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,::;r::^'^M^ »*'i^'ii^».».»r' "^"''^'^^^*^^ '.•''*v.
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'.•''*v.
1
1,^
speciAL
coLLecnioNS
OOUQlAS
LibRARy
queeN's UNiveRSliy
AT kiNQsroN
kiNQSTON
ONTARiO
CANADA
A NEW
SYSTEM OF POLITICS;
OR
)ons asatnst JPatfjers*
DEDICATED TO THE
RIGHT HON. LORD HOLLAND.
LONDON}
PRINTSD FOR
J.
RIDGWAT
^O. I69, PICCADILLY,
OPPOSITE BOMCxSTREET.
1808.
"W.
Flint, Printer,
Old Bailey.
p\C'^!<
iu%.fn3
TO ;the
RIGHT HONOURABLE
LORD HOLLAND.
MY LORD,
JlIE, who fpeaks
truth,
he can, and as much as he
pleafes
but he will have all his mirth to
himfelf, unlefs he finds fomebody, who may
be wiUing to take part in it. A focial ani-
may
laugh
if
;
mal,
who
lives alone, thinks
than they,
who belong
to
more of fociety
it.
This
is
my
would fain keep better company
own, to help me to fupport my
cafe.
I
than
my
grief
by authority, or
to fhare in the merri-
ment of thofe, who are determined to be
merry in fpite of me. For one, or both, or
either, or neither of thefe purpofes, I humbly
recommend my infant opinions to your
With refpeft to
Lordfhip's prote6lion.
yourfelf, they have received a good credulous
education, having been taught from
cradle to believe that,
their
with honefty not To
IV
common as it
ailed, and with fufficient wit
Is
you are good-natured enough to
perfon of moderate underftanding.
to live by,
pafs for a
All thefe qualities are wanting to enable and
invite
you
my
to adopt
thoughts as
belonged to you, to drefs them
in
if
they
better
language, and introduce them into genteel
Any
company.
nonfenfc
by the ftomach of a
v/afte paper.
which
I
am
Who
may
be digefled
nation, that fattens
may
writing on,
not in the
courfe of a year or two be as good as a
note ? They have already one quality in
mon,
them
for neither of
fpecie.
To
ed hereafter
My
is
bank
com-
convertible into
what ufes they may be convert-
mud
be
left
to pofterity.
reafons for taking this liberty with
your Lordfhip's name, you
My
on
knows, whether that
right
is
fingular
— I am
fee, are plural.
flill
A FREE AGENT.
20th Dec, 1807.
X NEW
SYSTEM OF POLITICS,
xN
former
times,
mens
their nefts in old
people of
this
when
fwallows built
beards,
the
country, were governed by
maxims, which are grown out of
and dcpofited on the fame
fragments
of
good
the
quellions of poHcy,
family
fafhion,
fhelf with
the
China.
In
commerce, and national
economy, we ufed to confult fuch pcrfons
as Locke, Montefquieu,
Smith,
and
who wrote
levelled their
guments
readers.
to
the
Hume, and Adam
in a plain
principles
popular
and
underftanding
They wrote with
v/ay,
their
ar-
of their
great fimplicitv.
whether they were right or
and,
or whether they
nothing they
But
telhgible.
had
its
faid
convinced you or
this
mons, and
is
in-
manner of writing has
no more be revived
day, and could
fine
not,
was too refined to be
than the drefTes of the
tween
wrontf,
laft
Be-
century.
Com-
arguing in the Houfe of
on glazed paper,
fine writing
difficult to fettle one's
it
mind on any pub-
Every thing obvious and eafy
lic
queftion.
is
fuppofed to be vulgar.
is
exploded, and
is
in
Common
fenfe
common
honefly, I fear,
a flippery fituation.
In fupport of
thefe obfervations, I
mention a
fhall jufl
few inflances of marvellous fluctuation in
public opinions, and then proceed
fubjeft,
ift.
ufe,
—
which
is
There
I
mean
principally in
was
the
once
my
to the
view.
phrafe
a
balance
of
in
trade,
which every body underflood to be the
difference between the
bought and what wc
amount of what we
fold.
