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Document 1194968
A
Genuine
Copy
of the
T R Y A L
O F
J— P—h
Efq; &c.
(Price One-Shilling.)
A Genuine C o p Y
of the
T R OY A L
F
y—-
F-
/,
Commonly
E
of
Efq; &c.
call'd,
£—
—
The reputed Author of a
^n
entituledj
E>:amination of the
of the two B
Principles y Sec.
T R Y
On
Wednefday the
For
feveral
On
Pam^hlety
'
rs.
D
22(1 of February^ at the
OLD'BAILET,
High Crimes
a Special
and
meanours.
Commission
Misde-
of Oyer and
Terminer.
Directed to the Right Honourable the Lord
Chief Juflice Ti-iith^ the Lord Chief Baron Reaforiy and Mr. Juflice Honejiy,
Taken
Short-hand by a Barrifter at Law, and Revis'd
and Publifh'd by Order of the Judges.
in
Belial, in
A51 more graceful and humane^
Afairer Perfin
lofl not Heaven ; he feem'd
For Dignity composed and high Expbit
But all was faIfe and hollow; tho' his Tongue
Dropt Manna
Limdon: Printed
for
R,
Freeman,
near Ludgatg.
f^C'iU. yi^^.Gnio
[
I
]
THE
T R Y A L
O F
7—-
P-
N
IVednefday the
laft,
hall
the
lord
&c.
2d of February
2
chief juftice Irutby
the
lord chief baron
Mr.
juftice Honejly,
Reafin^
directed, for the tryalof
J
and
met
at juftice
M
y's
Old Bailey, where his
commifiion of Oyer and Terminer,
in iha
fpecial
them
Efq;
P
to
/,
Efq; was openly read in court, and the prifoner
being brought into court by the high fheritf
of Middle/ex, he was admitted to take his tryal within the bar, on account of his quality
and OTej ! being made, and the Council on both
iides declaring
their readinefs
B
to proceed,
the
prifoner
/
[2]
prifoner was arraigned,
which
man.
Mr.
P
and a Jary fworn, to
Abraham Common Senfe was fore-
Sir
you ftand
fovereign
J
of the crown, J
indided at the fuitofour
the k
by the name of
,
/ of the parifliofSt. Martin's
the county of Middlefex^ Efq;
Scribble clerk
:/
"
lord
•
P
in the fields,
commonly
in
call'J
you the
J
E
—
of
P
E
,
of the
J
county aforefaid, Elq; not having the fear of
God before your eyes, but being wickedly and
for that
faid
malicioufly infhigated thereto
by the
/,
devil, in
confederacy with divers evil difpofed and wick-
edly inclined perfons, on one, or oth'.r of the
of the month of December or January^
year of our lord 1748 9 ;
in the
and county aforefaid,
parilh
traiteroufly,
and of malice aforethought, did ,defert the
caufe and colours, under which, you the faid
-/,
was enlifted, and bound to
P
J
ferve with your life, honour, and eftate, and
havthat you the faid JP
/, Efq-,
ing thus traiteroufly deferted, did bafely, wickedly, and malicioufly betray the caufe of your bcft
and difcovered under falfe glofles and
friends,
malicious reprefentations, the fecrets of private
and friendly converfation to the great fcandal of
P
all honeft men: And that you the faid J
being ftill puflied on, by the wicked mitigation of
the enemy of peace and human fociety, and by
the rotten and Ipiteful difpofition of your own nature, did wickedly, traiteroufly and malicioufly
contrive, and afllime, a certain difguife and mafdays
in
the
— —
querade habit, commonly called the charafter
[3]
under which pretending to condeformity of your own natural
ceal
the
countenance, did endeavour to impofe upy's liege fubjefts,
on many of his
and to cheat them of their money, peace,
common fenfe and loyalty And that you the
faid J
P
/, with the fame traiterous
view, purpofe, and defign, on one, or other, of
the days of ^he months, and year aforefaid,
in the parifh and county aforefaid, did write,
print, publifh, or caufe to be written, printed, and publifhed, a certain falfe, fcandalous,
and feditious libel, pamphlet, book, or writing, entituled, an enquiry into the condu5l and
principles of the two B
n^ which falfe
fcandalous, and malicious pamphlet, does not
contain any fuch enquiry as the title page proraifes, but is fluff'd full of virulent invcdives,
of a
patriot,
M—
—
—
:
———
falfe
fow
men and
between
miftruft
and
fcandalous,
grofs,
fa6ts,
reprefentations of
the
thinp^s,
K
—
fcurrilous
tending to
and people,
and contempt
government, and to impofe upon the
fenfe and underftanding of the public ; and the
whole calculated only to ferve your own bafe,
low, and interefted views, of a cheat and imto
promote
of
all
fedition, confufion,
pofture, contrary to the peace of our fovereign
lord the
«
.
and the honour of
his
crown and
dignity.
This
is
your
indiclment.
guilty, or not guilty
Prifoner.
CI.
Cr.
Prif.
CI.
Not
guilty
How
will
By
Cr.
and
God
What
fay
you,
?
upon my honour
you be try'd ?
my
?
country.
fend you a good deliverance.
Mr.
[4]
Mr.
Speakwell,
the
Au.
General.
My
lord
chief juftice, and you gentlemen of the jury. Its
with fome regret that we who have the honour to
be council for the crown, find ourfelves obliged by the duties of our place, to open a
charge againfl: the prifoner at the bar of fo
black, heinous and malignant a nature, confidering that his illuflrious birth, high ftation in
life, the hopes of the public, and the eminent
talents he is known to be poflefsM off, mud
naturally lead mankind to have expected a deportment quite different, than that with which
the feveral articles in the indiftment charge
him.
But my lord, thefe qualifications, thefe
high and fhining advantages, which in every
other cafe, would have ferv*d to prejudice the
court and jury in favour of the traverfor, mufl: as
matters now ftand, ferve only to aggravate his
guilt, and point out to the world, the depth of
that malice, with which he has been moved
to commit fuch unheard of and unparallel*d
crimes.
The
feveral articles,
indiflment againft
the' root of every
firft principles of
among mankind
:
my lord, contained
this
noble perlbn,
beat
at
unhinge the
confidence, and amity
focial
truft,
in the
ftrike
vertue,
down
the natural fences
of peaceable fociety, and beget in the place,
of a well order'd government, faiftion, difcord
and anarchy. They are crimes my lord, not
only malignant in their own nature, but void
of every ingredient that can palliate their monThey have not even the common
llrous guilt,
frailties
of
human
nature
to plead in their ex-
cufe, fince the fpirit that perpetrates fuch,
muft
Is]
have more of the dsmon, than the man.
It
was no ludden gad of unruly pafHon, no ungovernable appetite that prompted, but cool,
dchbrrate, and propence malice, without
any
other incentive, than unprovoked revenue,
or
any other view, but contempt of his *******
and malvolence to the pubhc.
The
is
charge
in
the indiclment,
my
lord chief
devided into three parts, one of which
the province of each of my brethren that
are
juftice,
is
council for the crown to fpeak to in particular
therefore I fhall not anticipate what they arc
to
fay, only in general fhall obferve,
that the firft
article
comprehends the fpring and fource of
and under it you will find ex-
the other two,
posM
the blackeft treachery; the mofl
moningratitude,
and the low fordid and
felfijh views of the traverfor :
you (hall fee him
in his natural (hnpe, the various
changes and
ftrous
transformations he has gone thro*, the means
he us'd to joftle himfelf into fignificancy, and
the
confidence of honed men ; there you will be
entertained with the views and
niotives he had
for every (hape he alTum'd, and in the
end you
will find him make flight of the
mofl: folemn
engagements, betray by turns parties of all
denominations, and at lad, conclude his malicious projeds with an open attack
upon the
pjace of the public,
and bidding defiance
to truth,
The
decency, and
2d, article
my
common
fenle.
op-ns the lad difguile, under which he has attempted
to abufe
the wodd.
You (hall lee him transforming
himfelt into the figure of an angel
of light,
while every fiend-like afl^e^ion, agitated his
lord,
viru-
l[6]
Ycu
virulent heart.
(hail fee
him
ftrip'd
borrow'd ornarrients, and difplay'd
colours of a mean defigning impoiter.
his
The
3d, article
my lord concludes
in
his charge,
and contains the part he a6led under
his patri-
ot mafqucrade, wherein the virulence artd
lignant tendency of a fcandalous
of
die
ma-
performance^'
on which lie and his confederates in iniquity pi-,
que themlelves, is fully expos'd ; his real defign in that
performance clearly difplay*d,'
truth refcucd from the falfc gloffes in which
he has invclop'd it, the mi ft, with whfch he has
endeavour'd to blind the public underftanding,
which he
difTipated, and men and meafures,
has grofly and malicioufly mifreprefented, fta*'
t^d in a clear and obvious light, and the whole
fopported with fuch ftrength of reafon, and
irrefragable evidence, that I believe the jury will
but too
f<.'e
We
much
caufe to find the prifoner guil-
endeavour gendemen of the
jury, todiredt our reafoning to your underItandings, and not to your paflions, and txpcd: no verdift, but what refults from a free
and impartial enquiry, and a thorough conviflion of the truth of the fads, with which we
And my lord, that
are to fupport our charge.
we may lofc as little- time as poffible, and cmbarafs the memories of the gendemen of the
ty.
fhall
jury,' as little as
we can, we Ihall confent, that
make his anfwer feparately to
the traverlbr fhall
each
article, as
they are open'd by his majefty*s
council.
Mr.
