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A survey of commercial local delivery security San Diego, California.
Calhoun: The NPS Institutional Archive
Theses and Dissertations
Thesis and Dissertation Collection
1986
A survey of commercial local delivery security
methods and their potential for application at NSC
San Diego, California.
Fenzan, William Joseph.
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/22136
NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL
Monterey, California
THESIS
A SURVEY OF COMMERCIAL LOCAL DELIVERY
SECURITY METHODS
AND THEIR POTENTIAL FOR APPLICATION AT
NSC SAN DIEGO, CALIFORNIA
by
William
J.
Fenzan
December 1986
Thesis Advisor
Dan
C.
Boger
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
T230471
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A SURVEY OF COMMERCIAL LOCAL DELIVERY SECURITY METHODS AND THEIR POTENTIAL FOR
APPLICATION AT NSC SAN DIEGO, CALIFORNIA
M
PERSONAL AyTHOR(S)
Fenzan, William Joseph
'YPt OF REPORT
]3
2b
Master's Thesis
COVERED
T'ME
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FROM
{Ye tr.
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IS
PAGE COuNT
1986 December
TO
82
SUPPLEMENTARY NOTATION
6
COSATi COOES
F
GROUP
ElO
ABSTRACT {Continue on revene
'9
18
necemry and
if
SUBJECT TERMS (Continue on revene
if
necemry and
identify by block
number)
Material Accountability; Security; Local Delivery;
Physical Distribution; Shipment Integrity
SUBGROUP
identify by bicxk
number)
In the light of recent emphasis on material accountability in the Navy's supply
system. Naval Supply' Centers (NSCs) need a method for evaluating commercial security
practices and adapting them for use in the military environment Local delivery is
an especially vulnerable stage in the physical distribution process for both commercial
and military activities. This study surveys three commercial local delivery operations.
Private sector local delivery systems studied are described and security measures
they use are discussed in the context of their total system. Their effectiveness at
pipoviding shipment integrity and minimal delivery delay is compared with similar
measures of effectiveness calculated using Naval Supply Center, San Diego delivery
statistics Where greater comparative effectiveness is observed in commercial operations
recommendations for adapting commercial procedures to the Navy's system are offered.
.
.
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Dan C. Boger
DO FORM
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SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF thiS PAGE
Approved
A
for public release; distribution
is
unlimited.
Survey of Commercial Local Delivery- Security Methods
and their Potential for Application at
NSC San Diego, California
by
William J. Fenzan
Lieutenant Commander, Supply Corps, United States
B.S. in Ed., Ohio State University, 1975
Submitted
in partial fulfillment of the
requirements for the degree of
MASTER OF SCIENCE
IN
MANAGEMENT
from the
NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL
December 1986
Navy
ABSTRACT
In the light of recent emphasis on material accountability in the Navy's supply
system,
Naval Supply Centers (NSCs) need a method
security practices
is
an
and adapting them
especially
vulnerable
commercial and military
stage
activities.
for
evaluating
commercial
for use in the military environment. Local delivery
in
the
physical
distribution
process
for
both
This study surveys three commercial local delivery
Private sector local delivery systems studied are described and security
operations.
measures they use are discussed in the context of their total system. Their effectiveness
at providing
shipment integrity and minimal delivery delay
is
compared with
similar
measures of effectiveness calculated using Naval Supply Center, San Diego delivery
statistics.
Where
greater
comparative
effectiveness
is
observed
in
commercial
operations, recommendations for adapting commercial procedures to the Navy's system
are offered.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
I.
II.
INTRODUCTION
PURPOSE
A.
METHODOLOGY
9
C.
THESIS ORGANIZATION
9
LOCAL DELIVERY PROCEDURES AT NSC SAN DIEGO
A.
BACKGROUND
B.
DELIVERY PROCEDURES
SECURITY OF THE NSCSD LOCAL DELIVERY
SYSTEM
COMMERCIAL LOCAL DELIVERY PROCEDURES
A.
B.
C.
D.
INTRODUCTION
SAFEWAY STORES
10
10
11
19
23
23
25
1.
Delivery Procedures
25
2.
Security Measures
30
LIQUOR BARN STORES
34
1.
Delivery Procedures
34
2.
Security Measures
36
LONG'S
DRUG STORES
39
1.
Delivery Procedures
40
2.
Security Measures
42
SUMMARY OF SECURITY TECHNIQUES
44
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SYSTEMS
INTRODUCTION
A.
B.
NSC SAN DIEGO SECURITY EFFECTIVENESS
ROD Data Analysis
45
E.
IV.
8
B.
C.
III.
8
1.
2.
C.
LDIP Data
Analysis
COMMERCIAL SECURITY EFFECTIVENESS
45
46
48
55
58
V.
1.
Ratio Comparison
58
2.
Time Data Analysis
60
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
CONCLUSIONS
A.
65
65
RECOMMENDATIONS
B.
67
APPENDIX
A:
NORTHERN DIVISION SAFEWAY STORES
69
APPENDIX
B:
RDC VISITOR PASS
71
APPENDIX
C:
LIQUOR BARN STORES
72
APPENDIX
D:
LONG'S
APPENDIX
E:
ROD FORM (NAVSUP FORM
APPENDIX
F:
LDIP
APPENDIX
G:
SAFEWAY DRIVER'S LOG FORM
77
APPENDIX
H:
TACHOGRAPH SPEEDOMETER GRAPH
78
LIST
DRUG STORES CALIFORNIA,
INC
364)
FORM
OF REFERENCES
INITIAL DISTRIBUTION LIST
73
75
76
79
81
LIST
OF TABLES
6.
NSCSD COMMODITY STORAGE SITES
LOCAL DELIVERY VEHICLES
SAFEWAY COMMODITY STORAGE SITES
NSCSD DELIVERY ACCURACY STATISTICS
NSCSD ISSUE DATA
NSCSD ROD DATA
7.
ROD/ISSUES EFFECTIVENESS RATIOS
53
NSCSD PROCESSING TIME STATISTICS
NSCSD LOAD TIME PERFORMANCE
NSCSD TRANSIT TIME PERFORMANCE
NSCSD UNLOADING TIME PERFORMANCE
NSCSD DRIVER DELAY AWAITING OFFLOAD
NSCSD TOTAL DRIVER DELIVERY TIME
CALCULATION OF COMMERCIAL EFFECTIVENESS RATIOS
COMPARISON OF GROSS EFFECTIVENESS RATIOS
COMPARISON OF NET EFFECTIVENESS RATIOS
COMPARISON OF DRIVER MEAN TIMES
COMPARISON OF LOG TO TACHOGRAPH DATA
54
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
&
r^
12
16
27
47
51
51
56
56
56
57
57
60
61
61
62
64
LIST
NSCSD
OF FIGURES
Broadway Complex
2.1
The
2.2
National City Annex
2.3
Building
3304A Consolidation Area
15
2.4
NSCSD
Local Customer Distribution
18
3.1
Safeway's
3.2
Distribution of Safeway Store Districts
31
3.3
Fremont Variety Warehouse
35
3.4
Distribution of Liquor Barn Stores
37
3.5
Distribution of Long's
Richmond
(NCA)
13
Storage Sites
Distribution Center
Drug Store
Districts
14
28
42
I.
Several studies have been
Centers
(NSCs),
primarily
made of
management of wholesale
the
equipment, and material assets [Ref
1:
p.
Shore
SER program
Naval Supply
Estabhshment
consolidated
Naval Air Station (NAS)
material located at
at
of the
effects
The
1980.
in
and stock account material
and iMoore
local delivery system costs at
measure
to
(SER) implemented
Realignment
facilities
INTRODUCTION
NSCs
to
local deliveries
provide economies in personnel,
While studies by Orr, Flohr, and EUer
10].
NSC
San Diego (NSCSD) with respect
to total cost, security of
was not evaluated.
Recent strategic planning conferences held by Naval Supply Systems
flag officers
and key personnel
In the future,
NAVSUP
headquarters
will
be run
corporate entity by providing direction to
broad
material
areas:
management. [Ref
Command
as well as press reports of material theft
from the supply system have underscored the need
three
industrial
[Refs. 1,2,3] provide a data base for determining the efficiency of local
delivery procedures at
(NAVSUP)
the
field
management,
for results-oriented
management.
business and will operate as a
like a
activities.
material
This direction will cover
accountability,
and
business
4: p. 17]
In the area of material accountability, physical security of material issues
addressed.
specifically
are
Activities
recommended
to
"Increase/improve
is
physical
constraints and safeguards through continual upgrades to security aspects of facilities
while
enhancing
Activities
are
material
also
control
issue
urged to
distribution of feedback data
and
tracking
techniques"
[Ref
5: p.
4].
expand knowledge of current threats through wide
and
to
better balance
operational requirements with
material accountability and physical security concerns.
A.
PURPOSE
The purpose of
commercial
determine
firms
engaged
if effective
Commercial firms
this
thesis
in
is
to
survey local delivery
distribution
of highly
procedures
pilferable
used by
commodities
commercial techniques can be adapted for use by
and
NSCSD.
delivering pilferable merchandise have a strong vested interest in
keeping abreast of recent advances in security technology due to the presence of strong
competitive forces in the marketplace.
Commercial procedures followed
to ensure security of delivered material will be
NSCSD
evaluated in relation to those of
to determine
whether or not private sector
operations are distributing their goods more effectively than the military.
security
methods are
identified,
local delivery procedures.
Since
of threats to material security
B.
is
recommendations
NSCSD
in line
is
be made to improve
will
a field activity of
NAVSUP,
If better
NSCSD
identification
with the strategic plan discussed above.
METHODOLOGY
Past Naval Postgraduate School
(NTS)
theses provided
most of the background
Additional information came from several articles in the U.S. Navy
for this study.
NSCSD publications/instructions.
NSCSD to familiarize the author with
Supply Corps Newsletter and pertinent
A
deliver^'
field
trip
was taken
to
current local
procedures and security improvements. Data were collected for later analysis
and comparison
to similar data
from commercial
made
to
Naval Postgraduate School
to
Field trips were also
firms.
three commercial local delivery operations near the
gather comparative data.
Interviews were conducted with local delivery system managers as an integral
part of
all field trips.
schedules,
These interviews and concurrent reference to working papers,
and management data bases provided most of the raw data analyzed. Report
of Discrepancy
(ROD)
data and Local Delivery Individual Production Report (LDIP)
data were especially helpful in providing comparable
C.
statistics.
THESIS ORGANIZATION
This thesis
is
organized in
five chapters.
Chapter
to the thesis topic, discusses the purpose of the thesis,
organization.
Chapter
II
San Diego and discusses
provides a brief introduction
methodology used, and
describes the current local delivery procedures used at
security of
government
third chapter of this thesis surveys three
delivery
I
local deliveries
efiectivness 'bf
NSCSD
Commercial systems.
recommendations.
NSC
made by NSCSD. The
commercial local delivery operations. Both
procedures and security measures of these systems are described.
Delivery system effectiveness at
thesis
is
Local
analysed in Chapter IV and compared to
Finally,
Chapter
V
presents
conclusions and
II.
LOCAL DELIVERY PROCEDURES AT NSC SAN DIEGO
BACKGROUND
A.
The Naval Supply Center, San Diego
West Coast.
NSCSD
is
a major stock point for material
on the
operates five major distribution centers in southern California to
meet requirements generated by customers afloat and ashore. These distribution centers
are:
1)
Broadway Com/7/^jc--Administrative headquarters for all NSCSD operations. A
site for all frozen and chill provisions,
some non-aviation
binnable rnaterial, and some bulk material. California Ice (Cal Ice), a
commercicil firm under contract to store fresh fruit and vegetables (FFV), is
located approximately one and a half miles southeast of the Broadway
warehousing
complex.
2)
National Citv Annex (iVC/i)--Primarily a fleet service distribution center. The
consolidation point for bulk and general stores (GSK) material enroute to
ships.
Warehousing site for dry and non-perishable provisions.
Navy
Intearated Storage, Tracking, and Retrieval System (NISTARS) warehouses
are located at NCA.
3)
North Island Annex-Proyides warehousing for virtually all aviation items
supporting the Naval Air Station (NAS) and Naval Air Rework Facility
(N^RF) on North Island.
4)
Point Loma Annex--A supply and distribution point for bulk petroleum
products. Also, berthing site Tor submarines and their tenders. Each tender
has a small receiving shetl in the pier area.
5)
Long Beach Annex--A warehouse site for materials stored for the Long Beach
Naval Shipyard ( LBN'S Y) and Long Beach Naval Station. It also serves as a
central receiving and distribution site for fleet support material enroute from
the Broadway complex and NCA.
Since the
NCA
Broadway complex and
are located centrally in the
NSCSD
physical
distribution system, this thesis will discuss only security of their local deliveries.
The
other three major distribution centers deal in a specialty support role and so have very
different security-related considerations.
Presently,
NCA
functions as the central
hub of the
The Broadway complex, which previously functioned
only a limited storage
have
relocafted
accomplished.
to
site for
offices
Many
NSC
at
material.
NCA
development [Ref
1:
as a distribution center,
where
dispatch
and
consolidation
buildings that were part of the supply center in the
complex administration
facilities
local delivery system.
will
offices
is
now
All local delivery administrative persormel
complex are now occupied by tenant commands.
Broadway
NSC
and warehouses
Eventually,
will
be
all
are
also
Broadway
of the Broadway
relocated
at
NCA
then
be turned over to the City of San Diego for commercial
p. 18].
10
DELIVERY PROCEDURES
To describe the NSCSD local
B.
grouped into
system simply, material delivered
delivery
six classes:
1)
5w//:-material too large to be stored on standard 40 by 48 inch pallets.
2)
General Stores Material (GS^Q-items stored on pallet racks and in bins.
Provisions-dry stores, fresh
3)
is
and vegetables (FFV), and items requiring
fruit
refrigerated storage.
Repairables--high cost end items returned to the supply system for repair
or worn out.
4)
if
damaged
Hazardous--ma.t.ena\s requiring certification for transport over public rights-of-
5)
way.
5/?^c/a/-pilferable commodities, such as clothing, not in other categories.
6)
Storage of these commodities at
material
is
generally
are stored at the
NCA
NSCSD
warehoused
at
is
NCA,
Broadway complex. In
determined by customer demand-fleet issue
while both
fleet issue
general, both bulk
and shore station items
and bin material
is
stored at
while Broadway warehouses have been emptied of bulk materials in anticipation
of the fmal relocation to
Storage location
NCA
is
warehouses.
also affected by the
Storage, Tracking, and Retrieval System
(NTSTARS) warehouses
they have been completed, material has been
warehouses to
NISTARS
facilities^
at
growing capacity of the Navy Integrated
moved from
NCA. Although
all
located at
NCA. As
Broadway complex
the older
NTSTARS
construction has
been completed, the complementary' Nav7 Automated Transportation Documents
System
(NAVADS)
software
Present plans project completion of
When
the
NISTARS/NAVADS
NTSTARS/NAVADS
system
is
is
system
issues.
integration by July 1987.
completed, local
expected to change. Greatly improved security
will
NISTARS
not yet available to handle
is
delivery-
procedures are
expected for pallet-sized loads which
be packed in triwalls, shrink-wrapped, and better documented.
Table
shows the current primary storage
1
Numbers
described above.
two locations indicated.
complex and
indicates
NCA
NSCSD
separate tenant
is
in the
columns
sites
refer to assigned
for
the
six
major classes
warehouse numbers
at the
Placement of numbered warehouses within the Broadway
shown
in Figures 2.1
and
2.2.
Shading around building borders
control. Other buildings either provide a support function or house
commands.
Shaded buildings not
listed in
Table
1
either
perform an
overflow storage function or are not currently being used for material storage.
^NISTARS warehouses
at
NCA
are buildings 3302, 3304,
11
and P-035.
TABLE
1
NSCSD COMMODITY STORAGE
SITES
Main Storage
Location(s)
Commodity
Broadway
NCA
Bulk
none
64/69
a) pallet rack items
12/125
69/70
b) bin items
12/125
3304
7
none
Cal Ice
none
none
66
Repairables
12
70/322
Hazardous
none
P-035
Special
125
3302/66
GSK
Provisions
a) freeze/ chill
b)
FFV
c) dr>' stores
63/322
Material
is
distributed within the
straddle trucks after being palletized.
effective for short trips
Broadway complex and
Forklifts carry only
between warehouses. Due to
are rarely used to deliver material outside the
NCA
one
using forklifts and
pallet.
They
up
NSCSD
to seven pallet loads, self load
Straddle trucks operate well
moving
perimeter.
prohibited, however,
and unload, and
palletized material
the fleet consolidation area in building
3304A
at
NCA
They can
travel relatively fast.
between warehouses and from
to
from operating on public highways.
12
most
their limited hauling capacity, they
Straddle trucks are the primary delivery vehicle for fleet material.
transport
are
Naval Station
piers.
They
are
Lf"
^3
Pacific Coast Highway
<*)«yM
|i
I
110
A M»^ »
«
y X n
106
rf i
J
108
125
;
iim.i
iii»,,iJ
r
\
5
105
Try
V//^
Perlaeter Fence
-»
Guard Poet
r4^
jriPPMi.l i|nrii|i|)i)l
D
Mii,,ini',(U'^
:
12
Wi>..i/W
7
// -Ifl
:
H'* ,
WW
11
> M
K
«
Harbor Drive
£.
i?
Entrance :7
\i
11
yv^^^^l'^VAAv^s^w^
Figure
A
theses
The
NSCSD
no longer used
used to store material.
make inter-warehouse
to
between buildings 12 and
11 at the
Movement of bulk
as a pallet staging platform
distributions of palletized unit loads
BMHS
on the building
12 receiving dock.
identified
is
to
It
is
no longer
NCA
now
relieved
functions
All inter-warehouse
straddle trucks.
at the
NCA
risk to physical security of issues.
consolidation point in
Figure 2.3 shows the
Areas within building 3304A where
present configuration of this consolidation area.
material
Broadway
transporter system.
Broadway complex are made with
3304A poses some
since building 11
materials from
Handling cargo enroute to piers a second time
building
transporter discussed in earlier
Broadway complex
of the need to maintain the aging
transfers at the
Broadway Complex.
(BMHS)
Bulk Materials Handling System
is
NSCSD
2.1
consolidated are divided into customer sorting bays. Each of these bays
by a numbered, movable wall
sign.
The
is
security cage in this holding area has
been identified as inadequate during several inspections.
A
larger,
improved cage
is
presently planned for the area, although the actual start date for construction has not
been promulgated.
is
Restricted entry to the
NCA
compound by
the use of an access
list
reported to be effective in keeping out unauthorized visitors and protecting material.
13
,
^
To Naval Station Gate 9
Bntrtince
Hi
I
I
11
I
I
M
V X>< »
'
X
'<
S<
Cumdn«B Road
K ^H f A
i>
>«
63
I
3
T l ly.
J
I
"
MI I W
t! V
i
i
wi'j vt
'
'
t
'
i'i
i
'
.
'
I
J)l
r
ll
I
made between
to
perform
documented
that
II
II
I
I. II
the
point
a
solve the problem,
supplement to
NSCSD
l
j
l
I
I
I
I
I
M
l
carrier.
loss
performed by
carriers
used
n
i
:;?
(NCA)
Storage
Sites.
