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RtprhiUd Jrom
the.
Afuntreal Htdtcal Journal, Jamtary, 189[\.
/
H':
QUEEN'S UNIVERSITY AND MEDICAL EDUCATION.
An Address Delivered
IJy
at Kingston, Oct. 14, 1892.
Sik .Iambs Grant, AM)., K.C.M.G., Dttawa, Ovr.
The present
is
new departure
a
in
the
history of the
life
Koyal College of Physicians and Surgeons, Kingston.
move
to
certainly in the right direction,
It
is
and one which cannot
a
fail
be productive of good, to the well-being of the medical de-
partment of Queen's, which the medical section has now virtually
Queen's Medical School has been
become.
quarter of a century, and
trust
of
and
in operation
over a
positions of
filling
One
responsibility in various portions of the world.
founders was
its
graduates are
its
my
personal friend of
a
Dr. Dickson, who was the
President of
first
own, the
late
the College of
His record was a most
Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario.
honourable one, and in his calling he was a noted surgeon and
a well
The
known
contributor to
energy and
ieal,
the
ability with
literature of the
out the work of this medical school
record he
merit
is
made
as a
man
the very
Province
commencement
of
Ontario.
part,
gave new
life
first
Frotn
to
carry
well known, and the
this
and professional
time actually dates
of systematic medical education in the
True, we had
and excellent medical men prior
Council, in which as
is
of genuine scientific
generally acknowledged.
profession.
which he laboured
good
meilical schools
to that date, but
the Medical
president Dr. Dickson took an active
and vigour
to the
whole subject of medical
education in
stage
to
this
The curriculum advanced stage by
Provinct.
present high standard of a five years' course of
the
study and a preliminary examination, almost the equivalent of a
B.A. degree,
only
men
in
order
meet the demands of our country
to
of educational standing
and known
This
admitted into the ranks of the medical profession.
to
that
be
ability shall
said
is
be an age of general progress and advancement in almost
True,
every line of thought.
Canada we have
in
legislative
why ? In order
and commerce and
confederation of our various Provinces, and
ttiat
there might be a un'formity in trade
thus understand each other better in
medical education, however,
What do we
is
the relations of
and no
In
life.
not being carried out.
Each Province
find to-day ?
in matters medical,
all
idea
this
legislating for itself
special effort being
made
to
bring
about central examining boards or councils in each Province, of
e({ual standing, so that
pass current in
medical degrees of one Province would
any other Province, without being subjected
is
Provinces to agree to a central examining and
the
for all
to
Failing this course, the only other open
a second examination.
registering body at the capital, the license of which would be
recognised
in the entire
in the British
to
Dominion.
This would require a change
North America Act which could be so modified as
meet the requirements of our people, providing each Province
agreed
to
The present
such changes.
must shortly undergo some change
in
state oi medical education
order to give evidence of
a progressive spirit in our people, and such can only be brought
about by placing the whole subject, so intimately associated with
our welfare and prosperity, before the proper tribunal.
authorities of
of
Queen's are
to be
young men entering upon
the
The
congratulated on the large class
study of the medical profession,
possessing, from gei;era! appearances, a fair share of both mental
and physical powers
—
so
necessary in
life's
struggle at
the
present time.
The student
of this date certainly labours under great advan-
tages, surrounded
as he
scientific investigation,
is
and a
with
all
the varied appliances for
well qualified staff" of professors, in
the various departments of the medical course.
True, out pro-
..
—
fessions are
becoming crowded, and yet there
ample room
is
in
the upper rungs of the ladder of fame, which can only be reached
by care, energy, peraeverence and time, an excefedingly im-
Such
portant factor in the path of duty and success.
in
is
truly
keeping with the sentiment of the great American poet
"
Our country
Let us then l)e up and tloin}:,
With a heart for any fate,
Still achieving, still pursuing',
Learn to labour and to wait."
is
large and our population steadily increasing,
but not so rapidly as I could wish
energy
in that direction,
we hope
;
however, with the present
to see the
most sanguine expec-
tations fully realized.