Clearfighi^
the Sol. Gen.
My
lord chief
and you gentlemen of the jury. Its
province, in this debate, to fpeak to the firft
juftice Truth,
my
article
[
7
]
article in the
indiament, which you have heard
open'd by Mr. Attorney General
It is comprehended m thele word? ^ that the prifoner
at
the
bar did maliciouOy,
and iraiteroufly, defert
thecaufeand colours, under which he was
enlifted, which caufe he was bound
in conlcience
to ferve with his life, honour
and eftate, &c
Dcfertion my lord, is not only
punifhablc by
the ftatute againft mutiny and
dcfertion,
but
by the principles of equity and juftice,
on
which
that ftatute
pofes
my
is
founded.
lord,
in
they
it
think
ftatute only fup-
truft,
confidence and faith aand that as the public trufts
the hands of certain
perfons
mongft mankind
their fafety
That
;
but juftice, to enforce the
natu!
obligations under which they
fuppofe eve,
ry man to acl, by the fanflion
of the fevereft
penalties.
Its not then that law
which pafles
annually, that conftitutes defertion
a crime Its
To in the nature of things;
and is a necelTary
and hrit principle in the law of
nature
ral
•
without fuppofing fuch a law,
poffible
its
For
morally im-
that lociety fhould fubfift
one moment
and mutual confidence
the promifes, engagements
and obligations
ot individuals to one another,
we fhould
in a few years degenerate
into tlie
Without
faith, fincerity,
m
meer
ftate
or
nature, without policy, laws,
government
peace or fecurity.
Therefore, tho-' we arc no[
to lead a proof,
that the prifoner at the
bar
was enlifted like a common foldier,
and attefted
by a juftice of the peace ; yet we
hope, from thnature of the
principles on
which
that
law IS founded, that the jury
will find him
under
[8]
under the meaning of that ftatute, entltuled,
jfin A5i fmr punijhing Mutiny and Defer iion^ when
we
lliall
make
that the obligations
it appear,
honefly and adherence to the caufe
to faith,
ftronger,
is much
in which he was engag'd,
than that which any military perfon can poffibly be fuppos'd to lye under.
I
think
my
be admitted,
lord chief juftice,
that
it
will
the greater the
eafily
truft,
the
greater the confidence repos'd in any one perfon by another, and the greater the views and
perfon, in confequence of
expectations of that
the difcharge of his duty,
the greater are his
and
obligations to fidelity,
the
odiouihefs of
the crime, and degrees of merited punilhment,
for a breach of that truft ought to be in juft
proportion to the
and confidence repOiM by
truft
the one, and the views and expedations of the
If
other.
who
is
then
my
Continually watch'd and
and
a
lord,
poor
foldicr,
fcarce fuffer*d out of his officer's fight,
trufted
with
no
is
fpur'd on to his duty,
more then
pt^rhaps
the guardianfhip of fome piffing-poft, and can
exped no more than fix-pence a day, or the
honour of being knocked on the head, isjuftly
punilhM with death for deferring his ufelcls
what punifhment does he deferve,
colours ;
who is trufted with the Iccrets o'i government, the high intrigues of ftate and the
partial diredtion
of a party
confidence of the greateft
:
Is
men
admitted to the
in the
kingdom,
without any formal bonds or obligations guarded with penalties, but on the bare prcfumption
that he is a man of honour, of common honeftv
[-9]
and actuated by the fenfe of the natural
nefty,
obligation
is
under, as a man, to preferve his
and
unviolated,
faith
What
is
he
integrity
his
punilhment does fuch
a
not only thus trufted, but
higheft hopes of honours,
by preferving that
by
fo
many
to
that the malignancy of fuch
bears
no proportion
foldier
other country,
mud
which he
a
er at the bar.
admit of non
laws
fertion
charged
this, gentle-
the cafe of the noble prifon-
is
He
common
have recourfe to fome
our
fince
the jury,
may
bound
affirm,
monflrous crime^
adequate to fuch monflrous guilt. Yet,
men of
is
a punifhment fuitable to
tO find
an offence,
fuch
and grandeur*
to the defertion of a
and that we
;
to himfelf the
believe I
I
?
who
deferve,
raifes
titles
fidelity,
obligations
man
untainted;
the
is
man whofe crime
of de-
indictment, isagravated by
in the
thefe exagerating circumftances of monftrous guilt.
But
my
tion
is
lord,
I
am
forry to fay, that his
attended with yet another
which renders him
that
lours
and
it is
J
is
not the
ftill
firft
he has done
it
defer-
circumflrance,
more criminal
-,
namely^
time he has deferted his cooften
become remarkable
;
is
an old offender
for nothing fo
as betraying every caufe he has
engaged
;
much,
and
irtj
treating with ingratitude every friend that fcrv*d»
countenanced, or trufted
him.
I
dare not
fay^
that this circumftance pays any compliment to the
prudence of thofe
who
trufted
C
him
Jaft,
and from
whom
[.,o]
whom
he has
To
But
lately deferted.
it
proves, that faith and fincerity, thofe
h
ingredients
honed man, and
infeparable from an
ceflary to the peace
of human
fociety,
hereafter,
are
and ought
certainly,
to the court
or profefllons, will
to be deceived
no longer on generals,
believe
be cozen'd, and
willing to
thofe that truft his promifes,
ne-
fo
are utter
who
ftrangers to his heart, and that thofe
him
certainly
:
but to dwell
muft beg leave to open
I
and jury, the State of the prifoners
cafe.
The
world heard very
little
of him,
years before the political demife of the E-
O— ^,
when he chanc'd
to differ with
a few
till
—
1
of
that great
about the eledlion of a Borough, which the
man
prilbner thought was the patrimony of his family
j
and from that time forward, became a zealous
ftickler againft that adminiftration,
r^ft
and like the
of the worthy members of that
long and
powerful oppofition, aflum'd to himfelf the cha-
mod
radler of a
never
difintered patriot
himfelf into any
joftle
But he could
:
any higher part of the oppofition
farce,
of an under-tool to the great leaders
glorious
independents
—
of
W
turn'd
r,
«,
on
made
him
in that
him
famous
as
than that
*till
(land with
their viflory over
ufe of
;
the
found them-
-r,
felves at a lofs for a candidate to
£—
W
or to
fignificance,
5
Mr.
n and
a ftop gap, and re-
Sefilons,
which put aperiod
II
[
]
we may fuppofe him
lord,
whatever were
he
views,
mis*d to the independents to ftick to
as
the
much
he had
firft
and voted
againft,
which he and
to
him
loft
for meafures, for
his popularity,
his independant eledors,
much
as they did
E
/
P
of
ge,
bition,
O
G
—
d.
However,
and the hopss of
had made himfelf
was
this,
his hero, the
The
inevitable.
the
his
am-
pretty
minifter
the whole
odious to
Bricifli
him
kept
till
-s
nation,
prifoner like a
faw the ftorm a coming, and that the
rat in a (hip,
veilcl
fo
him
hated
had promis*d him a
/
This
pieces.
which was the great object of
his fall
would
and the hearts of
who now
tight in that minifters intereft;
that
court
that
his rabble of independants,
have torn the preceeding minifter to
behaviour
em-
he
opportunity to defert, and became
a tool, as he was able,
rail*d
he
!
or a power
his feat in Parliament,
to betray the truft repos'd in him, than
bracM
pro*
party,
his
But mark the event
and patriot principles.
no fooner got
and that
confident,
private
his
my
Hitherto
riod to the Orford adminiftration.
he was on board
would certainly fink
of,
;
and therefore wifely thought of getting into another bottom
enemies of
hand
;
join'd with
the
his great Patron,
to thruft
him out
:
by
fecret
and
this
means he became
zealous for the prefent adminiftration,
been for the former
j
and public
lent his helping
as
as
he had
enter*d into all their views,
C
2
and
r
la
[
]
had a hand
and according to his fphere,
their public tranfadlions
in
depending on
ftill
;
al'i
their
generofuy, that fometime or other, they would
him with
gratifie
but
it,
I
do not
much
wilh'd for peerage
that he was
find
by
be conveniently ipar'd, and that he had
odium of
behaviour, rub'd off the
He
trimming condufl.
neral eledlion,
when he took
propofe to have
ihould promote his
—
of
would not be
which
as
reafon
'a-
then
fufficient to
borough
which
he had no
charafter
ftanding
tlie
now
he
intereft
was
fo
of his
little
weight of
intereft
in
of Mr.
miniftration,
i*
—
^v,
ranks of people,
E — q—
thoughts
The
of
for
1
the
where
own, and where
C
it
priioner
Intereft,
refpefled, that
England*
matters
they
the prifony
reprefents,
the return was carried againfl:
greateft
all
all
on the fame
up,
that city
/,
impradicable.
thing
fet
in
procure his return, for
drop'd
thty
common way,
that half the
hated and de<pifed,
the city
for
the
£
er at the bar, fo -obnoxious to
fo
to
that the adminiftration
eleiflion in
E—
in
into his head
it
but on examining their intereft
aftually found the
lord,
the laft ge-
till
himfelf re-ele(^ed
'-r\ that is in fhort,
his
former
his
my
remain*d
and believed,
th?S*firuation, trufted
of W—
j
promisM
aflually
prcfence where he was ftation'd could
his
'till
the
his'
notwithni
recommendation,:
him by one of
the*.