NCA
by motor
carrier
Off-station customers are serviced
Prior to
May
A NAVSUP
1979,
NSCSD
used
its
Inspector General report,
NSCSD
It
was
from employing an
trailers.
NAVSUP
assets [Ref.
Routine
I
68
h.T,r,TrMr.r..>.'-.,
prevented
constraints
advantage to use of
repairs.
^'
<4
II )'
' I
>«
M_t
and poor response time problem.
I:
granted approval to use commercial drayage as
NSC
p. 25].
through the Public Works Center (PWC),
perform
I'll
£^
I)
station deliveries to non-fleet type local customers.
significant
yil f)>
1,1
P-035
I
V
< y * *
Broadway complex and
local deliver>'.
material
a
ceiling
all
adequate number of trucks and
To
1'
69
by organic means or commercial
determined
<
xvrt 'w:
so they can be consolidated at building 3304A.
own equipment
II
^
National City Annex
Figure 2.2
Deliveries are
'
'
,r.
fr,
L.'i' t
"
i
64
:
3304
however,
•<
f»MI
322
either
< <
>
PWC
preventive
it
is
fully
equipment
is
maintenance,
operated vehicles
make most
Although equipment
operated by
that
NSC
NSCSD
however,
is
is
off-
rented
personnel.
A
does not have to
required
of and
NSCSD personnel. Table 2 presents a summary of local delivery motor
by NSCSD to perform local delivery. Today, up to seven commercial
1^
I
Building
"iJOU
MBC
SB. StXB.I
I
KISTARS Conveyers
Ji
1
1
1
II
M
I
III iiiiiii\\;
I
I
!
Quick Tikas
Inbound Sort
Are*
1
<
j
tvo^t^*****
Track Loading Ai
Loading Ravp
Figure 2.3
Building
vehicles
making
consolidation area at
3304A Consolidation Area.
NSCSD. As many
as five of these trucks
augment
local off-station deliveries within a radius of 100 miles^
from the
vehicles are contracted for daily
NSC
(Outbound)
by
NCA.
Morning
Dispatching of trucks starts early.
shift
workers arriving at 3:00
am
pre-load trucks for delivery and stage material for the day shift While foremen advise
the dispatcher of ready to
piers are
little
made between
congestion.
traffic
working hours
customer's
move
3:00
am
unit loads.
and 5:00
am
Deliveries by straddle trucks to the fleet
daily,
when
they are likely to meet very
for the activity to ensure timely offload
and prompt stowage
at the
site.
The dispatcher
at the
National City Annex controls movement of vehicles using a
radio net. Drivers report departure and trip completion using vehicle
held radios.
Each
driver records
this
mounted
NTS
or
hand
information on a Local Delivery Individual
Production (LDIP) report form.
^Past
normal
Deliveries are scheduled for shore activities during
theses have used a 100 mile radius to define local delivery.
15
TABLE 2
LOCAL DELIVERY VEHICLES
Vehicle Type
NSC
Qty
Commodity
Operated
--Pickup truck,
Vi
ton
Urgent
8
GSK
Special (1)
"Stake truck, 2
"Van,
5
1
Urgent
7 Vz ton
1
Repairables
2
Urgent
I
Special (1)
1
Urgent
ton
2 Yi ton
"Van,
2
ton, refrigerated
''2
Freeze
-Tractor,
5
7
GSK
ton
!'2
ton
!/2
GSK
FFV
cS:
Chill
1
ton
14
10 ton
11
15 ton
1
-Van, 32
ft.
8
35
ft.
4
40
ft.
3
Dry Provisions
"
"
"Trailer, 40
ft.,
flatbed
"Trailer, 35
ft.,
lowboy
55
20
GSK
1
Bulk
"
"
ft.,
1
Commercial Hire
"Stake Truck, 2
Vz
"Tractor/trailer, 42
ton
2
Urgent
ft.
5
GSK
8
GSK
GSK
Owned by NSCSD
-Straddle truck
Note
(1):
Special items include repairables, signature
classified material.
16
service deliveries,
<
and
Deliver>' schedules are designed to restrict hold time for material to within the
Uniform Material Movement and Issue
consideration
with
emphasis on "Service to the
Customers
for the
Station/National City
NSCSD
local delivery
Annex hub.
[Ref
Fleet."
supported commands.
About one
theses
trips scheduled.
half of these
NCA
accordance
p. 38].
NCA
Although the zone
are
(188)
are approximately 350
shore
command [Ref
hub
activities
either
2: p. 57].
follows several distinct routings
deliver>'
no longer used, current routings are
is
in
Figure 2.4 shows the location of principal local
The physical flow of material from the
NTS
1:
is
system are scattered around the Naval
receiving support directly or indirectly through a larger
minimize
standards. Special
This policy
Within a radius of 100 miles of the
delivery customers.
to
(UMMIPS)
given to afloat and air station customers.
is
NAVSUP
System
Priority
still
concept mentioned in
earlier
based primarily on geographic
considerations. Briefly stated, major routings for local deliveries are:
Broadway to NCA shuttle— DtdxcdiiQ^ trucks move material from Broadway
complex warehouses to the NCA consolidation point. Material can also return
to Broadway from NCA on this routing.
NCA
to Long Beach ^/lurr/e— Dedicated trucks move material twice daily to
Long Beach for local distribution to both fleet and shore customers tnere
(actually 125 miles
from NSCSD-not considered part of
local deliverv for this
thesis).
NCA
to
NCA
to Point
Camp Pendleion-Dedicaied truck deliveries are made twice a week.
Pendleton, located 38 miles northwest of the Broadway complex, is
outside the area covered bv Figure 2.4 Sealed vans are used to make these trips
under Government Bill of Lading (GBL) documentation on a per trip basis.
Camp
Loma—DehveuQs are made to the Marine Corps Recruit
the Naval Training Center (NTC), and Point Loma on a Point
run. Both Shore and fleet customers are located on Point Loma.
(MCRD),
Depot
Loma
NCA to North Island--The Naval Amphibious Base, the Naval Air Station
(NAS), and fleet units berthed at NAS North Island receive material on trucks
going to North Island.
NCA to the Naval Air Station (NAS) iV//ramar— Dedicated trucks deliver material
NAS Miramar at 7:30 am each morning. Deliveries are made at a specific
to
time to ensure a
NCA
NCA
to the
is
available to promptly offload trucks.
Naval Regional Medical Center (N RMC)— Dedicated trucks deliver
to the
materials to the
to the
crew of workers
full
NRMC
as necessary to ensure
Defense Property Disposal Office, Imperial ^eac/z- Material delivered
is generally for turn-in rather than use.
Therefore, this is not a
deliver,' routing.
NCA
to Naval Station P/er5--Deliveries are
early in the morning.
needed
deliveries are
basis.
Ice to ships.
service.
DPDO
normal, regular local
Other
prompt
An
made
made by
straddle truck to pier areas
using routings different from those listed above on an as
example of
this
type of delivery
The highly perishable nature of
17
is
the dispatch of provisions from Cal
this type
of cargo as well as the constant
\
ms
3
mis'
^^
"—
—
"A NTG ''/"
—
H
^
NRMC
"/
/"j
"Apointy
ILomap
.^
NAS
ir
7/ North Is*.*^
"^
Broadway Complex
"^
«:.-•
Gal Ice
1
cr^^-^
"Ia
^C''\ Naval Station
"^
\1.
•^ V^^. Naval
'\^
National City Annex
-jC
"^ \/^ ^ mphibio\Ju^i^
"^
tr Base
3
"^Q
Figure 2.4
Mlranar
OTDO Imperial Beach
NSCSD
Local Customer Distribution.
18
of ships receiving provisions precludes establishment of consistent routes.
shifting
Urgently needed material
Most
Annex, or
fleet
on a requirements
also dispatched
basis.
NSCSD
local deliver^'
system varies
customers are berthed at Naval Station
piers, at the
North Island
The number of
v^ridely.
is
by the
afloat activities served
at fuel piers
on Point Loma. Ships are
rarely
moored
at outer
buoys
made by
harbor. However, v^^hen they are, and local deliveries are required, they are
barges arranged through
NSCSD
customer services department [Ref
6: p. 3-4].
SECURITY OF THE NSCSD LOCAL DELIVERY SYSTEM
Security of material issued by NSCSD can be seen as a combination
C.
in the
factors contributing to the safe delivery of line items to customers [Ref
7: p. 3].
of four
These
factors are:
Physical ^ecM^-Zry—determined by
1)
how
access to materials
is
controlled.
Procedural securuy—measuvQd by adequacy of policies and rules safeguarding
2)
cargo.
Technological ^^cwr/ry-defmed as use of state-of-the-art techniques to improve
3)
security.
by
Personnel security--esiah\ished
maintaining security.
4)
Although the most obvious of these
NAVSUP
the
quahty
factors, physical security,
an important
strategic plan, all factors play
people
of the
is
involved
in
new
stressed in the
role in the security of issued
items.
Physical security of
was completed on
presently very good.
warehouse area
the
location of these barriers.
About
six
months ago work,
Guard
service
NCA.
at
Figures 2.1 and 2.2
show
the
provided on a 24 hour basis at entry points
is
both storage areas.
heavy
areas.
Bulk commodities are afforded physical security mostly by their nature.
Large,
NSCSD
storage
bulk,
items must be transported by motor carrier or
Gate guards require
property and
when
GSK
the driver
restrictions,
GSK
can
items are
is
not an
more vulnerable
NSCSD
employee making a
to pilferage than
alert
storage areas in the warehouse
storage
out of
delivery.
This
is
an
of bulk materials.
badge requirements, and
approach the
rail
a property pass for items that are obviously not personal
effective physical deterrent to theft
to
is
a construction project that fenced in the perimeter of both the
Broadway complex and
to
NSCSD
any other commodity.
Entry
employees are counted on to control access
compound. Only personnel on an access
and consolidation
19
areas.
Employees working
in
list
the
warehouse area
have
laminated
plastic
badges.
GSK
identification badges after gate clearance.
Visitors
are
also
issued
material in warehouses
plastic
therefore,
is,
considered very secure.
GSK
In transit,
most
NSCSD
generally travels by flatbed
Vans
trailer.
are not used because
customers do not have loading docks needed to offload enclosed vans.
Side access to pallets provided by flatbed trailers also enables receiving personnel to
oflload faster.
A
management
request submitted by local deliver>'
to
purchase Hesse
enclosed trailers designed to improve intransit security of palletized cargo was not
acted on due to the high cost (S30,000) of the equipment. These Hesse trailers provide
the
same handling advantages
as presently used flatbed trailers along with the ability to
down doors
enclose the entire shipment using slide
drink delivery trucks.
[Ref
Probably the most
after
traffic
time for a breach in physical security of
likely
for
vehicle
a
precautions
barrier
designed
are
at
pickup by
later
Material delivered to piers
and
on canned
8]
they are delivered pierside
morning.
similar to those used
primarily
items
is
customers in the early
fleet
protected by a duty watchstander screening
is
the
GSK
head of each
counter
to
Although these security
pier.
attacks,
terrorist
have
they
some
deterrent value for stores pilferage as well.
Locked
the pier [Ref
pallet cages
1:
p. 28] are
several reasons.
damage and
on these
used three years ago to safeguard pilferable items delivered to
no longer being used. This
First, the
security
deterioration. Third,
NSCSD
experienced something
GSK
[Ref
delivered to shore activities
customers
is
NCA
consolidated at
Some
during nonnal working hours.
and regular receiving time
building
to
such as
Material sent to shore activities
is
(MHE)
Physical security of provisions
the relatively
is
loss rate
the person
GSK
trailers,
it
is
going to shore
sent directly to customers
is
Pendleton, have a firm
exposed to view before
also less vulnerable to pilferage at
destination since larger quantities delivered at shore
Material Handling Equipment
ships.
Camp
farther cut time material
when
on flatbed
sent
is
3304A then
activities,
75%
8]
probably more physically secure than material sent to
to
like a
cages. Finally, use of cages delayed delivery time significantly
Although most
for
cages are expensive. Second, they were extremely prone to
with the key could not be found in a timely manner.
storage.
measure was stopped
commands
its final
are generally stowed by
rather than working parties.
given
less
attention than other commodities due
low value of individual items.
20
Also,
all
provisions deliveries are
manifested providing
they have over
GSK
NSC
managers better
over individual shipments than
The perishable nature of provisions
material.
speed stowage at the receiving
visibility
further helps to
site.
Repairables, hazardous materials, group
issues,
1
and
commodities are
special
given the highest level of physical security. Special commodities such as retail clothing,
controlled
equipage,
and classified/controlled materials are kept
Signature
storerooms.
restricted
service
is
material. All signature service deliveries are
afford the items better protection than
shipments.
Largely
When
because
required
made
for
extreme
open flatbed
value/highly sensitive items
precautions,
considered excellent
is
if
type
of
using small, enclosed vans which
general
trailers delivering
hand
this material is delivered, signature control
of these
of this
deliveries
access
locked,
in
physical
hand
to
security
is
GSK
required.
of these
high
procedures are followed.
Procedural security involves controls built into the local delivery system to ensure
issued
material
reaches
At the warehouses,
customer.
the
this
means inventory
accuracy must be attained. Following a special effort resulting from a Secretary- of the
Navy (SECNAV)
tasking in
1982,
NSCSD
has improved
warehouse inventory
its
accuracy dramatically. Location accuracy in warehouses has risen to 97.5% in Fiscal
Year (FY) 1984 from
a base of
92.0%
FY
in
1982 [Ref
reporting system which provides performance statistics
is
9: p. 21].
down
the procedure used to reach a location accuracy above the
Recent quality assurance
statistics
show continued high
Despite the enviable improvements
warehouses,
little
made
level
A
quality assurance
to the individual
97% NAVSUP
NTS
theses are
still
in procedural security
present.
These
standard.
of accuracy.
has been done to improve procedural aspects of local
problems noted by past
worker
of material in
deliver^'.
Some
are:
Double handling of
local delivery material due to the dispersion of physical
Occasionally, material issued from Broadway complex warehouses is
sent to
building 3304A as an issue then returned to a tenant command in
the Broadway cornplex the next day. When the Broadway complex is turned
over to the city of San Diego, this problem should be eliminated.
•
facilities.
NCA
•
Of
Data collection procedures are not sufficiently finite to provide management
information needed to maximize efficiency. Pallets loaded on trucks may fully
utilize the available cube or mav not depending on the estimation of the driver.
Driver, estimates are spot checked by managers visually.
the points raised, perhaps the greatest threat to
security
is
represented by the
second. This procedure allows drivers to adjust for partial pallet loads on the
report form by converting an actual pallet count to
measurement tons then
LDIP
to
a
standard pallet count. Drivers not spot checked could adjust pallet loads to cover
shortages since they provide the only record of pallets delivered.
21
Feedback
NSCSD
to
managers on the performance of the
local delivery
system
is
by the Report of Discrepancy (ROD), Standard Form 364, which records
also provided
customer complaints. These reports and the feedback they generate
be described in
will
NSCSD
Chapter Four along with data trends on performance of the
local delivery
system.
Technological security improvements are strongly linked to the
NISTARS/NAVADS
the
program.
On
implementation,
full
full utilization
NTSTARS
will
NAVADS
of tracking material from time of receipt to time of issue while
of
be capable
will
improve
speed and accuracy of documentation and cause the generation of local delivery
Also, bin items issued by the
manifests.
NTSTARS
system
will
be consolidated by
customer, and shrink wrapped prior to delivery on the truck dock. This will cut the
number of shipments
Other
NSCSD
•
'
•
and greatly reduce vulnerability of material
necessar>'
state-of-the-art
security
inovations
being
tested
to pilferage.
and implemented
are:
the Fleet On-Line Inquirv' and Requisitioning System which allows large ships
access to the NSCSD da'ta base for read only follow up data and requisition
submittal [Ref 10: p. 14].
Advanced Traceabilitv and Control (ATAC) system which allows
the
better
over repairables" through information processing at central hubs.
currently being established' at NSCSD [Ref. 11: p. 16].
visibility
hub
•
at
is
A
the Prototvpe Issue Receipt Data Form-Bar coded documents produced on a
laser printer are used to provide management with 100% proof of
shipment data for all group 1 issues. Procedures may be extended to provide
fuller traceability for all issues at smaller Supply Centers. [Ref 12: p. 13]t
Xerox 9700
Personnel security concerns the people involved in local delivery at
stated
earlier,
personnel
drivers
all
office.
NSCSD
are
employees hired through the local
Warehouse workers and
grades five to eight. Employee integrity and
quality assurance reporting
employee reports
for
also mandatory.
and security than
importance
drivers
employed are
commitment
civilian
wage
in civil service
to security are determined
and appraisal by the worker's supervisor.
When
a
by
new
work, they are required to attend eight hours of basic instruction
on warehouse procedures.
is
NSCSD. As
The
An
additional forty hours of safety
fact that five times as
to basic job
much
and
instruction
security instruction
is
devoted to safety
environment orientation indicates the high degree of
NSCSD management
places
on
22
its
personnel security program.
COMMERCIAL LOCAL DELIVERY PROCEDURES
III.
INTRODUCTION
A.
In
described.
A
commercial local delivery
operations
will
be
briefly
discussion of the flow of material from central warehouses to outlying
stores will be followed
to
three
chapter,
this
by a description of basic security measures used by each system
Differences and
ensure safe shipment delivery.
N'SCSD
operations and
similarities
delivery procedures will be
between commercial
commented on throughout
the
chapter where necessary to better explain or clarify important points.
The most
significant
operations studied and the
•
general
NSCSD
differences
between
commercial local
delivery
operation are:
delivers a much wider range of items
than commercial businesses. Bulk items, such as ship propellers, are shipped
frequently to local customers bv XSCSD. Commercial firms are much more
specialized. Bulk materials, for example, are never shipped locally by the three
Range of products distributed-^SCSD
companies surveyed.
•
NSCSD
is firmly fixed.
Centralization of the distribution hub--Jhe location of
in the distribution of customers have less effect on the location of the
Commercial firms
facilities than they do for commercial cornpanies.
to shift their distribution
leasing warehouse space are better able than
Chanees
NSCSD
hub
•
it
NSCSD
needed.
of the distribution center--DuQ to its much wider scope of operations,
has the need to operate several specialized distribution centers in the
San Diego area. Taken together, these specialized centers cover a larger area
and contain more facilities, equipment, and personnel than most commercial
local deliver\' operations. Also, the volume of shipments made per month from
NSCSD exceeds that of any of the three commercial firms studied.
Size
NSCSD
•
Local delivery ar^a—Commercial firms' stores are generally distributed over, a
local delivery customers are primarily
larger geographic area. While
along the coast, commercial stores are more evenly distributed.
NSCSD
Naw
•
policy of "service to the fleet" creates a
Customer discrimination--The
special class of customer for NSCSD. This policy requires the highest standards
of local delivery service be provided to ships. Shore commands are placed in a
different category of service due to their greater accessability. Commercial local
dehvery operations have more uniform service standards since all of their stores
are given the same level of service.
•
Shipment documentation--CommQTc'].a.\ firms surveved have better visibility over
individual shipments than NSCSD. While NSCSD uses more documentation
on shipments, collects more data, and produces more management reports/data
summaries than commercial firms, the sheer volume of inTormation collected
reduces visibility over individual shipments. Also, active shipment data is
retained for use longer by NSCSD than in commercial local deliver}' systems.