The higher
functions of medicine are
now before you, which
e/en extend beyond the healing of the sick
the instruction of
:
means and methods by which disease may
be prevented and death deprived of its supremacy and power.
tlie
masses as
to the
In the medical schools of the present in Canada, sanitary science
is
one of the chief subjects of study, and by this
gation
we have hope
that in the
eases, like scarlet fever, measles, cholera, etc
tually
stamped out as small-pox
drink, such as milk
line of investi-
near future the contagious
is
we
germs of
True, the
to-day.
and water, occasionaily contain
dis-
be as effec-
will
,
fluids
the
typhoid fever, scarlet fever and diphtheria, and in this line of
investigation
how marked have recently been
and how greatly has the death
results of science
causes been reduced.
the marvellous
rate from such
In the path of progressive medicine what
a marked change has taken place even in hospitalism, by which
such dreaded diseases as puerperal fever and hospital gangrene
have been in a great measure stamped
out.
duty and labour worthy of serious thought
This
— how
if
is
a line of
possible to
prolong Hfe, by preventing outside or accidental influences ao
operating on the
human frame
often in the very prime of
the causi^s of disease
is
blessings to thousands and
life.
as to cut short the vital spark,
To be
successful in preventing
certainly noble work that will carry
mark
in
a most positive manner the
progressive character of the age in which
we
live.
within a short period that this truly humanitarian
It
is
only
movement has
up sanitarians of the world and thus aroused
stirred
The great
of the general public.
the interest
sanitary congress held last
year in London and presided over by H.R.Il, the Prince of Wales
was an evidence, should such be wanting,
now being taken
interest
in public
deep
illustrative of the
hygiene.
Science has much to do with the possible triumphs of sanitary
It is the art,
reform.
however, not the science alone
not exactly the knowing, that must take
work
of
It
life.
is,
in fact, the actual
rank
first
— the doing,
in the
medical
bearing of the necessary
Doubt-
training that directs the after life-work of the physician.
less
there
great value in science, and
is
such science as can be turned
more
to build
theories,
to
in
medical practice
practical account, does
which cannot
any way be applied
in
to the really
Doubtless you have
work of the physician.
application of this form of medical training,
mation of habits of observation
is
great
by the
profited
scientific
character, and at a time of your mental evolution,
It is the care
far
up a professional reputation than accumulated
in
when the
its
for-
of the greatest possible value.
and accuracy of your observations and practices,
the soundness and balance of your judgment, which will alone
enable you to turn to practical account the varied knowledge
you have acquired.
scientific
mind
to the
The
application of scientific methods and a
problems of disease
Let man
the study of a single life-time.
of truth.
True, science
is
actually
is
more than
rejoice in the promotion
ever humble, and discoverers such as
Newton and Faraday were
the humblest of men.
How
vigorous
have been the attacks on Sir Joseph Lister, the father of
septic surgery,
position,
is
marking beyond doubt
well to be
vance
in
able for
away
and with what commendable
discoveries.
anti-
upheld his
the greatness of the man.
up and doing, keeping pace with every
our profession.
its
spirit he
It
line of ad-
True, we are living
an age remarkThe younger members must not run
I...
with the idea that the aged fathers in the profession are
not likewise progressive.
This
current medical literature
is
is
a reading age as well, in which
almost superabundant, and young
and old must labour and continue
to
work
in
thing like pace with the progress of science.
order to keep any-
The
affiliation of
'I
the various sciences
bj the present change
ment does away with the
Thus the
previously.
isolated
form
medical depart-
in the
which matters were
in
different sciences take, notwithstanding
the diversity of their objects, one
and the same development.
The one
and
series of ideas brightens
mental power,
fructifies
the other tends to promote health, strength
and general systemic
vigour.