A
merchant
7
felling
or a nation,
was paid
in
rich, unlefs
more than they bought,
and of courfe grew
fpecie
A
We
he threw away his money.
different doftrine prevails at prefent.
no
are told that gold and filver have
that they are nothing but figns,
value,
fic
and that paper
is
juft
venient,
and that we
much of
it.
a
An
great
A
very
way,
fign
real
or
con-
have too
cannot
little
if it
good a
as
much more
fpecie,
as
fubftitute
go
intrin-
wealth will
be well reprefented.
ounce of gold, beat into a
leaf,
may
cover a furface of an hundred miles fquare.
,
The
India
Company
export at
leafl a
mil-
lion fterling in bullion every year,
and the
nation
becaufe,
as
is
never the poorer for
it
;
they fay, they import an equal amount
of Eaft-India goods, which they
fell
continent, and are paid in fpecie.
they have proved the fad,
enough
to argue with
of their conclufion.
own
it
will
them about
to the
When
be tiiie
the truth
In the mean time, their
plea looks very like an
admiffion that
8
they think gold and filver a ufeful
commo-
dity.
Our
2d.
with
anceflors,
who really, compared
defcendants,
their
knew nothing of
taxation, were in the habit of complaining
of heavy taxes,
they were a bitter
as if
The country gentlemen could
grievance.
not endurs the Land-Tax, and the mer*
cantile intereft
any attempt
But now
were flruck with horror at
the Excife Laws.
to extend
feems the taxes are in perpetual
it
more
and the
circulation,
Sooner or
quicker they circulate.
the
money
and
in
fa6lures, to the opera,
payable to merit.
and
man
left
to
the
later
returns into the fame pockets,
the interval gives
fition alfo
we pay
is
The
its
to
manu-
and to many penfions,
truftcd to
make
life
truth of this propo-
its
internal evidence,
own way
into the hu-
fkull.
3d.
In
Sir
Robert Walpole's time
it
9
was maintained by many thoughtlefs peffons,
and but feebly difputed by any body,
that the nation could not long fupport a
debt of
fifty
der
hundred.
a
has fhown that
to fear
from a
much new
have exifted
As
of paper, arid that
plethor<i
in eife6t a creation
is
we had not borrowed
and other
ufeful
fpeculations.
never be taxed
fund, which keeps
ed, or profefled, that,
the fund
itfelf
;
the
income in the funds
was originally intend-
it
fome day or other, fomeit.
Juft the contrary.
It operates powerfully, but
increafes
firft
the price of his capital.
thing (houldbefunkby
The debt
he has
and ne-
and then the finking
;
up
this finking fund,
title is
the
juft
faith ofParliamentjthathis
By
not
many
it
for the creditor's fecurity,
Ihall
of
in
money, and fpent
cefiary wars,
however
Experience
property, which would
if
un-
public credit has nothing
the national debt
fo
and mull fink
millions,
it
finks nothing.
the taxes increafe;
increafes.
Sol
But then
a mifnomer.
c
and
fuppofe the
it
is
a great
know
(fomfort to
that this fund keeps
grows with
with the debt
;
Unds with
extent
its
its
growth ,
and that without
;
his Majefly's minifters,
whom God
a thoufand years for their
ever,
For
cent.
this
it
preferve
!
infiniturnt
paper pafles for money)
(or as long as
eX'^
own good would
not be able to borrow money, ad
five per
pace
at
advantage, how-
and for the invaluable
facility
it
afr
fords of mortgaging the fee-fimple of the
ifland,
we, the people,
millions a year,
which certainly
As
borrowed,
is
nine
fome ad-
of the
money
for the mifchievous
confe-
nominal
dition to the
taxed
arc
intereft
quence of paying off the national debt, with
which the finking fund conti-
that rapidity,
nues to threaten,
blematical,
many people
With
others
it
think
it
pro-
pafTes for buf-
foonery,
4th.
We
verfal fafhion,
heard
of,
have another phrafe
which eyen our
in uni-
fathers never
invented by the Thorntons for
the fervice of the
Bank of England, and
11
not at
own
for their
all
viz, a circula-
ufe,
ting medium.
Oth^r living things, to fay nothing of
move
puppies and dead kittens,
blind
or
float,
a
fly in
circulates
itfelf,
may have
medium
but
and nothing
much of
as
;
it
this
elfe
or
medium
and you
;
you can per-
as
fuade your neighbour to exchange for his
and
goods
chattels,
for
plate,
his
his
This medium has the
houfes, or his land.
power of abforbing all other fubfl:ances, and
of melting even gold and
filver into the
pockets of the faid bankers.
and no other,
or
it is
real property,
i.