These fundamental diflerences in operation are barriers to simple, direct comparison of
commercial to
NSCSD
can compare directly in
local delivery operations.
all
respects to the
No
NSCSD
summarized above.
23
commercial local delivery system
system primarily due to the reasons
Despite these difTerences, however, there are also similarities in commercial local
deliver^'
procedures that ofTer opportunities for the exchange of security improvement
ideas that could enhance both the commercial operations studied and
delivery.
and
Some
NSCSD
•
•
local
basic similarities between commercial local delivery operations studied
are:
Storage meihods— Both commercial operations studied and NSCSD use 40 bv 48
inch hardwood pallets and nearly identical pallet racks to store GSK (vpe
pilferable items. Separate commodities are segregated in different warehouses' or
designated sections of a single warehouse.
single hub— Both the commercial local deliver^' systems studied and
a single distribution center to the maximum extent possible.
made significant progress in centralizing their distribution of
type issues to a c'entral hub at NCA. This closelv approximates what
conimercial businesses tr\' to do to improve local delivery 'to stores.
Use of a
NSCSD
NSCSD
•
NSCSD
use
has
GSK
Use of non-auiomaied warehouse procedures— Although NISTARS'NAVADS is
operational in about a vear, both NSCSD and the
commercial firms studied use people, non-automated materials handling
equipment, and paper documentation when picking, sorting, and consolidating
scheduled to be fully
local deliver^' trailer shipments.
•
Motor carriers— Both
motor carriers to
NSCSD
deliver
and the businesses surveyed use tractor/trailer
shipments.
Although one commercial
local
distribution center has rail spurs available, rail
is
only used for delivery of
incoming shipments.
•
These
Independence of customers— Comn\exc\a.\ firms studied generally ship to
individual stores.
Store managers are responsible for control of inventory
received in much the same wav as commanding officers are, responsible for
material they receive from the Navy supply system via NSCSD.
similarities in local delivery
GSK
of
type material form a basis for comparing
local delivery systems.
This chapter will provide information comparable to that in
Chapter
local
II
for
both
procedures
delivery
and
security
measures
used
by
commercial local delivery systems.
Three commercial systems are discussed.
First,
a large
volume
local delivery
system used by Safeway Stores, Inc. to distribute grocery items such as dry provisions,
general use consumables, and low value specialty items to
a
Safeway subsidiary operation
distribution of beverages
for
high value items
and sundry items
to
Liquor
its
is
Bam
stores
Finally, a short section
use that are possibly applicable at
described. Next,
presented that covers the
A
Stores.
Long's Drug Stores that hires other firms to perform local delivery
comparison.
is
is
system used by
also presented for
summarizes security procedures commercial firms
NSC
San Diego.
-One important difference, though, in the two systems is that store managers
receive direct financial credit for valid shortages while credits provided for shortages in
commands are sent to the'command's immediate superior who may
shipment to
apply it to the ac'count of the short-shipped command.
Naw
24
SAFEWAY STORES
B.
Safeway Stores
Safeway, operates the largest food retailing
Inc., referred to as
They operate more than 2,500
business in the world.
stores worldwide.
Of these,
nearly
600 are operated in the United Kingdom, Canada, West Germany, and Australia. Total
company
sales in 1983
were S18.6
were 14.8% ahead of the 1982
with earnings of S183.3 million. The earnings
billion
results
and came on top of
a
47% improvement
1982
in
over 1981. During the period 1978-1981, though, net income had plummeted 32%.
[Ref
pp. 40-42]
13:
Much
McGowan,
CEO
of the
was instrumental
recapture
to
improvement
post- 1980
market
from
growing
attributed
to experiment
grocery
regional
Peter
to
McGowan became
Mr.
company
in encouraging the
share
is
When
Safeway's Chief Executive Officer (CEO).
in 1980, he
order
the
for
credit
more
in
This
chains.
experimentation primarily involved merchandising a wider variety of non-food items in
Safeway's grocery stores and developing free standing specialty shop operations.
example of one of these specialty shop operations
[Ref
the third section of this chapter.
An
the Liquor Barn chain discussed in
is
13: p. 42]
This growth into non-food items has created a need for stronger local delivery
security measures than the
company had
new measures
higher
warehouse
section
its
in
safeguard
merchandise
value
Fremont, California.
on the Liquor Barn operation
distributed
These newer measures
Safeway
after the basic
will
to
Most of
these
from a
stores
be discussed in the
local delivery
system and
methods are described.
security
1.
in place before its expansion.
Delivery Procedures
For the comparative purposes of
Safeway's divisions will be
this thesis, delivery
The Northern
described.
procedures of only one of
California
division
contains
approximately 250 stores located in California, Hawaii, and part of Nevada. The
division
was formed
in
June 1986 when the smaller Sacramento division merged with
Safeway's San Francisco division [Ref.
Northern Califomia division
the old central
called
Transco
thing in
its
hub of
the
division, a
hub of
in
is
14].
It
is
trying to centralize
interesting
its
to
note that the
delivery system
by phasing out
the Sacramento division, a warehouse leased from a
Sacramento, Califomia.
NSCSD
phaseout of the Broadway complex
new Northern
California division
warehouse complex
in
Richmond,
25
in
is
is
essentially trying to
company
do the same
downtown San Diego. The
the old
California.
hub of
the
new
central
San Francisco
division
A
summary of
is
provided below to give some idea of the scope of
the principal distribution centers of the Northern California
its
Major
operations.
facilities are:
Richmond
Distribution Center (/?Z)C)-- functions as the central hub of the local
svstem for low value sundries, meat, frozen foods, miscellaneous dairy
related products, produce, and grocery' items.
1)
deliver^'
Variety
Warehouse— sioc]kS high value sundries such as film,
and appliances. Also, liquor and associated merchandise are
stocked here for Both Safewav stores and Liquor Barns. Fremont Variety is
located next to the Safeway division headquarters.
Fremont
2)
cigarettes,
3)
The San Leandro Milk Plant— prepares milk for direct distribution to stores.
Dispatching is separate from both RDC and Fremont Variety operations.
4)
Oakland /c^--prepares and ships ice cream products and bagged ice as a
separate operation.
Bakery Division— delivers bakerv products to stores. Separate drivers from a
union local drive delivery trucks for the bakery operation.
5)
different
Non-alcoholic beverage production
conducted
at a bottling plant
Soft drinks are consolidated, though, at the grocery
facility.
compound with
production
pallets
3
RDC
RDC
near the
warehouse
in the
of dry stores for delivery rather than travelling direct from a
facility to stores as is the
Table
case with milk, ice cream, and bakery products.
presents the Safeway storage sites for major categories of commodities
distributed to stores.
Chapter
11
range of
NSCSD
3.1
is
The format
for this table
similar to that for Table
is
from
1
comparison can be made between the Safeway operation and the
so that a
storage
sites.
Relative location of these sites
provides a layout diagram of the
RDC
is
shown
Figure
later.
showing the location of major commodity
shown
storage warehouses.
The flow path of material through
the grocery warehouse
with dotted arrows.
Truck flow through the complex
indicated with solid arrows.
Material
is
distributed within warehouses by electric
Forklifts are used to
Tow
move
full pallets
tow motors and
outbound shipment. These
pallets for
selectors.
Sdectors pick merchandise from pallets
in
the
warehouse racks using a
computer-generated store invoice to guide their selections for each pallet
invoice
lists
forklifts.
onto pallet racks and between rack locations.
motors are used by employees building
employees are called
is
is
an item code and standard name
for
built.
This
each item to be selected, the quantity
requested and warehouse pallet rack locations. Each computerized invoice prints out
orders by store with a weight and cube calculated for each store shipment.
computer
also calculates the
number of pallets
26
required to
fill
each order. [Ref
14]
The
TABLE
3
SAFEWAY COMMODITY STORAGE
SITES
Main Storage Location
Commodity
GSK
a) pallet rack items
Richmond
(low value)
Fremont
(high value)
Fremont
b) bin items
Provisions
Richmond
a) freeze/chill (meat, frozen foodi;, etc.)
(ice
Oakland
cream)
San Leandro
(milk products)
b)
FFV
Richmond
(produce)
Richmond
c) dry- stores (grocery)
Richmond
(bakery)
Store orders are picked starting with the heaviest items
selector's
work, pallets storing the heaviest items are
warehouse. Selectors
way toward
Ice
all
become
To
facilitate the
stored at one side of the
As
start picking their pallet at this side.
the other side of the warehouse, items
first.
the selector works his
lighter.
This storage system
ensures pallets are built with the heaviest items on the bottom and lighter items on top
reducing the potential for intransit damage to relatively
Once
Employees
pallets
are
made
up,
they
are
fragile, lighter
staged
for
loading
merchandise.
aboard
called loaders check the contents of each pallet in the staging area
out pallet identification tags.
and show destination and
Pallet identification tags are color
pallet weight.
Any
trailers.
and
fill
coded by commodity
shortages noted by loaders in the item
count on the pallet compared to the computer-generated invoice are annotated on the
invoice and reconciled immediately with the assistance of a floor supervisor.
then compile a
trailer
loading
stores are segregated as
much
slip
from data on
as possible
shipments.
27
pallet tags.
Loaders
Shipments for individual
and loaders generally
try to
minimize
split
/"
.
y K
i
.
HV
,
M, M », ,y ,. t >,
i
,
,
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n ^.^
)t»t<i
av( y V
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it
y
V.
,
y
,
K
>(
X y > x
.
.
v
Dress
Ing
Storage
iJ
/
Area Staging
9
J,
f
;
,
,
,
,
,
Bakery FroGoods J zen
'::
::;:
>•-•
Mlsc
y
X
Foods
Main
Gate
V
Truck
Repair
K
If
Meat
*
V
,:
;:
:
;:
;
V
:c
Grocery
Shipping
Produce
;:
)'
}
;:;
::
&st
=
D
Gate
:
J
V-
:
Tractor
Staging
Area
:'
Empty Van Staging Area
fVMXx
'xywyyvyn y vk
w
'jc
xvv'
.• '<<'*
if
HWWMvx v
><
><
»<
>*
'
><
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Hoffiwn Blvd.
Figure
As
trailer
and
a trailer
loading
slip.
is
Safeway's
3.1
Richmond
Distribution Center.
loaded, pallet tags are pulled from pallets and attached to the
Then, the completed
trailer
loading
store invoices are taken to the dispatch office. There
an envelope.
On
on the
envelope
each
with pallet tags attached
all this
paperwork,
trailer.
In the case of a
listing the stores receiving
split
full
load,
and the
shipment, a load tag
is
merchandise and the number of
total
is
number of
attached to the
pallets loaded for
store.
Loading occurs around the clock
at
the
Richmond
facility.
shipments for the farthest stores are stuffed between midnight and 3:00
am
placed in
is
the outside of the envelope are listed the stores where the trailer
going, whether the trailer contains a split load or
pallets
slip
dispatch.
At
5:00
am
all
Trailers
am
for a 4:00
bakery products are dispatched. Groceries leave
am, 7:00 am, 8:00 am, 10:00 am, and 12:00 noon. Perishables are dispatched
am, 12:00 noon, 2:00 pm, and 6:00 pm. Another
at 2:00
proven
pm, 6:00 pm, and 12:00 midnight.
to be the
most
efficient
series
of grocery
This loading sequence, while
method of dispatching from
28
trailers are
the
RDC
with
at 6:00
at 10:00
dispatched
flexible,
warehouse.
has
employed
Six dispatchers are
from the ranks of senior company
knowledge
of possible
judgement in making dispatch decisions
complex. They are always hired
All have significant driving experience,
drivers.
and
routings,
RDC
the
at
No
Any
so
policies
their
considered effective by the company.
is
Routings to stores are rarely the same twice
to fluctuation in store orders.
company
with
familiarity
row
in a
scheduling pattern
set vehicle
same
for the
is
due
driver
used to route trucks.
stops or deviations from the dispatcher's assigned routing must be explained on
the driver's log and verified by
compound. Tachographs
Tachograph readings on the
Any
exceeded 55
MPH
is
RDC
measure engine revolutions per
are mechanical devices that
minute and over-the-road speed.
driver's return to the
indication that truck speed during a run has
Tachograph readings have been used
noted by management.
to
counsel drivers on their performance. [Ref 14]
Once
Drivers for local delivery runs are selected using a bid system.
dispatcher has determined routings for the
drivers in
from a waiting area about
seniority.
The
driver
loads available.
hour before the run
The next senior
trailers.
driver
is
he
calls
scheduled in order of
choice
first
then called in to choose
among
among
the
the remaining
This entire process of dispatching twenty to twenty-
awarded a
route
up
pick
Tachograph wheels, and the envelope with
is
is
trailers,
repeated for each dispatch time.
Drivers
paperwork
twenty to twenty-five
employed by the company the longest has
nineteen to twenty-four
five trailers is
a half
first
the
then locked in the back of the
are inserted in the
a
driver's
trailer
trailer
trip
two
form,
log
blank
paperwork. The envelope with
by
its
Tachograph wheels
driver.
cab-mounted Tachograph, and the driver begins annotating
his trip
log.
Equipment used
to
make
local
deliveries
Safeway owns about 200 tractors and about 500
foot enclosed vans with the
company
all
located in the
RDC
standard
trailers.
Most
for
A
trailers are forty-five
Some
side.
truck repair shop, fueling area, and
compound. Ready access
better security for shipments since tractors
company.
the
logo prominently displayed on each
forty foot enclosed vans are also operated.
rack are
is
and
trailers
wash
to these facilities ensures
are never out
of
company
control.
On
a
store,
Together they open the
trailer
pallets
arrival
marked
at
for that
drivers
contact the store's inventory control clerk.
and perform receiving procedures.
store are offloaded
29
and the
pallet
As soon
as the
count matches with the
may
envelope papen^'ork, the driver
return to the
RDC
compound.
leave that store to either
other deliveries or
any discrepancies are noted, the inventory control
If
manager may immediately
clerk or his store
make
call
on
RDC
a dedicated line to the
and
request a search for the missing merchandise.
Stores
Northern California division are organized
the
in
geographic location. Figure 3.2 shows the location of these
RDC
and other Safeway
Appendix
division
2.
A
and
Each
facilities.
in
districts
by
districts in relation to the
contains approximately twelve stores.
district
provides a complete listing of districts within the Northern California
lists all
by store number and
stores in these districts
city.
Security Measures
Security of Safeway's grocery distribution system will be discussed within the
framework of the four security factors presented
description of techniques
company
information,
Physical
it
management [Ref
RDC
of the
RDC
hnk fence topped with barbed
considered
is
perimeter
wire.
Two
ver\'
gates to the
compound
basis. Lighting is
are
is
among
random
security system at the
visitor pass
that
is
RDC
Physical
almost
50%
trailers to
RDC
security investigator
provides visitors to the
compound with
security
at
Safeway
installation of precision
stores
docks
visitor passes.
has
also
been
enhanced
14].
1975, store loading docks were designed to
would be stored
exposure time for
being unloaded.
inside the store warehouse.
all
shipments.
30
the
Precision docks allow Safeway
be backed up directly to the enclosed warehouse section of the
trailer
by
at all stores built since 1975. This includes
of the Northern division stores [Ref
open dock from the
a
inexpensive, yet provides an added dimension of control.
Appendix B shows an example of one of these paper
programmed
a week, or
basis at least monthly.
The gate
paper
Once
the guard supervisors. Spot
checks of guard supervisor inspections are conducted by the
a
in Figure
inspected for burnt out lighting, gaps in the fence, or any other
deficiency. Responsibility for this inspection rotates
on
shown
provided around the
perimeter by pole street lights at approximately 100 foot intervals.
more, the perimeter
by Safeway
important
surrounded by a seven foot high chain
is
Gates are manned on a twenty-four hour
3.1.
this
key elements of local delivery security.
fairly represents
The
14].
Although
II.
purposely abbreviated to protect proprietary and sensitive
is
security
Chapter
in
accommodate
When
store. Prior to
four to ten pallets
on an
these pallets were received, they
The new docks,
then, eliminate outside
Eureka Dist, #1
Chico Dist. #15
Reno Dist. "
#1^
Hawaii Dlst.f
#16
Sacramento Dist. #1?
Santa Rosa Dist. #2
N. Contra Costa Dist. #8
Marin Dist.
#3
Contra Costa Dist. #7
Richmond Distribution Center
Berkeley Dist. #^
San Leandro Milk Plant
•Hayward Dist. #5
Fremont Variety Warehouse
San Francisco Dist.
#9
Peninsiila Dist. #10
San Mateo Dist. #13
[
'
;
"**"-£.
San Jose Dist. #6
San Jose Dist. #11
Modesto Dist. #18
See Appendix A for
store locations listed:
by district.
Figure 3.2
Salinas Dist. #12
Distribution of Safeway Store Districts.
31
A
standard policy for
of merchandise
security
trailers
stored
important elements. They
parked
the
at
in the
compound
distribution
also enhances physical
This
center.
Only empty
2)
In trailer parking areas, trailers are parked end to end as
prevent doors from being opened.
3)
All loaded trailers not backed into loading docks are locked.
trailers are
Most emptv
trailers
easily obserVed
Damaged
trailers are
company owned
parked along the inside fence perimeter.
RDC
within the
is
receiving docks, the store
hotline
is
least
one
spotted at the
RDC,
pallet
They
either cathode ray tube
it
manager may report
based on checks and balances
is
is
corrected immediately.
a S250
on a dedicated hotline
Fremont Variety warehouse.
"cycle inventory"
repaired at
compound.
answered by an assistant manager
loading dock area.
earlier,
system and not simply on the intransit segment of the process
If a shortage
absence of at
as possible to
waiting to be loaded are stored such that they can be
taken out of service immediately and, as noted
facilities
built into the entire
14].
much
from one oflhe guard shacks.
Procedural security in the Safeway system
[Ref
four
are:
1)
4)
has
policy
at the
(CRT)
store
book value shortage or
RDC
and the
man
computer terminals near
floor
offices
manager
the
This
to the distribution center.
Both these individuals
also have
At
at the
overlooking
the
their desks that provide
A
display or printed copy of data base information.
program can be run
number of pallets awaiting
that calculates either:
delivery in the case of
RDC
"cycle inventories"
•
the
•
the number of cases of a particular item that should be in listed pallet rack
locations or on made-up pallets awaiting delivery in the case of Fremont
Variety "cycle inventories
.
Generally, shortages are resolved promptly by visual inspection of the loading area by
the warehouse manager.
printout
is
If this
does not resolve the problem, a "cycle inventory"
given to a floor supervisor and a prompt warehouse audit for the missing
pallet or case ensues.
Both visual inspections and spot inventories are made
policing of the
employees
warehouse by a team of
who may touch broken
continuously moving
among
janitors.
easier
by the continual
These men are the only authorized
cases of merchandise.
Even
selectors,
who
are
the racks, are prohibited from touching less than case
quantities of merchandise at the
RDC
faciUty.
Efforts by the crew of janitors in
maintaining warehouse cleanliness and order in the pallet racks greatly
facilitates
simple visual inspections and tends to minimize the need to perform a "cycle inventory"
for
many
reported shortages.
32
merchandise cannot be located, a copy of the hotline monitor's log
If missing
and copies of
all
of the hotline
shipment papen^^ork
sent to a security investigator within one
week
there are nine security investigators in the Northern
Presently,
call.
is
California division, investigators perform a close audit at both the receiving store and
the originating warehouse in an effort to resolve the discrepancy.