However, by the
and the friends of the adwere made up,
and the
prifoner
pnfoner admitted to his
feat
in the
houie, where
he had no fooner 6x*d himfelf, than the
ufe
firft
he made of his liberty of fpeech, was to abufe
thofe very friends whofe Intereft
had brought him
and that without any other provocation, than
there,
perhaps ftomaching that the adminiftration
fed to expofe themfelves,
down
to
whom
lord,
by offering
cram him
to
/^
throats of the citizens of
the
you may obferve defertion
tem, and betraying his friends,
he has to plead for
You
other men.
his
find
is
r,
Thus my
he was fo juftly obnoxious.
and predominant fm, treachery
refii-
original
his
his favourite
the
fyf-
only Merit
being diftinguifhed from
him a
zealous patriot
—
a noify factious independant, and then betraying
and
that intereft,
making fhipwreck of
pretenfions to either party or character
coming
And
:
the fawning tool, of the weakeft
•,
but even there,
ment, and linked to
capacity,
men
though
of his
own
be-
and moft
hated adminiftration that ever difgraced the
ti^ annals
his
all
in
5n-
his ele-
principles,
and genius, he could not be honeft, he
could not be fteady, he muft change, and betray the
traitor.
You
find
him
then join'd with a new. ad-,
miniftration, going along with them, in
all
their
meafures, whether weak, wicked, good, or indifferent, praifing,
their
forwarding, and applauding
fchemes for a feafon,
till
all
the itch of change
again caught him, and he thought he could d6,
mors
;
»4 ]
more
[
more
mifchief by once
fhifting
fides
fondly believing that the people of England are
fuch dupes,
they can willingly hood-wink
that
their underftandings, give the lye to their feeling,
and
and
truft in,
of
and pin
changhng
in nature
their confidence
their belief
:
that
on the
and
impofter,
groffeft
the
that
put
their other fenfes,
all
aflercions-
the
veryeft
he has thus changed,
he has thus betrayed every party in their
turns,
is
a fadt too notorious to need any proof j
we have afferted to his
for tho* he we know his talent of
moft glaring truths, yet we know
we dare admit
own confcfTion,
ialfifying the
the fads
thefe to be fo well founded,
ed, that
we
fo eafily
vouch-
are almoft aflured he cannot have
the effrontry to deny them
the jury
and
will
-,
thus
doubt not
far, I
unanimoufiy find him guilty,
of
nor the judges
faib
the charge;
this article, of
an adequate punifhment, according
to*
the fenfe,
meaning, and
in.
that cafe
made and
to
inflidl
^"he
My
Prif.
gentlemen
fpirit
of the
n
provided.
lord chief juftice,
black and difmal charge
openM
two
who
council^
and
me, by
againfl
have
not
feil'dja
as far as they have gone, to exagerate every
all
ous eloquence.
Were
imagine that
cir.^
the art of rhetoric and malici-.
ciimftance with
to
you
you have heard a very-
of the jury,
learned
flatutes,
this
it
poflible for
me,
my
lord,
court could be influenced by;
words
1ST
[
word5, ftrong affertions, and malicious glofles, 1
make any
ihould fcarce give myfelf the trouble to
of
I (hould defpair
reply.
myfelf with the
when
confcience, but
am
that I
to be
fa(5ls
alone,
enter
upon
dv^fence,
my own
judges, and
condemned
who
or acquitted
are to be determined
my own
confcious of
my
my
confider
I
tried,
by an Englijh jury,
and comfort
fuccefs,
approbation of
fiient
by
innocence, I
with abibiute affurance of
a fair hearing, and an impartial verdiut.
You are to confider, gentlemen of the jury,
who are the profecutors ; v/ho are the perfons
who fpirit up this profecution. They are my
lord,
who
the two brothers,
cure
the tools of
the 'minift^rs,
in their
tions, while a perfon in
prchenfions enough to
ing enough
of
fure
left to
their
;
they are
think they cannot be
acquir'd,
ill
power
fe-
and worfe merited Sta-
England
lives,
who has
ap-
fee thro* their difguifes, feel-
be fenfible of the heavy
admin iftration,
or
pref^
honefty, and
courage enough to expofe to public view, the ma-
and the weaknefe and
lignancy of their principles,
wickednefs of their meafures.
thai has brought
men
my
B.it I
efceem
me
my
my
is
profecution
country,
the caufe of freedom.
\t
my
lord,
this gentle-
with thefc ignominious
when
fufferings meritorious,
that I fufFcr for
ibr-
to this bar;
that has loaded
bonds.
and
me
It is this
and
The
am
an honour*
I
confider
perlecuted
queftion
now
in
iflue
i6
[
my
ilTue,
lord
is,
]
not whether
Hiould be
i
pu*-
nilhed, but whether the people of England fhould
be
free
whether they Ihould be reftored to their
j
former
liberty,
and
their fenfe,
undcrftanding,
or remain for ever flaves to a few defigning men,
and have
their eyes fhut againft
and
their meafures,
to
the weight
feel
Its true
my lord,
•,
I
am
and a long
but ftrip them of law cant
but that
to,
when
at a time
to think they
had a right
to
fecret defigns
lift
;
man:
neft
my
fervice,
and ex-
the honour,
againft
I
is
to ferve
to
my
preferable to
it,
the nature, the true nature of the deferti^
be one of their creating
;
to Society, are
to all other obligations,
with,
was when
whatever.
have been guilty of; which
ligations
it
Yes
to every ho-
obligations
other private engagements
This
On
them, but
my
upon me
and
they were pleas*d
became obnoxious
and when
country call'd
all
true, I left
its
meafures
their
of
the pre-
I left
peace, and independency of a free People.
Gentlemen
not
charg*d with defertion,
fent miniftry,
their
as
fo,
of their opprefTion.
what do they amount
pos*d
weaknefsof
numb'd
their fenfes
breach of contradV, infidelity,
deadly crimes
the
aflift,
confcience I
for I
I
and paramount
could
or countenance thofe,
believed
to
be
crime, muft
apprehend the ob-
prior,
and
if a
not
whom
in
herd
my
leagued together
for
[i7l
for
it's
without denying that great and
deft ru6lion,
law of nature, and the force of thofe obligati-
firft
ons which keep fociety together.
faw their defigns, learnt
I
became mafter of
whole
fo black,
chief to you,
my
•,
fo
faw
the
much
mif-
I
dear country men, that
perfonal friend fliip,
all
principles
their
and pregnant with
my
titles,
and preferment.
forgot
I
counted
all
power,
hopes of honour,
views,
all
I
party attachments,
all
felfifh
and
views,
their
them
all
as
nothing, and exchanged them willingly for court
difgrace, obloquy,
and contempt: nay,
and
fecution, for thefe bonds,
can be the
if I
up
iliall
for this
pro-
glory in them,
inftrumental in roufing you
leaft
to a thorough feeling of your wrongs, and a
jufl:
fenfeof the value of liberty, peace and pknty:
For
if I
can once perfuade you to
and
fay,
upon
but truth
I
may
with
we
all
*,
I
my
honour,
make no
I
doubt, but by your means,
profecutor
and then,
;
thofe fcenes of pleafure, joy,
you now look upon
as
But then you
tafte
my
and plenty, which
the dreams of viuonary
will
really feel
themj and enjoy them,
but acquit me,
fet
me
countrymen,
of the old golden age, and
(hall fee the return
them,
what
nothir.g
be enabled to change places and conditions
my
poets.
bi:lieve
I (hall utter
free,
my directions.
D
them,
if
fee
you will
and engage to follow
18]
r
Butj gentlemen,
impofTible that the council'
it is
for the crown can be
their charge about defertion
ceeded their
commifllon,
fhew how they can
you
are to confider
;
they have either ex-
or plac'd
who
lifted in all the different
now
not
my
me
Lord,
them hang up
am
if I
why
men who have been
corps of the nation, and
odly does
to charge and try
let
for
•,
are their employers,
it
tuckt
the nation of fo
without
as profecutors
clear themfelves
all
deferters,
up
many
for
as
in
then found in them,
for the very crime,
which thty could not appear
them,
there, to
efcaps punifhment by their keeping
How
a body.
it
con trad id ions
reconcile
a feled committee of deferters,
only
the ^rft article of
ferious in
?
Let
of that crime
and
company,
thefi
I
5
care
fince freeing
have taken fan«5luary un-
der their colours, would be fo great a blcfling, that
a
man
could not throw away his
advantage,
for the
than
mob.
to
life
by procuring fuch
In
greater
a holHday
a word, gentlemen, if you
think liberty, fenfe, and underftanding, are
worth your having,
would beftow
If
you
you
thefe bleflings
every
on you
is
man
that
your enemy.
are in love with your prefent fituation,
are determined
feeling,
and that
not
and
will
not
to
be blind,
own
that
I
if
and without
can
fee,
feel
do
then indeed you may punilh me,
for yourfelves
and find me guilty of defertion; but I hope you
and underftand better
for you,
than you can
•,
are
[ 19 ]
gone with madnefs,
are not quite (o far
fufe
me
ral,
and therefore
the
ar[icle
firfl:
Mr.
of
I fhall
upon
which
muft take the
Before,
afligned
is
my
liberty,
curfory remarks, on
offered
what
faid
peared to
him
greeable
to
main longer
his party,
to
fiiould
of
room
that
obligations to
lord,
he owns,
he could not, a*
his
country
and that every
Lord,
indi-
much
charge-
Were
to
doubt
if
falfhood,
its
own,
I
a very juft pica
defertion, there
any hand
in his
not the
is
Icaft
But
:
room
defedion from that party.
him, gentlemen,
:
confider him,
firft
my
D
to
had
Con_
has been opened by
as
brother council, defcrting
another
I
you confider the time and manner
believe that confcience, or the public good,
fider
re-
crime of defertion as he.
think he had urged
his
my
part of his allegation true, or had he left
us any
my
that
a few
has juft
their meafures ap-
vidual of the adminiftration, are as
firft
make
think,
this,
till
in their fociety,
able, with the
to fpeak
fince as he alledgea,
fo iniquitous,
his
me
lord chief juftice,
I
amounts to
in his defertion,
he did not leave
the
my Lord
the traverfor
his defence.
in
what he has
and glories
defence, to
that part of the charge againft the
and you gentlemen of the jury,
now
to re-
this terrible indictment.
prifoner at the bar,
I
my
here reft
Serjeant Ckar-Bouht.
