...

fufyhqï wÈhr

by user

on
Category: Documents
1

views

Report

Comments

Transcript

fufyhqï wÈhr
© ish¨u ysñlï weúßKs
wkq wxlh( ………………
Y%S ,xld iy;sl,;a l<ukdlrK .KldêldÍkaf.a wdh;kh
fufyhqï wÈhr
2012 uehs úNd.h
úNd. Èkh:
úNd. fõ,dj:
2012 uehs 13
m'j' 1'30 - m'j' 4'30
msgq .Kk
m%Yak .Kk
:
:
06
07
whÿïlrejkag Wmfoia(
1' kshñ; ld,h meh 3 ls'
2' uq¿ ,l=Kq 100 hs'
3' I fldgfia ish¨u m%Yakj,g o" II fldgfia A yd B ldKavj,ska m%Yak 2 ne.ska f;dardf.k
;j;a m%Yak 04 lg o W;a;r imhkak'
4' A fldgi( fufyhqï l<ukdlrKh iy B fldgi( f;dr;=re moaO;s l<ukdlrKh
5' ms<s;+re iemhsh hq;Af;A isxy, NdIdfjkA muKs'
I
úIh
úIh ixfla;h
fufyhqï iy f;dr;=re moaO;s l<ukdlrKh
(OIM / OL3 - 203)
fldgi(
m%Yak wxl 01 ( ^,l=Kq 20&
wxl 01 orK m%Yakfha ish¨u fldgiaj,g W;a;r imhkak' tla tla m%Yakhg jvd;au ksjerÈ W;a;rh
f;darkak' tfia f;dard.;a W;a;rhg wod< bx.%Sis wËrh m%Yak wxlh iuÕ ms<s;=re fmdf;a ,shkak'
Wod( (1) wod< bx.%Sis wCIrh, (2) wod< bx.%Sis wCIrh jYfhks'
(1)
my;
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
i|yka ieliqï (processing) j,ska ljrla o;a; ieliqï .Khg wh;a fkdjkafka [email protected]
u.S m%jdyk fiajdj
ú.Kk wdh;khla
ld¾ñl mqia;ld,hla
úÿ,s ixfoaYk ix× ñkqu (a telecommunication compass)
(2)
my; i|yka ysia;ek msrùu i|yd jvd;a iqÿiq moh f;darkak'
fufyhqï (operational) l<ukdlrejl= úiska '''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' ;SrK iy fufyhqï ;SrK .;
hq;= fõ'
(a) Wmdh ud¾.sl (Strategic)
(b) ld,mßÉfþouh (Periodic)
(c) WmdhYS,S (Tactical)
(d) ;;a ld,Sk (Ad hoc)
(3)
jdKsc wdh;khl f;dr;=re moaO;shl ;sìh hq;= jvd;a fhda.H .;s,CIK wkqms<sfj,ska fmkajd
fokafka my; i|yka ljr m%ldYfhka [email protected]
(a) kuH;djh (flexibility)" ksjerÈnj" msßjeh" fõ.h" .=Kd;aul nj
(b) úYajdikSh;ajh" msßjeh" kuH;djh" fhda.H nj" fõ.h
(c) .=Kd;aul nj" msßjeh" fõ.h" úYajdikSh;ajh
(d) fõ.h" kuH;djh" .=Kd;aul nj" ñ,§.; yels nj (affordability) iy msßjeh
Y%S ,xld iy;sl,;a l<ukdlrK .KldêldÍ wdh;kh
fufyhqï wÈhr – fufyhqï iy f;dr;=re moaO;s l<ukdlrKh (OIM / OL3 - 203) – 2012 uehs úNd.h
1
(4)
fndr f;,a Ndú;hg .ksñka Lksc f;,a iy ridhksl ksIamdÈ; ksmoúh yels fhda.H;u ksIamdok
;dCIKh jkqfha"
(a) wLKav ksIamdok ;dCIKh