Approximately ten to twelve hotline
monitor. Over
80%
and warehouse
of those
personnel.
calls are resolved
calls
received per
are
week by
within one week by the hotline monitor
The remaining 20%
referred
are
to
an
investigator.
Investigators usually are able to resolve about half the cases referred to
week they have
the
to audit
shipment records. Virtually
resolved within two weeks and
referred to
warehouse managers
The
assisted
filed.
in
technology.
hotline monitor,
maintaining
a
for
Cases that are
high
still
all
unresolved by investigators are
management, and
level
of security
for
them within
hotline calls are completely
prompt adjudication. [Ref
RDC
the
14]
security investigators are all
local
delivery
shipments by
Relatively recent efforts to improve local delivery security include:
•
Installation of a new gate pass system at the RDC. Photo identification cards
with a magnetic strip have been issued to all employees of the distribution
center. These cards are used to gain access to the RT)C complex through a
series of unmanned gates around the perimeter. The system can be adjusted to
bar employees from entering the wrong gate or even the right gate at the wrong
time. Svstem cost is about 370.000 plus around SO. 45 per'card. Movements in
and out of the compound are recorded and daily printed output is reviewed by
security guards. [Ref 14]
•
Use of a computer based load planning program that issues an itemized store
invoice, and calculates the shipment's cube, weight, and book value greatly
helps dispatchers plan routinjgs. This same software package can also assist in
the scheduline and routing of shipments to minimize driver wait time. Also, as
mentioned earlier, this package can perform a perpetual inventorv allowing
prompt warehouse spot checks for missing pallets or even individual case/item
quantities
for
management,
[Ref 15: pp. 36-39] According
high value merchandise.
software cost is over S50,000. The exact price is held
to
as
confidential.
•
Tachographs
logs. Speed
in delivery truck
cabs provide independent verification of drivers'
measured on one graph and engine revolutions per minute
(RPMs) are measured on another. The RPM graph is so sensitive it can detect
movement in the trailer behind the cab. This feature greatly assists Safeway
[Ref 15: pp. 36-39] Both speed and RPM measuring
security investigators.
devices cost about S200 each. Blank forms can be purchased for around S25 per
is
100 graphs.
•
InstaQation of Rockwell International Tripmaster computers in tractor cabs.
This new system is being tried on an experimental basis bv the company to
provide management with more readable summaries of drivers trips fhan
provided by Tachograph wheels. Cab-mounted devices have been installed in
some of the trucks only within the last six months. They record movement and
store data on cassette "tapes which are removed at the completion of each trip
and sent to company headquarters for analysis. [Ref 14] The Tripmaster
computer cab device costs about S 1,000 itself Extractors needed to interpret
information collected by the cab device cost about SI, 000 for hand-held devices
or S3.000 for equipment that transfers data directly into an IBM personal
computer system.
33
The
of other security precautions taken at the
specific details
guard
systems,
rotation
and
schedules,
RDC
Personnel security at the
checks and balances described
Floor supervisors,
in
turn,
program
performed largely through the system of
is
work of
and
safety
comes from the employee's
workers often comes
C.
later
Each
new-
warehouse
in
peers.
Although supervisors
labor.
new workers
training period,
most
Reinforcement of points made by co-
in the
Safeway method of training than in
indoctrination.
LIQUOR BARN STORES
earlier.
Liquor Barns are a recently established chain of specialty shops
operated by Safeway Stores,
new Liquor
Barn, remodeling
Inc..
is
Safeway leases an empty grocery store to establish a
done, then the
new
store
is
stocked and opened. Stores
primarily case lots of alcoholic beverages to the public at discount prices. Bulk
purchasing by Safeway enables Liquor Barn stores to be competitive.
lot
selectors.
provided along with an explanation of the
is
from supervisors
method of more formalized
As noted
sell
among
This has proven to be better than a highly structured training
job.
due to the frequent turnover
NSCSD
and loaders check
janitors,
provide some training in personnel security during a
the
considered
given a two week apprenticeship to an experienced worker. During this
new
instruction
are
monitor the entire section of employees.
time, training in basic security
worker's
devices
Janitors maintain cleanliness and order
earlier.
the pallet racks, selectors monitor the
is
security
such as alarm
company.
confidential by the
employee
other
RDC
sales
are the major emphasis for the
individual bottles,
1.
stores,
and related sundry items are
Although case
of non-alcoholic beverages,
sales
also offered.
Delivery Procedures
Local delivery to the forty-three currently operated Liquor Barns
the Safeway
Fremont Variety warehouse.
of this distribution center.
warehouses at the
pilferable items.
RDC
in
ways
to
specifically
Variety has only one gate. Arrows in Figure 3.3
moved
to a
differs
from other company
enhance security of stored
Instead of two gates into the perimeter as at the
through the compound. Merchandise
warehouse or
is first
show
34
RDC, Fremont
the general flow of merchandise
received in the back of the building, then
pallet rack section as necessar>' to
the pallet racks.
from
Figure 3.3 shows the general configuration
The Fremont warehouse
several
starts
maintain stock
levels in
X
«
;
«
>. pt
< H
>. .>
> »
>.
ji.
>.
M. «,
o ».
» <
»«<
w
)«
.
<.
,»
^ v.H
.
>'.>'.^
»«.
»
.
>
>. »«•. Xu^i
>
)v
V. K>^ >
.
.
»'.>«
H' ^- >"' -*
' '«. '''
'
>'' '^'''
'.>V"0 i " ' '<^^ ^''1
'
Receiving
Section
Warehouse Section
(Bulk Stoittga Area, All Goods)
X
(heavy
mdse)
X
pallet
Rack
Sections
Cage
X
mdse)
\
Offlce-r
Loading
Bays
P> l
W<'V<
•«
<«
»
W WX
T«
»^'^ i l
rrt
"Supervisors
Repair
\
Selectors
move
A
compound.
operations, though,
s.-.*. *
,»
S<
•,«
Fremont Variety has
RDC,
yet has
m
*
^ m
-i
-
«!, «
<
i<
sl»«
V<
.«
-
K <
•>
W*
--*
O
l
I
IO.wl
through the warehouse using tow motors as
difierence
the larger
less
•
Fremont Variety Warehouse.
pallet loads
notable
is
Dispatch
I
Figure 3.3
RDC
(llf;ht
%
Security;
between the
number of
RDC
and Fremont Variety
supervisors present at
Fremont
more supervisors on the payroll [Ref
loads than
locations.
These
RDC
Variety.
than half the floor space of the grocery warehouse at the
16].
Loaders at the Fremont Variety warehouse must take greater care
trailer
at the
loaders.
Fremont Variety sends
in
forming
trailers to three basic
types of
are:
1)
directly
from Fremont Variety
2)
directly
from Fremont Variety
to a Liquor
to a
Bam
Store.
Safeway Store
in the old
San Francisco
district.
3)
indirectly to a Safeway store in the old
in Sacramento, California.
Sacramento
district via the
Transco
warehouse
Use
of the
discontinued
warehouse
Transco
when
as
an
intermediate
distribution
the present property lease expires and the
division infrastructure
is
better developed.
35
center
new Northern
will
be
California
Modification of the pallet identification tags used by the loaders
and documentation. Different color tags are
to ensure accuracy in local consolidation
used to indicate the type of merchandise on a particular
identification tag indicates a pallet's destination.
to protect
is
store
number on
the
Extra security precautions are taken
vital.
Trailer loading slips at the
Richmond.
as those in
six trailers a
day over a
one pallets with a
volume
[Ref
made up
are
Fremont Variety
is less.
An
day workweek.
maximum
Company poHcy
utilization rate.
five
Fremont Variety warehouse
the
Dispatch and bidding for loads by the drivers
virtually identical except that the
van.
A
pallet.
merchandise going through the Transco warehouse and Liquor Barns, so
correctly tagging pallets
way
necessary
is
average
trailer
same
also
is
ships about twenty-
load
is
twenty to twenty-
of twenty-two positions available in each forty-five foot
requires at least eighteen pallets be loaded for an
80%
cube
16]
Figure 3.4 shows the distribution of Liquor Barn Stores around the delivery
hub
in
Fremont, California. Appendix
assigned
C
lists
these stores and groups
them
in their
districts.
Security Measures
2.
Since the Fremont Variety warehouse stores only high value merchandise,
security
is
more important here than
at the
RDC
New
facility.
security systems
had
to
be installed to protect not only stored merchandise but also items shipped to stores via
the Transco warehouse for a second handling prior to final delivery.
Basic physical security
is
provided around the warehouse perimeter by chain
link fence with lighting arranged every 100 feet.
There
Fremont complex. Access gates opened by magnetic
All employees
installed.
containers on the
way
and
visitors
are asked to
is
only one entry point into the
strip identification cards are
open bags,
briefcases,
not
or sealed
out by the gate guard.
Security boxes are used to consolidate small items
on a
pallet.
These boxes are
approximately eighteen inches by eighteen inches by twenty-four inches in dimensions.
They
are gray,
pilferable
opaque
plastic
pressed on a metal frame.
Lids
snap on to shield
merchandise from view. Security boxes are mainly used to pack high value
items delivered to Safeway stores through the Transco warehouse. Very expensive
small, direct shipments to
are shrink
wrapped
Liquor Bams, however, are also sent via security box. Boxes
after the lid
is
snapped on as an added precaution. [Ref
36
16]
(2)
District #2^
District ^21
Fremont Variety Warehouse
*.
.
District #20
^pprox. store
locations
(2) . .Number of stores
See Appendix C for a contplett
listing of stores by-
Figure 3.4
^2)
Distribution of Liquor Barn Stores.
37
Shrink wrap
at
is
applied manually from rolls to roughly 90°'o of the pallets built
Fremont Variety warehouse.
used for both product safety and security. Since
It is
most of the higher value merchandise
is
in small cases, shrink
keep the individual cases on each pallet together
of opportunity
when
firmly.
exposed on open
partial cases are
wrap
is
necessary to
Shrink v^Tap also deters theft
pallets.
Procedural security over local delivery shipments from Fremont Variety to
Liquor Barns and Safeway stores
searches are performed at the end of each
encountered at Fremont Variety than
Fremont Variety
is
A
pilferage.
storage
row
location of this cage in the warehouse
pilferage because
RDC
The
complex.
likely to
ratio of
RDC,
day
be
shift
the ratio
is
16]
security cage has been built
sensitive to
more
Also, supervisors are
Fremont warehouse
in the
Richmond. Employee
one to each seven workers. At the
one to each twelve workers. [Ref
One
at the
at
Workers remain within the fence
shift.
perimeter during lunch periods and rest breaks.
supervisors at
from that
also different
is
is
around the
shown
considered the most sensitive to
is
cigarette shipment section.
The
in Figure 3.3. Cigarettes are especially
of the need to stamp each individual pack with the
Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms
(ATF)
tax stamp. This
is
done mechanically
at the far
During the process, though, some cartons and cases always remain
end of the cage.
unsealed at the end of a stamping cycle. Until they can be resealed, open cartons and
cases are segregated and shrink
wrapped away from the tax stamp and
pallet selection
areas within the cage.
Another
pallet rack section outside the security cage contains only
of bottled liquor. At each end of
selectors at a time are allowed to
this
section
is
Only twelve
a supervisor's station.
work between
open cases
the supervisors in this row. These
employees are closely monitored when picking stock and as with the workers
security cage, they are searched at the
As
to view
at the
RDC,
end of
same manner as
at the
their shift.
the entire loading area at the
from a centrally located supervisory
RDC
in the
Fremont warehouse
office. Trailer
loading
compound. Shipment paperwork
is
is
is
exposed
performed
also the same.
in the
At the
report of a shipment shortage, however, the procedures differ from those used to
deliver
RDC
Fremont
as
merchandise. Tracking by the computer
opposed
performed
to the perpetual inventory of pallets
Given the reporting threshold of S250 or one whole
it is
is
pallet
at the case level in
performed
at
Richmond.
needed to report a shortage,
necessary to be able to track cases of the high value merchandise and the pallets of
groceries.
38
On
Security investigators benefit from this better level of tracking.
average,
three hotline calls reporting missing merchandise are received each day during the five
day workweek
at
Fremont
The
Variety.
90%
monitor are able to resolve about
supervisors working with the
floor
local
of these using either visual inspection or
computer "cycle inventory" procedures. The remaining 10% of hotline
more through
to a security investigator for
study. This
Richmond
supervisor resolution rate experienced at the
is
calls are referred
better than the
[Ref
facility.
assisted tracking for case lot quantities,
alarm system
at the
floor
16]
Technological security in the Liquor Barn delivery process
computer
80%
is
composed of
sophisticated and confidential
a
Fremont Variety warehouse, and Tachograph/Tripmaster audit
actual delivery time control.
trails for
Personnel security
improved on
is
in the
most senior warehouse employees are allowed
to
Fremont Variety operation. Only the
work
bottled liquor section. Supervisor contact with workers
in the security cage area or the
is
frequent.
LONG'S DRUG STORES
D.
Long's Drug Stores California Inc.
stores affiliated with Long's
Drug
is
a California-based chain of retail drug
Stores, Inc. headquartered in
New
York. Presently,
the
company
operates 205 superstores in the Western United States and eighteen stores
in
Hawaii.
Long's,
merchandise in an
Safeway,
like
effort to reach a
Store managers have even
Liquor
outlets
15%
Bam
is
stores.
has
plunged heavily into
the
sale
broader market of consumers [Ref
17: p. 31].
more autonomy than those working
Approximately
85%
of general
for
Safeway or
of stocked merchandise at Long's
retail
ordered directly from suppliers by individual store managers. The remaining
represents nationally advertised sale merchandise bought in quantity by corporate
headquarters in Walnut Creek, California and delivered by a commercial trucking firm
under contract. [Ref
The purpose
for direct delivery
store
managers
stores
feature
18]
in allowing store
is
managers to order most of
their
own merchandise
explained by two major points of Long's business strategy. First,
tailor their
hunting
merchandise to appeal to
and
fishing
gear,
locales.
Northern
equipment, and Phoenix stores cater to retirees [Ref
For example, the Alaskan
California
17: p.
31].
outlets
push
ski
Second, stores are
operated as profit centers to reduce management overhead costs. This allows stores
more merchandising
chain operations.
flexibility
[Ref
and enhances
18]
39
their
customer appeal compared to other
10%
This strategy has proven effective in recent years. Long's saw a
profits
in
1985 which ended January 31,
fiscal
quarter profits were
were up
1.
5%
[Ref
though
flat,
1986.
rise
in
In the current year, second
for the entire first half of 1986
company
net profits
17: p. 31].
Delivery Procedures
The process
that begins the local delivery cycle starts with a planning meeting
month
held at corporate headquarters about one
About
advertising campaign.
managers and headquarters
store
fifty
before the start of a nationwide
Rough
items that will be purchased and nationally promoted.
quantities
and tentative delivery schedules are
individual store
managers plan
local
also
drawn up
staff
determine
estimates
at this
of item
meeting to help
promotional campaigns.
After this meeting, headquarters stafT arranges a supplier for the merchandise
and
notifies delivery contractors
of tentative plans. Ten days before the
national advertising campaign, final orders are due from
quantities
of the
the stores. These final
all
and delivery schedules are entered into a computer data base as soon as they
received
are
start
contractor
are
warehouse
to
Arrangements made
headquarters.
at
then
confirmed
can
stores
so
be
earlier
distribution
the
performed
in
with the local delivery
of merchandise
conjunction
through
the
appearance
with
of
advertisements.
Presently,
California
stores.
three
companies
used
are
Each company maintains
a
to
deliver
computer
merchandise
link,
to
to
Long's
Long's corporate
headquarters, a warehouse that functions as a distribution hub, and access to enough
trucks or a
common
carrier to
perform weekly
deliveries.
These companies and
their
deliver}' areas are:
•
LTL Enterprises— delivers from a warehouse in Hayv^'ard, California to about
85°o of Lone's stores. Deliveries are made from Bend, Oregon in the north to
Bakersfield, California in the south and Reno, Nevada in the east.
•
Weber SCJ-F-distributes merchandise to about 10% of the company's stores. A
hub is established in Anaheim, California that makes delivenes north to
Bakersfield, California, south to Oceanside, California, and east to San
Bernardino, California.
•
Weber SDW-deliwers to about 5% of Long's stores from a warehouse in San
Diego, California. Stores served are located^ in an area from Oceanside in the
north to San Ysidro in the south and east to Yuma, Arizona.
Hawaiian
stores
are
sent
delivered to the Port of
Oakland by
the store delivery contract.
shipments monthly.
containerized
LTL
merchandise
is
Enterprises under arrangements separate from
Merchandise
Hawaii by Matson Lines. [Ref
This
is
18]
40
containerized at the port and shipped to
Trucking companies performing delivery service for Long's Drug Stores lease
commercial warehouse space
California
space
LTL
the
is
for use as a distribution center.
A
Enterprises facility in Fremont.
v^rarehouses used
by
LTL and
largest of these in
total of 300,000 square feet of
LTL
required to handle the present volume of material
is
The
ships to stores. Since
other contractors change periodically to take advantage
of better leasing opportunities, no fixed plan
is
established for storage at warehousing
sites.
Merchandise
warehouses and
listed
Material
Creek.
contractor
to
and stored
in pallet racks for a few days while
Long's headquarters from the stores. These
final orders are
warehouse printer when ready so the contractor can make up
also transmitted to a
pallets. Store orders are
then consolidated in
delivered
is
telecommunicated to warehouses from Walnut
lists
palletized, sorted,
is
headquarters
Long's
on packing
final orders are arriving at
outgoing
by
ordered
made up of
case lots palletized and shrink-wrapped,
pickup by independent
trailers for
drivers.
Drivers delivering trailers contact the store receiving manager on arriving at a
store to obtain a signature denoting
trucking
company
since
soon as the delivery
empty
is
it
proof of
This signature
delivery.
shifts responsibility for
vital to the
is
shipment security to the
As
store.
accepted, the driver can depart with delivery paperwork and the
trailer.
Long's Drug Stores are distributed widely in California. Figure 3.5 shows the
LTL
location of districts located around the
listed
above are not shown
manner
as the
LTL
Figure
in
3.5.
Enterprises
They
A
is
in
Other hubs
Fremont.
Long's stores in the same
service
Enterprises warehouse operation.
stores, including stores outside California,
hub
complete
provided in Appendix
of
listing
D
company
for information.
Actual shipments from the warehouse to stores are closely monitored by the
manager.
redistribution
Any
discovered
shortages
telephone to an employee dedicated to monitor these
problems immediately with the delivery contractor.
liable for total
if
possible
in
redistribution
stock
book value of shipments,
among
redistribution
all
cases
when
they
it is
manager reroutes material
stores.
is
[Ref. 18]
Any
calls.
store
are
by
reported
She attempts to resolve any
Since the delivery contractor
is
in his best interest to correct discrepancies
discovered.
are
the
at
If
this
is
not
feasible,
as needed to balance the total
financial loss
the
amount of
bourne by Long's due to the need
for
investigated with a view towards claiming reimbursement from the
local delivery contractor.
41
Sacramento Dist.
#801
Delta Dlst,
#802
r"<— LTL Enterprlses-HayHard. GA
Bast Bay Diat,
#803
Central Dlst.
#805
;East lA Area #806
Arizona Dlst.;*
LA West Area #807
Dlst.
