw e£y-`m-j-bnepw ]mfiyXyw thaw. 2. hnh¿Ø-\-Øn-\p
hnt[-b-am-Ip-\\ hnj-b-Øn¬ hnh¿Ø-I\p \√ Ah-Kmlw thWw. 3. k#m-lnXy hnj-b-amWv
hnh¿Ø\w sNøp-∂-sX-¶n¬ km-ln-Xym-`n-cpNn thWw. 4.-\n-L≠
-- p-°ƒ, klm-b-I-{K-Ÿ-߃
F∂nh ssIhiw D≠m-I-Ww.
{]kw-K-]-cn-`m-j-bp-am-bn _
-- -‘-s∏´ c≠v kmt¶-Xn-I-]-Z-߃˛ t{kmX `mj-bn¬ {]-kw-Kn-°p-∂Bƒ- C-S-°n-S°p {]kw-Kw- \n¿Øp-Ibpw]cn-`m-j-I\v e£y `mj-bn-te-°v X¿÷a sNøm\pw
A-h-k-c-ap≠mIpIbpw sNøp-∂-XmWv khn-cm-a-X¿÷-a. t\sc adn-®v, {]kwKw ]q¿Æ-ambn
Xo¿∂-Xn-\p-tijw \S-Øp∂ X¿÷-a-bmWv Ahn-cm-a-X¿-÷-a.
sI. ]n. K-tW--is‚ "A{]m-]y-amb Hcp hnXm\w' F∂-te-J-\-Øn¬\n∂v ˛"sN-dv°≥', "s]Æv'
˛c≠pw kmam-\y-am-bn {]Y-a]
- p-cp-j\
- n¬ ]-cm-a¿Ønt\m hnh-cW
- Ønt\m Hs°- D-XI
- p∂ ]Z-ßf
- m-W.v
Ch-sb- E-Pp-hmbn a[y-a]
- p-cp-j\
- n¬ kw-t_m-[\F∂ \nh°v am‰n-D]
- t- bm-Kn--®c
- n-°p-Ib
- mWv _jo¿.
"_mey-Ime kJn' Dƒs°m-≈p-∂ `mjmX\v{Xw CXm-Wv.
hn. B¿ {]t_m-[-N-{µs-s‚ "-hn-h¿Ø-\-£-aX' F∂ temJ-\-Øn¬\n∂v ˛ Time flies like an
arrow F∂ hmIyw-]-e¿ ]-e-X-c-Øn¬ X¿÷a sNbvX-Xm-Wv. "aqe-]m--T-Øn-\p-≠m-Ip-∂ `m-jm-]-c-amb sshj-ay-Øn-\p DZm-l-c-W-ambn teJ-I≥ Nq-≠n-°m-Wn-°p-∂-Xv.
ae-bm-f-Ønse anÃnI Ihn-bmWv Pn. i¶-c-Ip-dp-∏v. "Ko-Xm-⁄en' bnse an-ÃnIv kz`mhw Pnsb
BI¿jn-®n-´p-≠m-IW
- w. "Ko-Xm-⁄e-n' bn¬ {]Xn_nw_n-°p∂ {]im¥ Kw`o-c\
- pw ]
- pWymZ¿i-\p-amb
D∂-Xm-flm-hns\ Xs‚ lrZ-b-e-j-I-Øn-em-hp-∂n--S-tØmfw Dƒs°m-≈m≥Pn. {ian-®n-´p-≠v.
hnP-bn-®n-´p-≠v.
]Zm-\p-]-Z -hn-h¿Ø\tØ°mƒ -B-i-b-hn-h¿Ø\Øn\p {]map-Jyw- \¬I-Ww.
hnh¿Ø\w imkv{X-am-sW∂p hmZn-°p-∂h
- c
- p-sS- A-`n-{]mb߃ im-kv{X-Øns‚ \n¿∆-N\
- ß
- ƒ˛
Ah--sb-√mw- hn-h¿Ø-\-Øn\p tNcp-∂ Cu hm-Zw-˛-hn-h¿Ø\w Ie-bm-sW-∂p- hm-Zn-°p-∂-h-cp-sSA-`n-{]mbw˛ hnh¿-Ø\
- Ø
- n¬ Bkzm-Z\
- Ø
- n-\p≈ {]m[m-\yw˛ at\m[-¿ΩØn\pw {]Xn-`b
- v°p≈
{]k‡n c≠p hnh¿-Ø-I-cpsS hnh¿Ø-\-߃ Hcp t]mse-bm-bn√ F∂- A-`n-{]m-bw˛
kzm`n-{]mbw tc-J-s∏-Sp-ج.
IY-bpsS sXc-s™-Sp-∏v˛ e£y-`m-jb
- nse hmb-\°
- m-cpsS A-`n-cp-Nn-°\
- p-kc
- n-®v˛ aqe-IY
- m-Im-c\
- n¬
\n∂p A\p-hmZw hmßn-°¬˛ Bi-bm-\p-hm-Z-tØm--sSm∏w ]Zm-\p-]Z X¿-÷-a-bp--am-Imw.