(b) uyd mßudK ksIamdok ;dCIKh
(c) jevm, ;dCIKh (Job shop technology)
(d) by; i|yka lsisjla fkdfõ'
(5)
fufyhqï ;SrK .Khg wh;a fkdjkafka my; i|yka tajdhska ljrla [email protected]
(a) ld,mßÉfþouh ;SrK (Periodic decisions)
(b) jeäÈhqKq lsÍfï ;SrK (Improvement decisions)
(c) ksIamdokhla ie,iqï lsÍfï ;SrK (Decisions relating to designing of a product)
(d) ie,iqï lsÍfï iy md,k ;SrK (Planning and controlling decisions)
(6)
jHmdr fufyhqï l%shdj,sh h,s-ieliSfï (re-engineering) ld¾hidOkh uekSug wod< fkdjkafka
my; i|yka tajdhska ljrla [email protected] (a) ;;a;ajh (Quality)
(b) fiajdj (Service)
(c) j¾Ok wkqmd;h (Growth rate)
(d) fõ.h (Speed)
(7)
ixlS¾K .Ks;uh kHdhla iy jeäÈhqKq l< ixLHd; úYaf,aIK l%u ks;r wod< jk f;dr;=re
moaO;sh y÷kajkqfha"
(a) ;SrK iydhl moaO;s (Decision Support) kñka
(b) l<ukdlrK f;dr;=re moaO;s (MIS) kñka
(c) úfYaI{ moaO;s (Expert System) kñka
(d) by; lsisjlska fkdfõ'
(8)
jHjidh iïm;a l<ukdlrK moaO;shlg (Enterprise Resource Planning system) wod,j my;
i|yka tajdhska idjoH jkafka ljrla [email protected]
(a) jHjidh iïm;a l<ukdlrK moaO;sh" 'wod, o;a; mokula (related data base) iuÕ
taldnoaO fõ'
(b) tys" jHdmdßl uQ,H" udkj iïm;a iy øjH l<ukdlrKh we;=<;a h'
(c) th" ksIamdok ie,iqïlrK iy .%dyl in|;d l<ukdlrKhg iydh jk nyq-wdo¾Yl
(multi-model) uDÿldx.hls'
(d) th" fjk;a lsisÿ f;dr;=re moaO;shlg fyda fudähq,hlg in|;djla fkdolajhs'
wdh;khl f;dr;=re moaO;shla iïnkaOfhka zzfjkiaùï l<ukdlrKhZZ (Change management)
wjYH jkafka [email protected]
(a) tu.ska" j¾;k jHdmdr mßirh ;=< mj;sk fjkiaùï ms<s.ekSu;a" tajd Ndú;hg .ekSu;a"
tu.ska fiajHhka iún, .ekaùu u.ska wfmaCIs; b,lalhlg <Õdùu wruqKq lrk fyhska'
(b) th" jHdmdrhl úúO ld¾hhla i|yd jk f;dr;=re wjYH;d y÷kd.ekSu ms<sn| muKla
wjOdkh fhduqlrk ksid'
(c) th" ld¾h uKav, wvq msßjehlska mqyqKq lsÍug uÕ i,ik m%fõYhla ksid'
(d) by; i|yka lsisjla fkdfõ'
(10) my; ysia;ek msrùu i|yd jvd;a iqÿiq moh f;darkak'
______________ hkq" idïm%odhsl f;dr;=re moaO;s ixj¾Ok pl%h ms<sn| i,ld n,k m%Odk
ffjl,ams; l%ufõohls'
(a) uq,dlD;sh (Prototyping)
(b) moaO;s ixj¾Ok Ôjk pl%h (System Development life cycle)
(c) jHdmdr fufyhqï msg;ska lrjd .ekSu (Business process outsourcing)