#810
';San
#808[
Dlegp
...
^
~
""""""
~ ~
:
"
Figure 3.5
Distribution of Long's
42
f
Drug Store
Districts.
2.
Security Measures
Due
management
contractor, Long's
local delivery
need to provide directly for physical
relieved of the
is
Trucking company's
security of local delivery shipments.
the
imposed on the
to the degree of financial accountability
facilities
bidding process and periodically after contract award to
are evaluated during
ascertain continued
adequacy of physical security measures provided.
The
essential element of Long's security
measures for
deliveries
is
the system
of procedures they use to enforce terms of their contract with trucking firms. Since ad
campaigns promote
a
changing variety of items, stock handled by contractors
is
merely
being collected from delivery vendors, consolidated after a brief storage period, then
shipped out to stores within about one week. The short amount of time material
is
actually in the hands of the deliver>' firm affords protection by itself since exposure
time of goods to pilferage or theft
As
delivered.
\^ith
This
minimized.
is
Safeway grocery distribution, only case
policy
simplifys
receiving,
reduces
the
lots
opportunity
contributes to tighter overall merchandise control. Use of shrink
and signature
of merchandise are
wrap
for
theft
and
to encase pallets
service for all deliveries further contribute to effective procedural security
of the system.
Technology
the form of computer software that compiles store orders,
in
consolidates information on packing
makes
for use also
lists,
and telecommunicates
this
list
a significant contribution to security of the Long's
local delivery system.
IBM
software
is
used to generate
lists
warehouses
to
Drug
that provide
Stores
warehouse
workers with quantities and an item name for each pallet in a store's shipment.
Management
is
necessary [Ref
management
able to access the data base to trace shipments at the case level
18].
since
This software
programs were
considered proprietary information by
is
tailored for their use
by a consulting
if
company
service.
Personnel security for shipments to stores involves one full-time employee
dedicated to monitoring a hotline from the stores used to report delivery discrepancies.
Since there
the job
is
no threshold
limit for reporting
done by the hotline monitor
importance of the monitor's job
campaigns, the company requires
hours.
Because of
has always been
policies.
[Ref
this
filled
is
is
and accountability
critical.
is
strictly
enforced,
Another factor that increases the
that due to the nature of Long's nationwide ad
all
discrepancies to be resolved within seventy-two
high degree of responsibility, the position of hotline monitor
by an experienced company employee trained
18]
43
in
company
SUMMARY OF SECURITY TECHNIQUES
E.
Commercial operations surveyed use
a product
security techniques to ensure safe deliver\' of
from the central distribution hub of
a district to individual stores.
Stages in
the flow of goods through the local delivery system are listed below followed by a
summary of security measures used by each commercial operation
•
studied.
Distribution Center Storage
Safeway: A lighted, guarded, and fenced perimeter surrounds the warehouse
complex. Equipment (trailers, docks) is designed to enhance security. Checks
and balances are built into the loading operation. Magnetic strip identification
cards and paper visitor passes augment the perimeter access list. Pallet racks are
carefully policed to
make
inventory' control easier.
Liquor Barn: A lighted, guarded, and fenced perimeter surrounds a single
warehouse. Searches are conducted at the gate. More sophisticated alarm
svstems are installed here than at the RDC. Security boxes and shrink wrap are
used extensively for both item safety and security. A high ratio of supervisors to
workers is provided. Less than case lot mercha'ndise is segregated. Operations
are overseen from a central observation point.
Long's:
•
The function
is
contracted out to a specialist
who
provides for security.
Local Delivery Transit
Safewav: Enclosed vans designed to company specifications are used to make all
local deliveries. All maintenance and repair of vehicles is performed in a
company controlled area. Trailers are locked in transit. Drivers are awarded
routes based on seniority. They are required to complete a detailed log for each
trip.
Cab mounted Ta'chographs provide a supervisory check on drivers.
Dispatching and routing is assisted by computer generated store invoices
efiectively representing a manifest of the shipment.
Liquor Bam: Intransit security measures to protect merchandise are essentially the
same as described for Safeway above. Additional seniority with the company,
though, is required to drive delivery' runs to Liquor Bams.
The function
Long's:
is
contracted out to a specialist
who
provides for intransit
local delivery security.
•
Discrepancy Investigation
telephone hotline monitored by the RDC manager's assistant provides
notification of trouble. A computer assisted "cycle inventory" procedure
allows quick inventories of pallet loads in the warehouse if visual inspection of
the loading area fails to disclose a lost pallet. A security investigator is readily
available to audit local delivery problems not resolved within one week.
Safeway:
A
prompt
Liquor Bam: Investigation procedures are basically the same as for Safeway delivery
discrepancies except that case lot rather than pallet "cycle inventories" provide a
better audit trail for investigation.
A
telephone hotline and computerized data base allow close supervision of
delivery contractor. Discrepancies are generally resolved within
seventy-two hours.
Long's:
"the
This
local
summary
presents only the key elements in the local delivery security plan
used by the systems discussed in
by
NSCSD
in its security
to determine
this chapter.
Some of
program. The next chapter
whether or not
it
would be
helpful for
security practices.
44
these measures are being used
will
compare system
NSCSD
to adopt
effectiveness
more of
these
IV.
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SYSTEMS
INTRODUCTION
A.
Costs have been used to measure
NSCSD
local delivery efficiency in past
NFS
theses by evaluating system performance in terms of resources used to perform local
delivery.
Stoner and Wankel offer a good definition of efficiency:
the ability to get things done correctly-is an "input-output"
manaaer is one who achieves outputs, or results, that
measure up to the inputs 0abor, materials, and time) used to achieve them.
Managers who are able to minimize the cost of the resources they use to attain
their goals are acting efficiently. [Ref 19: p. 9]
EflTiciency-that
An
concept.
Use of
is,
efficient
efficiency to evaluate systems
system or only one output
is
good
there
is
only one possible output of a
Simple systems that offer few options for
desired.
is
if
managers are best evaluated by measures of efficiency.
In systems where there
is
of performance. Effectiveness
choice
is
among
also defined
outputs, effectiveness
is
a better measure
by Stoner and Wankel:
the ability to choose appropriate objectives. An effective
selects the right things to get done.
manager who selects
an inappropriate objective-the production only of large cars when demand for
small cars is soaring--is an ineffective manager. Such a manager would be
ineffective even if the large cars were produced with maximum emciency. No
amount of efficiency can compensate for lack of effectiveness. [Ref 19: p. 9]
Effectiveness,
manager
is
...
is
A
one who
Since the goal of the
NSCSD
issued in a timely manner,
standard or goal.
is
is
to safely deliver material
discussed in this chapter.
of effectiveness
NAVSUP
system
objectives that contribute to this end are appropriate.
Achievement of these objectives
Measurement
local delivery
usually
is
performed
against
an
established
has established a delivery accuracy standard and two
performance goals for issue discrepancy reporting that measure the effectiveness of
local delivery security or objectives that contribute to
analyze current performance of the
that
of the
three
commercial
developed by Orr [Ref
delivery
1:
p.
NSCSD
operations
it.
These benchmarks are used to
system and compare
studied.
Also,
its
delivery
effectiveness to
time
standards
44] are used to evaluate transit time exposure of local
shipments to possible pilferage,
delivery.
45
theft,
or
other threat to
successful local
NSC SAN DIEGO SECURITY EFFECTIVENESS
B.
Determining a good indicator of efTectiveness for a system as complex as that
used by
NSCSD
is
not an easy task. For internal control purposes,
percentage based upon local delivery sampling
monthly quality
level
quality level of
NSCSD
issues
NSCSD
local delivery
sampled that are presumed
generates a
results.
calculated by determining the percentage of
is
have been safely delivered to a local
to
The
deliver>'
customer.
A
sample
is
taken by an inventory team in the building 3304A consolidation area
of items marked for local delivery. Errors noted by the team are divided by the number
of items sampled and multiplied by 100 for an error percentage.
material which
is
in the
wrong
location.
This error percentage
is
Errors are defined as
then subtracted from
100 to determine a quality level percentage. QuaUty level percentages are reported
monthly
to
higher authority with other
management of
statistics.
the local delivery function.
local
delivery
disclosed
how
are not used for internal
Table 4 presents recent data showing that
the local delivery system quality level exceeds the
Investigation into
They
99.0%
NAVSUP
standard.
sampling was performed to determine the quality
several weaknesses
in
technique.
Weaknesses
in
level for
sampling
procedures noted were:
•
Samples of local deliveries are taken in the customer bays of building 3304A
rather than in the customer's receiving area. Sampling service quality during the
transit from consolidation area to the customer is not performed.
•
Most, if not all, samples are taken after 7:30 am when the inventorv teams
arrive for work. Since local deliverv to fleet customers occurs primarily between
the hours of 3:00
to 5:00 am,' effectiveness in making these deliveries may
not be as fully audited as deliveries to shore customers which occur later.
am
•
is
checked. Paperwork with each item sampled is
checked only for its destination. If that destination matches that of the bay it
was found in, a correct delivery is recorded. Quantities present are not
systematically checked to ensure' that the right quantity ordered is being
Onlv location accuracy
delivered.
•
The number of samples taken is determined by manhours available to perform
work rather than being based on a percentage of total deliveries made to
customers. Rather than
standard workday.
Sampling the actual
deliveries in
bays as
is
fitting
delivery-
function
administrative burden on customers
perform
is
to
a
sample,
sampling
is
fit
to
a
considerably more costly than auditing
done under current sampling procedures. Getting feedback from
customers concerning actual receipt
require use of
workdays
more manpower by
"tailgate" audits of
the
of shipments would involve
placing
a
large
by way of a reporting requirement or would
NSCSD
Quality Assurance Branch (Code 80) to
shipments between the warehouse and consignee.
46
TABLE 4
NSCSD DELIVERY ACCURACY STATISTICS
Month
May
NAVSUP
Quality Level
Standard
1985
99.6
99.0
June 1985
99.9
99.0
July 1985
99.9
99.0
August 1985
99.9
99.0
September 1985
99.8
99.0
October 1985
99.8
99.0
November 1985
99.9
99.0
December 1985
99.6
99.0
January 1986
99.5
99.0
February 1986
99.8
99.0
March 1986
99.9
99.0
April 1986
99.9
99.0
May
99.9
99.0
1986
Placing samplers on different
to
compose
if
indicators
a
more complete
show
work
shifts
picture of local delivery quality
a decline in service quality or
higher quality sampling.
and conducting some
Presently,
may
more manpower
NSCSD management
"tailgate
"
audits
be done in the future
is
provided to perform
does not consider
it
cost
effective to
apply more resources to improve the quality assurance of local delivery
operations.
[Ref 20]
A
new
software package called
procedures for
string of
all
NSCSD
STATMAN
promises to develop better sampling
quality assurance statistical testing.
programs that provide inventory accuracy
statistics for
addition to providing a single measure of inventory accuracy,
sampling program that generates inventory accuracy
data base.
Adaptation of
this
STATMAN
Navy
way of compiling performance
future.
47
provides a
segments of the total
package to provide better sampHng of local
analysis promises to generate a better
a flexible
stock points. In
STATMAN
statistics for
is
deliveries for
indicators in the
ROD
1.
Data Analysis
To obtain
(ROD)
of local delivery effectiveness, report of discrepancy
data were collected for analysis at
means
the
a clearer picture
which
by
which
discrepancies
activities
can
be
may
NSCSD. The ROD,
report
attributed
shipper
to
and
packaging
Form
Standard
error.
364,
is
shipping-type
item
Shipping-type
item
discrepancies are defined as variations in the quantity or condition of goods from that
shown on
the authorized shipping
and preparing the material
pulling
document due
an error on the part of the
to
shipment [Ref
for
quantity or condition of goods from that
shown on
can also be used to report inadequate local delivery
When
(DOD)
shipment
a
is
Since variation in the
21: p. 1-1].
the shipping
caused by pilferage, damage, or theft occuring during the
form.
serviced
delivery
Since
ROD
all
security.
placed in the custody of the Department of Defense
(TDR)
NSCSD
local delivery
is
rather than a
performed in house rather than through
Customers submitting
must submit a
ROD
RODs
reporting discrepancies in a local
within fifteen days of receiving the material.
Information
form can be grouped into three broad categories:
General information including the name of the preparer, name of the shipper,
date the report was prepared, and whether the discrepancy reported involves a
shipping or packaging error.
Specific item information including the stock number, name, quantity and cost
involved as well as the nature of the discrepancy.
2)
Action information including a recommendation for disposition of damaged or
overage material, a request for expedited replacement for shorted items, or
other remarks pertaining to the discrepancy.
3)
example of the
form
ROD
input represents the proper method of reporting discrepancies for
commands.
ROD
1)
An
also be
transportation system and discrepancies occur that are the fault of the carrier,
a carrier,
on the
document can
deliver^' process, the
they are reportable on a Transportation Discrepancy Report
ROD
activity
is
shown.
ROD
report form
The other
side
is
shown
provides
discrepancy. Final disposition of the report
All
1053) office.
ROD
is
in
Appendix
feedback to
one of two GS-5 supply
clerks.
is
the
Only the front of the
command
reporting
a
explained on the back of the form.
reports arrive daily by mail at the
Data from each form
E.
entered into a
Customer Services Division (Code
Wang OIS
140 word processor by
Next, the supply clerk works with the Inventory
Reconciliation Branch (Code 553) or the Material Department's shipping and packing
sections
(Code 303)
complaint.
to determine validity of the report
If necessar\',
and resolve the customer's
one of the two Storage Divisions (Code 301/302) provides
information to complete action on the
ROD
48
form.
Monthly, and as required
Wang
generated by the
monitor trends, a
to
system. This
ROD
Tracking History List
contains the following information on
list
is
RODs
being researched currently by the supply clerks:
ROD
was received
•
Date the
•
Requisition document
•
Discrepancy type code
•
Date of any
•
Supply clerk working the
•
Cognizance symbol and stock number of the item
•
NSCSD
•
Dollar value involved
Information
page.
is
warehouse spot inventory
ROD
warehouse location code
coded on the
The report
is
Department (Code
analysis by
NSCSD
number of the shipment
list
with a legend provided at the top of the report's
distributed to the
300),
Customer Services
Officer
(Code
and the Aviation Department (Code 600)
first
105), Material
for review
and
management.
Unfortunately, the
Wang word
processor and
its
supporting software are only
capable of performing simple sorting of data. Statistical testing of
ROD
data
is
not
performed to determine the significance of apparent trends. The supply clerks dedicated
to processing
and tracking incoming RODs, while both enthusiastic and industrious,
have not been trained to perform higher
researching
the
RODs
that
arrive
level trend analysis.
They
are fully occupied
and tracking completion of spot inventories
performed by the Inventory Reconciliation Branch.
Since
billets
needed
perform any
to
expanded processing,
tracking,
or
reporting requirements have traditionally been provided by in-house reallocation of the
productive workforce, any
Improvements
in the
new program
Wang
to
Another report issued by
(NAVSUP
is
evaluated carefully.
software are being implemented gradually to improve the
tools available to the clerks presently tracking
Report
improve analysis
NSCSD
RODs.
quarterly
is
the Stock Point
Report 4440-97) which provides summary data on
ROD
Statistical
RODs
received,
rejected,
completed, and dollar values involved. Also reported are processing time
statistics
and numbers of
RODs
routinely routed internally as
to
fulfill
is
received by discrepancy type code.
the
ROD
Tracking History
a reporting requirement.
49
This report
List. It is sent to
is
not
NAVSUP
Analysis
NSCS
efiectiveness of
performance goals
A
from
of data
The number of validated
2)
At
90%
validated
ROD
liability for the
of
in
RODs
RODs < 0.1%
this
thesis
to
determine
has established the following
incoming to stock points [Ref
1)
least
used
is
NAVSUP
local delivery security.
RODs
for
report
this
21: p.
5]:
of issues.
received are processed on time.
defined as one accepted by the stock point for processing after
is
discrepancy
is
established as forty-five calender days from receipt of the
To determine how
ROD
acknowledged. The time standard for
close
NSCSD
is
ROD
[Ref
processing
is
21: p. 2-1].
to reaching these goals,
the following
information was needed:
number of NSCSD
1)
The
2)
The number of validated
3)
The processing time required
total
In collecting this information
needed to arrive
at
it
issues for each period evaluated.
RODs
accepted for processing.
became apparent
ROD
sample of
to complete a
that
some
forms.
filtering
of the data was
a meaningful net effectiveness ratio for assessing local delivery.
Gross effectiveness of the
entire issue process
measured by the
NAVSUP
performance
goal includes product quality deficiencies, shortcomings in product technical markings,
and other factors not
directly
related
to
of local delivery
analysis
comparative purposes, though, gross effectiveness figures
tables.
Data used
are presented in Table 5
and Table
will
also
security.
be provided in
6.
Issue totals were obtained from the Material Department for each
fiscal
was
year (FY) 1985 and for the
also used to calculate
first
to
ROD
FY
1986.
figure.
data reporting for
A
month of
total for
FY
Quarterly issue figures
FY
1986 changed from
issues
and Aviation Department
issues.
EUer and
Moore
NSCSD was delivered locally [Ref
accurate by NSCSD management [Ref
determined that 87.5% of material shipped by
54].
is
Since this ratio
is still
believed to be
used to reduce the number of issues in the net effectiveness ratios presented
Table 5 shows the issue data collected for
Total
NAVSUP
Military
1984
quarterly at the start of the fiscal year. All issue data includes both
Department
Material
months of
an average quarterly issue
were computed because comparable
monthly
nine
For
RODs
validated
(FMS)
8], it
later.
this analysis.
by processing were obtained from extracts of the
ROD data on
ROD contributes
4440-97 reports submitted. This report includes
Sales
2: p.
shipments.
While
evaluation of gross issue effectiveness, these
50
this
type
RODs
of
Foreign
toward
are not included in net effectiveness
TABLE 5
NSCSD ISSUE DATA
Total Issues
87.5%
0.1%
4th/ 84
360,616
315,539
361
1st/ 85
330,490
289,179
330
2nd/ 85
380,190
332,666
380
3rd/85
417,955
365,711
418
4th/ 85
420,220
367,693
420
1st/ 86
448,670
392,586
449
2nd/ 86
454,925
398,059
455
3rd/ 86
483,549
423,105
484
QtrIFY
TABLE 6
NSCSD ROD DATA
QtrIFY
Total
RODs
Net Effectiveness
RODs*
0.1% of Issues
4th/ 84
1,502
~
361
1st/ 85
1,300
771
330
2nd/ 85
1,152
614
380
3rd/85
1,069
533
418
4th/85
1,264
712
420
1st/ 86
980
577
449
2nd/86
1,092
742
455
3rd/86
1,802
967
484
*
Note: Codes counted were CI, Ml, SI, S2, and
51
Wl.
RODs
from
filtered
totals in
Table
6.
Also, only five of the twenty-seven discrepancy
code categories were chosen to represent valid indicators of strength or weakness in
local delivery security.
RODs
reporting the following types of discrepancies are considered good
indicators of local delivery security net effectiveness:
1)
Code C/"Material arrived in a condition other than that indicated on the
document (i.e., damage in transit).
release/receipt
2)
Code
.V//-- Material
wTong
arrived addressed to the
activity
(i.e.,
improperly
routed).
