1. Which two compounds are electrolytes? dissolved in water?
1. Which two compounds are electrolytes? A) B) C) D) 2. Which compound is an electrolyte? A) C) B) D) 3. Which compounds can be classified as electrolytes? A) B) C) D) alcohols alkynes organic acids saturated hydrocarbons 4. According to one acid-base theory, a water molecule acts as an acid when the molecule A) B) C) D) donates an H + ion accepts an H+ ion donates an OH – ion accepts an OH – ion 5. According to the Arrhenius theory, a base reacts with an acid to produce A) B) C) D) ammonia and methane ammonia and a salt water and methane water and a salt 6. Given the equation: HCl(g) + H2O( ) X(aq) + Cl–(aq) Which ion is represented by X? A) hydroxide C) hypochlorite B) hydronium D) perchlorate 7. Hydrogen chloride, HCl, is classified as an Arrhenius acid because it produces A) B) C) D) H+ ions in aqueous solution Cl – ions in aqueous solution OH – ions in aqueous solution NH 4+ ions in aqueous solution 8. Which ion is produced when an Arrhenius base is dissolved in water? A) B) C) D) H+ , as the only positive ion in solution H3O+ , as the only positive ion in solution OH –, as the only negative ion in solution H–, as the only negative ion in solution 9. What are the relative ion concentrations in an acid solution? A) B) C) D) more H + ions than OH – ions fewer H+ ions than OH – ions an equal number of H + ions and OH– ions H+ ions but no OH – ions 10. When the pH of a solution is changed from 4 to 3, the hydronium ion concentration of the solution A) B) C) D) decreases by a factor of 10 increases by a factor of 10 decreases by a factor of 100 increases by a factor of 100 11. When the hydronium ion concentration of a solution is increased by a factor of 10, the pH value of the solution A) B) C) D) decreases 1 pH unit decreases 10 pH units increases 1 pH unit increases 10 pH units 12. Which change in pH represents a hundredfold increase in the concentration of hydronium ions in a solution? A) pH1 to pH 2 C) pH 2 to pH 1 B) pH 1 to pH 3 D) pH 3 to pH 1 13. What is the color of the indicator thymol blue in a solution that has a pH of 11? A) red C) pink B) blue D) yellow 14. Based on the results of testing colorless solutions with indicators, which solution is most acidic? A) B) C) D) a solution in which bromthymol blue is blue a solution in which bromcresol green is blue a solution in which phenolphthalein is pink a solution in which methyl orange is red 15. A solution with a pH of 11 is first tested with phenolphthalein and then with litmus. What is the color of each indicator in this solution? A) B) C) D) 20. Given the diagram representing a reaction: Phenolphthalein is colorless and litmus is blue. Phenolphthalein is colorless and litmus is red. Phenolphthalein is pink and litmus is blue. Phenolphthalein is pink and litmus is red. 16. The results of testing a colorless solution with three indicators are shown in the table below. According to one acid-base theory, the water acts as A) B) C) D) a base because it accepts an H+ a base because it donates an H + an acid because it accepts an H + an acid because it donates an H+ 21. Given the equation representing a reversible reaction: Which formula could represent the solution tested? A) NaOH(aq) C) C6H12O6(aq) B) HCl(aq) D) C12H22O11(aq) 17. An aqueous solution of which substance will turn red litmus paper blue? A) H2SO 4 C) C2H5OH B) HCl D) KOH 18. If an aqueous solution turns blue litmus red which relationship exists between the hydronium ion and hydroxide ion concentrations? [H3O+ ] [OH–] A) > + B) [H3O ] < [OH–] C) [H3O+ ] = [OH–] = 10 –7 D) [H3O+ ] = [OH–] = 10 –14 19. A substance that dissolves in water and produces hydronium ions as the only positive ions in the solution is classified as A) an alcohol C) a base B) an acid D) a salt NH 4+ (aq) + OH–(aq) NH 3(g) + H 2O( ) According to one acid-base theory, the reactant that donates an H + ion in the forward reaction is A) NH 3(g) C) NH 4+ (aq) B) H2O( ) D) OH –(aq) 22. In the reaction: NH2– + HOH NH3 + OH– The two acids are A) HOH and NH2– C) OH – and HOH B) HOH and NH3 D) OH – and NH 3 23. Given the reaction: HSO 4–(aq) + NH3(g) NH 4+ (aq) + SO 42–(aq) Which statement best describes the action of NH 3(g) in the reaction? A) It acts as a base, because it is a proton acceptor. B) It acts as a base, because it is a proton donor. C) It acts as an acid, because it is a proton acceptor. D) It acts as an acid, because it is a proton donor. 