(d) jHjidh iïm;a ie,iqïlrKh (Enterprise Resource Planning)
^10 x ,l=Kq 02 = uq¿ ,l=Kq 20&
I fldgi wjidkhs'
(9)
Y%S ,xld iy;sl,;a l<ukdlrK .KldêldÍ wdh;kh
fufyhqï wÈhr – fufyhqï iy f;dr;=re moaO;s l<ukdlrKh (OIM / OL3 - 203) – 2012 uehs úNd.h
2
II fldgi
A ldKavh - fufyhqï l<ukdlrKh
´kEu m%Yak 02 lg W;a;r ,shkak'
m%Yak wxl 02 ( ^,l=Kq 20&
Y%S ,xld fmakaÜ iud.u" wdfhdack uKav, (BOI) iud.ula f,i óg jir 15 lg m%:u jHdmdr lghq;=
weröh' th" hka;%d.dr iy hka;%iQ;% iy lïy,a fmdÿld¾h fjkqfjka wefußldkq fvd,¾ ñ,shk 100 la
jeh lf<a h' jHdmdrfha ksIamdÈ;fhka 80] la wmkhkh lrk w;r" b;sß 20] foaYSh fj<|m,g bÈßm;a
flf¾' bÈlsÍï l¾udka;h i|yd iud.fï ;Ska; Ndú;hg .ekSfï § w;aolsk zz;;ajhZZ (quality) ms<sn|
meñKs,s úfoaYSh fukau foaYSh jYfhka o iud.u fj; ,efí'
fuu ;;a;ajh u; iud.fï l<ukdlr wOHCI" /iaùula le|jk ,ÿj m%ldY lr isáfha iud.u
zziuia; ;;a;aj l<ukdlrKhlaZZ (Total Quality Management - TQM) y÷kajd § th h:d¾;hla njg
m;al< hq;=j we;s njhs'
Tn fuu iud.fï l<ukdlrK .KldêldÍjrhd jkafka hhs Wml,amkh lr.ksñka my; oE iïmQ¾K
lrkak'
(a)
Y%S ,xld fmakaÜ iud.ug l%shd;aul l< yels" zziuia; ;;aj l<ukdlrK (TQM)ZZ m%Odk uQ,O¾u
6 la úia;r lrk flá jd¾;djla ieliSu'
^,l=Kq 12&
(b)
;;aj iy;sl jevms<sfj,la l%shd;aul lsrSfïoS wod<jk m%Odk msßjeh j¾. folla (two major
costs) fláfhka meyeÈ,s lrkak'
^,l=Kq 04& (c)
iud.u wf,úlrK ksIamdÈ;hg wod<" úfoaYSh iy foaYSh wiu;aùïys msßjeh uQ,sldx. (external
failure & internal failure cost elements) ,ehsia;=jla ms<sfh, lrkak'
^,l=Kq 04&
^uq¿ ,l=Kq 20&
m%Yak wxl 03 ( ^,l=Kq 20&
iSudiys; bf,laá%la m%isoaO iud.u" wdfhdack uKav, kS;sh hgf;a ixia:d.; lrkq ,en" ish iud.fï
lïy, iy ld¾hd, ixlS¾Kh ia:dmkh lsÍu i|yd iqÿiq ia:dkhla ms<sn| i,ld n,ñka isà' wdfhdack
uKav,h úiska" jir 10 l nÿ úrduhla o" ;Srenÿ ksoyia wuqøjH wdkhk wjirhla o" lïy, niakdysr
m<df;ka neyerj msysgqùfï § ;j;a nÿ ksoyia lsÍfï iykhla o iud.u fj; ,nd § we;'
fuys§ iud.u" th msysgqùfï ia:dkh iïnkaOfhka jk ;SrKd;aul idOl (critical factors) 5 la
y÷kdf.k we;s w;r" ta tlsfkl idOlh i|yd ;efnk nr my; ±lafõ'
idOlh
Y%u msßjeh
nÿ iyk
há;, myiqlï
ld,.=Kh
wuqøjH
idfmaCI nr
(Relative weightage)
.25
.30
.18
.15
.12
1.00