3)
Code S/--Material that arrived was
document (i.e.. shortage).
less
than the quantity printed on the
Code S2--Material that arrived was
less
than the quantity requested
receipt
4)
(i.e.,
possible shortage).
5)
Code
fl^7-- Material
warehouse
that
arrived
was
incorrect,
possible
(i.e.,
unauthorized
substitution).
Other categories not counted as contributing significantly to net effectiveness of local
delivery security are:
1)
2)
Condition of Material (Codes C2, C3)--expired shelf
post shipment.
Documentation (Codes
Supplv
illegible,
Dl,
D2,
life
and damaged parcel
D3)— documentation not
received,
or incomplete.
3)
Overage! Duplicate Shipments (Codes Ol, 02, 03)--excess quantities received.
4)
Packing Discrepancies (Codes PI, P2, P3, P4)--improper packing, preservation,
or marking noted.
5)
Product Quality Deficiencies (Code Ql)— applicable to Grant Aid and
shipments only.
6)
Shortage of Material (Code S3)"non-receipt of a parcel post shipment.
7)
Item Technical Data Markings (Codes Tl, T2, T3, T4, T5,
missing, illegible, or incomplete.
8)
Wrong Item (Code W2)— unacceptable
9)
Other Discrepancies (Code Zl)"Used to indicate remarks that provide only
feedback information to the shipper.
FMS
T6)— data markings
substitute.
These other categories of discrepancy, while indicating a problem
in issue effectiveness,
are not considered to be direct indicators for evaluating local delivery security.
Chapter
(NAVSL'PINST
1,
section
2
of
4440.179) contains a
the
Report
fuller description
categories. Table 6 presents net effectiveness
code analysis
compared
section
to total
of
RODs
NAVSUP
Discrepancy
of
RODs
52
all
Manual
discrepancy codes and
extracted from the discrepancy
4440-97 reports.
and 0.1% of issues, the
of
(ROD)
Net
NAVSUP
effectiveness
RODs
gross effectiveness goal.
are
For
ratios
later
comparison to data obtained from commercial
were calculated. They are presented
calculated by dividing quarterly total
shown
quarter
number of net
in
Table
5.
in
Table
5.
effectiveness
The
NAVSUP
in
Table
RODs
in
A net effectiveness
RODs in Table 6 by
goal
is
7.
The gross
firms, efiectiveness
efTectiveness ratio
was
Table 6 by the total issues for that
was computed by dividing the
ratio
87.5% of
a constant converted
total quarterly issues
from
shown
a percentage to a ratio.
TABLE 7
ROD/ISSUES EFFECTIVENESS RATIOS
Goal
Net
4th/ 84
0.0041651
—
1st/ 85
0.0039336
0.0026662
0.001
2nd/ 85
0.0030301
0.0018457
0.001
3rd/85
0.0025577
0.0014574
0.001
4th/ 85
0.0030079
0.0019364
0.001
1st/ 86
0.0021842
0.0014697
0.001
2nd/ 86
0.0024004
0.0018640
0.001
3rd/86
0.0037277
0.0022855
0.001
measure of effectiveness
for evaluating the
Although these
overall issue process
ratios presented.
•
NAVSUP
Gross
QtriFY
ratios offer a simple
and
Among
0.001
local delivery, there are several concerns associated with the
these are the following:
Lack of data segregation for only the local delivery function of the issue process
on approximation to calculate net effectiveness ratios.
forces reliance
NAVSUP
•
No
•
Since a significant amount of time and effort is required to complete a
form by tne customer, many discrepancies above the SlOO reportmg threshold
may go unreported by smaller commands (e.g., ships).
information is provided in the
instruction explaining the
derivation of performance efTectiveness goals and standards for RODs. Validity
of these goals, therefore, cannot be independently evaluated.
ROD
Despite these concerns which could form the basis of further study, these effectiveness
ratios are believed to be the best available
performance effectiveness of local delivery
measure of gross
security.
53
issue effectiveness
and
Testing was also performed to evaluate the timeliness of
compared
NAVSUP
to the
Table
forty-five days.
1,012 completed
RODs
RODs
completed
ROD
during
period.
this
90%
1986.
The
Each record included
these data along with other information to
were
MINITAB
on
input
NPS
the
provided a
sort
facilitate
mainframe
were calculated from
data manipulation.
computer
of
listing
date and a
receipt
a
ROD
processing completion date. Days taken to complete each
values
processed wthin one to
data were obtained from a sort of records covering
May, and June
April,
in
at least
processing
of an analysis performed on a sample of
8 presents the results
RODs.
completed
performance goal of
ROD
and
Resulting
analyzed
using
the
computing system.
statistical
TABLE 8
NSCSD PROCESSING TIME STATISTICS
RODs
completed
in
to 45 days
I
%
Shore
%
Ships
%
Other
944
93.3
661
95.0
198
90.4
85
87.6
65
6.4
34
4.9
19
8.7
12
12.4
3
0.3
1
0.1
2
0.9
All
46 to 90 days
91 to 120 days
%
-
Over 120 days
-
1012
Totals
Presentation
on the
statistics
[Ref
21],
only
was done
the
format prescribed
4440-97 report.
RODs
219
for
100
reporting
According to
98
100
processing
NAVSUP's
for the categories "Shore", "Ships",
processing than shore-based customers.
FMS
the
Many FMS RODs
arrive.
RODs become more
arriving
90%
and "Other"
form of
The category "Other" includes
shipment discrepancies reported on
period.
time
instruction
processed need be evaluated in relation to
Data breakdown
Army, Air Force, and
ROD
forms during the
from overseas are weeks or months old when they
difficult
to
process with age.
harder to perform than for afloat or shore
soon
100
to learn if fleet customers do, in fact, receive better service in the
ROD
faster
NAVSUP
total
performance goal.
follows
696
100
after discrepancies are noted.
54
command
Research, therefore,
is
reports which generally arrive
2.
LDIP Data
Analysis
Another measure of
involves the time used to perform elements of the function. This measure
NSCSD
Transportation
individual drivers [Ref
NSCSD
efTectiveness used to evaluate local delivery at
Division
who monitors
dispatcher
is
used by the
effectiveness
the
of
Standards developed for loading, transit to the local delivery
8].
customer, unloading, and total delivery time are compared periodically to current driver
performance. If significant deviation
noted, the driver
is
counselled.
is
The Local Delivery Individual Production (LDIP) report
is
used to generate
data for this measure of effectiveness. Appendix F shows a sample form. This daily trip
report
out by ever>' driver and spot checked by supervisors. Drivers also have
filled
is
times noted on the Daily Dispatching Record
the dispatcher in his office. This record
radio net.
The
record, however,
is
(NSC
4640/4- Rev. 12-85) maintained by
updated each time a driver reports on the
is
only used to monitor drivers during the duty day of
the dispatcher. His duty day usually spans the hours of 7:00
LDIP
are performed outside these hours the
NSCSD
LDIP
reports of
Wang
no longer uses a
dispatchers
or
into useable output [Ref
it
driver's
available, sampling
During a
commands were
only shore
and delivery
are
field trip to
runs
Reports generated by the
29].
p.
I:
justify
manhours spent entering
Only periodic audits of LDIP data by
8].
performed
currently
trends. Since
NSCSD,
When
pm.
used alone to monitor drivers.
to
determine
an automated data base
done to analyze effectiveness of individual
Data were analyzed
reports.
driver
no longer
is
drivers.
a total sample of 194 trip times
was taken from
to determine if items delivered locally to
shore
being effectively delivered in terms of the time standards presented by
[Ref
in 1983
is
supervisors
to 4:00
processor to provide monthly status
data as reported by Orr [Ref
effectiveness, efficiency,
Orr
Wang word
is
system were not found to be useful enough to
data and sorting
LDIP
report
am
1:
p. 44].
Since afioat
commands were sampled
commands
to provide
frequently change delivery location
comparative times.
been developed for local delivery to afloat customers.
Tables
9,
No
standards have
10,
11,
12,
and
13
present this comparison of current sample data with established standards.
In these tables, destination refers to one of the four principal local delivery
areas of the
NSCSD
The sample
size
for
system.
Each of these destinations
each destination
is
shown
comparison with the standard, mean times
rounded
to the nearest
the "St. Dev."
whole
column of each
integer.
for
in
is
the
serviced
from the
"N" column. To
55
hub.
facilitate
each destination sample have been
Standard deviation from the mean
table.
NCA
is
shown
in
TABLE 9
NSCSD LOAD TIME PERFORMANCE
N
Destination
NAS
North
Point
NAS
Mean
Dev
St.
Standard
96
58 min.
31.23
60 min.
Loma
72
71 min.
36.38
60 min.
Miramar
17
67 min.
28.11
60 min.
9
58 min.
24.62
60 min.
NRMC
Is.
Balboa
TABLE 10
NSCSD TRANSIT TIME PERFORMANCE
/
N
Destination
NAS
North
Point
NAS
Mean
St.
Dev
Standard
96
30 min.
18.32
23 min.
Loma
72
30 min.
7.79
30 min.
Miramar
17
33 min.
6.39
35 min.
9
22 min.
3.54
18 min.
NRMC
Is.
Balboa
TABLE 11
NSCSD UNLOADING TIME PERFORMANCE
N
Destination
NAS
North
Point
NAS
Mean
St.
Dev
Standard
96
34 min.
19.92
28 min.
Loma
72
35 min.
15.55
39 min.
Miramar
17
31 min.
12.19
37 min.
9
23 min.
9.68
23 min.
NRMC
Is.
Balboa
56
TABLE
12
NSCSD DRIVER DELAY AWAITING OFFLOAD
Destination
NAS
North
Point
Loma
NAS
Miramar
NRMC
Mean
A^
Is.
Balboa
St.
Dev
Standard
96
12 min.
12.57
17 min.
72
12 min.
18.48
28 min.
17
11 niin.
13.98
19 min.
9
14 min.
13.41
5 min.
TABLE 13
NSCSD TOTAL DRIVER DELIVERY TIME
Destination
NAS
North
Point
NAS
Mean
A^
St.
134 min.
46.98
128 min.
Loma
72
148 min.
48.10
157 min.
Miramar
17
143 min.
37.38
151 min.
7 min.
32.51
106 min.
Is.
Balboa
9
1 1
Comparison of current means with standard times
show
reflect
Standard
96
NRMC
13
Dev
that current
means
in
Tables
that actual transit times appear to var>' less
interesting to note
It is
from the mean than loading, unloading or
delay times in this sample. Large standard deviations in Tables
9,
11,
and 12 may
variance in support provided to drivers since others beside the driver are
involved in determining speed of these operations.
number of destinations sampled was
service shore
Loma, more runs
It is
also important to note that the
limited to the four primary delivery routes used to
commands. Since most
Island and Point
NRMC
and
are very close to standards. Large standard deviations
wide variabihty in the data times from means indicated.
reflect
9, 10, 11, 12,
serviced
are
made
Balboa.
57
commands
are located near
to these areas than to
NAS
NAS
North
Miramar
or
COMMERCIAL SECURITY EFFECTIVENESS
C.
make
Difierences in the local delivery systems studied
method
for
comparing effectiveness of
NSCSD
has
NAVSUP
used
generally
and commercial operations.
While
standards and goals to strive towards, no written standards are
commercial
in
NSCSD
difficult to arrive at a
it
systems.
Effectiveness
by
determined
is
overall
profitabihty of individual stores. Local delivery security contributes only partially to
store profitability.
Even
so, considerable attention
payed
is
destination so that proper control over merchandise
to the receiving function at
maintained and the elTectiveness
is
of local delivery security can be evaluated.
Since control over receiving at local delivery destinations
Navy
system,
there
is
some
of
degree
is
also stressed in the
between
comparability
NAVSUP
the
performance goals and commercial standards with respect to the percentage of material
shipped which actually arrives at
also
some comparability between
its
destination.
the ratio of
Taking
RODs
this a step further, there
to issues
and
is
a similar ratio that
can be calculated for commercial systems.
While no exact
parallel to the
ROD
exists in
commercial operations, hotline
calls
reporting shortages provide essentially similar feedback on the success or failure of the
system in delivering merchandise.
Managers of
monitored the average number of hotline
all
three commercial operations studied
per week as a key indicator of
calls received
delivery effectiveness.
An
estimate of material dispatched
is
management. While the Navy concept of an
moved from
of
trailers
the distribution
hub
to stores
also currently maintained
"issue"
not used, the number of pallets
is
can be calculated by multiplying the number
dispatched by the average cube utilization rate and then multiplying the
resulting product by a time factor to get the average
quarter.
L
by commercial
number of
These are assumed to equate to issues made by the
NSCSD
pallets
moved per
system.
Ratio Comparison
Table 14 shows the derivation of gross and net effectiveness ratios for the
three
commercial
operations
cognizant managers.
pallet
Only average
studied.
figures
were
available
from
Also, hotline calls could be reporting a shortage of at least one
of merchandise or a S250 dollar value shortage in the case of Safeway or Liquor
Barn. Long's managers
than the SlOO
limit
incoming feedback
may
used by
report any shortage.
NSCSD
to the system.
As
This
management.
is
the case with
58
is
a higher reporting threshold
Total hotline
RODs
calls
represent
all
used to provide feedback
NSCSD,
to
hotline calls are sometimes used simply to convey information that
As noted
urgent yet not directly related to local delivery security.
III,
most
Chapter
earlier in
Many
resolved within a very short period of time.
calls are
is
hotline calls
received simply represent an error in paperwork preparation that can be resolved by
the hotline monitor.
Hotline
calls referred to
an investigator showTi
second
in the
more
represent net reported discrepancies in shipment since these are
from
into
net
were discussed
figures
RDC
Safeway, the referral rate for
calls.
10%
The
of
rate for Liquor
is
sections
in
covering each operation.
discrepancies reported
about
is
20%
measures
also about
10%
The
in place.
of total hotline
For
of total hotline
Barn merchandise sent out from Fremont Variety
calls reflecting the tighter security
the Long's operation
likely to result
Percentages used to convert total feedback
pilferage than a simple clerical error.
numbers
of the table
line
about
is
rate of referral for
calls received.
Utilization of the twenty-six available pallet positions per trailer by Long's
Drug Store management
is less
than that of both Safeway and Liquor Bam.
on average
smaller size of Long's stores, less trailer space
of reducing their overall cube utilization rate [Ref
is
Due
to the
This has the effect
used.
18].
Discussion vnth managers of the three operations studied disclosed a variation
in pallets dispatched per quarter.
While
figures used in
seasonal variation occurs throughout the year.
pallets shipped for
Table 14
reflect current output,
Holidays cause significant increase in
both the Safeway and Liquor Barn operations. Increases
shipped from Long's warehouse occur at
random
intervals, too.
They
in pallets
are not, however,
necessarily linked to discrete events or circumstances. These "spikes" in the data are
smoothed out
in the averages
presented for
all
three commercial operations.
Table 15 compares gross effectiveness ratios for
NSCSD
with those calculated in Table 14 for commercial operations.
NSCSD
and commercial operations
difference
between
A
comparison for net effectiveness
similar
commercial flnns to be more
effective
applicable reports are filtered out of
ratios
than
ROD
is
operations
NSCSD
slightly
significantly
improvement of
ratios
exceed
may
exceeds
the
the
NSCSD
totals.
goal.
goal.
These
The data shows
little
in terms of gross elTectiveness.
presented in Table 16 which shows
Safeway operation comes closest to matching the
effectiveness.
presented in Table 7
once
It is
easily
interesting to note that the
NAVSUP
Both
resolved or non-
goal (O.OOl) of issue
Liquor
relative
Barn
standings
and
Long's
indicate
that
be possible by use of commercial techniques used by the
three operations studied.
59
TABLE
14
CALCULATION OF COMMERCIAL EFFECTIVENESS RATIOS
Safeway
Liquor Barn
Long's
Hotline Calls per Quarter
1.
Total (Average)
720
180
120
2.
Referred (Average)
144
18
12
6,480
1,560
1,560
80%
80%
70%
21
21
18
136,080
32,760
28,080
0.0052910
0.0054945
0.0042735
0.0010582
0.0005495
0.0004274
Average Trailers
Dispatched per Quarter
3.
Total
Cube
4.
Utilization Rate
Percentage
5. Pallet
Positions
Average
Pallets
Dispatched per Quarter
6.
Total
Gross EtTectiveness
7.
Ratios
Net Efiectiveness
8.
Ratios
Data Sources:
Line #1- -Company
Management
Line #2- -Line #1 X
Company
Line #3- -Company
Management
Line #4- -Company
Management
Line #5- -Line #4 X 26 total
Line #6- -Line #3 X Line #5
Line #7- -Line #1
Line #6
Line #8- -Line #2
Line #6
60
Referral Rate
pall(;t
positions per trailer
TABLE 15
COMPARISON OF GROSS EFFECTIVENESS RATIOS
QtrlFY
Safeway
Liquor Barn
Long's
NSCSD
4th/ 84
0.0052910
0.0054945
0.0042735
0.0041651
St/85
0.0052910
0.0054945
0.0042735
0.0039336
2nd/ 85
0.0052910
0.0054945
0.0042735
0.0030301
3rd/ 85
0.0052910
0.0054945
0.0042735
0.0025577
4th/ 85
0.0052910
0.0054945
0.0042735
0.0030079
86
0.0052910
0.0054945
0.0042735
0.0021842
2nd/ 86
0.0052910
0.0054945
0.0042735
0.0024004
3rd/ 86
0.0052910
0.0054945
0.0042735
0.0037277
1
1st/
TABLE 16
COMPARISON OF NET EFFECTIVENESS RATIOS
Safeway
Liquor Barn
Long's
NSCSD
0.0010582
0.0005495
0.0004274
0.0026662
2nd/85
0.0010582
0.0005495
0.0004274
0.0018457
3rd; 85
0.0010582
0.0005495
0.0004274
0.0014574
4th/85
0.0010582
0.0005495
0.0004274
0.0019364
1st/ 86
0.0010582
0.0005495
0.0004274
0.0014697
2nd/ 86
0.0010582
0.0005495
0.0004274
0.0018640
3rd/86
0.0010582
0.0005495
0.0004274
0.0022855
OtriFY
1st/
85
61
2.
Time Data Analysis
Several
comparative
were
tests
employs both government and
on time
performed
civilian drivers, effectiveness
data.
NSCSD
Since
of these two groups were
compared. Table 17 shows the results of testing sample variances for a data
194 observations.
commercial
Of
these,
(NAS) North
major customer concentration
Island,
with
103 were government employees and ninety-one were
Data were sampled from LDIP reports submitted by
drivers.
delivering to four of the
Station
set
NAS
drivers
These are Naval Air
areas.
Miramar, Naval Regional Medical Center
(NRMC)
Balboa and Point Loma.
TABLE 17
COMPARISON OF DRIVER MEAN TIMES
Significant
/
Government
Commercial
DilTerence
Meansl
Delivery Function
Driver
Loading
72 min.
54 min.
Yes
Transit
32 min.
27 min.
Yes
Unloading
32 min.
35 min.
Delay
14 min.
10 min.
No
No
26 min.
Yes
Total Time
Driver
150 min.