I enter
to,
as
the honour of being your Perceiver gene-
my
one party, and then
lord, a ftrcnuous ad-
2
vocatc
all
niftration
confider
:
ed with their
him
moft
early,
and wtH acquaint-
and yet promoting
fecrets,
:
ftretch of the
all
power of
that party, to ob-
and the very next day, read-
backwards, and contradicting and
his prayers
unfaying
he had formerly faid in the fame place
for years together
;
and you can fcarce doubt, but he
was acfluatedbya more malignant
No, my
of the public good.
fpirit,
lord,
qoveries long before
long
much
have owed
to
Icls
their
to
his
ed
are at
to
all true,
their
Its
is
he would have
to their intereft,
plain
fhortly to
he muft have come
from
i
much
if
then, he deferves
he did
all
fooner than
fo,
earlier
there
ma-
the date of
and did not defert
that his malice has fuggefted,
punifhment due to the betrayer of his coun-
and
if
he did not difcover them at the period
they are Giid to happen, he could have no
light,
the
be open-
much
knowledge, have difcovered
his dcfcrtipn
ti:y ;
his dif.
rhe Court, that if the fads there alledged,
lio-nant tendency,
as the
feat
power.
fcandalous narrative which
ro
all
he could never have joined
the combination, and
in
fcorned
•,
than that
had that been
his motive, he muft have difcovered
lb
thofe
all
as
tain his prefent feat,
ing
him
now fo virulently calumniates confiufmg the intereft and the ut-
fchemes, he
der
admi-
the meafures of the prefent
vocate, for
no clew
to
new
the labyrinth at the precife time
of his defeftion, and confequently no motive for fo
ireach-
[21
]
treacherous and difengenuous
As
to the
on condition
confenting to be tuck*d up,
on
deferters
certam none
in the
are hang*d.
all fides
fible to find
one of them
with the traverfor.
led us to thofe
ferters,
his cafe
;
they
;
and
left
left
he would point out
them when
de-
it
became
fa6li-
their meafures plainly
and not by
manifeftly,
as
none of them in
when
a party
impof-
enquiry has
fcandalous
but they are thank God,
they
its
circumftances
in fimilar
The
whom
I
adminiftration would be
afraid of fubfcribing to the terms; fince
tended to the deftruflion of
all
hi?
and the con-
part of his plea,
lafl:
he has made,
ceflion
ous
he
aded.
fince
am
a part as
ftrain'd
loyalty in the Subje(5l, and
induflion,
peace in Society,
all
all
order and fub-
They did not flea!
their own power to get
ordination in government.
from
their party,
and
into feats to abufe
their diflatisfaftion
ufe
them.
No
I
they proclalm'd
at their meafures,
at the
fame
time that they preferv*d the utmoft decency, to
theperfonsof thole whofe party they
of them mfy lord,
in particular,
gave countenance and weight
caufe
;
left.
One
whofe prefence
to their
defponding
whofe known honour, and unimpeachM
veracity, gave
them reputation with the
public,
and whofe dcfcdion from them, has reduced them
to defpair, and the contempt of all honefl: men,
was
fo
far
from deferting
that caufe,
bad,
as
it
v;as
;
22
[
]
was, in the treacherous clandefline manner,
traverfor left every party he
many
for thefe
No,
years paft.
accepted of his place
in the
the
engagM
has been
in
nobleman
that
adminiftration, with
the confent and approbation of his friends in the
them openly, and
oppofition, and confuked with
avowedly
every meafure he confented to
in
till
;
the party grew fo weak, and their fchemes fo
lignant, that
no man of honefty coujd keep mea-
them
fgres with
;
and
heads, to defire that
the
This
bellion.
they took
till
into their
it
he ihould throw up
meerly
and quit the court,
price, juft at
ma-
his places,
breaking out of the
firft
of
defire
laft re-
pro-
could not
theirs,
ca-
their
to' gratifie
'ceed from any obj^dion to the meafures that nq'
bleman had countenanc'd, becaufe
confented to,
folution to diftrefs his majcfties
tliac
moft
nations
critical
jundure, and
to the
liberty,
had
thefe they
and approvM of; but to a
fix*d
re-
government,
at
to
make
fale
of the
enemies of the
avov/cd
conftitution, without any Stipulation, or fo
much
of the
lives,
as a frail
promife
properties,
Then
For the prefervation
and independency of a
nobleman
indeed, that
fused to
fandifie
by
his
left
free
people.
them, and
countenance,
the
re-
wild
fchemes of the enemies of the public tranquility
the real fource of
and
this
dal,
which the
is
traverfor *
tious hirelings of
all
the virulent fcan-
and the
reft
the party, havefo
of the fedi-
induftrioufly
propogated
• See the Exaaiinaiion
p.
17.
[23]
propogated againft a charaftcr, proof
agsintt ali
the little arts of malice and
impotent revenge.
Even
the
traclor
is
Broad Bottoms, againft
fo fevere,
whom
when they
left
this
dei
their party
they did
.t openly, and
according to his own account of things, tho' grofly
mifreprefented, yet
ftew'd that places and power
were not the fole
motive of their oppofition,
or preferment, the
only object of their
wi(bes.
rale they
thmg
for
the people,
of meafures,
as well
and
as
for a tub to the vulgar,
which Aew'd at
their
But
gone
No, by
had honefty enough to
leaft,
principles,
the'
to
men.
his
own
ftipulate
infift
fomeupon achanae
They
even artickd
and peace to the nation,
that they had not
deliried
they had
left
their party
my
lord, in all the changes
the
thro', in all the Ihapes
traverfor has
he has afium'd,
we
no account of any (hew of
zeal for the peo
pie, but when out of
power, or when he
wanted
to deftroy the government.
No, when we
find
find
him
leaving old friends, and
joining a court,
fee him enter himfelf.
Soul and
Body,
fervice,
without fo
much
tub for his friends the
ver loft light of his
ronet for
lerters,
as Stipulating
mob;
we
into their
an empty
tho' I believe
he ne
favourite objeft, a
hitifi co'
himfelf.
traitors
Therefore my lord,
and impofters are to
be
if
de-
tuck'd
up, I'm afraid the traverfor
nnift infallibly
grace
the triple tree;
for
I'm fare he -is a delerter
24
[
from
of a different predicament
ferter
now
1
living:
But
time for me,
*cis
all
my
mortals
Lord, to
fpeak to the fecond article of the charge in the
indi(5lment, contained in thefe words, that he the
" did
traverfor
guife or mafquerade
"
the charader of a
" tending
•*
to
" upon many of
" and
There
and
a
it
ted
be
?
much
affume
more
fo
fa-
treachery,
That he has
is
had
he
he has
afllim.ed
no
title
only to (how the
alTuming
in
5
openly a-
to
it,
and
that character.
lord, the traverfor, in his late celebra-
addrefs-to
the public, appeared
natural fhape, and
made
fuch an
in the introdu6lion as this
"
"
to
in
even tho* for
cloak for
a
now
lord,
hardly need to bring any proof
defign
that
Had, my
how
our bufinefs than
;
malicious
fubjectsj
money, peace,
his defence to the firft article,
he has, in
vowed
we
all forts,
it
as
and impofture
fhape,
my
ftatutes,
muft
charadter,
fedition
their
diverfion,
than
punilhable
next,
of
impofe
to
liege
of
loyalty.
are feveral
amufement
this
Majefty's
againft difguifes of
force,
cred
endeavour
did
his
" common-fenfe, and
called
under which pre-
the natural deformity
them
cheat
to
certain dif-
commonly
habit,
patriot,
conceal
countenance,
his
and aflbme a
contrive
*'
tlemen, a retainer to
all
:
**
I
in his
own
acknowledgment
have been, gen-
parties that have
ap-
peared amongft you for thefe feveral years
;
I
have
[2S]
**
have betrayed and deferted each
*'
and had. no other view
"
"
tain a iioronet
did but to ob-
all I
have now deferred the prefent
I
j
in
their turn,
in
adminiftration, and as you muft fuppofe,
'*
am
I
acquainted with fome of their fecrets, fo out of
" pure regard
and
to you,
C
curry favour with
to
**
a would-be
"
foon in their power to ferve me,
**
expofe
all
four
who
years
and
paft,
laft
it
intend to
I
you,
againft
contriving
or five
wi(h to have
I
and
villanous defigns, they,
the
" have been
*'
t,
I,
for thefe
though
I
" have formerly noiorioufly abufed your confi" dence, and betrayed the great truft you rcpof" ed in me, and though you look upon me as
*'
*****
a moft defigning fdlf interefted
" hope you
*'
ings,
**
your
believe
" even though
ed common
" motl glaring
my
me
lord,
I
and
fenfe,
give the
evidence of
his
he muft have
fcrve.
ing
-,
it,
and
loft
its
lye
weight
the
to
fcr.f^s,"
I
appearance with
his
the
aim,
is Ji*
every
performance,
author, as
But he was too wife
therefore that he
acquire fome
falhion-
every word of which
man would have thrown by
and looked upon
your
ail
had he made
fail-
management,
Ihould con.tradid old
fuch an introdudlion,
teraly true,
my
to
my
I
and fubmic
an oracle,
as
underftandings
**
fay,
your eyes againft
will fhut
yet
;
for fuch a
both deproceed-
might gain a hearing, and
from the
E
prejudice
every
man
26]
[
man
has to the bare pretences of pairiotifm,
conceals the cloven foot
difguifes his
;
own
he
hide-
ous countenance, and would hipocritically pafs up-
on you
honefl and zealous patriot,
for a fteady,
and under
that chara<5ler
eft falfehood for
Sterling
we have
him of
ftrip'd
would put off the
But
Truth.
that pretence,
grofs-
my
lord,
we have
prov'd him a thorough pac'd, harden'd, defigning deferter from
now
a retainer to the very
on,
the
age,
Rump
dreggs, fcum and
my
no eafy matter
judge who
to
filth
of the oppofiti-
of the comjmon
in this Ifland.
lord, in this diffembling
really
is
a
thing to difcover
that Epithet.