ia:dk.; lsrSu ioyd P, Q, R jYfhka" fhda.H hehs ie,flk ia:dk ;=kla oekg yuqù we;s w;r" ta
tlsfkl w.h lr jvd;a WÑ; ia:dkh f;dard .ekSug iud.u wfmaCId lrhs' ta i|yd tlsfkl ia:dkh"
by; i|yka idOl 5 hgf;a fjka fjka jYfhka w.h lr" tfy;a ta tlsfkfla idfmaCI jeo.;alu
i,ld ne,Sulska f;drj ,ndfok ,o ,l=Kq my; j.=fõ ±lafõ' fuys§ ,l=Kq ,nd§u lr we;af;a ta ta
idOlh i|yd jk uq¿ ,l=Kq .Kk 15 la f,i ie,ls,a,g .ksñks'
Y%S ,xld iy;sl,;a l<ukdlrK .KldêldÍ wdh;kh
fufyhqï wÈhr – fufyhqï iy f;dr;=re moaO;s l<ukdlrKh (OIM / OL3 - 203) – 2012 uehs úNd.h
3
fhdað;
ia:dkh
P
Q
R
Y%u
msßjeh
9
3
13
nÿ iyk
12
8
7
idOl u; fok ,l=Kq
há;,
ld,.=Kh
myiqlï
7
8
4
9
6
7
wuqøjH
6
8
4
Tn úiska my; oE l< hq;= fõ'
(a)
iud.fï lïy, iy ld¾hd, ixlS¾Kh ia:dk.; lsÍu i|yd jvd;a fhda.H ia:dkh ;SrKh lsÍu'
^,l=Kq 09&
(b)
f;d. ;;a;ajh wju lr .ksñka" iud.fï lghq;= mj;ajdf.k hdu i|yd zzksis fõ,djg
wkql+,jkZZ (just in time) ksIamdok l%uh Ndú;d lsÍug iud.u woyia lrhs' ta wkqj tu l%uh
Ndú;hg .ekSfuka ,efnk m%;s,dN 04 la fláfhka meyeÈ,s lrkak'
^,l=Kq 08&
(c)
iemhqï odu l<ukdlrKh (Supply Chain Management) i|yd iydh ùu msKsi fhdod.; yels
o;a; .%yKh lr.ekSfï (Data capture) iy o;a; ikaksfõokh lsÍfï (Data communication)
;dCIK l%u 3 la kï lrkak'
^,l=Kq 03&
^uq¿ ,l=Kq 20&
m%Yak wxl 04 ( ^,l=Kq 20&
úúO fomd¾;fïka;=j, fiajh lrk fiajlhka 500 la iys; úYd, mßudKfha we.¿ï lïy,l
fufyhqï l<ukdlre f,i is,ajd uy;d m;alr we;' jákdlï odu l<ukdlrK l%shdj,shla (Value
chain management process) idM,H f,i;a" ld¾hCIu f,i;a mj;ajdf.k hdu ms<sn| úfYaI wjOdkh
fhduq lsÍfï wáfhka iud.fï wêl msßjeh ±frk ld¾hhka (Heavily cost adding activities) ±kgu;a
ndysr md¾Yj fj;ska bgqlrjd .ekSfï .súiqïj,g t<U ;sfí'
uE;l § mj;ajkakg fhÿk iud.ï l<ukdlrejkaf.a /iaùul §" l<ukdldr wOHCIjrhd m%ldY lr
isákakg fhÿfka fufyhqï l<ukdlref.a j.lSï" iud.fï meje;au wdrCId lr.ekSu iïnkaOfhka
w;sYh ;SrKd;aul jk njhs'
Tn úiska my; oE l< hq;= fõ'
(a)
weÕ¿ï l¾udka;h ms<sn| jk ;;a;ajh hgf;a" iud.fï fufyhqï l<ukdlref.a j.lSï y;rla
¨yqçka úia;r lrkak'
^,l=Kq 08&
(b)
weÕ¿ï l¾udka;fha mßj¾;khjk iïm;a (transforming resources)" mßj¾;kh lrk ,o iïm;a
(transformed resources) iy mßj¾;k l%shdj,s m%fNao (type of transformation process) y÷kdf.k