IY-bp-sS-io¿jIw aqe-I-Y-bn-te-Xp-X-s∂-bm-Ip-∂-Xm-Wv \-evI-Xv.
ae-bm-fØ
- n--te°p hnh¿Ø\w sNtø-≠X
- v.- ]-Zm-\p-]Z- X
- ¿-÷a
- t- b-°mƒ- B-ib hnhn¿-Ø\
- Ø
- n\v
{]-tXy-I- ]-cn-K-W-\ -\¬I-Ww.
hnh¿Ø-\hpw Bi-b-hn-\n-a-bhpw
60
School of Distance Education
UNIT-12
MODEL -ASSIGNMENT
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
Cw•ojv kn\n-abv°v ae-bmf
The thing
:
The help
:
Remembrence
:
Fright Night
:
New years eve
:
War Horse
:
Midnight in Paris
:
In the land og blood and honek
:
The thing
:
The luck one
:
Bad Teacher
:
The Last song
:
Dont be afraid of the Dark
:
Love and Sex
:
An unexpected journey
:
SouthPark:Bigger,Longer and uncut
:
The iron Lady
The hangroves- part II
Love and Sex
30 minutes
www.xxx.com.
Miracle on 34 th streeet
Little girl blue
Horrible Bosses
Mc. Lintok
The sitter
Prono film
Passin Boots
Brides maides
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
His girl Friday
Airport
Dolphin Tale
DateNight
:
:
:
:
hnh¿Ø-\hpw Bi-b-hn-\n-a-bhpw
k_vssS‰n-ep-Iƒ \¬IpI
Hcp km[\w
Hcp klmbw
Fs∂ Hm¿-°Ww
`b-ap≈ cm{Xn
]p-Xp-h-’-c-cm{Xn
bp≤ IpXnc
]mco-kn¬ Hcp A¿≤-cm{Xn
tX-\n-s‚bpw c‡-Øn-s‚bpw {]tZ-i-Øn¬
Sn-ßn-s‚- km-l-kn-IX
`mKyw- \n-d™ Hcmƒ
hrØn-sI´ A≤ym-]nI
Hcp Ah-km\ Km\w
Ccp´n-s\ -`-b-s∏-Sc--- pXv
t{]ahpw Im-ahpw
{]Xo--£n-°mØ Zqc-bm{X
sX°v DZym-\w, hep-Xv, \of-ap≈ apdn-°m-\mhmØXv
Ccp-ºv k{Xo
aZy-®-S-hv˛ `mKw II
t{]ahpw Im-ahpw
ap∏Xv an\n´v
Uªyq Uªyq FIvkv FIvkv FIvkv tImw.
34-˛masØ sXcp-hnse A¤pX kw`hw
sNdnb s]¨Ip´n \oe-bmWv
`bm-\-I-amb tae-[n-Im-cn-Iƒ
Fw.kn . entt‚m°v
Nn{X-sa-Sp-∏m-\n-cn-°p-∂-h¿
A«oe Nn{Xw.
]mZ-c-Nn-bn¬ ]q®
h[p-hns‚ IqsS-hn-hml thf-bn¬h¿Øn-°p-∂I-\y-II
- ƒ
Ahƒ sh≈n-bm-gvN-bn-se- s]¨Ip´n
hnam-\Ø
- m-hfw
tUmƒ^ns‚ IY
cm{Xn XnbXn
61
School of Distance Education
The dirty girls
Imortals
Jack and Jill
Shame
Live Nude girls
Its a wonderful night
Precious
E.T. The extra Teretial
It happened oneNight
The lady Eve
The crowd
The God father
Greed
Sunrise
Hugo
The Descendants
The change up
extreme ecstacy
Happy feel two
Changeling
The social net work
Colombiana
Para normal activity 3
Spiderman
Italian job
Who Am I
True lie
Commandoo
Death Race
Indiana Jones
hnh¿Ø-\hpw Bi-b-hn-\n-a-bhpw
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
hr--Øn-sI´ s]¨Ip-´n-Iƒ
ac-Wa
- n-√m-Øh
- ≥
Pm-°pw -Pn√pw
\mWw
\·-ambn Pohn-°p∂ s]¨
CsXmcp A¤p-X-I-c-am-b- Po-hn-X-amWv
hne-∏n-Sn-∏p≈
C.-Sn. A[n-Ia
- mbn `qansb kw_-‘n® Imcy-߃
CXv Hcp -cm-{Xn-bn-emWv kw`n-®Xv
k‘y-bnse kv{Xo
P\-°q´w
ssZh-am-Ip∂ A—≥
hnj∏v
kqtcym-Zbw
Bt«-jn-°pI
]n≥Kman
samØ-Øn-ep-≈ -am¿§w
Atß-b-‰-ap≈ ]c-am-\µw
c≠v kt¥m-j-ap≈ Im¬∏Sw
N]-eN
- n-Ø≥
kmaq-lnI he-sI-´m¬
sImfw-_n-bm\
km[m-cW JfinI {]h¿Ø-\w- aq∂v
Nne¥n a\pjy≥
C‰-en-bnse ]Wn
Rm\m-cmWv
kXy-am-bpw- \pW
Iam≥Uyq
ac-WI
- fn
C¥y-bnse tPm¨
62
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