In
this fcnfe,
convertible into fpecie,
e.
in the
hands of the
adept, which thofe gentlemen call realizing,
and which they perfe6lly underfl:and.
Having converted your property
per,
you may keep
the bubble
body
elfe
5th.
burfl:,
with
An
it,
if
or you
you
may
into pa-
plcafe,
tilj
cheat fome-
it.
ingenious
fet
of pohticians have
12
invented and propagated, with great fuccefs,
a national principle,
not
prevail
which certainly did
of Queen Eliza-
in the days
beth, viz. that a trading nation with a great
naval
power cannot be
than in making war with
it is
much more
emplo)'x:d
better
all
the world
profitable to rob
;
that
and mur-
der your cuflomers, though you can do
but once, than to buy and
Sicfortis Etruria creviL
fell
and Algiers have thrived by
Look back
with them.
how
See
it
Tripoli
their virtues.
to the authority of Caligula,
and
the example of Charles the Second. Exhaujlus
et egens
tural
very
ad rapinas convcrtit animurrii a na-
refource for a
fit
to
Roman
emperor, and
be imitated by his
prefent government.
On
Majefly's
the fame principle
and
our Charles fhut up the Exchequer,
would have taken the Smyrna
could, without troubling the
fleet
if
he
Dutch with
a
declaration of war.
It
is
not denied, becaufe
the objedioK
13
is
much
not
diflblution
thefe
of the
whole export trade of
might
Iflands,
at
be
firfl:
ed with fome inconveniences
lower
attendit
might
which
fome
that
;
pubhc revenue,
the
abfolute
the
that
valued,
people think neceffary for the fupport of
our
and military eftablifhments
civil
might throw a few induflrious
;
that
perforts
it
out
of employment, and their families out of
bread, and that half a million of manufac*
turers, reverting to their parifhes,
cafion
rates,
a perceivable addition to the poors*
which being only
are hardly
culties
might oc-
felt
atprefent.
the politicians
millions a year
fix
in
For
all
fuch
diffi-
queftion are pre-
pared with a remedy, equally obvious in
fpeculation,
and eafy
your debt, and
let
in praftice.
—Diffolve
your creditors go to the
devil.
This falutary meafure would at once
furnifn
you with a
come of
clear unappropriated in-
forty millions, including the 'fink-
ing fund, with the help of which you may-
maintain the war for ever.
On
this quef.
14
tion, I
am
too
am
not fufficiently dirmterefle(i, and
much
a party to the
ifTue
of
pronounce an impartial judgment,
no property
hate
in the ftocks,
my creditors.
argued by thofe
So
and
whom
it.
A fpunge
to be
it
Soon-
concerns.
it
will
hand
in his
have
mortally
I
er or later, I fufpeft, the debtor
the bcil of
I
leave
I fhall
to
it^
have
v/ill
at
once clear away the prefent account, and
enable us to begin again.
6th. But,
rtiodern
of
all
opinions
by which
the novelties
are
diflinguifhed
from
know of nothing
thofe of antiquity, I
fo
curious as the patriotic zeal, with which a
certain feft of flagellants,
themfelves,
tion of
infifl:
who
on an immediate
war with the United
rica, for the fole
never whip
declara-
States of
Ame-
and quite fufhcient purpofe
of raifmg the price of fugar
:
I
mean
virtuous planters of the cane in their
iilands,
which, when
Britifh colonies.
it
At
fuits
firft
the
own
them, they
fight,
it
call
jmight
15
'
,
.
-
human
occur to any other
or unprejudiced, that
Britain has full as
this
ifland
much war on
well able to fupport.
it is
.
naged, even Ireland
is
niterefts
beings, prej
As
its
of Great
hands as
things are
ma-
no great help to
us
but rather a weak and vulnerable part of our
frontier to be garrifoned
and guarded by a
great portion of the difpofable force of this
JJland. Suppofing, for a moment, that national
councils ought, in
fome degree,
to be govern-
ed by prudence, and that the fafety of the
ftate
is
before
a thing to be confidered, I think that
we go
to
war
for the
objeft,
which
the planters have or pretend to have in view,
there can be
tions,
ample
their
no harm
which nobody
;
Who
ift.
merits ?
they made out?
fe6l
of their
and
their
for as to
in afking a
few quef-
will anfwer.