The
to his principles
in all his adions.
is
has
is
no fuch
ever Steady
fome known and avow'd
the public good,
It
its
not defcrving of
real patriot is for
;
maxim founded on
who
and
patriot,
truly merits the glorious Epithet; but
difficult
and
nation,
now remain
Ihoar of all parties, that
Its
in the
parties
all
for his
meafures, not
guide
men he
qua-
relswithi he never adopts the fibolcthofa party,
and a King may be found
Turkey^
as foon as
a patriot in
fadion, or fedition.
fuch a
man may
find
or a Siork in
in Venice,
Whatever
the
Purlieus of
faults
my
with the adminiftration, or
their meafures, whatever public grievances he
complain
onal way.
of,
lord,
he feeks redrefs only
Never appeals
the rabble to his aflillance
to
;
the
may
in a cenflituti-
mob, or
calls
but in all he does,
whe-
(
[27]
whether he approves or difapproves, he preferves
the
of governmenr, and does no-
principle
firft
thing to deftroy the harmony that ought to fubfill
between the r^veral branches of the leglQature,
or undermine that confidence between
and people,
fo neceflary
of the whole
fociety.
thing of this
fpirit in
his performances
my
lord,
we
find no-
the prifoner at the bar, or
we
i
mutual happinefs
to the
But,
the king
him
find
party to party, and
fludluating
conftant to nothing but
dition, confufion, and the hopes of preferment
fee
him
fe-
we
:
aflfuming falfe charaflers, fetting out on
drawing
principles,
falfe
from
d^ducftions,
falfe
and
running a continued chace of impofition, abfurdities,
and contradiflions
:
we
fee
him exaggera-
ting ignorance into villainy, and purfuing perfonal
charafters with virulence and malice, calum-
niating meafures with grofs and
tions,
and
of
inftead
promoting
ftrengthening
the hands
ment, we
him throwing
fee
and
the unthinking,
light,
tible
and
his aflfociates,
archy
and
appealing
but,
my
lord,
to
rabble,
begging them
in
the
peace,
and
govcrrn-
of
the
eyes
the
pafllons
reprcfenting
moft contempto
afTift
him,
reducing every thing to an-
confufion.
even amongfl:
duft in
Jep;i{lature in the
and
reprefenta-
of eftablilhed
and prejudices of a blinded
every part of the
falfe
There may be
rumps
of
the
we muft be more
patriots,
oppofition
blind
than
the
traverfor
[28]
traverfor can pofllbly luppofe us,
if
we
him
allow
to have any pretenfions to that diftinguifhing Epi-
my
hope the jury
will
guilty of this article of the charge,
and
Therefore,
thet.
him
find
lord, I
that the court will corifider
in his
punifhment
mean-
and within the
and impofter,
as a cheat
him
ing of the ftatutes in that cafe
made and pro-
vided.
My
Mr. Sergeant Puzzle.
lord chief juftice^
of council for the noble
1 have the
honour
prifoner at
the bar, and muft obferve
fhip, that
my
no very
its
guifh the real from
is
eafier
than
who
fore,
my
by much
by
matter to diftin-
eafy
the counterfeit patriot
far to fay,
who
and that
does not deferve,
we have by
lord,
their
own
;
there-
admiiTion,
the mofl: difficult fide of the argument,
i
but as that charader flows from the
affeflions of the heart,
of the head, of which
other court on
than
tbe claimant
;
its
judgment on
fl:rength
impofllble this or any
judge, by any other
earth can
gueflfes,
we
and not from the
founded on the adions of
are willing that our clients title
to that chara<fber fiiould fl:and or
tial
;
actually has a right to that epithet
tho' the bfft
medium
to your lord-
brother fergeant has very judicioufly
obfcrved, that
it
to be
his atflions
;
fall
by an impar-
but as they have faid
nothing on that fubjed, but a great deal of railing
about his defertion, which has been fufficiently re-
argued by the learned travefor
himfelf,
we
fhall
permit
29]
[
permit them
go on
to
charge, to which
a prelude
cucion
J
;
all
to the
part of theip
laH:
the proceeding hitherto
for in that lies the fojrce
the fecrets, the malicious
of
is
but
this profc-
and malignant
fchemes there expofed to public view, are what wrings
the party to the heart,
Had
them whmce.
and
kept
facredly
that's the fore that
their
traiterous
againft the public, the noble
been put to
this trouble.
we hope no man
as
has
and
his defertion
entitle
him
prifoner had never
doubt, after our client
vouched
ferioufly
muft
them,
appear meritorious,
to the chara(5ier of a patriot,
the profecutors
artifice, to
contrivances
If thefe are found true,
will
folemnly and
fo
we hope
makes
he deferted a thoufind times,
make
endeavour,
it
by
all
their
\;^it
tho*
and
probavit of a quite different
difpofition.
Mr. Sergeant
My
Cknchit.
and you gentlemen of the jury,
my
lord chief juflice,
I
think
I
fee
in
brother Puzzled countenance the fecrct exulta-
tion of his heart, at the lucky
he thinks he has
charge
hit off his
manner
anfwer
to
in
which
our fecond
but I hope to bring him a peg lower behave done with hiir, and convince him,
that we have (o much of our fenfes yet remaininofore
•,
I
as to think
now
in
thief
.,
my
no,
impoffible that the famous pamphlec
hand could be produflive of any mif-
it
the cheat
is
too ilale, the colouring
foogrofs, and the falacies v/ith which
it
abounds
TOO
;
[
30
]
too vifible, to efcape the notice of any one arrived
He
to the exercife of reafon.
values his client's
parts too
much, fuppofes him more
he really
is,
and the generality of
ignorant than the Hotentoteh.^
that the profecution proceeds
no,
its
that he
of
done
for mifchicfs
of
adions
his
brought before you, and thefe are
is
and
fo confpicuous in
them
as fo
many
fo
every
wretched piece, that barely reading
this
difcovers
than
more
he can fuppofe
for the malice, the intention
flagrantly malignant,
line
if
fignificant
this nation
it,
felf-evident propofitions.
We need not torture his fentiments to extort malice,
falfhood, fedition, and
No,
out of them.
contempt of truth or order
thefe are apparent,
would puzzle the forbon
common
In the
fenfe out
firft
artifices
this
it
cxtrad: one grain of
of the monftrous bundle.
my lord chief juftice,
place,
ment fuppofes
to
though
the Indi<5l-
pretence to Patriotifm one of the
he ufed, one of the
falfe
pretences by which
he endeavoured to impofe upon the public, and cheat
the unthinking of their money, loyalty, and under{landing, and fubfumes that he pretended to write
a pamphlet, entituled, an Enquiry
of the two
B
rs,
the charailer of rhe
is
charged
as a cheat,
terfeit wares,
my
Lord, we
though
title
it
into the
Condu^
does not anfwer
page, and therefore he
putting off fdfe and coun-
bafe mettle for real bullion.
(hall
which he pretends
prove to you, that
to entide,
An
this
Now,
book^
Enquiry, ^c. has
no
[31
no
the
to
relation
]
two Brothers, and may
as
properly be called, an enquiry into the conduct
and
of
principles, of the Traverfor himfelf, the
(j
/,
concerned
mod
or any other perfon, the
the adminiftration of public
in
during the chronological period of
E—
remotely
affairs,
book
his
for
;
he does not reprefent the brothers in their natural
but has bellowed on them a place and
fituation,
degree of power in the adminiftration, which exifts
in his own brain ; and having
man of ftraw, he puffs, blows, and fumes
creature of his own Imagination, making,
no where but
thus raifed a
at the
his readers all the while believe
twoB
man on
rs,
earth could fuppofe
concerned
my
he
is
them
in
but to be more explicit.