1
in
Note: Determination of significance made on the basis
An F
variance performed on the data.
variances with
It
a =
.025 in a
two
make more
to test inequality of
should be noted that government employees are on straight hourly salary
commercial drivers
is
was used
an analysis of
tailed test.
while commercial drivers are paid by the
incentive
statistic
Df
(
to
complete as
trip.
many
There
a strong incentive, therefore, for
trips as possible
missing for government employees.
trips in less
is
Though commercial
time, they cost approximately
30% more
drivers. Therefore, they are considered less efficient overall
NSCSD management
even though they appear to be more
62
within the workday. This
drivers tend to
than government
than government drivers by
effective.
[Ref
8]
Driver efTectiveness in minimizing exposure time of merchandise delivered by
commercial operations could not be
directly
compared
Both Safeway and Liquor Barn systems use
form used by the Navy.
A
shown
is
on enforcement of contract terms
management was
alternate testing procedure
performing local
deliveries.
was used
A
how
management has no
form data, an
efTective their drivers are in
delivery operation
tested to see if log entries
and compared
(RPM) graph
recorded on the Tachograph revolutions-per-minute
Data were
to motivate delivery
sample of seventy-six time observations was taken from
Fremont Variety
driver log forms for the
Long's Drug
F.
reluctant to release driver log
to determine
LDIP
to the
NSCSD.
time information comparable to information collected by
involved.
Appendix
in
to control driver performance. Consequently, Long's
Since Safeway
from NSCSD.
form similar
a drivers log
blank driver log form
Stores operation, however, relies
companies
to data obtained
to times
used for the
trips
matched Tachograph readings
to a
significant degree.
Two Tachograph
The graph recording
Again,
Tachograph device
if
is
shown
circle
the engine
time
is
is
is
indicated
so sensitive
it
graphs was performed
MINITAB
determine
the
that
if
statistical
the
on
a
movement
log times
means of the two samples
shown around
the outer
graph which measures engine
circle
of the graph.
in the trailer
on the
drivers' log
RPM
The
graph
forms to times indicated on
A
was performed on
t-test
drivers
reading for the time involved.
how
far
the data to
was equal with 95% confidence
tested could be considered equal with
Next, data were sorted to see
marked
sample of seventy-six observations using the
made by
mean of the matching Tachograph
are
16]
computing system.
mean of
RPM
is
around the outer
Comparison of times recorded on
RPM
tractor cabs.
all
Appendix G. Graduations
trip is the
records
not running. [Ref
in
of the wheel. Time
The other graph used on each
revolutions.
even
vehicle speed
on the inner
in miles-per-hour
circle.
graphs are mounted in devices installed in
The
95%
from a perfect match log
from times indicated by Tachograph interpretation.
A summary
test
to
showed
confidence.
entries
were
of these data
is
presented in Table 18 which shows a range of observations difiering from a perfect
match between
log
and Tachograph times
that
closely
approximates
a
normal
distribution.
Early times noted indicate that the driver logged a time earlier than that noted
by the
RPM
Tachograph. Matches
in times occurred
63
when
the time
on the
driver log
form was the same as that recorded on the
RPM
where the time recorded on the driver log was
Tachograph wheel. Late times
later
are
than the time indicated on the
Percentages are shown to more clearly show the closeness of these
Tachograph.
dilTerences to a perfect
match between logged times and Tachograph
times.
TABLE 18
COMPARISON OF LOG TO TACHOGRAPH DATA
Time
%
Observations
of Total
Early
>
15 min.
15 min.
2
3
10 min.
3
4
5 min.
16
21
14
18
5 min.
18
24
10 min.
14
18
15 min.
7
9
15 min.
2
3
76
100
Match
Late
>
Total
working with the
In
data,
only
one
significant
outlier
was noted.
An
observation of a log entry forty-five minutes later than the Tachograph showed
much
movement was
recorded. This
disparity sought
by an investigator
reporting
a
shipping
performance as
company has
well.
first
in the process of researching a referred
discrepancy.
Tachograph data has been very
variance in times would be the
Independent
verification
of driver
type of
hothne
logs
call
using
helpful in the past in detection of trends in driver
In cases where
it is
difficult to
access to experienced interpreters of
of former California Highway Patrol
officers.
64
read Tachograph information, the
Tachograph recordings
[Ref
16]
in the
person
V.
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
CONCLUSIONS
A.
NSCSD,
Despite the wide scope of operations at
location accuracy in their warehouses.
of a
new
they have an extremely high
Enhancement of physical
perimeter fence at the Broadway complex and
NCA
security by completion
and better access control
procedures have probably contributed towards improvement of inventory control.
Commercial operations
and access
also have fenced perimeters
distribution centers. In the case of Safeway operations at the
capabilities
present
identification cards.
than case
terminal
for
security
Use of shrink wrap and
lot quantities is
system
the
in
plastic security
restrictions for their
RDC,
there are further
of magnetic
use
strip
boxes to consoUdate
less
prevalent at the Liquor Barn storage hub. Long's avoids the
need to provide distribution center physical security entirely by contracting the
function out to another specialized firm.
While commercial operations use enclosed vans to make
primarily flat-bed trailers. Safeway vans used to
and Liquor Barn
outlets
make
deliveries,
NSCSD
uses
deUveries to both Safeway stores
were designed to company specifications.
Use of precision
docks at Safeway stores built since 1975 has also contributed to in-transit physical
security.
All maintainance and repairs for these vehicles
Augmentation of the
is
performed in-house.
data used to monitor driver performance
drivers' log
is
provided by Tachographs and Tripmaster devices mounted in Safeway vehicles. These
devices provide an added check
on the accuracy of
drivers' logs.
between times recorded on a sample of Tachograph wheels and
A
test
of correlation
drivers' logs
showed
that Tachographs do provide a reliable verification of times recorded in logs.
Commercial firms have an independent
to their delivery operations.
Long's
relies
delivery.
for
on
NSCSD
receipt
relies
Safeway and Liquor Barn use Tachograph devices while
clerk
inventories
on mail feedback
an assessment of overall dehvery
Commercial firms
faster.
verification of driver effectiveness built in
differ
from
conducted immediately
to a third party
at
the
point
of
(Customer Services Branch)
effectiveness.
NSCSD
by reporting delivery discrepancies much
In virtually every case, discrepancies are reported by phone on the day of
delivery or at least within seventy-two hours.
65
Navy
procedures, however, require mail
The present timeframes and
reporting with a fifteen day delay threshold.
mail reports
far
is
effective
less
evaluating
in
on
reliance
adequacy than telephone
security
monitoring.
Speed of discrepancy resolution
the
commercial
investigating
however,
is
Wang
the
systems
discrepancies
both
in
limited to sorting data entries.
system
presently
is
not
computer
availability of
delivery shipments greatly helps
maintaining
NSCSD
reported.
by the
also affected
Computer generated manifesting of local
assistance.
of
is
Wang word
of the
use
and
ertectiveness
deliver>'
all
in
processor,
Investigation of discrepancy reports using
or
feasible,
at
best
awkward and time
ver>'
consuming.
Delivery accuracy statistics at
However, procedures used
are not ideal.
NAVSUP
the
greater than
Analysis of
NSCSD
currently exceed the
for sampling local deliveries to evaluate
ROD
issues.
NSCSD
feedback indicates that
Though
this
standard.
system etTectiveness
has not yet reached
RODs
is
seems to be a problem, validity of the goal
is
goal for gross issue effectiveness since the
0.1% of
NAVSUP
number of
validated
questionable in light of the scope of supply center operations and the type of items
that
may
be reported on
RODs. The
data can be used, however, to calculate a measure
of effectiveness (net effectiveness) that can be compared to similar ratios calculated for
commercial
NSCSD
When
local delivery operations.
and commercial
firms,
effectiveness ratios, however,
NSCSD
gross effectiveness
has
a
better
shows that commercial
ratio.
is
compared between
Comparison of
local delivery operations
net
seem
to
be more effective.
Although
NSCSD
is
processing
RODs
within the time standard established, this
standard
is
extremely
industry.
A
shorter timeframe from discrepancy discovery to reporting results in
longer
than discrepancy resolution time allowed
control over the report process.
It
also improves chances for
in
private
more
prompt resolution and
identification of specific security problems.
The
shorter the transit/ deliver>' time, the less likely material will be exposed to
pilferage or loss enroute.
Analysis of
LDIP
data indicates
meet time standards established. Less variation
drivers have exclusive control over performance.
to
perform
a
function,
NSCSD
drivers generally
in time occurs during the transit
When
drivers are dependent
when
on others
such as loading or unloading, time variation widens. This
reinforces the need to reduce handling of material in transit as
66
much
as possible.
A
that
marked
use
between net efTectiveness
difTerence
of shrink wrap
consolidate
to
computer
verification of drivers' logs,
pallet
shown
ratios
in
Table 16 indicates
independent
enclosed vans,
loads,
prompter discrepancy reporting, and
assistance,
possibly other commercial techniques are working well to improve commercial net
effectiveness ratios.
B.
RECOMMENDATIONS
Improvements based on commercial practices can be applied
contributing towards
in the
NSCSD
warehouse area of
time material
technological,
in
is
local deliver^' security. Physical security, while excellent
NSCSD,
to
transit
and personnel
to all four factors
is
not comparable to commercial operations for the
delivery points.
security methods.
Differences also exist in procedural,
These differences are the source of ideas
NSCSD net effectiveness ratios.
NSCSD warehouses is excellent. Improvement
that have the potential to improve
Physical security at
made, however,
in protecting material
destination. Shrink
wrap and
plastic
between the warehouse and
boxes used
could be
local delivery
its
Fremont Variety warehouse
at the
could be used to reduce the vulnerability of goods delivered in small quantities.
Consolidation using shrink wrap, plastic boxes, or sealed triwalls would be useful in
preventing pilferage of
number of signatures
Use of Hesse
GSK
material delivered to the piers.
trailers to protect intransit
for
security
NSCSD
local deliver^' as
is
effectiveness ratio
shipments should be explored further.
the protection of enclosed vans used by commercial operations
and handling advantages present
improvement
could also reduce the
required for delivery of signature service materials.
They incorporate both
Procedural
It
in currently
methods
used flatbed
represent
the
largest
local delivery security overall.
category
result in the best
recommended
investigators.
availability
as
a
control
potential
to
for
deliveries
ROD
measure
because
of
the
audit
trail
they
provide
NSCSD
implementation of NISTARS/NAVADS programs.
67
is
sales representatives to ascertain
of suitable merchandise manifesting programs compatible with
until the full
net
service.
government-owned equipment
using
Contact could be made with software
hardware for use
perform
Using a contractor would require careful performance
monitoring with computer generated manifests to maintain quality
Use of manifests even
of
Use of a contractor
done by Long's Drug Stores could
possible.
trailers.
Telephone reporting of discrepancies
and other resources are available
is
to properly
also
recommended provided
monitor and follow up on
ceiling points
Use of
calls.
phone reporting should allow a broader segment of feedback and considerably improve
customer
service.
Reporting requirements currently do not generate meaningful feedback to
NSCSD
managers involved
command
to the reporting
A
Reports based on effectiveness
in local deliver^' operations.
made
of local deliver^' could be
simpler
rather than
if credit
for shortages could be given
new
system currently
in use. If this
tailored software
is
this
option
recommended
Technology involved
to
improve management reports.
NSCSD
should be improved by
in tractor cabs. Experts trained to read these devices
provide an independent audit
trail for
complement
their use.
and
These devices would
investigations should a major theft ever occur.
managers on a
assist
Wang
data base might be possible using the
in local deliver^' security at
Tachographs
would
data
not feasible, use of personal computers with
is
detect tampering should also be hired to
Also, they
ROD/ ISSUE
reporting formats which highlight local delivery problems.
Adaptation of new software for using
installation of
promptly
immediate superior.
its
better control system could probably be generated using the
base, perhaps using
all
daily basis in monitoring driver performance
objectively.
Application of improved procedural and technological security measures should
bring with
them concurrent improvement
personnel security.
is
Only employees with
significant
pilferable commodities.
A
seniority
should be allowed to handle the most
high supervisor to employee ratio should also be used as an
measure.
Achievement of technological security by
Although the
NAVADS
past slippages
1987,
NSCSD
are ongoing
is
if
NTSTARS
in the future.
is
due
NAVSUP's new
July
a
fully
Therefore, prompt implementation of
should be noted that efforts to improve
and part of
in
proposed.
a continuous process.
recently in improving inventory accuracy,
area
somewhere
have promoted pessimism towards the likelihood of
these recommendations
it
is still
software needed to fully implement
operational system being completed on schedule.
Finally,
Personnel security in
reinforced by procedures that promote segregation of duties.
commercial operations
effective control
in
direction
is
all
types of security at
Although the command has done well
more needs
to be
done
to be followed into the future.
68
NSCSD
in the local delivery
APPENDIX A
NORTHERN DIVISION SAFEWAY STORES
#/ Eureka
#2 Santa Rosa
Dist.
641 -Eureka
712-Eureka
715-McKinleyville
744-Ukiah
793-Arcata
954-Crescent City
965-Wimts
975-Fortuna
978-Ft. Bragg
983-Lakeporf
Dist.
600-Oakland
613-Berkeley
638-Oakland
654-Oakland
669-Oakland
676-Albanv
677-Oaklahd
687-Oakland
732-Napa
762-St. Tielena
780-Santa Rosa
796-Petaluma
966-San Pablo
Dist.
1 13-Tracy
697- Walnut Creek
701 -Walnut Creek
722-San Ramon
738-Pleasanton
783-Lafayette
910-Livermore
9 17- Walnut Creek
936- Walnut Creek
318-Corte Madera
509-San Francisco
558-San Francisco
592-San Francisco
637-Larkspur
653-San Kafael
661 -Mill Valley
711-San Francisco
950-Guerneville
956-Santa Rosa
78 8- Mill Vallev
932-San Rafael
998-Healdsburg
979-Novato
4600-Tiburon
4601 -San Francisco
#5 Hayward
#(5 E.
Dist.
San Jose
Dist.
309-Fremont
315-San Leandro
582-Alameda
312-San Jose
313-Sunnyvale
526-Santa Clara
664-Hav'U'ard
698-Milpitas
699-Santa Clara
700-Santa Clara
746- Sunnyvale
763-Santa Clara
767-San Jose
929-San Jose
987-San Jose
988-San Jose
3012-San Jose
3016-San Jose
3018-San Jose
79 7- H award
926- Richmond
Dist.
723-San Anselmo
729-Novato
785-San Francisco
925-Lnion City
942-Xewark
951 -Alameda
971 -Ha ward
993-Fremont
994-San Leandro
908-Oakland
921-San Pablo
#5 Marin
918-Rohnert Park
933-Sebastopol
670-San Leandro
768-Castro Valley
790-San Leandro
691 -Berkeley
751 -El Cerrito
#7 Contra Costa
568-Santa Rosa
7l3-Santa Rosa
728-Santa Rosa
911-Sonoma
913-Napa
984-Clearlake
#4 Berkeley
Dist.
#<9
N. Contra Costa Dist.
239-Vacaville
261 -Fairfield
595-Concord
714-Pinole
756-Vallejo
774-Benicia
902-Pleasant Hill
928-Pleasant Hill
931-Concord
962-Alamo
935-Pittsburg
967-Orinda
9 39- Martinez
969-Moraga
982-San R'amon
955-Concord
4603-Danville
9 72- Martinez
968-Vallejo
976-Rodeo
989-Vallejo
69
#9 San Francisco
507-San
667-San
683-San
739-San
759-San
773-San
909-San
964-San
985-San
995-San
Dist,
Francisco
Francisco
Francisco
Francisco
Francisco
Francisco
Francisco
Francisco
Francisco
Francisco
#/0 Peninsula
#// San Jose
Dist.
Dist.
#/2 Salinas
Dist.
609-San Carlos
311-Gilrov
300-Scotts Vallev
618-Millbrae
612-Los Altos
663-San Jose
673-Campbell
695-San Jose
709-Menlo Park
716-San Jose
737-Los Altos
741-San Jose
742-Los Gatos
771-Los Altos
915-Los Gatos
919-Saratoga
465-VIonterev
636-Santa Cruz
640-Aptos
639-San Mateo
668 Belmont
682 Palo Alto
694-San Mateo
705-Mt. View
708- Foster Citv
747- Redwood City
776-Belmont
781-Mt. View
948-Burlineame
970-San Vfateo
3021-Mt. View
3022-Palo Alto
679-Salinas
706-Carmel
719-Marina
724-Kin2 City
749-Carmel
Grove
761 -Pacific
786-Felton
799-Santa Cruz
904-Soquel
922-Salinas
953- Monterey
986-Morean Hill
990-MenTo Park
997-San Jose
#/i N. San Mateo
Dist.
§14 Reno
#15 Chico
Dist.
Dist.
304-Pacirica
102-Susanville
308-Half Moon Bay
310-San Francisco
659-Dalv Citv
177- Redding
147-Kings Beach
157-Roundhill. Nev.
160- Lovelock, Nev.
167-Fallon, Nev.
178-Burney
180-Chico
765-So. "San Fran.
777-So. San Fran.
784-Pacifica
3008-Pacirica
3023-Dalv Citv
3027-So. "San Fran.
303 1-Daly City
#/6 Hawaii
Dist.
201-Honolulu
203-Honolulu
204-Honolulu
170-So. Lake
Tahoe
181-Truckee
184-Reno, Nev.
245-Reno. Nev.
247-Carson City, Nev.
255-Hawthorne, Nev.
258-Tahoe City, Nev.
260-Sparks, Nev.
262-Quincy
#/7 Sacramento
Dist.
Ill -Grass Valley
193- Yuba City
231 -Willows
232-Oroville
252-Enterprise
256-Chico
273-Anderson
287-Gridlev
295-Cornirig
302-Paradise
540- Redding
#/5 Modesto
Dist.
159-Stockton
171-Pollock Pines
175-Sonora
179-Fresno
207-Kaneohe
141-Carmichael
155-N. Sacramento
169-Davis
190-Sacramento
208-Kailua
235-Aubum
211-Honolulu
220-Maui
242-Sacramento
244-Grass Valley
251 -Sacramento
263-Sacramento
269-W. Sacramento
221-Hilo
282-Woodland
278-Placer
286-Rocklin
301 -Davis
293-Cameron Park
205-Kailua
214-Aiea
215-Honolulu
21S-Mililani
183-Altaville
186-Turlock
234-Selma
236-Stockton
241-Clovis
259-Manteca
265-Fresno
279-Jackson
523-Stockton
536-Lodi
545-Fresno
70
APPENDIX B
RDC VISITOR PASS
The pass used
visitors to the
at
complex
Safeway 's Richmond Distribution Center (RDC) to
is
printed on paper with adhesive backing.
The adhesive used
These passes are
enables visitors to attach the pass to outer clothing for brief periods.
bought
in five different colors.
guard supervisor.
Each day
a different color
All persons entering the
RDC
is
chosen
identify
random by
at
the
perimeter must either have one of
these passes or a magnetic strip/photo identification pass issued only to employees.
The paper
RDC
visitor pass
log at one of the
RDC
two entry
has a control number that
gates.
At any
is
entered in the visitor control
particular time,
an audit of
can be conducted by guard supervisors. Though inexpensive,
elTective in
this
visitors to the
pass has proved
maintaining visitor control and providing an additional security precaution.
SPEED LIMIT 14
V2
VISITOR 46028
MAINGATE
71
MPH
APPENDIX C
LIQUOR BARN STORES
Dist.
#20
Dist.