For ex^
are they, and what are
What fort of
3d. What would
2d.
own remedy upon
own interefts,
its
if
we
cafe have
be the
ef-
themfelvcs
reforted to
it
?
confequencfs in any other fenfe,
^ven to the falvatiop of the Empire, I
know
16
tion, I arr
am
loo well to
«"-'^^^*^^
refleftions,
which
queftion
anfwer to
that without at
is,
live in
true
I
Weft Indian who was
;
know
a
with an
was
where white boys
whip black ones every morning
under a veranda for
lifti
affli6led
Ire-
Indians,
poflibly becaufe I never
in Jamaica or Barbadoes,
girls
alluding
Great Britain or
never had the good fortune to
Engllfii heart
and
all
known many Weft
land; I have
but
my own
who have been
to Weft-India proprietors,
educated and
them with
am fure would give them
My own
no concern.
firfl
I
trouble
children
do
air and exercife, as
Eng-
Except when
their tops.
they want protedion, or a monopoly of the
Britifti
when fome
market, or
purpofe of their
own
is
other laudable
be ferved, they
to
boaft of nothing but Englifti independence,
by which they mean only
dent of England.
leglflature
They
to be indepen-
fay they
have a
of their own, and on more oc-
cafions than one,
when they have
juftly
thought themfelves aggrieved by the power
17
of parliament confulting the general interefts
of the empire at their expenfe, they have
talked to us with great candour and in very
intelligible terms,
fifl:ance,about a
about feparation, and
re-
union with America,and even
By
of furrendering to France.
threats
and
intimations of this kind, and when they thought
they had the whip-hand of us, quaiientes
animo tortore Jlagellum, even parliament was
awed, and the abolition of the Slave-Trade
protrafted
is,
until
until the
cafe ?
their
their
They
that
itfelf;
intereft to
Now
merits.
continue
what
fay they are ruined for
a market or vent
their
came of
worthy planters found that
was no longer
Such are
it
expenfes eat
for their
up the
quantity they are able to
fell
is
it
it.
the
want of
fugars, while
profit
;
and
on the
that, if
the Americans were prevented, which can
only be done by war, from conveying the
produce of the French and Spanifh
iflands
to Europe, the Britifh
fugars would fome
how
way
or other find their
D
into the ports
18
of the continent, and that even France her-
Mf, not being able
muft buy
coffee,
it
grows
ferious,
fick.
Confidering
Hve without fugar and
to
of
Here
us.
their folly-
and th^ir nonfenfe makes us
firft
that
we
fhould have
an additional enemy to contend with, or
at
kaft to occupy a eonfiderable fquadron of
our
fleet,
it
to blockade
would be rather a
all
Spanilh iflands
pra61;icable,
fale
difficult taflc
the ports of the French and
;
and,
if
how would
it
fuch a thing were
tend to force the
of our fugars on the continent ?
mean
to affirm that
Do they
Buonaparte has not the
means and the power,
as well as the determi-
ned refolution to keep them out ?
A general
combination of the other dates of Europe,
to favour our trade
againft
his
meafures,
might help to promote a contraband
traffic
with England in thefe articles
;
no fuch combination, nor any
difpofition to
but there
is
encourage any commercial intercourfe with
bs.
that
As
to
fugar
mere smuggling, do they
is
a
bulky
forget
commodity,
not
39
cafily
conveyed afhore, nor
Or do
without detcQion ?
likely to efcape
they believe
it
would be often attempted with the certainty
of
and heavy penalties attend-
confifcation,
ing a difcovery ?
Still
We
in the fame ftrain,
fugars ; and
this
have no vent for our
the perpetual burthen
is
That they have
of their fong.
than they can
go on
the Planters
not at
fell is
all
But why have they done fo?
from
raifed
more
improbable.
Againfl re-
parliament
peated
admonitions
the
twenty years, againft the fenfe and
laft
in
reprobation of the mother country, againft
the obvious diftates of prudence as well as
humanity, they have increafed the importathey
have
ground and extended
their
tion of
negroes from Africa;
opened
frefh
plantations,
the
and now they complain that
produce
this to
be the
is
not faleable.
cafe, I fee
what they would laugh
an awful inftance
Suppofing
nothing in
at if they
of providential
it
but,
faw
it,
juflice.
Their punifhment grows out of their
guilt.