;
pelting the
though, without an infcription, no
any meafure
He fets
lord, with this falfe fuppofition that
Brothers,
have
fince the cefTion of the
been
ftration
and
fole
of public
affairs
be more notorioufly
abfolute
;
E—
in
1
out
the two
—
of
the
^,
admini-
than which nothing can
falfe,
as
great
part of that
time the traverfors immortal hero was feated at
the
helm,
and
fince
his
merited
difgrace,
the
Adminiftration, has been piec'd and patch'd by
draughts from
this nation
;
reprefenting
all
the parties that infcft the peace of
and now wears a motly complexion,
all
the colours in the rainbow,
compofed of men
poffefled
of as
many
and
is
different
views and principles, as there are religions in
Am-
Jlerdmi
32
t
felf,
though with a different view, given us
ftances through
how much
difference
How
their councils.
and
their fentiments,
in
had upon the
then,
in-
performance,
the whole of this
they differed
the influence that
of
]
This the traverfor knew, and has him-
fierdam.
my
rcfult
lord, can the
public judge of the principles of the two Brothers,
from the meafures followed by the
fo odly
joint
body of
compofed a machine, or from the effeds
of thefe meafures on the public peace and honour
of the nation
?
It is
impofTible they can at
whether good or bad,
thefe meafures,
luccefsful or abortive,
may
all
for
;
whether
be the determination of a
may have entered
They might even have confented to
majority, againfl which they
their negative.
the weakefl of thefe meafures, as the beft they had
influence
to extort
from the jarring decifion of
their differing colleagues
;
thing the examiner has brought
In a word,
contrary.
may
all this
my
be, for
any
proof of the
in
lord, in order to
have
given the public a clear view of the principles of the
two
B
—
rs,
he ought to have pointed out meafures
to which they had confented as the refult of their
principles,
by the
and
to
necefllty
without, or the
own
which they were neither forced
of times, the violence of fadlion
jars,
ignorance, or difference of
their colleagues within doors.
had performed the promife of
the natioi> had then
If he
had done
fo,
his title page,
known whom
to curfe,
he
and
and
whom
[33
whom
b'Jt
as
it is,
they are
real
as
unlefs they believe a
much
to feek
views of the two
fonable dodlrine, I
B
-
know
to
That
this
is
the
re?;
take the liberty to reft
traverfor himfelf,
words " from
page 3 3 has thefe
" E
of
It
rs.
happinefs
grofs fallhood,
ever,
as
fliall
upon the evidence of the
"
]
to praife, for their miferies or
who
in
the removal of the
to the clofe of the year 1744,
was but natural for the pafTion of the time?,
**
the variety of the tranfaclions, the infinite arts
**
that were ufed
*'
whkrh do not immediately, fomctimes never,
*'
come
to
into public
" whom to fix, as
" motly and mix'd
*'
terval."
my
If,
tion, in the
difguife
view
the truth of fa6ls,
a doubt on
create
to
author of any one
Lord,
motly adminiftra-
a
G
adminiftration
ftill
and decompounded,
refp€(5t
fure
an
compounded
varioufly
as has certainly
to the conducl
Wame
and the degree of
titled to, for the
been the ca}^
cf the
two
ihcy are in-
public mifcarriages which the tra-
verfor complains of.
He
fhewn you
in this
part of
that the miniftry
if,
acl,
period, muft create at leaft as great a
doubt with
rs,
more
from the
/,
imputation of the guilt of any one
B
the
in
period mentioned, was fufficient to
create a doubt, and fcreen a
fince that
a5l^
adminiftration during the in-
himfelf,
performance,
F
if you
had
jars
my
lord,
has
can believe any
and difference^,
and
—
34
[
and that the
B
]
-rs were
forcibly obliged to de-
part both from ihcir principles, and his pretended
engagements,
jrolleagues
B
in
The
:
order to
nation
fome of
gratify
has
feen even
ing a party of the divided miniftry.
to
two
the
themfelves differing, and each head-
rs
any
then with
their
fliew
make every
pofliblc
Is it
of reafon or common-fenfe,
every
meafure,
intrigue,
every
turn of party policy, to be the effeft of the contrivance
and influence of any one, or two men,
which he adopted
G
/,
ro
in
No, but the doftrine
fucU an adminiftration?
excufe the
condud of
would have fuperfeded the whole of
a
his
performance, and would have pointed out to the
people the true fource of their misfortunes,
— rs,
two B
plied to the
and he had
if
loft the
ap-
op-
portunity of calumniating the moft eminent chara.clers in
the nation.
Had
he admitted that in an
adminiftration fo complexion'd,
to fix
it
on the author of any one meafure, he knew
the next queftlon a fagacious
reader' would
would be by what means, by whofe
what were
truft
was impofiible
his
the arts ufed to
government
perfons that
in
compel
influence,
his
afk,
and
majefty to
fuch disjointed
might be fattened together
hands,
like the
materials in Nebuchadnezor*s image, but never in«
timately united,
and from
whom no
meafures
could be expe(5ted, either wife, vigorous, or fteady
?
The
35]
[
The
was aware,
traverfor
my
Lord, that a
anfwer to fuch a queftion, would have torn up
juft
his
oppofing fcheme root and branch, and furnifhed
pubHc with
the
a fovereign antidote
poifon contained in
the feditious fpeeches and
all
faflious pretenfions of the traverfor,
he knew,
aflTociate,
againlt the
my
and
his
rump
Lord, that the true an-
fwer to that queftion would have been thus, that
fuch
men
as he, to ferve their
had found means by
writings as this in
own
inrerefted views,
and fuch
juft fuch condufl,
my
hand, and by
fuch pre*
jufl:
tenfions to zeal and public fpirit, to raife
up an
oppofition againft a great minifter, whofe place
they coveted to fupply
and
;
and appear
their purpofe,
order to
in
remarkable
effecft
by the
ftrength of their numbers, they aflbciated with parties
of
all
denominations, and took the affiftance
Nonjurors, Whigs, Tories,
of Jacobites,
tors,
Rebels, Turks, Jews, and
ranks of men,
who had
either
Infidels,
power or
Trai-
and
all
will to
diftrefs the meafures of his Maje(ly*s government,
however wicked, malicious,
views and motives were
agreeing
all
vernment,
nifter
in
;
in
;
or malignant their
that this
one view, %nx. to
at lad prevailed
medley of men
diftrefs the
go-
and diPiodged the mi-
but the point which kept the hellifh chain
fo long,
and
ihey from that
fo clofe
moment
F
union being once gained,
fplic
2
into their
firft
com-
ponent
[
ponent principles
of
their fide,
of
it
;
power to
let
was neceflary
the
in
to
to
comply with feme
open the floodgate of
throng, without
their views, or principles,
of. the
]
but as they had yet the people
demands, and
their
36
regard to
hoping that the paflion
time fubfiding, and the jars that woLiId ne-
cefiarily
happen among themfelves, might fometime
gr other purge the dregs to the bottom, and permit
the channel of government once
more
to run pure
j
but the temper of the times cooling but flowly,
and
infinite arts
being ufed to keep up the flame,
by thofe who could
call,
hindered
not. get
humour
peccant
the
fuch as
in at the
firfl:
kept
fl:ill
general
afloat,
had the honour of
their
and
fo-
vercign, and the peace and fecurity of their country
at heart,
from purging the clean from the unclean.
Had
my
he,
anfwer to fuch ^
lord, given fuch an
qucftion, he could
not have had the impudence
which begot fad ion,
to purfue the fame meafures
which U'got a motly adminiftration, who con-
duced
a war weakly,
and were obliged to con-
clude a pcace agreeable to the
tile
end of the chapter.
But,
the
of their con-
one abfurdjry naturally begets another,
duct-, for
to
rofl:
my
two B
abiblute
in
likewife the
lord, fuppofe for
rs
the
are really,
argument
fake,
that
and have alwaysbeen
adminjfiration
;
let
us fuppofe
war weakly conduced, and the peacq
as
37
[
as
bad
my
lord,
as
it
was
]
can
traverfor
the
neceflfary for
ced feme proof that thefe
fuggeft
him
to
events
yet
it,
have produ-
happened by
dcfign, that the meafures of the war, and the articles
of peace, were the refult of wicked views,
and not of ignorance,
better,
and had
it
in their
upon them and
may
fad: they
fures
to have prevented
made an unexceptionable
fuch a proof, the people
fools.
power
But
knew
complainM of during the war, and
the misfortunes
to have
they actually
that
may
them
punifti
deferve only
my
lord,
peace.
Without
be tempted to look
when
in
contemnM
as
as knaves,
to
be
he only fuppofes the mea-
weak, and from thence concludes them wic-
ked, which
is
a conclufion that can by no
means
follows from the premifes; he has indeed hinted
at the motives that (hould, in his opinion, induce
them
fuch a
to
condudl,
meafijres of their rival,
gagements
lord,
we
to
viz.
and to perform
no influence upon
you that
their
the
their en-
But
my
their rival could
have
the Broad Bottom
(hall fiiew
to difcredit
allies.
condud, and
that they
were under no fuch engagements to ruin the war
as he malicioufly fuggefts.