24. Which solution reacts with LiOH(aq) to produce a salt and water? A) KCl(aq) C) NaOH(aq) B) CaO(aq) D) H2SO 4(aq) 25. What are the products of a reaction between KOH(aq) and HCl(aq)? A) H2 and KClO C) KH and HClO B) H2O and KCl D) KOH and HCl 26. Which equation represents a neutralization reaction? A) B) C) D) 4Fe(s) + 3O 2(g) ® Fe 2O3(s) 2H2(g) + O 2(g) ® 2H2O( ) HNO3(aq) + KOH(aq) ® KNO3(aq) + H 2O( ) AgNO3(aq) + KCl(aq) ® KNO3(aq) + AgCl(s) 27. Which reaction occurs when hydrogen ions react with hydroxide ions to form water? A) substitution C) ionization B) saponification D) neutralization 28. The formula for the calcium salt of sulfuric acid is A) CaS C) CaSO 4 B) Ca2S D) Ca2SO 4 29. Which process uses a volume of solution of known concentration to determine the concentration of another solution? A) distillation C) transmutation B) substitution D) titration 30. If 5.0 milliliters of a 0.20 M HCl solution is required to neutralize exactly 10. milliliters of NaOH, what is the concentration of the base? A) 0.10 M C) 0.30 M B) 0.20 M D) 0.40 M 31. If 50. milliliters of a 1.0 M NaOH solution is needed to exactly neutralize 10. milliliters of an HCl solution, the molarity of the HCl solution is A) 1.0 M C) 5.0 M B) 0.20 M D) 10. M 32. How many milliliters of 1.0 M H2SO 4 are needed to exactly neutralize 15 milliliters of 2.0 M Ba(OH) 2? A) 7.5 ml C) 15 ml B) 10. ml D) 30. ml 33. Base your answer to the following question on the information below and on your knowledge of chemistry. The pH of various aqueous solutions are shown in the table below. State how many times greater the hydronium ion concentration in the HCl(aq) is than the hydronium ion concentration in the HC2H3O2(aq). 34. Base your answer to the following question on the information below. The health of fish depends on the amount of oxygen dissolved in the water. A dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration between 6 parts per million and 8 parts per million is best for fish health. A DO concentration greater than 1 part per million is necessary for fish survival. Fish health is also affected by water temperature and concentrations of dissolved ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, chloride compounds, and nitrate compounds. Most freshwater fish thrive in water with a pH between 6.5 and 8.5. A student’s fish tank contains fish, green plants, and 3800 grams of fish-tank water with 2.7 x 10-2 gram of dissolved oxygen. Phenolphthalein tests colorless and bromthymol blue tests blue in samples of the fish-tank water. When the fish-tank water has a pH of 8.0, the hydronium ion concentration is 1.0 10 –8 mole per liter. What is the hydronium ion concentration when the water has a pH of 7.0? 35. Base your answer to the following question on on the information below. A laboratory worker filled a bottle with a hydrochloric acid solution. Another bottle was filled with methanol, while a third bottle was filled with a sodium hydroxide solution. However, the worker neglected to label each bottle. After a few days, the worker could not remember which liquid was in each bottle. The worker needed to identify the liquid in each bottle. The bottles were labeled A, B, and C. Using materials found in the lab (indicators, conductivity apparatus, and pieces of Mg metal), the worker tested samples of liquid from each bottle. The test results are shown in the table below. Explain, in terms of pH, why the methyl orange indicator test results were the same for each of the three liquids.