20
As
to the
fa61,
it
cannot be true
extent to which they ftate
In
other
all
it.
of confumption a
articles
high price fuppofes one of two things
that
there
demand
the
is
;
full
thefe iflands
Now
well that the price of fugar in
is
fo
high that none but the very
can pay for the
that perfons
either
or that
confiderable,
a fcarcity of the commodity.
we know
affluent
is
in the
in
firft
refined fugar
moderate circumflances are
reduced to a drift economy in the ufe of the
coarfer
forts
;
and that the country poor
cannot buy even brown fugar for
tea,
and have therefore
Yet the
outcries of the
their black
left it off entirely.
Weft Indians would
lead a ftranger to conclude that fugar was a
drug
that
in the Britifli
we
markets, and fo cheap
fattened our hogs with
warehoufes are glutted with fugar,
they bring
it
to market,
it.
If the
why don't
and lower the price
to the Britifh confumer ?
One
queftion only,
on this perplexed fub-
remains to be confidered.
je6l,
tent to
abandon every thing
I
I
have
am
faid,
con-
and
take every thing they fay for granted.
to
Admitting the grievance exaftly
prefent
it,
I
am
They
remedy.
at ifTue
as they re-
with them on their
affirm that a declared
war
with America would have the effeft of preventing the Americans
from running the
produce of the French and Spanifh colonies into the ports of the continent.
it
might
mend
in
fome degree.
Perhaps
But would
that
the cafe of our planters on the whole
of their fituation, and taking into view
the
other confequences
of the war?
all
ift.
Their intercourfe with America being cut off
the fupplies of lumber and provifion
be
at
would
an end, or obtained from either Cana-
da or Europe at an immoderate increafe of
charge,
^d. Freight and infurance, which they can
i'carcely
pay
at prefcnt,
would
alfo rife
by
the war,
3(1.
Having entered
into the
us to lower the duties
by which
fupported, and which, after
4th.
Even
for their
they would hardly defire
particular benefit,
m the confumers,
war
all,
it
to be
is
are paid
by
not by the importers.
the Britifh market, of which
they have at prefent a complete monopoly,
fupplies of fugar
receive
will
quarters, in war,
into
rica
it
;
while
from other
which could not be brought
we kept
the peace with
Ame-
but every increafe of the quantity,
wherever
it
comes from, muft of
neceffity
lower the value, and of courfe diminifh the
price of the
commodity
fay they cannot
fell,
in hand,
which they
even now, when there
are no foreign fugars in the market, that
when they have no
competitors.
Do
is,
they
believe that our cruifers and privateers will
nof take a multitude of
American
fhips
and
23
others
laden with
produce of French
the
and Spanifli colonies ? That
not be brought
thefe veflels will
Britifh harbours,
into
and
the cargoes will not be fold for the be-
tliat
of the captors
nefit
?
And,
if
the planters
are diflrefled for want of a fale now, what will
become of them and
war has produced
the
produce when
their
its
natural and una-
voidable cffe6l of increafing the quantity and
dividing the market againft
man
them
?
Will any
give them fixty (hillings for a hundred
weight of fugar from Barbadoes or Jamaica,
when he can purchafe
good
as theirs, for fifty ?
On
that
prize fugars, full as
this ftate
of the cafe one would think
the planters mull be infatuated, if not
Hone-blind, not to fee that a war with
rica
muft be inftantly deftrudive to them-
felves, and that/AtfiVinterefts
firft
Ame-
that
would be the very
would be ruined by
it;
unlefs they
have fome underhand refources and remedcs,
which arc kept out of
fight.
Is
it
quite
^4f
certain that the fame planters,
who clamour
for a rupture between Britain and the United
States, or for meafures that
would not be the
firft
to
mufl produce
open a contraband
with the Americans ? Undoubtedly
duty of government to
plaints of all
liften to
fubjects, and-to
its
it,
it is
the
the
com-
weigh their
have any, but not to be go-
rcafons, if they
much
verned by their pailions,
to fa ri-
lefs
fice a great
general intereft for a particular
advantage.
The
fufficicnt
Britiih
occupation.
navy has already veryi
A
war
\^ith
America
vrould oblige us not only to maintain a fbrong
fquadron on that^oafl, but another to watch
the proceedings of c^.r own* iflands.
In re-
turn for which
public
all
would reap'by the
to the prizes
the benefit the
>var
would be confined
taken by cur privateers arfd
cruifers.
W.tiiuf, Frinur,
-^c^
yc^>JD
cry
O id Bailey*.
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