In the
rival,
firfl:
the
place,
my
lord, as to their fuppofed
hero of the romance, to fuppofe him
influencing the meafures of the miniftryj or in-
deed
:
38
t
]
deed of any rational creature,
of greater
fignificancc
may
charaAer that
fuppofing him
is
he
than
really
be gathered of him from
traverfor, can in any meafufe warrant
account of him,
of
this great
parties, has
all
or the
is,
man
;
been cozened and difgraced by
influence, that
of,
weak
fo
my
he could get but one poor lord, who
as to
own
lord, that
contrary to
his
avowed
his native country,
man
any
;
to
it
poflible
the
to
intereft,
a part
contrary to
principles,
meerly to
already odious beyond
parifon
Is
man would ad
honour
and the peace and independency of
of his mailer,
a
himfelf willing to be the tool
and apparent
his real
reflect
all
odium upon
degrees of com-
throw water upon a drowned
rat,
blacken a charafter blacker than darknefs
no
my
lord, a
man who
could
ad
muft be mad beyond the cure of
fit
only for
lord,
to
it
ad
change
a
cell
was not the
fuch
ha-
weight, or
little
or link with fuch a fcare-crow.
then,
is
and curfed by the whole body of
defpifed,
the people, and poficfTed of fo
was
hi5^
has been the dupe
the loweft arts of cunning and dilTimulation,
ted,
tiie
by
for
in
bedlam.
intereft of
a part, unlefs
places with
their
the
itfelf:
fuch a
hellebore,
Thus
two
then,
B
and
parr,
and
my
rs
they were willing to
defpicable
rival,
and
Hiake hands with infamy and popular contempt
If rhey were
aduated by any of thofe principles
that
[
that give
life
to
39]
human
were in
adlions, if they
love with their places, and wiQied for the counte-
nance of their power
if
;
they coveted royal
fa-
vour, or popular applaufe, they could not defignat lead
edly,
E—
with
a6t
/,
they muft do
it
verfor points out other motives
produce
fo unnatural
In the next place,
intereft, as they
into fuch
an
honour,
fo, till
the rra-
ftrong enough to
effed:.
my
lord, as
it
was not their
it is
G
/
my
to
engagements with the Broad Bot*
lord, that in the
mance he
•
impofTihle that they could
tomsy as the traverfor malicioufly fuggefts.
ferve,
and
all,
in
had no motive from
war, fo
the
we
ignorantly, at leaft
and charity, muft conclude
juftice,
enter
them
afted
but unlefs they were both fools and fiends,
;
ruin
charged
the part they are
They might have
:
worfe
from the motive of dread of the
G
of
whole of
affeds to ufe the words,
where a change of terms would be
This induced
the ear
:
that the
venom of
alone,
for
me
ob-
I
this perfor-
ruin the
lefs
to think,
ixjar^
grating to
my
lord,
the charge coofifts in thatphrafe
which
reafon,
berty to fubftitute another in
I
fhall
its
take
the
li-
place, in that pa-
ragraph relating to the imaginary Broad Bottmn
treaty.
pulation
Suppofe,
my
lord, the terms
had been to put an end
of that
to the
fti-
war^
I
fay.
40
[
my
lay,
]
lord, fuppofe the article to
have been fo
worded, where would have been the
fuch an engagement
Both
parties.
malice of
of the contrading
in either
declared publickly and
fides ha,d
privately againft the war, the late minifterowed his
odium and
public
meafure;
total difgrace to that
and the miniftry within, and the oppofition without doors, had declared
nal
Is
intereft.
it
it
deftruilive of the natio-
any wonder then,
condition of their
out of, Ihould ftipulate as a
an end to
to put
in, the adminiftration,
joining
that thofe
the war, and obtain a peace as foon as poflible
;
fuch a ftipulaiion was afling confident and de-
monftrative, that no
would
fures
fatisfie
make no
could
pulation
lefs
than a change of mea-
And
them.
difficulty of
the
two
B
rs
agreeing to fuch a
fti-
peace had been the fundamental maxini
-,
of one of them ever fince he had a name
adminiftration
•,
in
the
he had urged that fyftem when
war was the watch- word of the whole governing
power, and no doubt would be glad to have the
afiiftance
of
meafures.
I
this to
give
men
bent upon the lame
fo violently
have hitherto,
my
lord,
fuppofed
be the terms of this imaginary treaty, but
me
leave to add, that
it's
impofiible to fup-
pofe, without the affiftance of the traverfor's
lice,
and committing the
mon
fenfe,
that
it
greateft rape
ma-
upon com-
could be conceived in any other
terms
\
[41
]
terms but to put an end to the war, and obtain
the objedl of the
two B
rs
being Fools,
them
however, he
Now
knaves.
I
wi(hes,
By
objefl of their allies hatred.
traverfor has given of
my
Peace,
peace as foon as pofllble.
and war the
the charadler the
all,
they arc
may
reprefent
defire
fliall
but
from
far
them
mod
likely, to vulgar
lord,
ties
:
mea-
apprehenfion, to
bring about the end they had in view.
my
as
fmall
this
conceflion, that they were capable of chufing
fures the
was
lord,
Peace,
was the chief objed of both the par-
Now
I
man
defy any
in
his fenfes
firm, that ruining the war, condudling
it
to af-
weakly,
and direding every event to the dillionour of their
country, and their
means
to be the
allies,
to get out of it,
mofl probable
and obtain a peace
it's
;
any man, above the capacity of
*mpofllble for
an ideot^ to fuppofe
it:
On
the contrary, ihe very
reverfe of that conduft, a vigorous profecution of
it,
fo far as
any man
end, which
all
they were engaged, would occur to
moft rational means to obtain the
as the
all
parties in this fiimous treaty are,
hands, ackncwleged to have.
lord, unlefs
we
fuppofe that
Therefore,
common
f.nfe
on
my
was
banilhed from the miniftry, and the BrofJ Bottom^
and
that they were
weak enough, without any
motive, to ftipulate
articles deftrudliveof all their
views,
'tis
impoffible
to
G
fuppofe that they ftipu,
lated
;
[42]
the war,
to ruin
lated
and confequently
mud
have been
in
the traverfor's
was any fuch
if there"
fome fuch terms
in
traverfor had taken
B
making
a
it
jobb of
it,
procraftinating
and with
to prevent every thought
adminiftration
I
:
my
into his wife head, to charge
with
rs
But,
it.
remains, let us fuppofe the
if any dou-bt yet
two
j
it
have fug-
as I
the trayerfor has fo malicioufly given
t"he
treaty,
far from meriting the reprefentation
gefted, and
lord,
fenfe
fay,
the
war,
a fettled intention
of a peace during their
fuppofe this had been his
charge, could he have brought a
of fuch intention, than the very
more
clafs
clear
proof
of argument
he has ufed to prove, that they defigned the very
contrary.
It's
a
common
rule in logic,
that ar-
guments which prove too much, muft prove nothing, and I think the traverfor*s are of that clafs
for
by a fmall tranfition, and his
refolving
arid
grimace, he
two B
for
(Irongeft appearances
the
rs
may
it
:
There
trick of
into defign
undertake to prove that the
were ever enemies
nothing but war, and did
to continue
known
is
to peace,
all in
their
wifli'd
power
no fence againft fuch
guments, where, whatever
fide
the
two B
arrs
take, whether peace or war, the conclufion againft
them
is ftill
the fame.
But
it's
needlefs to purfue
fo plain an argument any longer, fince from what
we have already faid, whether the meafures are
weak
[
43
]
or not, whether the fads are true or falfe,
weak
iL*s
impoflible the charge he has brought againft
the
B
laid
rs,
them
can be true
the
in
and, of courfe, they
;
ably acquitted before any court
the
falfe
afperfions
contained
manner he has
mud
be honour-
•
Europe, from
in
this
in
infamous
where he has not only fuppofed the two
c, and all
y, the
rs, but his
libel ;
D—
M
B
our foreign
allies
engaged
in
the fame wild defign
of ruining the war, and parties acceding to the famous Broad Bottom treaty by which, no doubt,
•,
it
was provided, that not one of our
bound by the
ties,
and
tho'
ftrongeft obligations of folemn trea-
their
own honour and
ever bring into the field the
ftipulated
allies,
full
by conventions, and
fecurity,
(bould
quota of troops
for
which they
gularly received their fubfidies from England.
reIt
was, no doubt, in compliance with an inoftenfible
article
in this chimerical treaty, that the
Emprefs
were
fo remifs
Queen, and the King of
Sardinia,
providing for the concerted diverfion before
covenantJ'oulon; as, notwithftanding they had
in
ed to bring into the field 60000 men with a fuffidiverfion
cient train of artillery, yet left the
the
fhould have proved ferious, and have ruined
only
ruining projeft, they could both together
with
mufter under Count Brown 20000 men,
It muft have been, my
four fmall field pieces.
G
2
lord,
44]
I
by another
lord,
fecrtt article
trad, that theD///r^
in the
fame con-
cJilappointed the operations
of 1747, and cxpofed our troops
to an
wfilefs,
and hungry campaign. It's true,
had agreed with
the
Duke
early,
they
the winter before, that
the fiege oi Antwerp was to be
undertaken fo early
as the month oi March
i and to m.ke the public
believe they were aftually in
earneft, they appointed the feveral troops that were
to cover
and
carry on the fiege, they erected
magazines in different places to amufe the French,
but the chief
lay near the intended place of
adion ; and that
the inconvenience of carrying a
train
of
artillery
by land might be avoided, and the
real defign of
kept the greater fecret, they ftipulated
to provide 40 bilanders upon the
Scheld, for
the
allies
car-
rying
the
neceflary artillery
for
the fiege.
confequence of this public refolution,
my
In
lord, his
Royal Highnefs the Duke took the field in
March,
with an army well appointed in every
thing but
artillery, which you fee he depended
on from
the
Butch, but
their
in
tJiey,
it
hands were tied
the
feems,
had no fuch defign
5
down by the ruining article
Broad Bottom
treaty, and in June
they
could only mufter fix of the promifed
bilinders.
The feafon was gone, the opportunity
lofl,
the
army
fufFcred in their provifion,
and the Duke
in
his
[45]
his reputation
Bottom
but
;
was owing to the Broad
all
treaty.