olajkak'
^,l=Kq 08&
(c)
Tnf.a ±lau wkqj fuu l¾udka;h iïnkaOfhka ljr wdldrhl ie,eiaula (what type of layout)
Ndú;hg .; yels o hkak olajd" wod< fya;= olajñka th meyeÈ,s lrkak'
^,l=Kq 04&
^uq¿ ,l=Kq 20&
A ldKavh wjidkhs Y%S ,xld iy;sl,;a l<ukdlrK .KldêldÍ wdh;kh
fufyhqï wÈhr – fufyhqï iy f;dr;=re moaO;s l<ukdlrKh (OIM / OL3 - 203) – 2012 uehs úNd.h
4
B ldKavh - f;dr;=re moaO;s l<ukdlrKh
´kEu m%Yak 02 lg W;a;r ,shkak'
m%Yak wxl 05 ( ^,l=Kq 20&
fy,a;a flhd iud.u" ndysr iy wNHka;r frda.Skag m%;sldr lsÍu iy úfYaI ffjoHjrekaf.a fiajh
,nd.ekSfï myqlï ie,iSu (channelling centre), ridhkd.dr fiajd iy T!IO wf,ú lsÍu isÿlrñka
jHdmdr lghq;= wrUd we;' th úúO fY%aKsj,g wh;a 200 lg wêl fiajl msßila ±kg fiajd kshqla;
lr we;s w;r wdh;kh mj;ajdf.k hdu i|yd l=vd l<ukdldr úOdlhkaf.a lKavdhula m;alrkq
,en we;'
wdh;kh ±kg mß.Kl Ndú;hg .kq ,nkafka bkafjdhsis ksl=;a lsÍu" ffjoHjrekaf.a fiajh ie,iSu
(channelling)" tÈfkod ,sms ieliSu iy wka;¾cd, lghq;= yd úoHq;a ;eme,a lghq;= fjkqfjka muKs'
ld,Skj .;hq;= ;SrKj,g t<öu i|yd wjYH jk fndfyduhla f;dr;=re ksjerÈ fõ,djg fkd,eîu
fya;=fjka iM,j;a iy ld¾hCIu ;SrK .ekSu l< fkdyelsj we;'
fuu wdh;khg iudk fiajd i,ik ;rÕldÍ kj iud.ï ish jHdmdr lghq;= weröu;a iuÕu fuu
iud.fï ,dN wvqfjñka mej;Sfï m%jK;djhla o uE;l § olakg we;'
Tn úiska my; oE l< hq;= fõ'
(a)
fy,a;a flhd iud.fï fufyhqï lghq;= jvd;a ld¾hCIu lsÍfï,d" f;dr;=re moaO;shl
ld¾hNdrh ljr wdldrhlska WmldÍ fõo hkakg wod< wdldr 3 la olajkak'
^,l=Kq 06&
(b)
fy,a;a flhd iud.u" iud.u úiskau ixj¾Okh lr.;a f;dr;=re ;dCIK moaO;shla (IT System)
l%shd;aul lsÍug ;SrKh lr we;' tjka f;dr;=re moaO;shl m%Odk ixrpl y÷kajd fokak'
^,l=Kq 10&
(c)
fuu jHdmdrh ;=< Ndú;hg .; yels fowdldrhl f;dr;=re iïm;a ms<sn| ¨yqçka meyeÈ,s
lrkak'
^,l=Kq 04&
^uq¿ ,l=Kq 20&
m%Yak wxl 06 ( ^,l=Kq 20&
l¾udka; i|yd fukau .Dyia: mßyrKh i|yd .efkk ish¨u wdldrfha úoHq;a (electronic) NdKav
wdkhkh lr is,a,rg úlsKSu" ,diaÜ pdkaia m%isoaO iud.fï jHdmdßl ld¾hh fõ' ;rÕldÍ jdis iy
by< ,dNodhS;ajhla idCId;a lr.ekSu i|yd wjYH jk ,dNodhS .kqfokqlrejka y÷kd.ekSu" Tjqyq
wdl¾IKh lr .ekSu iy ;Dma;su;a lsÍu i|yd jk iM,j;a in|;d mj;ajd .ekSfï úfYaI jQ jHdmdßl