When
a student graduates, what course should he adopt in
order to insure public confidence and gain a practice
he has selected the place
When
?
pursue
to
professional work, there are points of the greatest possible
his
importance
to
be
investigated.
physical character of
he
resides, as
public and
is
the
study
First,
city or
Once he has
then in a position
years the Ontario
may be
During the past
Government, through the
in
Board of
the
line
of
and through energetic exertions the death-rate
public sanitation,
in this
such
all
familiarised himself on these points,
Department, has accomplished much
Health
and
give confidence to those he
to
the
which
in
food supply,
schools, endemics, epidemics
fortunate enough to attend professionally.
few
carefully
country section
drainage, water supply,
to soil,
private
influences.
he
which he has decided
in
A
Province has undoubtedly been reduced.
move is now
to establish a " Health Institute " at Ottawa for the
on foot
Dominion
;
however, such
at present in the incipient stage of
is
development, the only specified information from the Dominion
Government
(until recently)
being the mortuary
statistics, issued
monthly by the Department of Agriculture. In time we anticipate
more energetic action
in this direction, as nothing tends
more
to
advance the interests of the public at large than what concerns
public healLli.
In country sections the matter of drainage cannot
How
be too clearly observed.
surface liquid from
of the animals, thus
ful inspection of
into the water supply
communicating impurity
of the nearest town or city,
source of disease.
frequently, in farm-yards, the
manure heaps drains
What,
meat
in
to the
milk supply
and frequently becoming a
also, is
fertile
more important than the care-
order to guard against the spread of
such diseases as tuberculosis.
True, so
far, in
Canada our
food
supplj, on the whole,
pure and simple, and yet too
is
cannot be exercined as to proper inspection
Another point
of most importance
the present system of education
is
is
much
care
this directirn.
ii'
the study of the
'
.Jtmnce
producing on the germinal
time guide and direct the best
intellectual
power which must
interests of
our Dominion. The great
in
effort at
present
culture, as far as education
a species of hothouse
The multiplication of subjects,
even with
is
towards
is
concerned.
and
pliant
veloped child-like brains, in the very formative process,
unde-
becomes
and one which cannot be too carefully studied
Each thought, each mental evoluaccordingly.
directed
and
out
tion is the production of a chemical change in the elements of
a serious problem,
brain tissue, and thus the successive flashings along the line of
continuous mental strain have a powerful effect, not alone on
brain structure, but the genera! systemic powers as well.
is
education to be accomplished without brain strain,
is
brain work
is
one line of action, but over strain and excessive
is (juite
How
another.
frequently
is it
the case that
highest indications of brain activity in the child
the
How
cogent
Ordinary
question, and one which will very naturally be asked.
brain effort
a
by over-
strain, and without the parents being aware of the fact, become
clouded for the duty of after
observed with honour
men
life.
The same
result
is
frequently
in university life, although there are
exceptions, where inherent physical power, guards the balance
and thus upholds the system.
These are points
to
which
our young graduates, who
I desire
to direct
may have an
the
attention of
opportunity of quiet
study and patient investigation, while seeking a practice which
will
grow gradually and surely as public confidence
on these
is
gained,
lines of observation.
me
you have enjoyed the able services
who for over forty years has been conHe has made a most honournected with Queen's University.
In conclusion
let
say,
of Professor Williamson,
able record, and the influence he has exerci-ed in the develop-
ment
of germinal
the credit of
intellectual
power has greatly redounded
to
Queen's University. What more honourable calling
in life can there be than that of a iieacher
?
This University
is
—
tho parent of many,
Thus
in
variuus distinguinhed academic pusitions.
the impress of this centre of learning
one generation
with him.
It
to
The
another.
is
transmitted from
teachers' work does not die
Uvea after him, and in the discharge of the honour-
able responsibilities of
life
the
still
small voices hover round
hushed though they be, the impression of the past
is
is
there,
;
and
a cheering ideality in the per[ilexitie8 incidental to a labour
of love
necting
medif-al duty.
li:
A *»fltablishod,
Thus we observe there
promotes an ever living desire
of your
Alma Mater.
is
a grand con-
which strengthens the attachment and
to
uphold the honour and dignity
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