# LOYOLA COLLEGE (AUTONOMOUS), CHENNAI – 600 034

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LOYOLA COLLEGE (AUTONOMOUS), CHENNAI – 600 034
```LOYOLA COLLEGE (AUTONOMOUS), CHENNAI – 600 034
M.Sc. DEGREE EXAMINATION - MATHEMATICS
FIRST SEMESTER – November 2008
MT 1806 - ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
Date : 08-11-08
Time : 1:00 - 4:00
Dept. No.
Max. : 100 Marks
I. a) (i) If the Wronskian of 2 functions x1 and x2 on I is non-zero for at
least one point of the interval I, show that x1 and x2 are linearly
independent on I. Hence show that sin x, sin 2x, sin 3x are
linearly independent on [ 0, 2 ].
OR
(ii) Suppose x1 (t) and x2 (t) satisfy a x''(t) + b x'(t) + c x(t) = 0,
where a is not zero, Show that A x1 (t) + B x2 (t) satisfies the
differential equation. Verify the same in x'' + λ2 x = 0.
(5 Marks)
b) (i) State and prove the Abel’s Formulae.
(8 Marks)
(ii) Solve x'' - x' – 2x = 4t2 using the method of variation of
parameters.
(7 Marks)
OR
(iii) If λ is a root of the quadratic equation a λ2 + b λ + c = 0,
prove that eλt is a solution of a y'' + by' + c y = 0.
(15 Marks)
II. a) (i) Whenever n is a positive or negative integer,
show that J  n ( X )  () n J n ( X ) .
OR
(ii) Obtain the linearly independent solution of the Legendre’s
differential equation.
(5 Marks)
d2y
dy
 xq( x)  r ( x) y  0
2
dx
dx
Obtain the indicial equation by the method of Frobenius. (8 Marks)
n
(ii) Prove that J n1 ( X )  J n 1 ( X )    J n ( X )
(7 Marks)
X
OR
2 //
/
(iii) Solve the Bessel’s equation x y  xy  ( x 2  n2 ) y  0 .
(15 Marks)
b) (i) For the differential equation x 2
1
AB 28
III. a) (i) Express x4 using Legendre’s polynomial.
OR
(ii) Show that F ( 1; p; p; x ) = 1/ (1 – x )
b) (i) State and prove Rodriguez’s Formula and find the value of
{8 P4 (x) + 20 P2 (x) + 7 P0 (x)}
OR
(ii) Show that Pn (x) = F1 [-n, n+1; 1; (1-x)/2]
(5 Marks)
(15 Marks)
IV. a) (i) Considering the differential equation of the Sturm-Liouville
problem, prove that all the eigen values are real.
OR
(ii) Considering an Initial Value Problem x' = 2x, x(0) = 1, t ≥ 0, find xn(t).
(5 Marks)
b) (i) State Green’s Function. Show that x(t) is a solution of L(x) + f(t) = 0 if
b
and only if x (t) =  G (t, s) f (s) ds .
a
OR
(ii) State and prove Picard’s initial value problem.
(15 Marks)
V. a) (i) Write down Lyapunov’s stability statements.
OR
(ii) Prove that the null solution of x' = A (t) x is stable if and only if there
exists a positive constant k such that | φ | ≤ k, t ≥ t0 .
(5 marks)
b) (i) State and prove the Fundamental Theorem on the stability of the
equilibrium of a system x' = f (t, x).
OR
(ii) Discuss the stability of a linear system x' = A x by
Lyapunov’s Direct Method.
(15 Marks)
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