200 1-Dalv City
2002-San Jose
2024-San Jose
2035-Pacific
Grove
2036-Sanla Cruz
203 7-.Mt. View
2044-Santa Clara
2045-Milpitas
2046-Red\vood City
2063-San Jose
2068-Salinas
2100-San Jose
2101-CampbeU
2139-Mt. View
#21
Dist.
2008 Alameda
#24
2032-San Rafael
2048-Antioch
2049- Fresno
2052-Fresno
2053-Sacramento
2054-Citrus Heights
2055-Sacramento
2057-Modesto
2073-Reddin2
2009-Fremont
2023-San Francisco
2026-Walnut Creek
2029-San Francisco
2031 -Castro Valley
2034-Albanv
2038-Ha\-ward
2074-Saii Pablo
2075-San Leandro
2i02-Orinda
2138-Dublin
2163-Fremont
2099-Yuba City
21 12- Fairfield
2118-Napa
2130-So. Lake Tahoe
2 168- Lafayette
2161-Vallejo
2140-Sunnvvale
Note: Liquor Barn Stores are grouped in
and store numbers.
district
72
districts that
are
numbered with Safeway
APPENDIX D
LONG'S DRUG STORES CALIFORNIA,
Sacramento
INC.
j^800 Northern Dist.
#<S0/
32-Novato
36-San Anselmo
86-Carmichael
27-Modesto
93-Citrus Heights
47-Chico
48-Lodi
100-Sacramenlo
101 -Sacramento
105-Sacramento
146-Carson City,
3 8- Fairfield
39-Santa Rosa
40-San Rafael
58-Santa Rosa
65-Eureka
99-Ukiah
103-Anchorage,
AK
lll-Vallejo
OR
152-Sonoma
157-Anchorage,
163-Petaluma
AK
#802 Delta
Dist.
54- Merced
NV
150-Auburn
96-Vacaville
144-Bend,
Dist.
68-Marvsville
81-Reddin?
109-Stockton
155-Grass Valley
168-Reno, NV
170-Sparks, NV
174-Truckee
175-Sacramento
177-Reno, NV
178-Sparks, NV
118-Turlock
142-Davis
147-Stockton
184-Placerville
207-Manteca
208-Sonora
NV
158-Oroville
171-Modesto
180- Woodland
187-Tracv
214-Napa
191-Reno,
218-Sebastopol
219-Greenbrae
193-Rancno Cordova
223-Ceres
233-Jackson
243-Lodi
it804 Peninsula Dist.
#505 Central
44-San iMateo
46-Daly City
06-Fresno
14-Fresno
22-Fresno
U803 East Bay
Dist.
02-El Cerrito
03-Fremont
05-Alameda
07-Oakland
11
-San Pablo
24-Oakland
26-Concord
30-Pinole
37-Ha\'\vard
42-Walnut Creek
49-Fremont
53-Haward
Leandro
64-Livermore
72-Antioch
56-Sari
77-Danville
87-San Leandro
94- Walnut Creek
106-Concord
179-Pleasant HiU
66-Mountain View
67-Redwood City
Dist.
28-Visalia
33-Santa Cruz
70- Sunnyvale
75-Santa Clara
35-Salinas
82-Campbell
84-San Bruno
85-San Jose
88-San Jose
89-Burlingame
91-San Jose
108-San Jose
113-San Mateo
114-Cupertino
41-Fresno
45-Capitola
51-Carmel
59-Fresno
76-Watsonville
115-Saratoga
161-Milpitas
169-Gilrov
172-San Carlos
192-Sunnyvale
198-Sunnvvale
78-Clovis
79-Monterey
107-Hanford
141-Porterville
149-Fresno
159-Madera
181 -Tulare
186-Salinas
197-Scotts Valley
200-Bakersfield
204-Bakersfield
203-Morajga
211-San Kamon
212-Mor2an
230-Pittsburg
216-HairMoon Bay
205-Fresno
Leandro
234- Fremont
229-San Jose
209-Visalia
215-Bakersfield
239-Bakersfield
2 3 2- San
Hill
245-Foster Citv
73
LA West Area
#506 East LA Area
#(507
16- West Covina
31 -San Bernardino
09-Buena Park
34-San Bernardino
71-West Covina
73-Hemet
83-Palm Springs
119-UplanU
153-Rancho Mirage
166-Glendora
183-Hemet
196-Redlands
224-Moreno
15-Fullerton
50-Rolling Hills Estates
61-Tarzana
98-Santa Maria
102-Santa Barbara
Dist.
04-San Diego
10-San Diego
12-San Diego
13-Encinitas
18-El Cajon
112-Hacienda Heights
140-Camarillo
156-Goleta
165-Lancaster
194- Valencia
195-Simi Valley
201-Costa Mesa
19-La Mesa
55-Chula Vista
63-Oceanside
69-Escondido
74-National Citv
80-San Dieeo
90-El Centfo
95-El Cajon
97-San \sidro
217-Lompoc
143-Calexico
221-Thousand Oaks
222-San Luis Obispo
236- Ventura
241 -Thousand Oaks
145- Yuma,
242-Mission Viejo
240-Chula Vista
no-La Habra
246-Laguna
#509 Hawaii
U808 San Diego
190-Poway
Hills
miO
Dist.
Arizona Dist.
117-SunCity. AZ
148-Mesa, Al
20-Honolulu
21-Honolulu
23-Honolulu
25-Honolulu
AZ
AZ
167-Phoenix, AZ
173-Mesa, AZ
176-Tucson, AZ
182-Phoenix. AZ
188-Flagstaft. AZ
199-Prescott, AZ
206-Tucson, AZ
210-Chandler^AZ
213-Mesa. \i
220-Colorado Springs, CO
225-Sierra Vista, AZ
226-Fort Collins, CO
228-Tucson, AZ
231-Colorado Springs, CO
235-Phoenix, AZ
238-Glenwood Springs, CO
244-Tucson, AZ
151-Phoenix.
160-Scottsdale,
29-Pearl City
52-Hilo
57-Honolulu
60-Maui. Kahului Mall
62-Kaneohe
92-Aiea
104-Kailua
1 16-Honolulu
164-Honolulu
185-Honolulu
189-Lihue. Kauai
202-Mililani Towti
227-HiIo
237-Lahaina, Maui
74
AZ
154-San Diego
162-La Mesa
APPENDIX E
ROD FORM (NAVSUP FORM
REPORT OF DISCREPANCY (ROD)
TO (Namt
3.
and addrtu.
SMIPPEB*S
5*.
SMIPPEB-S
7».
DATE OF PREPARATION
4.
FROM
2.
REPORT NUMBER
Q^ PACKAGING
SHIPPING
1
1
1.
364)
iitclud*
ZIP Codtl
NAME
SO.
NUMBER ANO OATE OF
S.
NUMBER
(PunHas*
7b.
OFFICE ADMINISTERING CONTRACT
TRANSPORTATION DOCUMENT
NUMBER
INVOICE
Ord«r/SAfpm*nr. Contract,
8.
(Cm..
NSK/PART NUMBER AND
Rtqunt.
QUAN-
Id)
TOTAL
TITY
UNIT
PRICE
(al
Ibl
(c)
COST
etc.)
(Rtqut-
ete.l
DISCREPANCY DATA
10.
QUANTITY
RECEIVED
(cl
(bl
(al
TCS.
vraybilt.
REQUISITIONER-S NUMBER
»ttlon. Pxirchatt
€te.l
SHIPMENT BILLING AND RECEIPT DATA
UNIT
QUANTITY
SHIPPED/
OF
NOMENCLATURE
ISSUE
BILLED
9,
(Namt and addmt. includ* ZIP Codtl
It,
AC-*
CODE^
HON
CODE
Idl
-
REMAAKS
12.
fConrtniM on
MporvU
cii««(
1
of t>ap«T
— In condition otntr tnan that
reiajM/racaiot document
— £xDir*d sntif iif*
C2
C3
indlcatttd
—
0«ma9«<i Mrcel cost tniomant
—
—
—
Not recaiv«d
on
SUPPLV DOCUMENTATION
01
02
3
iil«9lbi« or
— Qujnttty
ment
in
•xcm of
53
tnat
on
r*c«*pt docu-
02— Quanttty
tn VHcau of th«t r«qu«it«d iOtH^r
than untt of iMiM fMcA)
dupilcatct tntpmcnt
03 — Qujntny
PACKING DISCRCPANCY
PI — tm proof prufvtton
P2
P3
P4
13.
—
—
—
2ACTI0N COOES
PRODUCT QUALITY DEFICIENCIES
Ql ^-0«flct«nt matarial (Appticabi* to Grant Aid
and FMS ihipmrnta oniyf
SHORTAGE OF MATERIAL
51 — Quantity i*u th«n tnat on racalot document
52
mutilatad
incomoi«t» tmoroow or witnout lutnorlty
(Only when ree€tpt cannot 6« properly
procetfdt
MISDIRECTED MATERIAL
Ml — AOdressM to wrong jctlvtty
OVERAGE/DUPLICATE SHIPMENTS
Ol
n«coMry>
DISCREPANCY CODES
CONDITION OF MATERIAL
CI
\{
imofOp«r OKMtnf
ifnoroo«r marMirtf
imoropar unitizatten
— Quantity t«u that tnat r»aua>t«d (OtH^
untt of laaits pocitt
— Non-facatot of oarcal oott sniomants
ITEM TECHNICAL DATA MARKINGS
Ptat€t.
th«n
ID—
Samg
Log Book*. Op^rmting Handbook*. Special
IE
—
Inatructtons. *tc.)
Tl — Minjnq
T2 — iiaqlbia or mutllatad
T3 — Pfacautionary ooaratlonal marklnqs missinq
T4 — infpactlon data miujn^ or incompiata
TS — Sarvicaaoiilty ooaratinq data mluinq or
I
com
(Hat*
T( — Warranty data mttsinq
WRONQ ITEM (Idantify r^^umatad
taparata copy in Itam 9 abovaf
Wl — incorract ttam racaiwad
W2 — UnaccaptaDia suottituta
in
itam at a
OTHER DISCREPANCIES
Zl — Saa ramartct
—
—
IH —
IZ —
IF
IQ
OlftOoUtlon Inctructloni ra-
quastad (Rapty on rwvartm)
Matariai Datnq ratalnao (Saa
ramarkat
Supporting supply documantation raquastad
Malarial still raqulrad aMp«dlt«
snipmant (Sot appticabla to
(FMS>
Local ourcnaM matariai to D«
raturnad at suppllar's axpansa
uniau dispofttlon mnructiont
to tna contrary ara racaivad
witnin 15 day* (Raply on rauanat (Not appltcabla to FMS)
Rapiacamant sniomant raauaatad
(Not appiicabim to FMS)
Rasniomant not raqulrad. ttam
to D« f a-r aa uisJt onad.
No action raauirad. information
only
Othar action raquattad (Saa
ramarkaf
I
FUNOINO ANO ACCOUNTING DATA
14a. TYPED OR PRINTED NAME, TITLE. AND PHONE NUMBER OF PREPARING OFFICIAL
15.
{i.4..
—
IB —
IC —
lA
140.
SIGNATURE
DISTRIBUTION ADDRESSEES FOR COPIES
754O.-O0-lS»-4442
(Pnvfoua oditian
la otmolete.)
STANOARO FORM
Prascribad Dy
75
3*4 (RCV. 2-90)
GSA FPMR
101-26.4
APPENDIX
LDIP
LOCM. tmsfwmr moffWUM. mooucrwrn
F
FORM
mwvn
h-
n
otrnMATKjM
1
r».-»mr
4—
UiiMi^
>><
r-r-
^
Ki
-,:?!
^Jmi
}^:a
^
£jfi
—ITTM
^^'
-MIfTf
IMAS.
IT'UAT
J
76
APPENDIX G
SAFEWAY DRIVER'S LOG FORM
AM NQQM PM
00010100 0300 0300 0400 0500
wo
IN
MAMGATf
LOCATtOa co««*
'
aiCMMONO
C
4
UtCK PUkMT
5
S
EUREKA
'
FIXTURE
CE CREAM ^JW*T
0«OO
0900 1000 1100 1200 1300 lAOO
*
*0M»«8nUTlO«
P <>€R30**AL
9
BACKHAUL 6000
« SAFEWAT
C COFFEE
0Rrvw*O
£
1
06OO 0700
EOUlPMCNTNOTAVAiLABU
G GAAAG£
H iNHAUL aooo
L LAYOVER
U WEAL
t
MIL>t
WAREHOUSE
I
MIXED lOAO
VARO
5001
SOOe LAtTONVILLE
5002
5003
5004
W09 STOCKTON
I
5010
2400
FRESNO
501'
5ai2
5<00 4rM4jACXSON
aao< 8EV fxjMT
N f<ON-Foooe
WI«C
P
WIOOOCE
I
FIXTURES
a
BACKHAUL RECORD
INHAUL
DRIVER
a BACKHAUL
_ TRAILER NO
RATE
P O. NO.
,
OEUTO
REGULAR
2000 2100 2200 2300
(nCHUOND
FBEMOWT
SACRAMENTO
SANLEANORO
W04 C OAKLAND
SOOe EUREKA
UOr FIXTURES -0AM
w MEAr
X
r
1«00 1700 ISOO 1900
P =n02EN
G GROCEAfES
oursiOE tbk
U uNASSiGMEO
Mr
SOO
a BREAO
C iCEC«eAM
mK
S STOflE
r
I
.
_
OVERTIME .
TOTAL
MRS. WAIT TO LOAD
HRS. WAIT TO UNLOAD,
OFF ROUTE MILES
t'5 LOG OP TpiP
onr
IF DELAYED 30 MIN.
OR MORE AT PICK UP
POINT CALL DIS-
SIGNATURE OF RECEIVER _
PALLET EXCHANOES
Hart-
So»T-
<MMM
WAIT TIME TO BE
CLUDED
HOURS.
IN
IN-
TOTAL
I
VENDOR SIGNATURE VERIFIES RECEIPT
PATCHER.
0«Mr
T«*
OF PALLETS
vENOOnS SISNATURE
HAULED TO
VENDOR
X
RECEIVED
BY
M° '!2*'7?;o
SAFEWAV
77
APPENDIX H
TACHOGRAPH SPEEDOMETER GRAPH
-mr^-rr
/k'-/
r-i
I
I
y/
/
;
'''
'''
'
'
/
''
'''/-»
-''K'"'
'
\
'"<
\j '\\\
^^"A
>
i^*£°?::::i;'V'^,
78
\
\
\
\\':\'\-
LIST
1.
OF REFERENCES
Orr, William D., Estimation of the Local Delivery Costs at Naval Supply Center
San Diego. California, Masters Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, Vionterey,
CA, June 1983.
M. and Moore, Robert T., An Analysis of Material Distribution
San Dieeo to Local Customers, Masters Thesis, Naval Postgraduate
School, Monterey, tIA, September 1981.
Filer, JefTrey
from
3.
4.
NSC
Flohr, Larry E., An Analysis of NSC San Diego's Broadway and National City
Annex Local Delivery System, Masters Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School,
Monterev, CA, December 1982.
"A
New
Direction for
all
NAVSUP: The
Strategic Plan," U.S.
Navy Supply
Corps Newsletter, July/August 1985.
5.
"Report on Supplv Corps Flag OlTicer and Key Commander Conference," U.S.
Navy Supply Corps Newsletter, November/ December 1985.
6.
U.S. Naval Supply Center, San Diego, Customer Service Manual, April 1985.
7.
Rouse, Charles
8.
Interview with Mr. Charles Bischofberger,
San Diego, CA July 10, 1986.
J.,
"Dealing with Stealing," Translog, August 1970.
Code
303,
Naval Supply Center,
,
9.
King, Wallace V., "NSC San Diego Tackles Inventory Accuracy," U.S. Navy
Supply Corps Newsletter, July/ August 1985.
10.
Feerer, Bruce E., "NSC Terminals Connected to Fleet Activities," U.S. Navy
Supply Corps Newsletter, May/June 1985.
11.
Kubik, Tim F., "Navy 'ATAC on Retrograde Depot Level Repairables," U.S.
Navy Supply Corps I^ewsletter, January/ February 1986.
12.
Doyle, John, "Bar Codes
January/ February 1986.
13.
Marth, Del., "Why Safeway Stopped Playing
August 1984.
14.
Interview with Mr. John Knowlton, Security Investigator, Safeway Stores
Inc.,
15.
August
Go
to
Sea,"
U.S.
Navy Supply Corps Newsletter,
it
Safe,"
Nation's
Business,
22, 1986.
AUion, Dennis G. and Tufts, John E.. An Analysis of Local Delivery Costs and
Times at Naval Supply Center Oakland, CaUfornia, Masters Thesis, Naval
Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA, June 1982.
79
16.
Interview with Mr. John Knowlton. Security Investigator, Safewav Stores,
Inc.,
17.
August
15, 1986.
Benway, Susan D., "Feeline Some Pain: Competition Mounts
for the
Drug
Store Chains," Barron's, Oct^ober 28, 1985.
18.
Wes Anderson,
Interview with Mr.
Stores,
August
19.
Stoner, James A.F.
Inc., 1^86.
20.
Interview with
July 9, 1986.
21.
Naval
Manager, Long's Drug
and Wankel, Charles, Management, 3rd
CDR
Ted
Ball,
Code
80,
80
ed., Prentice-Hall,
Naval Supply Center, San Dieeo, CA,
Svstems Command, NAVSUPINST
[ROD) Manual, November 26, 1985.
Supplv
Discrepancy
Redistribution
15. 1986.
4440.179,
Report
of
INITIAL DISTRIBUTION LIST
No. Copies
1.
Defense Technical Information Center
2
Cameron
Station
Alexandria, Virginia 22304-6145
2.
3.
4.
Defense
Logistics Studies Information Exchange
r.
^
*
"'
U.S. Armv
Logistics Management Center
Loj
23801-5(100
Fort Lee, 'Virginia
/irgi
T'
.
Library^ Code 0142
Naval postgraduate School
Monterey, California 93943-5002
2
Naval Supply Systems Command
Deputy Commander for Physical Distribution
2
Code SUP-06
Washington D.C. 20376-5000
Attn:
Naval Supply Svstems Command
Deputy Conimander for Transportation
Code SUP-05
Washington D.C. 20376-5000
Attn:
6.
Commanding
Officer
Naval Supplv Center
San Diego, California 92132-5000
7.
Commander Ted
Ball
Code 80
Naval Supply Center
San Diego, California 92132-5000
Commander M.
R. Sanford
Code 300
Naval Supplv Center
San Diego, California 92132-5000
Mr. Charles Bischofberger
Code 303
Naval Supply Center
San Diego, California 92132-5000
10.
Professor D.C. Boger
Code 54Bo
Naval Postgraduate School
Monterey, California 93943-5000
11.
CDRJ.F. McClainlll
Code 54Mc
Naval Postgraduate School
Monterey, California 93943-5000
12.
1
.
LCDR W.J. Fenzan SC,
385 Dohner Drive
USN
Wadsworth, Ohio 44281-5000
81
DUDLEY KFOX LIBRARY
NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL
MOHTERBY CALIt^ORINTIA 9S94S-R009
^Tfurvey
of
cc^ercial
security
local delivery
their potenMethods and
applicatxon at
Tial for
Calxfor
NSC San Diego,
nia.
thesis
F2555
c.l
Fenzan
A survey of commercial
local delivery security
methods and their potenat
tial for application
CaliforNSC San Diego,
nia.
Fly UP