To
whofe account we muft likewife
dubious behaviour of the King of
the
flate
P
,
whofe
conduft prevented the execution of the Ruffian
and retarded the march of the
treaty,
after
was adually ftipulated
it
in confeqnence
it
;
of his acceffion to
he
empire,
an
himfelf obliged to furequal
did to intimidate the
fians^
allies
own
but
it
was,
private article in
it,
traverfor's brain)
ed
in Scotland',
Derby
•,
led the
the (land
i
But,
foreign allies, and our
were contraders
treaty,
from hiring the Ruf-
promifes
his
Bottoms to ruin the war.
ties,
This he
number.
long as he could, knowing that was ve-
as
ry confident with
our
the courts
all
any foreign troops entered the
if
fliould find
France with
nifh
contradl
that
that he declared for a long time at
of Europe^ that
auxiliaries,
was no doubt,
i
htd.i
my
(to
my
the Broad
lord, not
own domeftic
in this ridiculous
tural
courage
par-
of a
be found engroiTed in the
Sir
young Pretender land-
John Cope
•,
marched to
duke a wild goofe chace over half
Hawley % (nrprized Edinburgh ;
vefted Sterling, and raifed fuch a turmoil in
nation, that if
only
ruining
lord, in confequence
that the
beat
to
it
had not been
for the
in-
the
fuperna-
and condudt of the Duke, with
the
[46]
the help
of"
friends, he
a
little
treachery on the part of his
had gone a ftep or two beyond
commifiion, and ruined
peace
the
but that was owing to the yoiing general's
;
heat and
he certainly mtant only to
raflinefs:
engagements
his
fulfill
war and
both the
his
to
the Broad Bottoms,
Good God
ruining the war.
war, and
how many
united
ruining
how
it ?
in
the
grand
was
it
pofllble
it
of
what a
jarring interefls and
long? by what art could
laft fo
lord,
formed againft
prodigious confederacy was
diflions were
my
!
this
contra-
fcheme of
Ihould
it
lubfift
above
one campaign? efpecially when the feveral parties
had
weighty a motive to perform their parts
fo
chearfully, as the
mighty dcfign of blackening the
characler of the earl of G-
motive enough
away
for the
Flanders;
all
Barrier; for the
pretenfions to
Europe
to
together,
King of
their
this
ter-ages*,
fame great man,
fure they
Dutch
to lofe
their
for three or
how
G
formed
when
fo
his
of
four years
and fpend the
greatly fignificant
/,
appear to
af-
muft conclude him fbme migh-
ty potentate, capable of crufhing all the
on earth,
up
for all the princes
treafure,
blood of their beft men!
muft
throw
Sardinia to give
in ihort,
play the fool
wafte
to
Queen o^ Hungary^
for the
FzWi
That was, no doubt
/.
monarchs
powerful a confederacy was
only to ruin or throw fcandal upon his
character.
47
[
They
character.
formed of
it
by the
]
never imagine,
can
unlcfs
in-
traverfor's legend, that he
was
man
only a difcarded minlfter, a
ed by
ranks of people,
all
and dreaded only by
women
by no body,
What
credit the old
may
next century
in the
mance,
lity is
fools.
growing upon the nation
up
give fuch a ro-
not determine, becaufe
I fhall
yet fprung
hated and difpif-
truft^^d
;
I fee
but I hope
monftrous height,
to fuch a
credu-
it is
not
as that
you gentlemen of the jury Ihould give any credit
to
it
:
if
turally
you do not believe
find
then you mufl na-
it,
every word in
pamphlet
this
groily falfe; fince every conclufion in
it
found-
is
ed on thefe two notorious fahhoods, that the
B
rs
lute in the
G
and
are
have
adminiftration,
/ is fufficient to
alv/ays
and yet
be
to
been
twa
abfo-
dread of
their
make them, and half the
run mad ; and confe-
powers
in
quently,
I
hope you
bringing
in
a verdid for the
chriftendom
will
no difRculty
find
crown on
the
in
whole
of the indidment.
The
My
Prifoner.
of the jury, by what
I
council
for the
crown
out of
breath,
the
of
its
moufe;
I
and you gentlemen
lord,
can guefs,
think
the
have fcolded themfqjves
mountain
have heard
inftrucled to fay againft
I
me
;
is
all
now
delivered
they have been
which has
fo little
weight
[48]
weight with me,
Pm
apprehenfion, that
that
have any with you,
can
it
not under the Jeaft
example of a great Roman^ who was followed and baited by nnalice and
and
follow the
(hall
now am
envy, as I
therefore defpife the charge,
j I
and make no anfwer but
verfary of that great day,
important
vidory
therefore let
theE-1
I
bowed
0—ri;
the bench and jury,
to
to fee if the
people would follow him
and a murmuring
place,
his
round the
hall.
Then my
them in the manner
;
fleeve to
hifs
pafTcd
chief juftice ad-
lord
delivered his charge
dreffing himfelf to the jury,
to
an
gained
of
but the jailor gave him a twitch by the
keep
the anni-
fo great a blefling.
peer
and looked
over
which
in
is
us adjourn to the King's-Arms^ and
commemorate
The
wz. This
this.
following.
The
Gentlemen of the jury.
council for the
that the
pri-
foner at the bar has been a dcferter, not only
from
Crown have endeavoured
his late mafters, but
ferved.
by the
only in
The fad
is
from
all
plain,
prifoner himlelf,
this,
to prove,
the mafters he ever
and not controverted
who
places his defence
that his lad defection was
owing
to
purfuing;
the wicked meafures he faw his friends
argubut there appears little v/eight in that
ment.
[49]
ment,
you have only
fince
wickednefs of thefe
been proved
meafures,
in the courfe
other articles, that
have proved by
his
and
that
for
the
it
has
of the debate on the
impombie
its
geftions can be true.
own word
his
that thefe
fug-
The council for the crown
own confcffion, that he af-
lutned the difguife of a patriot, and
from folid
arguments, drawn from the tenor of his
anions,
that
not his natural complexion, but a
counl
terfeit charader, afTumed to
impofe upon you.
And they have demonftrated, t-hat the
its
Pamphlet
which
he
has
Condu^ of
enquiry,
riouHy
Two
the
but
An
intituled,
Enquiry into the
Brothers^
contains no fuch
upon fuppofuions noto-.
proceeds
falfe,
and ridiculoufly abfurd, calculated
on^y to blind
the public, and kindle the flame
of
fedition^
and fadion
raders
in the
the king and
;
to expofe the greateft cha-
nation,
and low
his people,
between
by giving them a condiftruft
temptible opinion of his perfon and
government.
The
little
expreffcd
for
regard, gentlemen,
to
this
charge,
is
the
traverfor
has
not to be miftak-€n
of innocence
no, it proceeds
from arrogance of temper, and fuperlative
excefs
confcioufnefs
of wickednefs.
i^
Its
no new thing
to fee the
greateft criminals brave juftice in this
place,
make
a
mock of
their tryab,
^^
which
fpirit
and
they often
carry
[
carry
may
JO]
with them to the triple
tree,
which
tan forefee no difficulty you can have
in
hopd
I
whom
not be the prifon^r's cafe, againft
I
finding a
verdi(5l.
The
jury withdrew
about
then returned their verdid Guilty
adjourned
till
minutes, and
ten
;
and the court
next day.
When the prifoner was again brought to the barj.
my lord chief juftice addrefled him thus.
and
My L
You
d.
have had a
and impartial
fair
trial,
and
your Country, upon which you put yourfelf, have
found you guilty of the feveral
indidtment, and
it
now remains
articles
that
I
of the
pronounce
that fentence, to which the laws of your country
doom you
which
;
I
am
convinced you muft think
very mild, when you confider the feditious part
how
often
you have betrayed them, and impofed upon
their
you have adled
credulity,
againft
the
people,
and the ingrateful
part you have
truftcd you,
afled to the
and whofe
and difengenious
admin iftration
intertft
5
who
gave you an op-
portunity to abufe themfclves, and deceive the too
credulous people.
But
my
Lord,
its
with regret
I
men-
I mention your
them
;
crimes, and need not exagerate
your cool
mud
unprejudiced refleflions
give you compunftion more fenfible than any thing
The
I can offer.
rThat you
called
ried
of
fentence of the court
P-
f
J—
of
from hence
Efq;
E
1
to a garret
commonly
fhall
up
be car-
three pair
the ftreet called Grub-fireet^
in
flairs,
/,
E-
is this.
which garret
painted with the figures of
is
feveral coronets
on the ceiling, where you
are to remain without any other fupport,
than what
(hall arife
from the
real value
of
your future writings againft the govern-
ment
for
the
fpace
months, andori the
months you
of thirteen
firfl:
calendar
day of each of thofe
are to be drefled in the robes
of a Britijh peer, with a gilt paper coronet,
on your head, with a
infcribed, I
would be a
thus equipped,
an
afs,
cipal
you are
preceeded
cleavers,
and
ftreets
label
to
on your bread
Britijh peer
to
;
and
be mounted on
by marrow-bones and
march through the prin-
of Wejlminjier, without any
flop, except once at the ufual rendezvous
of the independant cledors,
who
are per-
mitted to treat you with a pint of wine,
if
r
if
tbgy
are,
ioclinable
(ohv
to forgive yourr
treachery soward« thiSjp.
is
your repeence, and.
This i»y
day pf your public q^arch,
The
looked
v^ry^
foplilH
n^H
his,
a very numerous,
-^
J^
F^—
the court adjourne<3,
and
umM
with
habiutjpn,
mob.
F
fipft
•
whple;hgll echo'd a loud huzza. \ the
hefetoutifoj
L-^
co^euqj^^'QV, (t^.
N
I
S.
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