l%ufõohla ±kg iud.u i;=j fkdue;'
Tn úiska my; oE l< hq;= fõ'
(a)
zz;rÕldÍ jdisZZ (competitive advantage) hkafkka Tn ljrla woyia lrkafka ±hs meyeÈ,s lr"
by; ;;a;ajh hgf;a zzin|;d l<ukdlrK ixl,amhZZ (Relationship Management Concept –
CRM) ljr wdldrhlska Ndú;hg .; yels fõo hkak meyeÈ,s lrkak'
^,l=Kq 06&
(b)
by; ;;a;ajh hgf;a zzin|;d l<ukdlrK ixl,amhZZ (CRM) Ndú;hg .ekSfuka idCId;a
lr.; yels m%;s,dN $ wruqKq y;rla ^4& ¨yqçka meyeÈ,s lrkak'
^,l=Kq 08&
(c)
ksoiqka 4 la ,ndfoñka" .kqfokqlrejka ;=< wdh;khg ne£ula (loyalty) we;s lsÍug WmldÍ jk
mqoa.,sl fiajd ,nd§u i|yd f;dr;=re ;dCIKh ljr wdldrhlska Ndú;hg .; yels fõo hkak
meyeÈ,s lrkak'
^,l=Kq 06&
^uq¿ ,l=Kq 20&
Y%S ,xld iy;sl,;a l<ukdlrK .KldêldÍ wdh;kh
fufyhqï wÈhr – fufyhqï iy f;dr;=re moaO;s l<ukdlrKh (OIM / OL3 - 203) – 2012 uehs úNd.h
5
m%Yak wxl 07 ( ^,l=Kq 20&
wmkhkh iy foaYSh wf,úh i|yd jk úúO j¾.fha rn¾ ñY%s; ksIamdok ksIamdokh lr ksl=;a lsÍu
isÿlrk ia:dk 10 la" ,xld gh¾ uekq*elapÍia iud.u i;= fõ' ish ksIamdok msßjeh iy f;d.
;;a;ajhka iïnkaOfhka jk f;dr;=re ckkh i|yd" wod, ta ta ksIamdok tallhla úiskau ixj¾Okh
lr ilid.;a f;dr;=re ;dCIK l%uhla iEu ksIamdok ia:dkhlu l%shd;aulj mj;S'
iud.fï ,dNodhS;ajh kexùu i|yd fuu f;dr;=re ;dCIK moaO;s fjkqjg jvd;a Wiia ;;a;ajfha
f;dr;=re ;dCIK moaO;shla y÷kajd §u flfrys iud.u ±kg wjOdkh fhduqlr we;'
Tn úiska my; oE l< hq;= fõ'
(a)
moaO;s ixj¾Ok Ôjk pl%h (System Development Life Cycle - SDLC) igykla (chart) u.ska
fmkajd foñka" tu l%ufõoh fuu wjia:dfõ §" Ndú;hg .; yels wdldrh ms<asn| lreKq
,ehsia;=jla ms<sfh, lr" meyeos,s lsrSula lrkak'
^,l=Kq 10&
(b)
ish f;dr;=re moaO;sh ;=< we;s úh yels jerÈ iy jxpd wju lr .ekSug wjYH wdrCIK
l<ukdlrK fuj,ï (Security management tools) y÷kajd§ug ,xld gh¾ uekq*elapÍia iud.ug
wjYH fõ' ir, meyeÈ,s lsÍï iys;j tjeks Wml%u (techniques) 3 la olajkak'
^,l=Kq 06&
(c)
zzmß.Kl wdpdrO¾uZZ (Computer Ethics) hkafkka Tn ljrla woyia lrkafka o hkak meyeÈ,s
lrkak'
^,l=Kq 04&
^uq¿ ,l=Kq 20&
B ldKavh wjidkhs
II fldgi wjidkhs'
m%Yak m;%h wjidkhs
Y%S ,xld iy;sl,;a l<ukdlrK .KldêldÍ wdh;kh
fufyhqï wÈhr – fufyhqï iy f;dr;=re moaO;s l<ukdlrKh (OIM / OL3 - 203) – 2012 uehs úNd.h
6
Fly UP