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THE ROAD TO INDPENDENCE -1753-1778

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THE ROAD TO INDPENDENCE -1753-1778
THE ROAD TO
INDPENDENCE -1753-1778
THE MERCANTILE THEORY

Policy of all major European
nations from 16th to l8th
centuries.
 Mercantilism – Belief that
wealth was power and that a
country’s economic wealth
(both military and political
power) could be measured
by the amount of gold or
silver in its treasury.
Mercantilism
Elements of the Theory
 To
get gold, must export more than import
 Colonies provide export markets
 Colonies provide source for raw material
 Colonies can’t trade with others
 Colonies can’t produce their own finished
goods
 Encourage colonies to produce what
mother country must import
Mercantilism Trammels On Trade
 Parliament
passed many laws to enforce
the mercantile system
 Navigation Laws – most famous

Significance
 Other
Laws
Merits of Mercantilism

Salutary Neglect.

Robert Walpole.

Smuggling.
 Americans did reap many
direct benefits from
Mercantilism.

What were they?
Benefits of Mercantilism
 Price
supports and subsidies helped them
compete against the Europeans.
 Tobacco monopoly.
 They had rights of Englishmen and
opportunities for self-government.
 Protection of the strong British army and
Navy
 Prosperity trickled down
The Menace Of Mercantilism
 Downside



to Mercantilism
It hurt economic initiative
Southern planters were treated more
favorably.
Mercantilism was humiliating to Americans
• “Revolution broke out because England failed to
recognize an emerging nation when it saw one”my FAVORITE President
The Aftermath: Tensions
Along the Frontier
1763  Pontiac’s Rebellion
Fort Detroit
British “gifts” of smallpox-infected blankets
from Fort Pitt.
Pontiac’s Rebellion
BACKLASH!
 Proclamation
of 1763
The Stamp Tax Uproar

After the war, Brits wanted to
start taxing the American
Colonies.


George Grenville



Why?
Prime Minister
End of Salutary Neglect.
Revenue Acts
New Mercantilist Laws
 Sugar
Act—1764
 Quartering Act of 1765
 Currency Act
 Stamp Act —1765

This Act became the most hated
Stamp Act
 What
it required
 Who it antagonized
 British view of its fairness
 American view of its fairness
 No taxation without representation
 Virtual representation
Parliament Forced To Repeal The Stamp
Act

Stamp Act Congress
of 1765
 Non-importation
agreements of
British goods
 Sons of Liberty and
Daughters of Liberty
 Declaratory Act
Tarring and Feathering a
Tax Stamp Agent
The Townshend Tea Tax And The Boston
Massacre



Charles “Champagne Charlie”
Townsend emerges as PM
1767-Parliament passes the
Townshend Acts
Colonists object


Reasons
1768 British officials landed 2
regiments of troops (700) in Boston
Boston Massacre
The Seditious Committees Of Correspondence

Townsend Acts were a failure



Sam Adams


Sam Adams
Repealed
Tea?
Organized the local
Committees of
Correspondence in Mass
Purposes?
Boston Tea Party

1773-British East India
Company had a big
problem



What was it?
How did Parliament try to
remedy it?
Why was Parliament so
motivated to fix the problem?
Tea Act 1773

Britain gave BEIC a complete
monopoly on the American tea
business.
 Consequences:



Able to sell tea more cheaply than
the smuggled tea
Cuts out the American middle-man
Angers colonists. Americans see as
a trick to make the tax palatable.
Boston Tea Party

None of the tea cargo of the Company reached
its destination.



Maryland
South Carolina
Boston —
• Dec. 16, 1773.
• 342 chests of tea smashed and dumped the tea into Boston
harbor.
• Boston Tea party
Boston Tea Party
Response to Boston Tea Party
 Reactions
of public
 Reaction of Parliament
 Intolerable Acts




Boston Port
Mass. Government Act
Quartering Act
Admin. of Justice Act
Quebec Act - 1774
 Not
part of the Intolerable Acts. But
passed at the same time.
 What did it say?
 Colonists believed it was “intolerable” and
designed to punish them.

Why?
Quebec
Before
and
After
1774
The Continental Congress And
Bloodshed
 First



Continental Congress
1774
Philadelphia
Reasoning?
 12
Colonies
 55 Delegates
 Drew up a Declaration of Rights
The Continental Congress And
Bloodshed

Expressed loyalty to Britain
 Demanded repeal of all British
laws taxing colonists
 Banned all trade with Britain
 Organized Continental
Association to enforce the ban


Nonimportation, nonexportation,
nonconsumption
Advised each colony to form a
militia
 Pledged to meet again if
demands were not met
Lexington and Concord
 Sam
Adams
 John Hancock
 Paul Revere
 Shot Heard
Round the
World
Lexington
Strengths and Weaknesses

British Strengths
 British Weaknesses
 American Strengths
 American
Weaknesses
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